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  • Virtual Chitchatting 11:15 AM on 2014/06/16 Permalink  

    How data mining and business intelligence softwares is a child’s play
    by S3ra Sutan Rajo Ali
    Jakarta, 16 June 2014

    Billions of US dollars have been poured down by giant software companies to buy what they call it Business Intelligence Software companies.

    3701436895997475788

    In March 2007, Oracle Corporation bought Hyperion Solutions Corporation for $3.3 billion in cash. The transaction was completed on 18 April 2007.
    In 2007 October, SAP AG bought BusinessObjects for $6.8 billion. As of 22 January 2008, the corporation is fully operated by SAP.
    In 2007 November, IBM bought Cognos for $4.9 billion. In January 2010, Cognos and SPSS were brought together to create the Business Analytics division of IBM Software Group. The software is now called “Cognos Business Intelligence and Financial Performance Management” or Cognos BI and FPM.

    If it is to mine the data that has been identified and classified, it is a child’s play. Everyone can do it. The real world problems are how do you create triggers that this data must be classified to this A, B, C, and so on. It is a pigeon-holing. A waste of time. I like this A. Put A in this bracket. I don’t like B. Put B on a watch list. To be extreme, put B on a hit list.

    This site has been scrutinised regularly by the Lockheed Martin Corporation, US Navy Network Information Center, UN Marine Corps Network Information Center, US Department of Defense, and of course by The Mighty Internet God, Google. Frequently enough, Google has rendered this site by masking local IP addresses. Any links discredited the US properties and interests, such links won’t exist on Google Search Results Pages. You can bet on it.

    If you just know the history of the United States, you won’t be surprised. It is the Uncle Sam’s foreign policy and doctrines. You must be familiar with the terms of Marshall Plan, Bretton Woods system (US dollars for gold), petrodollar (US dollars for oil). The US government has been the dajjal, all along, all this time.

    The Detroit has collapsed.
    We shall be waiting for the US government to collapse.
    The US Government shut down once happened.
    No fiscal discipline for himself, but others.
    The US Government can make money by printing it, at will, at any time, to spend at any where in the world.
    The US Department of State have been enjoying big time spending US dollars financing democracy, just to create a dictator that can be steered by the US Government.
    Name one. Sorry, thousands were financed the CIA, the Central Intelligence Agency.

    I shall be cheering up as no more the United States of America. Can it happen? Nah, it won’t happen. Russia has been manipulating the US dollars system. So is China. How about Brazil and India in BRIC countries? The two countries will be playing underdog until some time. But not China. Remember the history of China? How about Timur Lenk? Who will be playing whom in the end?

    If you are messing with the mother nature, you shall pay the rise.
    If you are messing with mother Russia, you won’t get the milk, the black milk from the Persian Gulf. Do you want to bet?

    As China has developed a missile with the speed of 3 km per second, the US Navy Office has announced big time they will deploy the Laser Weapon System. You can not destroy anything by laser. From a distant? with accelerated speed or not? on the open air? You must be joking and kidding the people. You are bullshitting people ! C’mon now. Ridiculous.

    With laser, you can kill people, from a distant, but not anything else. People move slow and a bit, one step at a time. It is easy to target.


    http://www.popularmechanics.com/technology/military/research/8-laser-weapon-systems-to-zap-planes-boats-and-people#slide-1

    8 Laser Weapon Systems to Zap Planes, Boats-And People
    By Olivia Koski

    Nearly 30 years after Ronald Reagan announced “Star Wars,” the U.S. military continues to pursue its dream of building the ultimate ray gun. Parts of the dream have finally come true. Over the past few years, laser weapons have shot drones, mortars, and ballistic missiles out of the sky; ignited the hoods of trucks; and engulfed an unmanned boat in flames.


    Active Denial
    Energy Type: High-power microwaves
    Targets: Human
    Confirmed Kills: N/A, nonlethal
    Power: Nonlethal
    Range: Miles
    Platform: Truck
    Service: Air Force
    Manufacturer: Raytheon

    Raytheon delivered its first ray gun crowd-control device, designed to zap angry mobs with microwaves, in 2000. Since then it’s been tested over 11,000 times on human targets. It penetrates 1/64 of an inch below the surface of the skin, creating a temporary burning sensation.

    Although the military has deemed the active denial system to be safe, it has yet to be deployed in the field. The public is understandably a little timid about the government using the “Pain Ray” on people, but Mike Booen, VP of Raytheon DE Systems, says such a system could save lives. “Right now, you either shout at crowds, or you shoot at them,” he says. Raytheon developed a lower power version of the system, called Silent Guardian, which it sent to the Los Angeles County Sheriff’s Department last year for possible use on unruly inmates.


    Airborne Laser Testbed (ALTB)
    Energy Type: 10.6-micron (near infrared) chemical oxygen iodine laser
    Targets: Ballistic missiles
    Confirmed Kills: Three ballistic missiles
    Power: Classified, “mega-watt class”
    Range: Classified, “hundreds of kilometers”
    Platform: Boeing 747
    Service: Missile Defense Agency
    Manufacturer: Boeing, Northrop Grumman, Lockheed Martin

    It cost billions and took over 15 years, but the Missile Defense Agency did it: It finally shot down a missile with a laser. In February 2010, a laser of record-breaking power housed in a souped-up Boeing 747 warmed up a ballistic missile until it exploded into flying wreckage.

    Yet this program could be headed for the history books. At one time, U.S. military leaders envisioned producing a fleet of laser planes to patrol the borders of nuke-wielding nations. But in 2009 Secretary of Defense Robert Gates downgraded the ALTB to a research program. Its successful display did nothing to convince skeptical politicians, who believed it too unwieldy to use as a weapon. “We’re pushing systems right now that have the potential to be incorporated into an acquisition program sooner rather than later,” says Mark Niece, a retired Air Force colonel who runs the nation’s headquarters for high-power laser research in Albuquerque. That means that they’re focusing on systems that are cheaper, lighter and simpler than ALTB.


    Maritime Laser Demonstrator (MLD)
    Energy Type: 1.06-micron solid state laser
    Targets: UAVs, rockets, artillery, mortar, small boats
    Confirmed Kills: One unmanned test boat
    Power: 15- to 100-kw-class
    Range: 10 kilometers
    Platform: Naval ships
    Service: U.S. Navy
    Manufacturer: Northrop Grumman

    This past spring the Navy set an unmanned test boat aflame near San Nicholas Island off the coast of California. Using a beam director recycled from an old “Star Wars” program, researchers shot the laser-powered only by electricity from the ship-35 times and lit a remote-controlled boat on fire, despite rain, fog, 25 knot winds and 8-foot waves. “It was the first time a laser weapon engaged a sea surface target from a ship,” Mark Niece says.


    High Energy Laser Technology Demonstrator (HELTD)
    Energy Type: High-power solid state, 1 micron
    Targets: Rockets, artillery, mortars
    Confirmed Kills: None
    Power: 100-kw-class
    Range: up to 10 kilometers
    Platform: Heavy Expanded Mobility Truck
    Service: U.S. Army
    Manufacturer: Northrop Grumman, Boeing and OshKosh Defense

    The High Energy Laser Technology Demonstrator is the Army’s truck-mounted laser weapons system. Developers hope to fit a powerful laser on an existing cargo transporter called the Heavy Expanded Mobility Tactical Truck and use it to target small mortars. “The purpose is to demonstrate in a relative operational environment that a high energy laser can engage CRAM [counter rocket, artillery, mortar] projectiles,” program manager Bill Gnacek says.

    The Army has the truck, and it has a beam control system, which guides the laser to its target. One crucial component is missing-the laser. The Army must choose between two lasers that are powerful and compact enough to do the job-one option was built by Northrop Grumman, the other by Textron. Both achieved the 100-kilowatt war-worthy power level-enough energy to shoot down a small mortar from kilometers away. And they did it with solid state lasers, which can be much smaller than the chemical lasers used in the 747-mounted Airborne Laser Testbed.


    Laser Weapons System (LaWS)
    Energy Type: High-power fiber laser, commercial laser
    Targets: UAVs, mortars, rockets, artillery
    Confirmed Kills: 16-mm stationary mortars in 2006, 5 UAVs in 2009 at China Lake, 4 UAVs in summer 2010 San Nicholas
    Power: 50 to 100 kw
    Range: Shorter than most other systems
    Platform: Phalanx close-in-weapons (CIWS) system
    Service: Navy
    Manufacturer: Raytheon

    Raytheon took a drastically different approach to a laser weapon when its engineers strapped lasers normally used for welding to a hunk of metal that usually holds a Gatling gun. The idea: to replace the Navy’s 20-mm Gatling bullets with photons. “People tend to focus on the technology and not the problem,” Raytheon’s Mike Booen says. “We decided to focus on the problems that are on the customer’s ‘give-a-hoot-o-meter,’ ” he says-in this case, mortars falling on troops.

    A big challenge with laser weapons is the power-killing effects of the atmosphere. The material that makes up the atmosphere air acts like a bunch of tiny lenses on a laser beam, distorting it and reducing its effectiveness. Scientists build complicated devices to counteract these effects. Even with a dirt-simple beam director and no compensation system, Raytheon showed that its simple laser system could be used against both mortars and unmanned aerial vehicles. And, Boone hopes, the full military version isn’t far off. “By 2017, it should be a part number that you order.”


    High Energy Laser Technology Demonstrator (HELTD)
    Energy Type: High-power solid state, 1 micron
    Targets: Rockets, artillery, mortars
    Confirmed Kills: None
    Power: 100-kw-class
    Range: up to 10 kilometers
    Platform: Heavy Expanded Mobility Truck
    Service: U.S. Army
    Manufacturer: Northrop Grumman, Boeing and OshKosh Defense

    The High Energy Laser Technology Demonstrator is the Army’s truck-mounted laser weapons system. Developers hope to fit a powerful laser on an existing cargo transporter called the Heavy Expanded Mobility Tactical Truck and use it to target small mortars. “The purpose is to demonstrate in a relative operational environment that a high energy laser can engage CRAM [counter rocket, artillery, mortar] projectiles,” program manager Bill Gnacek says.

    The Army has the truck, and it has a beam control system, which guides the laser to its target. One crucial component is missing-the laser. The Army must choose between two lasers that are powerful and compact enough to do the job-one option was built by Northrop Grumman, the other by Textron. Both achieved the 100-kilowatt war-worthy power level-enough energy to shoot down a small mortar from kilometers away. And they did it with solid state lasers, which can be much smaller than the chemical lasers used in the 747-mounted Airborne Laser Testbed.


    Free Electron Laser (FEL)
    Energy Type: Free electrons
    Targets: Antiship cruise missiles, swarms of boats
    Confirmed Kills: None
    Power: 100-kw class
    Range: “Short range tactical”
    Platform: Naval Ships
    Service: U.S. Navy
    Manufacturer: Boeing

    In 1989 Boeing was awarded a contract to build a unique laser weapon made from a Free Electron Laser-essentially a laser made out of a particle accelerator. Navy ships are the only military platforms big enough to handle such a thing, but the program never really took off. “The USSR went away, and the wall came down,” Ed Pogue says.

    Two decades ago Pogue worked on the original system; now, he is Boeing’s program manager for a new FEL program. This laser tech is back because the beam can be “tuned” to any wavelength, which means it can cut through the misty, salty air at sea. Certain colors of light absorb water better than others-the trick is to use the color that interacts the least with water and salt.

    After all these years, though, Boeing still has plenty of work to do to actually build serious FEL weapons. At minimum, the laser would need to reach 100 kilowatts, and so far the free electron laser power record is only 14. Pogue hopes to reach 100 kilowatts in the lab by 2015-and then figure out how the heck to get a particle accelerator on a ship.


    Electric Laser Large Aircraft (ELLA)
    Energy Type: High-power solid state
    Targets: Air-to-air and air-to-ground
    Confirmed Kills: None
    Power: 100-kw class
    Range: Unknown
    Platform: B-1 Bomber
    Service: Air Force
    Manufacturer: Lockheed Martin

    The goal of the ELLA program is to equip a B-1 Bomber with a 100-kilowatt electric laser. Such a system would weigh over a thousand pounds and take up the space of several refrigerators at the very least. The system is still in the design phase as engineers try and figure out if it’s even possible.


    MK38 Tactical Laser System
    Energy Type: Fiber
    Targets: Air and surface maritime targets
    Confirmed Kills: None
    Power: 10-kw
    Range: “Tactically relevant ranges,” according to Chris Abbott, science adviser for commander, U.S. Second Fleet
    Platform: Naval Ships
    Service: U.S. Navy
    Manufacturer: BAE Systems, Boeing

    Earlier this summer, weapons designers integrated a fiber laser with an MK 38, the 25-mm machine gun the Navy has used since Desert Storm. There are 150 systems installed worldwide, and the gun can deliver 180 rounds per minute at a range of 2000 yards. The addition of the laser means more effective detection, tracking and classification of targets. During the summer test, the laser was able to distinguish friend from foe in a swarm of fast-moving small boats. It’s yet not clear if the Navy plans to scale up the laser power enough to destroy targets.


    Graduated Response
    One unique quality of lasers is that you can dial the power up and down at will. That means you can set your laser to stun before setting it to kill. But how much power do you need to hurt (or kill) a person? Here’s a quick guide.

    0.005 watts = laser pointer
    5.0 watts = set a small piece of wood on fire
    60 watts = most powerful laser used at laser shows-dangerous, but readily available to anyone with 50 grand to spare.
    15,000 watts = enough to light a small boat on fire
    100,000 watts = power goal for “militarily significant” tactical ranges and tactical targets. Solid state lasers have just gotten this powerful.
    1,000,000 satts = strategic targets (such as ballistic missiles)



    So, let’s get back to the data mining.


    Data mining as a process

    Fundamentally, data mining is about processing data and identifying patterns and trends in that information so that you can decide or judge. Data mining principles have been around for many years, but, with the advent of big data, it is even more prevalent.

    Big data caused an explosion in the use of more extensive data mining techniques, partially because the size of the information is much larger and because the information tends to be more varied and extensive in its very nature and content. With large data sets, it is no longer enough to get relatively simple and straightforward statistics out of the system. With 30 or 40 million records of detailed customer information, knowing that two million of them live in one location is not enough. You want to know whether those two million are a particular age group and their average earnings so that you can target your customer needs better.

    These business-driven needs changed simple data retrieval and statistics into more complex data mining. The business problem drives an examination of the data that helps to build a model to describe the information that ultimately leads to the creation of the resulting report. Figure 1 outlines the process.

    Figure 1. Outline of the process

    The process of data analysis, discovery, and model-building is often iterative as you target and identify the different information that you can extract. You must also understand how to relate, map, associate, and cluster it with other data to produce the result. Identifying the source data and formats, and then mapping that information to our given result can change after you discover different elements and aspects of the data.

    Data mining tools

    Data mining is not all about the tools or database software that you are using. You can perform data mining with comparatively modest database systems and simple tools, including creating and writing your own, or using off the shelf software packages. Complex data mining benefits from the past experience and algorithms defined with existing software and packages, with certain tools gaining a greater affinity or reputation with different techniques.

    For example, IBM SPSS®, which has its roots in statistical and survey analysis, can build effective predictive models by looking at past trends and building accurate forecasts. IBM InfoSphere® Warehouse provides data sourcing, preprocessing, mining, and analysis information in a single package, which allows you to take information from the source database straight to the final report output.

    It is recent that the very large data sets and the cluster and large-scale data processing are able to allow data mining to collate and report on groups and correlations of data that are more complicated. Now an entirely new range of tools and systems available, including combined data storage and processing systems.

    You can mine data with a various different data sets, including, traditional SQL databases, raw text data, key/value stores, and document databases. Clustered databases, such as Hadoop, Cassandra, CouchDB, and Couchbase Server, store and provide access to data in such a way that it does not match the traditional table structure.

    In particular, the more flexible storage format of the document database causes a different focus and complexity in terms of processing the information. SQL databases impost strict structures and rigidity into the schema, which makes querying them and analyzing the data straightforward from the perspective that the format and structure of the information is known.

    Document databases that have a standard such as JSON enforcing structure, or files that have some machine-readable structure, are also easier to process, although they might add complexities because of the differing and variable structure. For example, with Hadoop’s entirely raw data processing it can be complex to identify and extract the content before you start to process and correlate the it.

    Key techniques

    Several core techniques that are used in data mining describe the type of mining and data recovery operation. Unfortunately, the different companies and solutions do not always share terms, which can add to the confusion and apparent complexity.

    Let’s look at some key techniques and examples of how to use different tools to build the data mining.

    Association

    Association (or relation) is probably the better known and most familiar and straightforward data mining technique. Here, you make a simple correlation between two or more items, often of the same type to identify patterns. For example, when tracking people’s buying habits, you might identify that a customer always buys cream when they buy strawberries, and therefore suggest that the next time that they buy strawberries they might also want to buy cream.

    Building association or relation-based data mining tools can be achieved simply with different tools. For example, within InfoSphere Warehouse a wizard provides configurations of an information flow that is used in association by examining your database input source, decision basis, and output information. Figure 2 shows an example from the sample database.

    Figure 2. Information flow that is used in association

    Classification

    You can use classification to build up an idea of the type of customer, item, or object by describing multiple attributes to identify a particular class. For example, you can easily classify cars into different types (sedan, 4×4, convertible) by identifying different attributes (number of seats, car shape, driven wheels). Given a new car, you might apply it into a particular class by comparing the attributes with our known definition. You can apply the same principles to customers, for example by classifying them by age and social group.

    Additionally, you can use classification as a feeder to, or the result of, other techniques. For example, you can use decision trees to determine a classification. Clustering allows you to use common attributes in different classifications to identify clusters.

    Clustering

    By examining one or more attributes or classes, you can group individual pieces of data together to form a structure opinion. At a simple level, clustering is using one or more attributes as your basis for identifying a cluster of correlating results. Clustering is useful to identify different information because it correlates with other examples so you can see where the similarities and ranges agree.

    Clustering can work both ways. You can assume that there is a cluster at a certain point and then use our identification criteria to see if you are correct. The graph in Figure 3 shows a good example. In this example, a sample of sales data compares the age of the customer to the size of the sale. It is not unreasonable to expect that people in their twenties (before marriage and kids), fifties, and sixties (when the children have left home), have more disposable income.

    Figure 3. Clustering

    In the example, we can identify two clusters, one around the US$2,000/20-30 age group, and another at the US$7,000-8,000/50-65 age group. In this case, we’ve both hypothesized and proved our hypothesis with a simple graph that we can create using any suitable graphing software for a quick manual view. More complex determinations require a full analytical package, especially if you want to automatically base decisions on nearest neighbor information.

    Plotting clustering in this way is a simplified example of so called nearest neighbor identity. You can identify individual customers by their literal proximity to each other on the graph. It’s highly likely that customers in the same cluster also share other attributes and you can use that expectation to help drive, classify, and otherwise analyze other people from your data set.

    You can also apply clustering from the opposite perspective; given certain input attributes, you can identify different artifacts. For example, a recent study of 4-digit PIN numbers found clusters between the digits in ranges 1-12 and 1-31 for the first and second pairs. By plotting these pairs, you can identify and determine clusters to relate to dates (birthdays, anniversaries).

    Prediction

    Prediction is a wide topic and runs from predicting the failure of components or machinery, to identifying fraud and even the prediction of company profits. Used in combination with the other data mining techniques, prediction involves analyzing trends, classification, pattern matching, and relation. By analyzing past events or instances, you can make a prediction about an event.

    Using the credit card authorization, for example, you might combine decision tree analysis of individual past transactions with classification and historical pattern matches to identify whether a transaction is fraudulent. Making a match between the purchase of flights to the US and transactions in the US, it is likely that the transaction is valid.

    Sequential patterns

    Oftern used over longer-term data, sequential patterns are a useful method for identifying trends, or regular occurrences of similar events. For example, with customer data you can identify that customers buy a particular collection of products together at different times of the year. In a shopping basket application, you can use this information to automatically suggest that certain items be added to a basket based on their frequency and past purchasing history.

    Decision trees

    Related to most of the other techniques (primarily classification and prediction), the decision tree can be used either as a part of the selection criteria, or to support the use and selection of specific data within the overall structure. Within the decision tree, you start with a simple question that has two (or sometimes more) answers. Each answer leads to a further question to help classify or identify the data so that it can be categorized, or so that a prediction can be made based on each answer.

    Figure 4 shows an example where you can classify an incoming error condition.

    Figure 4. Decision tree

    Decision trees are often used with classification systems to attribute type information, and with predictive systems, where different predictions might be based on past historical experience that helps drive the structure of the decision tree and the output.

    Combinations

    In practice, it’s very rare that you would use one of these exclusively. Classification and clustering are similar techniques. By using clustering to identify nearest neighbors, you can further refine your classifications. Often, we use decision trees to help build and identify classifications that we can track for a longer period to identify sequences and patterns.

    Long-term (memory) processing

    Within all of the core methods, there is often reason to record and learn from the information. In some techniques, it is entirely obvious. For example, with sequential patterns and predictive learning you look back at data from multiple sources and instances of information to build a pattern.

    In others, the process might be more explicit. Decision trees are rarely built one time and are never forgotten. As new information, events, and data points are identified, it might be necessary to build more branches, or even entirely new trees, to cope with the additional information.

    You can automate some of this process. For example, building a predictive model for identifying credit card fraud is about building probabilities that you can use for the current transaction, and then updating that model with the new (approved) transaction. This information is then recorded so that the decision can be made quickly the next time.

    Data implementations and preparation

    Data mining itself relies upon building a suitable data model and structure that can be used to process, identify, and build the information that you need. Regardless of the source data form and structure, structure and organize the information in a format that allows the data mining to take place in as efficient a model as possible.

    Consider the combination of the business requirements for the data mining, the identification of the existing variables (customer, values, country) and the requirement to create new variables that you might use to analyze the data in the preparation step.

    You might compose the analytical variables of data from many different sources to a single identifiable structure (for example, you might create a class of a particular grade and age of customer, or a particular error type).

    Depending on your data source, how you build and translate this information is an important step, regardless of the technique you use to finally analyze the data. This step also leads to a more complex process of identifying, aggregating, simplifying, or expanding the information to suit your input data (see Figure 5).

    Figure 5. Data preparation

    Your source data, location, and database affects how you process and aggregate that information.

    Building on SQL

    Building on an SQL database is often the easiest of all the approaches. SQL (and the underlying table structure they imply) is well understood, but you cannot completely ignore the structure and format of the information. For example, when you examine user behavior in sales data, there are two primary formats within the SQL data model (and data-mining in general) that you can use: transactional and the behavioral-demographic.

    When you use InfoSphere Warehouse, creating a behavioral-demographic model for the purposes of mining customer data to understand buying and purchasing patterns involves taking your source SQL data based upon the transaction information and known parameters of your customers, and rebuilding that information into a predefined table structure. InfoSphere Warehouse can then use this information for the clustering and classification data mining to get the information you need. Customer demographic data, and sales transaction data can be combined and then reconstituted into a format that allows for specific data analysis, as shown in Figure 6.

    Figure 6. Format for specific data analysis

    For example, with sales data you might want to identify the sales trends of particular items. You can convert the raw sales data of the individual items into transactional information that maps the customer ID, transaction data, and product ID. By using this information, it is easy to identify sequences and relationships for individual products by individual customers over time. That enables InfoSphere Warehouse to calculate sequential information, such as when a customer is likely to buy the same product again.

    You can build new data analysis points from the source data. For example, you might want to expand (or refine) your product information by collating or classifying individual products into wider groups, and then analyzing the data based on these groups in place of an individual.

    For example, Table 1 shows how to expand the information in new ways.

    Table 1. A table of products expanded

    product_id product_name product_group product_type
    101 strawberries, loose strawberries fruit
    102 strawberries, box strawberries fruit
    110 bananas, loose bananas fruit

    Document databases and MapReduce

    The MapReduce processing of many modern document and NoSQL databases, such as Hadoop, are designed to cope with the very large data sets and information that does not always follow a tabular format. When you work with data mining software, this notion can be both a benefit and a problem.

    The main issue with document-based data is that the unstructured format might require more processing than you expect to get the information you need. Many different records can hold similar data. Collecting and harmonizing this information to process it more easily relies upon the preparation and MapReduce stages.

    Within a MapReduce-based system, it is the role of the map step to take the source data and normalize that information into a standard form of output. This step can be a relatively simple process (identify key fields or data points), or more complex (parsse and processing the information to produce the sample data). The mapping process produces the standardized format that you can use as your base.

    Reduction is about summarizing or quantifying the information and then outputting that information in a standardized structure that is based upon the totals, sums, statistics, or other analysis that you selected for output.

    Querying this data is often complex, even when you use tools designed to do so. Within a data mining exercise, the ideal approach is to use the MapReduce phase of the data mining as part of your data preparation exercise.

    For example, if you are building a data mining exercise for association or clustering, the best first stage is to build a suitable statistic model that you can use to identify and extract the necessary information. Use the MapReduce phase to extract and calculate that statistical information then input it to the rest of the data mining process, leading to a structure such as the one shown in Figure 7.

    Figure 7. MapReduce structure

    In the previous example, we’ve taken the processing (in this case MapReduce) of the source data in a document database and translated it into a tabular format in an SQL database for the purposes of data mining.

    Working with this complex, even unformatted, information can require preparation and processing that is more complex. There are certain complex data types and structures that cannot be processed and prepared in one step into the output that you need. Here you can chain the output of your MapReduce either to map and produce the data structure that you need sequentially, as in Figure 8, or individually to produce multiple output tables of data.

    Figure 8. Chaining output of your MapReduce sequentially

    For example, taking raw logging information from a document database and running MapReduce to produce a summarized view of the information by date can be done in a single pass. Regenerating the information and combining that output with a decision matrix (encoded in the second MapReduce phase), and then further simplified to a sequential structure, is a good example of the chaining process. We require whole set data in the MapReduce phase to support the individual step data.

    Regardless of your source data, many tools can use flat file, CSV, or other data sources. InfoSphere Warehouse, for example, can parse flat files in addition to a direct link to a DB2 data warehouse.

    Conclusion

    Data mining is more than running some complex queries on the data you stored in your database. You must work with your data, reformat it, or restructure it, regardless of whether you are using SQL, document-based databases such as Hadoop, or simple flat files. Identifying the format of the information that you need is based upon the technique and the analysis that you want to do. After you have the information in the format you need, you can apply the different techniques (individually or together) regardless of the required underlying data structure or data set.


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    http://www.laits.utexas.edu/~anorman/BUS.FOR/course.mat/Alex/

    Data Mining
    by Doug Alexander
    dea@tracor.com

    Data mining is a powerful new technology with great potential to help companies focus on the most important information in the data they have collected about the behavior of their customers and potential customers. It discovers information within the data that queries and reports can’t effectively reveal. This paper explores many aspects of data mining in the following areas:

    1. Data Rich, Information Poor
    2. Data Warehouses
    3. What is Data Mining?
    4. What Can Data Mining Do?
    5. The Evolution of Data Mining
    6. How Data Mining Works
    7. Data Mining Technologies
    8. Real-World Examples
    9. The Future of Data Mining
    10. Privacy Concerns
    11. Explore Further on the Internet

    Data Rich, Information Poor

    The amount of raw data stored in corporate databases is exploding. From trillions of point-of-sale transactions and credit card purchases to pixel-by-pixel images of galaxies, databases are now measured in gigabytes and terabytes. (One terabyte = one trillion bytes. A terabyte is equivalent to about 2 million books!) For instance, every day, Wal-Mart uploads 20 million point-of-sale transactions to an A&T massively parallel system with 483 processors running a centralized database. Raw data by itself, however, does not provide much information. In today’s fiercely competitive business environment, companies need to rapidly turn these terabytes of raw data into significant insights into their customers and markets to guide their marketing, investment, and management strategies.

    Data Warehouses

    The drop in price of data storage has given companies willing to make the investment a tremendous resource: Data about their customers and potential customers stored in “Data Warehouses.” Data warehouses are becoming part of the technology. Data warehouses are used to consolidate data located in disparate databases. A data warehouse stores large quantities of data by specific categories so it can be more easily retrieved, interpreted, and sorted by users. Warehouses enable executives and managers to work with vast stores of transactional or other data to respond faster to markets and make more informed business decisions. It has been predicted that every business will have a data warehouse within ten years. But merely storing data in a data warehouse does a company little good. Companies will want to learn more about that data to improve knowledge of customers and markets. The company benefits when meaningful trends and patterns are extracted from the data.

    What is Data Mining?

    Data mining, or knowledge discovery, is the computer-assisted process of digging through and analyzing enormous sets of data and then extracting the meaning of the data. Data mining tools predict behaviors and future trends, allowing businesses to make proactive, knowledge-driven decisions. Data mining tools can answer business questions that traditionally were too time consuming to resolve. They scour databases for hidden patterns, finding predictive information that experts may miss because it lies outside their expectations.

    Data mining derives its name from the similarities between searching for valuable information in a large database and mining a mountain for a vein of valuable ore. Both processes require either sifting through an immense amount of material, or intelligently probing it to find where the value resides.

    What Can Data Mining Do?

    Although data mining is still in its infancy, companies in a wide range of industries – including retail, finance, heath care, manufacturing transportation, and aerospace – are already using data mining tools and techniques to take advantage of historical data. By using pattern recognition technologies and statistical and mathematical techniques to sift through warehoused information, data mining helps analysts recognize significant facts, relationships, trends, patterns, exceptions and anomalies that might otherwise go unnoticed.

    For businesses, data mining is used to discover patterns and relationships in the data in order to help make better business decisions. Data mining can help spot sales trends, develop smarter marketing campaigns, and accurately predict customer loyalty. Specific uses of data mining include:

    • Market segmentation – Identify the common characteristics of customers who buy the same products from your company.
    • Customer churn – Predict which customers are likely to leave your company and go to a competitor.
    • Fraud detection – Identify which transactions are most likely to be fraudulent.
    • Direct marketing – Identify which prospects should be included in a mailing list to obtain the highest response rate.
    • Interactive marketing – Predict what each individual accessing a Web site is most likely interested in seeing.
    • Market basket analysis – Understand what products or services are commonly purchased together; e.g., beer and diapers.
    • Trend analysis – Reveal the difference between a typical customer this month and last.

    Data mining technology can generate new business opportunities by:

    Automated prediction of trends and behaviors: Data mining automates the process of finding predictive information in a large database. Questions that traditionally required extensive hands-on analysis can now be directly answered from the data. A typical example of a predictive problem is targeted marketing. Data mining uses data on past promotional mailings to identify the targets most likely to maximize return on investment in future mailings. Other predictive problems include forecasting bankruptcy and other forms of default, and identifying segments of a population likely to respond similarly to given events.

    Automated discovery of previously unknown patterns: Data mining tools sweep through databases and identify previously hidden patterns. An example of pattern discovery is the analysis of retail sales data to identify seemingly unrelated products that are often purchased together. Other pattern discovery problems include detecting fraudulent credit card transactions and identifying anomalous data that could represent data entry keying errors.

    Using massively parallel computers, companies dig through volumes of data to discover patterns about their customers and products. For example, grocery chains have found that when men go to a supermarket to buy diapers, they sometimes walk out with a six-pack of beer as well. Using that information, it’s possible to lay out a store so that these items are closer.

    AT&T, A.C. Nielson, and American Express are among the growing ranks of companies implementing data mining techniques for sales and marketing. These systems are crunching through terabytes of point-of-sale data to aid analysts in understanding consumer behavior and promotional strategies. Why? To gain a competitive advantage and increase profitability!

    Similarly, financial analysts are plowing through vast sets of financial records, data feeds, and other information sources in order to make investment decisions. Health-care organizations are examining medical records to understand trends of the past so they can reduce costs in the future.
    The Evolution of Data Mining

    Data mining is a natural development of the increased use of computerized databases to store data and provide answers to business analysts.

    Evolutionary Step Business Question Enabling Technology
    Data Collection (1960s) “What was my total revenue in the last five years?” computers, tapes, disks
    Data Access (1980s) “What were unit sales in New England last March?” faster and cheaper computers with more storage,
    relational databases
    Data Warehousing and Decision Support “What were unit sales in New England last March? Drill
    down to Boston.”
    faster and cheaper computers with more storage, On-line
    analytical processing (OLAP),
    multidimensional databases, data
    warehouses
    Data Mining “What’s likely to happen to Boston unit sales next month?
    Why?”
    faster and cheaper computers with more storage, advanced
    computer algorithms

    Traditional query and report tools have been used to describe and extract what is in a database. The user forms a hypothesis about a relationship and verifies it or discounts it with a series of queries against the data. For example, an analyst might hypothesize that people with low income and high debt are bad credit risks and query the database to verify or disprove this assumption. Data mining can be used to generate an hypothesis. For example, an analyst might use a neural net to discover a pattern that analysts did not think to try – for example, that people over 30 years old with low incomes and high debt but who own their own homes and have children are good credit risks.

    How Data Mining Works

    How is data mining able to tell you important things that you didn’t know or what is going to happen next? That technique that is used to perform these feats is called modeling. Modeling is simply the act of building a model (a set of examples or a mathematical relationship) based on data from situations where the answer is known and then applying the model to other situations where the answers aren’t known. Modeling techniques have been around for centuries, of course, but it is only recently that data storage and communication capabilities required to collect and store huge amounts of data, and the computational power to automate modeling techniques to work directly on the data, have been available.

    As a simple example of building a model, consider the director of marketing for a telecommunications company. He would like to focus his marketing and sales efforts on segments of the population most likely to become big users of long distance services. He knows a lot about his customers, but it is impossible to discern the common characteristics of his best customers because there are so many variables. From his existing database of customers, which contains information such as age, sex, credit history, income, zip code, occupation, etc., he can use data mining tools, such as neural networks, to identify the characteristics of those customers who make lots of long distance calls. For instance, he might learn that his best customers are unmarried females between the age of 34 and 42 who make in excess of $60,000 per year. This, then, is his model for high value customers, and he would budget his marketing efforts to accordingly.

    Data Mining Technologies

    The analytical techniques used in data mining are often well-known mathematical algorithms and techniques. What is new is the application of those techniques to general business problems made possible by the increased availability of data and inexpensive storage and processing power. Also, the use of graphical interfaces has led to tools becoming available that business experts can easily use.

    Some of the tools used for data mining are:
    Artificial neural networks – Non-linear predictive models that learn through training and resemble biological neural networks in structure.
    Decision trees – Tree-shaped structures that represent sets of decisions. These decisions generate rules for the classification of a dataset.
    Rule induction – The extraction of useful if-then rules from data based on statistical significance.
    Genetic algorithms – Optimization techniques based on the concepts of genetic combination, mutation, and natural selection.
    Nearest neighbor – A classification technique that classifies each record based on the records most similar to it in an historical database.

    Real-World Examples

    Details about who calls whom, how long they are on the phone, and whether a line is used for fax as well as voice can be invaluable in targeting sales of services and equipment to specific customers. But these tidbits are buried in masses of numbers in the database. By delving into its extensive customer-call database to manage its communications network, a regional telephone company identified new types of unmet customer needs. Using its data mining system, it discovered how to pinpoint prospects for additional services by measuring daily household usage for selected periods. For example, households that make many lengthy calls between 3 p.m. and 6 p.m. are likely to include teenagers who are prime candidates for their own phones and lines. When the company used target marketing that emphasized convenience and value for adults – “Is the phone always tied up?” – hidden demand surfaced. Extensive telephone use between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m. characterized by patterns related to voice, fax, and modem usage suggests a customer has business activity. Target marketing offering those customers “business communications capabilities for small budgets” resulted in sales of additional lines, functions, and equipment.

    The ability to accurately gauge customer response to changes in business rules is a powerful competitive advantage. A bank searching for new ways to increase revenues from its credit card operations tested a nonintuitive possibility: Would credit card usage and interest earned increase significantly if the bank halved its minimum required payment? With hundreds of gigabytes of data representing two years of average credit card balances, payment amounts, payment timeliness, credit limit usage, and other key parameters, the bank used a powerful data mining system to model the impact of the proposed policy change on specific customer categories, such as customers consistently near or at their credit limits who make timely minimum or small payments. The bank discovered that cutting minimum payment requirements for small, targeted customer categories could increase average balances and extend indebtedness periods, generating more than $25 million in additional interest earned,

    Merck-Medco Managed Care is a mail-order business which sells drugs to the country’s largest health care providers: Blue Cross and Blue Shield state organizations, large HMOs, U.S. corporations, state governments, etc. Merck-Medco is mining its one terabyte data warehouse to uncover hidden links between illnesses and known drug treatments, and spot trends that help pinpoint which drugs are the most effective for what types of patients. The results are more effective treatments that are also less costly. Merck-Medco’s data mining project has helped customers save an average of 10-15% on prescription costs.

    The Future of Data Mining

    In the short-term, the results of data mining will be in profitable, if mundane, business related areas. Micro-marketing campaigns will explore new niches. Advertising will target potential customers with new precision.

    In the medium term, data mining may be as common and easy to use as e-mail. We may use these tools to find the best airfare to New York, root out a phone number of a long-lost classmate, or find the best prices on lawn mowers.

    The long-term prospects are truly exciting. Imagine intelligent agents turned loose on medical research data or on sub-atomic particle data. Computers may reveal new treatments for diseases or new insights into the nature of the universe. There are potential dangers, though, as discussed below.

    Privacy Concerns

    What if every telephone call you make, every credit card purchase you make, every flight you take, every visit to the doctor you make, every warranty card you send in, every employment application you fill out, every school record you have, your credit record, every web page you visit … was all collected together? A lot would be known about you! This is an all-too-real possibility. Much of this kind of information is already stored in a database. Remember that phone interview you gave to a marketing company last week? Your replies went into a database. Remember that loan application you filled out? In a database. Too much information about too many people for anybody to make sense of? Not with data mining tools running on massively parallel processing computers! Would you feel comfortable about someone (or lots of someones) having access to all this data about you? And remember, all this data does not have to reside in one physical location; as the net grows, information of this type becomes more available to more people.

    Check out:

    http://www.kron.com/nc4/contact4/stories/computer_privacy.html

    http://www.privacyrights.org

    http://www.cfp.org

    Explore Further on the Internet

    Introduction to Data Mining

    http://www-pcc.qub.ac.uk/tec/courses/datamining/stu_notes/dm_book_1.html

    Information about data mining research, applications, and tools:

    http://info.gte.com/kdd/

    http://www.kdnuggets.com

    http://www.ultragem.com/

    http://www.cs.bham.ac.uk/~anp/TheDataMine.html

    http://www.think.com/html/data_min/data_min.htm

    http://direct.boulder.ibm.com/bi/

    http://www.software.ibm.com/data/

    http://coral.postech.ac.kr/~swkim/software.html

    http://www.cs.uah.edu/~infotech/mineproj.html

    http://info.gte.com/~kdd/index.html

    http://info.gte.com/~kdd/siftware.html

    http://iris.cs.uml.edu:8080/

    http://www.datamining.com/datamine/welcome.htm

    Data Sets to test data mining algorithms:

    http://www.scs.unr.edu/~cbmr/research/data.html

    Data mining journal (Read Usama M. Fayyad’s editorial.):

    http://www.research.microsoft.com/research/datamine/

    Interesting application of data mining:

    http://www.nba.com/allstar97/asgame/beyond.html

    Data mining papers:

    http://www.satafe.edu/~kurt/index.shtml

    http://www.cs.bham.ac.uk/~anp/papers.html

    http://coral.postech.ac.kr/~swkim/old_papers.html

    Data mining conferences:

    http://www-aig.jpl.nasa.gov/kdd97

    http://www.cs.bahm.ac.uk/~anp/conferences/html

    Conference on very large databases:

    http://www.vldb.com/homepage.htm

    Sites for datamining vendors and products:
    American Heuristics (Profiler) http://www.heuristics.com
    Angoss software (Knowledge Seeker) http://www.angoss.com
    Attar Software (XpertRule Profiler) http://www.attar.com
    Business Objects (BusinessMiner) http://www.businessobjects.com
    DataMind (DataMind Professional) http://www.datamind.com
    HNC Software (DataMarksman, Falcon) http://www.hncs.com
    HyperParallel (Discovery) http://www.hyperparallel.com
    Information Discovery Inc. (Information Discovery System) http://www.datamining.com
    Integral Solutions (Clementine) http://www.isl.co.uk/index.html
    IBM (Intelligent Data Miner) http://www.ibm.com/Stories/1997/04/data1.html
    Lucent Technologies (Interactive Data Visualization) http://www.lucent.com
    NCR (Knowledge Discovery Benchmark) http://www.ncr.com
    NeoVista Sloutions (Decision Series) http://www.neovista.com
    Nestor (Prism) http://www.nestor.com
    Pilot Software (Pilot Discovery Server) http://www.pilotsw.com
    Seagate Software Systems (Holos 5.0) http://www.holossys.com
    SPSS (SPSS) http://www.spss.com
    Thinking Machines (Darwin) http://www.think.com


    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Data_mining

    Data Mining
    13 June 2014 at 19:51

    Data mining (the analysis step of the “Knowledge Discovery in Databases” process, or KDD), an interdisciplinary subfield of computer science, is the computational process of discovering patterns in large data sets involving methods at the intersection of artificial intelligence, machine learning, statistics, and database systems. The overall goal of the data mining process is to extract information from a data set and transform it into an understandable structure for further use. Aside from the raw analysis step, it involves database and data management aspects, data pre-processing, model and inference considerations, interestingness metrics, complexity considerations, post-processing of discovered structures, visualization, and online updating.

    The term is a buzzword, and is frequently misused to mean any form of large-scale data or information processing (collection, extraction, warehousing, analysis, and statistics) but is also generalized to any kind of computer decision support system, including artificial intelligence, machine learning, and business intelligence. In the proper use of the word, the key term is discovery, commonly defined as “detecting something new”. Even the popular book “Data mining: Practical machine learning tools and techniques with Java” (which covers mostly machine learning material) was originally to be named just “Practical machine learning”, and the term “data mining” was only added for marketing reasons. Often the more general terms “(large scale) data analysis”, or “analytics” – or when referring to actual methods, artificial intelligence and machine learning – are more appropriate.

    The actual data mining task is the automatic or semi-automatic analysis of large quantities of data to extract previously unknown interesting patterns such as groups of data records (cluster analysis), unusual records (anomaly detection) and dependencies (association rule mining). This usually involves using database techniques such as spatial indices. These patterns can then be seen as a kind of summary of the input data, and may be used in further analysis or, for example, in machine learning and predictive analytics. For example, the data mining step might identify multiple groups in the data, which can then be used to obtain more accurate prediction results by a decision support system. Neither the data collection, data preparation, nor result interpretation and reporting are part of the data mining step, but do belong to the overall KDD process as additional steps.

    The related terms data dredging, data fishing, and data snooping refer to the use of data mining methods to sample parts of a larger population data set that are (or may be) too small for reliable statistical inferences to be made about the validity of any patterns discovered. These methods can, however, be used in creating new hypotheses to test against the larger data populations.

    Etymology

    In the 1960s, statisticians used terms like “Data Fishing” or “Data Dredging” to refer to what they considered the bad practice of analyzing data without an a-priori hypothesis. The term “Data Mining” appeared around 1990 in the database community. At the beginning of the century, there was a phrase “database mining”™, trademarked by HNC, a San Diego-based company (now merged into FICO), to pitch their Data Mining Workstation;[8] researchers consequently turned to “data mining”. Other terms used include Data Archaeology, Information Harvesting, Information Discovery, Knowledge Extraction, etc. Gregory Piatetsky-Shapiro coined the term “Knowledge Discovery in Databases” for the first workshop on the same topic (1989) and this term became more popular in AI and Machine Learning Community. However, the term data mining became more popular in the business and press communities. Currently, Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery are used interchangeably.

    Background

    The manual extraction of patterns from data has occurred for centuries. Early methods of identifying patterns in data include Bayes’ theorem (1700s) and regression analysis (1800s). The proliferation, ubiquity and increasing power of computer technology has dramatically increased data collection, storage, and manipulation ability. As data sets have grown in size and complexity, direct “hands-on” data analysis has increasingly been augmented with indirect, automated data processing, aided by other discoveries in computer science, such as neural networks, cluster analysis, genetic algorithms (1950s), decision trees (1960s), and support vector machines (1990s). Data mining is the process of applying these methods with the intention of uncovering hidden patterns in large data sets. It bridges the gap from applied statistics and artificial intelligence (which usually provide the mathematical background) to database management by exploiting the way data is stored and indexed in databases to execute the actual learning and discovery algorithms more efficiently, allowing such methods to be applied to ever larger data sets.

    Process[edit]

    The Knowledge Discovery in Databases (KDD) process is commonly defined with the stages:
    (1) Selection
    (2) Pre-processing
    (3) Transformation
    (4) Data Mining
    (5) Interpretation/Evaluation.

    It exists, however, in many variations on this theme, such as the Cross Industry Standard Process for Data Mining (CRISP-DM) which defines six phases:
    (1) Business Understanding
    (2) Data Understanding
    (3) Data Preparation
    (4) Modeling
    (5) Evaluation
    (6) Deployment
    or a simplified process such as (1) pre-processing, (2) data mining, and (3) results validation.

    Polls conducted in 2002, 2004, and 2007 show that the CRISP-DM methodology is the leading methodology used by data miners. The only other data mining standard named in these polls was SEMMA. However, 3-4 times as many people reported using CRISP-DM. Several teams of researchers have published reviews of data mining process models, and Azevedo and Santos conducted a comparison of CRISP-DM and SEMMA in 2008.

    Pre-processing

    Before data mining algorithms can be used, a target data set must be assembled. As data mining can only uncover patterns actually present in the data, the target data set must be large enough to contain these patterns while remaining concise enough to be mined within an acceptable time limit. A common source for data is a data mart or data warehouse. Pre-processing is essential to analyze the multivariate data sets before data mining. The target set is then cleaned. Data cleaning removes the observations containing noise and those with missing data.

    Data mining

    Data mining involves six common classes of tasks:

    • Anomaly detection (Outlier/change/deviation detection) – The identification of unusual data records, that might be interesting or data errors that require further investigation.
    • Association rule learning (Dependency modeling) – Searches for relationships between variables. For example a supermarket might gather data on customer purchasing habits. Using association rule learning, the supermarket can determine which products are frequently bought together and use this information for marketing purposes. This is sometimes referred to as market basket analysis.
    • Clustering – is the task of discovering groups and structures in the data that are in some way or another “similar”, without using known structures in the data.
    • Classification – is the task of generalizing known structure to apply to new data. For example, an e-mail program might attempt to classify an e-mail as “legitimate” or as “spam”.
    • Regression – attempts to find a function which models the data with the least error.
    • Summarization – providing a more compact representation of the data set, including visualization and report generation.

    Results validation
    Data mining can unintentionally be misused, and can then produce results which appear to be significant; but which do not actually predict future behavior and cannot be reproduced on a new sample of data and bear little use. Often this results from investigating too many hypotheses and not performing proper statistical hypothesis testing. A simple version of this problem in machine learning is known as overfitting, but the same problem can arise at different phases of the process and thus a train/test split – when applicable at all – may not be sufficient to prevent this from happening.

    This section is missing information about non-classification tasks in data mining. It only covers machine learning. Please expand the section to include this information. Further details may exist on the talk page. (September 2011)

    The final step of knowledge discovery from data is to verify that the patterns produced by the data mining algorithms occur in the wider data set. Not all patterns found by the data mining algorithms are necessarily valid. It is common for the data mining algorithms to find patterns in the training set which are not present in the general data set. This is called overfitting. To overcome this, the evaluation uses a test set of data on which the data mining algorithm was not trained. The learned patterns are applied to this test set, and the resulting output is compared to the desired output. For example, a data mining algorithm trying to distinguish “spam” from “legitimate” emails would be trained on a training set of sample e-mails. Once trained, the learned patterns would be applied to the test set of e-mails on which it had not been trained. The accuracy of the patterns can then be measured from how many e-mails they correctly classify. A number of statistical methods may be used to evaluate the algorithm, such as ROC curves.

    If the learned patterns do not meet the desired standards, subsequently it is necessary to re-evaluate and change the pre-processing and data mining steps. If the learned patterns do meet the desired standards, then the final step is to interpret the learned patterns and turn them into knowledge.

    Standards

    There have been some efforts to define standards for the data mining process, for example the 1999 European Cross Industry Standard Process for Data Mining (CRISP-DM 1.0) and the 2004 Java Data Mining standard (JDM 1.0). Development on successors to these processes (CRISP-DM 2.0 and JDM 2.0) was active in 2006, but has stalled since. JDM 2.0 was withdrawn without reaching a final draft.

    For exchanging the extracted models – in particular for use in predictive analytics – the key standard is the Predictive Model Markup Language (PMML), which is an XML-based language developed by the Data Mining Group (DMG) and supported as exchange format by many data mining applications. As the name suggests, it only covers prediction models, a particular data mining task of high importance to business applications. However, extensions to cover (for example) subspace clustering have been proposed independently of the DMG.

    Notable uses
    It has been suggested that this section be split into a new article titled Examples of data mining. (Discuss) Proposed since January 2014.

    Games

    Since the early 1960s, with the availability of oracles for certain combinatorial games, also called tablebases (e.g. for 3×3-chess) with any beginning configuration, small-board dots-and-boxes, small-board-hex, and certain endgames in chess, dots-and-boxes, and hex; a new area for data mining has been opened. This is the extraction of human-usable strategies from these oracles. Current pattern recognition approaches do not seem to fully acquire the high level of abstraction required to be applied successfully. Instead, extensive experimentation with the tablebases – combined with an intensive study of tablebase-answers to well designed problems, and with knowledge of prior art (i.e., pre-tablebase knowledge) – is used to yield insightful patterns. Berlekamp (in dots-and-boxes, etc.) and John Nunn (in chess endgames) are notable examples of researchers doing this work, though they were not – and are not – involved in tablebase generation.

    Business

    Data mining is the analysis of historical business activities, stored as static data in data warehouse databases, to reveal hidden patterns and trends. Data mining software uses advanced pattern recognition algorithms to sift through large amounts of data to assist in discovering previously unknown strategic business information. Examples of what businesses use data mining for include performing market analysis to identify new product bundles, finding the root cause of manufacturing problems, to prevent customer attrition and acquire new customers, cross-sell to existing customers, and profile customers with more accuracy.

    • In today’s world raw data is being collected by companies at an exploding rate. For example, Walmart processes over 20 million point-of-sale transactions every day. This information is stored in a centralized database, but would be useless without some type of data mining software to analyze it. If Walmart analyzed their point-of-sale data with data mining techniques they would be able to determine sales trends, develop marketing campaigns, and more accurately predict customer loyalty.[23]
    • Every time a credit card or a store loyalty card is being used, or a warranty card is being filled, data is being collected about the users behavior. Many people find the amount of information stored about us from companies, such as Google, Facebook, and Amazon, disturbing and are concerned about privacy. Although there is the potential for our personal data to be used in harmful, or unwanted, ways it is also being used to make our lives better. For example, Ford and Audi hope to one day collect information about customer driving patterns so they can recommend safer routes and warn drivers about dangerous road conditions.
    • Data mining in customer relationship management applications can contribute significantly to the bottom line. Rather than randomly contacting a prospect or customer through a call center or sending mail, a company can concentrate its efforts on prospects that are predicted to have a high likelihood of responding to an offer. More sophisticated methods may be used to optimize resources across campaigns so that one may predict to which channel and to which offer an individual is most likely to respond (across all potential offers). Additionally, sophisticated applications could be used to automate mailing. Once the results from data mining (potential prospect/customer and channel/offer) are determined, this “sophisticated application” can either automatically send an e-mail or a regular mail. Finally, in cases where many people will take an action without an offer, “uplift modeling” can be used to determine which people have the greatest increase in response if given an offer. Uplift modeling thereby enables marketers to focus mailings and offers on persuadable people, and not to send offers to people who will buy the product without an offer. Data clustering can also be used to automatically discover the segments or groups within a customer data set.
    • Businesses employing data mining may see a return on investment, but also they recognize that the number of predictive models can quickly become very large. For example, rather than using one model to predict how many customers will churn, a business may choose to build a separate model for each region and customer type. In situations where a large number of models need to be maintained, some businesses turn to more automated data mining methodologies.
    • Data mining can be helpful to human resources (HR) departments in identifying the characteristics of their most successful employees. Information obtained – such as universities attended by highly successful employees – can help HR focus recruiting efforts accordingly. Additionally, Strategic Enterprise Management applications help a company translate corporate-level goals, such as profit and margin share targets, into operational decisions, such as production plans and workforce levels.[25]
    • Market basket analysis, relates to data-mining use in retail sales. If a clothing store records the purchases of customers, a data mining system could identify those customers who favor silk shirts over cotton ones. Although some explanations of relationships may be difficult, taking advantage of it is easier. The example deals with association rules within transaction-based data. Not all data are transaction based and logical, or inexact rules may also be present within a database.
    • Market basket analysis has been used to identify the purchase patterns of the Alpha Consumer. Analyzing the data collected on this type of user has allowed companies to predict future buying trends and forecast supply demands.
    • Data mining is a highly effective tool in the catalog marketing industry.[citation needed] Catalogers have a rich database of history of their customer transactions for millions of customers dating back a number of years. Data mining tools can identify patterns among customers and help identify the most likely customers to respond to upcoming mailing campaigns.
    • Data mining for business applications can be integrated into a complex modeling and decision making process. Reactive business intelligence (RBI) advocates a “holistic” approach that integrates data mining, modeling, and interactive visualization into an end-to-end discovery and continuous innovation process powered by human and automated learning.
    • In the area of decision making, the RBI approach has been used to mine knowledge that is progressively acquired from the decision maker, and then self-tune the decision method accordingly. The relation between the quality of a data mining system and the amount of investment that the decision maker is willing to make was formalized by providing an economic perspective on the value of “extracted knowledge” in terms of its payoff to the organization This decision-theoretic classification framework was applied to a real-world semiconductor wafer manufacturing line, where decision rules for effectively monitoring and controlling the semiconductor wafer fabrication line were developed.
    • An example of data mining related to an integrated-circuit (IC) production line is described in the paper “Mining IC Test Data to Optimize VLSI Testing.”[30] In this paper, the application of data mining and decision analysis to the problem of die-level functional testing is described. Experiments mentioned demonstrate the ability to apply a system of mining historical die-test data to create a probabilistic model of patterns of die failure. These patterns are then utilized to decide, in real time, which die to test next and when to stop testing. This system has been shown, based on experiments with historical test data, to have the potential to improve profits on mature IC products. Other examples of the application of data mining methodologies in semiconductor manufacturing environments suggest that data mining methodologies may be particularly useful when data is scarce, and the various physical and chemical parameters that affect the process exhibit highly complex interactions. Another implication is that on-line monitoring of the semiconductor manufacturing process using data mining may be highly effective.

    Science and engineering

    In recent years, data mining has been used widely in the areas of science and engineering, such as bioinformatics, genetics, medicine, education and electrical power engineering.

    • In the study of human genetics, sequence mining helps address the important goal of understanding the mapping relationship between the inter-individual variations in human DNA sequence and the variability in disease susceptibility. In simple terms, it aims to find out how the changes in an individual’s DNA sequence affects the risks of developing common diseases such as cancer, which is of great importance to improving methods of diagnosing, preventing, and treating these diseases. One data mining method that is used to perform this task is known as multifactor dimensionality reduction.
    • In the area of electrical power engineering, data mining methods have been widely used for condition monitoring of high voltage electrical equipment. The purpose of condition monitoring is to obtain valuable information on, for example, the status of the insulation (or other important safety-related parameters). Data clustering techniques – such as the self-organizing map (SOM), have been applied to vibration monitoring and analysis of transformer on-load tap-changers (OLTCS). Using vibration monitoring, it can be observed that each tap change operation generates a signal that contains information about the condition of the tap changer contacts and the drive mechanisms. Obviously, different tap positions will generate different signals. However, there was considerable variability amongst normal condition signals for exactly the same tap position. SOM has been applied to detect abnormal conditions and to hypothesize about the nature of the abnormalities.
    • Data mining methods have been applied to dissolved gas analysis (DGA) in power transformers. DGA, as a diagnostics for power transformers, has been available for many years. Methods such as SOM has been applied to analyze generated data and to determine trends which are not obvious to the standard DGA ratio methods (such as Duval Triangle).
    • In educational research, where data mining has been used to study the factors leading students to choose to engage in behaviors which reduce their learning, and to understand factors influencing university student retention. A similar example of social application of data mining is its use in expertise finding systems, whereby descriptors of human expertise are extracted, normalized, and classified so as to facilitate the finding of experts, particularly in scientific and technical fields. In this way, data mining can facilitate institutional memory.
    • Data mining methods of biomedical data facilitated by domain ontologies, mining clinical trial data, and traffic analysis using SOM.
    • In adverse drug reaction surveillance, the Uppsala Monitoring Centre has, since 1998, used data mining methods to routinely screen for reporting patterns indicative of emerging drug safety issues in the WHO global database of 4.6 million suspected adverse drug reaction incidents. Recently, similar methodology has been developed to mine large collections of electronic health records for temporal patterns associating drug prescriptions to medical diagnoses.
    • Data mining has been applied software artifacts within the realm of software engineering: Mining Software Repositories.

    Human rights

    Data mining of government records – particularly records of the justice system (i.e., courts, prisons) – enables the discovery of systemic human rights violations in connection to generation and publication of invalid or fraudulent legal records by various government agencies.

    Medical data mining

    In 2011, the case of Sorrell v. IMS Health, Inc., decided by the Supreme Court of the United States, ruled that pharmacies may share information with outside companies. This practice was authorized under the 1st Amendment of the Constitution, protecting the “freedom of speech.” However, the passage of the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act (HITECH Act) helped to initiate the adoption of the electronic health record (EHR) and supporting technology in the United States. The HITECH Act was signed into law on February 17, 2009 as part of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) and helped to open the door to medical data mining. Prior to the signing of this law, estimates of only 20% of United States based physician were utilizing electronic patient records. Søren Brunak notes that “the patient record becomes as information-rich as possible” and thereby “maximizes the data mining opportunities.” Hence, electronic patient records further expands the possibilities regarding medical data mining thereby opening the door to a vast source of medical data analysis.

    Spatial data mining

    Spatial data mining is the application of data mining methods to spatial data. The end objective of spatial data mining is to find patterns in data with respect to geography. So far, data mining and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) have existed as two separate technologies, each with its own methods, traditions, and approaches to visualization and data analysis. Particularly, most contemporary GIS have only very basic spatial analysis functionality. The immense explosion in geographically referenced data occasioned by developments in IT, digital mapping, remote sensing, and the global diffusion of GIS emphasizes the importance of developing data-driven inductive approaches to geographical analysis and modeling.

    Data mining offers great potential benefits for GIS-based applied decision-making. Recently, the task of integrating these two technologies has become of critical importance, especially as various public and private sector organizations possessing huge databases with thematic and geographically referenced data begin to realize the huge potential of the information contained therein. Among those organizations are:

    • offices requiring analysis or dissemination of geo-referenced statistical data
    • public health services searching for explanations of disease clustering
    • environmental agencies assessing the impact of changing land-use patterns on climate change
    • geo-marketing companies doing customer segmentation based on spatial location.

    Challenges in Spatial mining: Geospatial data repositories tend to be very large. Moreover, existing GIS datasets are often splintered into feature and attribute components that are conventionally archived in hybrid data management systems. Algorithmic requirements differ substantially for relational (attribute) data management and for topological (feature) data management. Related to this is the range and diversity of geographic data formats, which present unique challenges. The digital geographic data revolution is creating new types of data formats beyond the traditional “vector” and “raster” formats. Geographic data repositories increasingly include ill-structured data, such as imagery and geo-referenced multi-media.

    There are several critical research challenges in geographic knowledge discovery and data mining. Miller and Han offer the following list of emerging research topics in the field:

    • Developing and supporting geographic data warehouses (GDW’s): Spatial properties are often reduced to simple aspatial attributes in mainstream data warehouses. Creating an integrated GDW requires solving issues of spatial and temporal data interoperability – including differences in semantics, referencing systems, geometry, accuracy, and position.
    • Better spatio-temporal representations in geographic knowledge discovery: Current geographic knowledge discovery (GKD) methods generally use very simple representations of geographic objects and spatial relationships. Geographic data mining methods should recognize more complex geographic objects (i.e., lines and polygons) and relationships (i.e., non-Euclidean distances, direction, connectivity, and interaction through attributed geographic space such as terrain). Furthermore, the time dimension needs to be more fully integrated into these geographic representations and relationships.
    • Geographic knowledge discovery using diverse data types: GKD methods should be developed that can handle diverse data types beyond the traditional raster and vector models, including imagery and geo-referenced multimedia, as well as dynamic data types (video streams, animation).

    Sensor data mining

    Wireless sensor networks can be used for facilitating the collection of data for spatial data mining for a variety of applications such as air pollution monitoring.[50] A characteristic of such networks is that nearby sensor nodes monitoring an environmental feature typically register similar values. This kind of data redundancy due to the spatial correlation between sensor observations inspires the techniques for in-network data aggregation and mining. By measuring the spatial correlation between data sampled by different sensors, a wide class of specialized algorithms can be developed to develop more efficient spatial data mining algorithms.

    Visual data mining

    In the process of turning from analogical into digital, large data sets have been generated, collected, and stored discovering statistical patterns, trends and information which is hidden in data, in order to build predictive patterns. Studies suggest visual data mining is faster and much more intuitive than is traditional data mining. See also Computer vision.

    Music data mining

    Data mining techniques, and in particular co-occurrence analysis, has been used to discover relevant similarities among music corpora (radio lists, CD databases) for purposes including classifying music into genres in a more objective manner.

    Surveillance

    Data mining has been used by the U.S. government. Programs include the Total Information Awareness (TIA) program, Secure Flight (formerly known as Computer-Assisted Passenger Prescreening System (CAPPS II)), Analysis, Dissemination, Visualization, Insight, Semantic Enhancement (ADVISE), and the Multi-state Anti-Terrorism Information Exchange (MATRIX). These programs have been discontinued due to controversy over whether they violate the 4th Amendment to the United States Constitution, although many programs that were formed under them continue to be funded by different organizations or under different names.

    In the context of combating terrorism, two particularly plausible methods of data mining are “pattern mining” and “subject-based data mining”.

    Pattern mining

    “Pattern mining” is a data mining method that involves finding existing patterns in data. In this context patterns often means association rules. The original motivation for searching association rules came from the desire to analyze supermarket transaction data, that is, to examine customer behavior in terms of the purchased products. For example, an association rule “beer ? potato chips (80%)” states that four out of five customers that bought beer also bought potato chips.

    In the context of pattern mining as a tool to identify terrorist activity, the National Research Council provides the following definition: “Pattern-based data mining looks for patterns (including anomalous data patterns) that might be associated with terrorist activity – these patterns might be regarded as small signals in a large ocean of noise.” Pattern Mining includes new areas such a Music Information Retrieval (MIR) where patterns seen both in the temporal and non temporal domains are imported to classical knowledge discovery search methods.

    Subject-based data mining

    “Subject-based data mining” is a data mining method involving the search for associations between individuals in data. In the context of combating terrorism, the National Research Council provides the following definition: “Subject-based data mining uses an initiating individual or other datum that is considered, based on other information, to be of high interest, and the goal is to determine what other persons or financial transactions or movements, etc., are related to that initiating datum.”

    Knowledge grid

    Knowledge discovery “On the Grid” generally refers to conducting knowledge discovery in an open environment using grid computing concepts, allowing users to integrate data from various online data sources, as well make use of remote resources, for executing their data mining tasks. The earliest example was the Discovery Net, developed at Imperial College London, which won the “Most Innovative Data-Intensive Application Award” at the ACM SC02 (Supercomputing 2002) conference and exhibition, based on a demonstration of a fully interactive distributed knowledge discovery application for a bioinformatics application. Other examples include work conducted by researchers at the University of Calabria, who developed a Knowledge Grid architecture for distributed knowledge discovery, based on grid computing.

    Privacy concerns and ethics

    While the term “data mining” itself has no ethical implications, it is often associated with the mining of information in relation to peoples’ behavior (ethical and otherwise).

    The ways in which data mining can be used can in some cases and contexts raise questions regarding privacy, legality, and ethics. In particular, data mining government or commercial data sets for national security or law enforcement purposes, such as in the Total Information Awareness Program or in ADVISE, has raised privacy concerns.

    Data mining requires data preparation which can uncover information or patterns which may compromise confidentiality and privacy obligations. A common way for this to occur is through data aggregation. Data aggregation involves combining data together (possibly from various sources) in a way that facilitates analysis (but that also might make identification of private, individual-level data deducible or otherwise apparent). This is not data mining per se, but a result of the preparation of data before – and for the purposes of – the analysis. The threat to an individual’s privacy comes into play when the data, once compiled, cause the data miner, or anyone who has access to the newly compiled data set, to be able to identify specific individuals, especially when the data were originally anonymous.

    It is recommended that an individual is made aware of the following before data are collected:

    • the purpose of the data collection and any (known) data mining projects;
    • how the data will be used;
    • who will be able to mine the data and use the data and their derivatives;
    • the status of security surrounding access to the data;
    • how collected data can be updated.

    Data may also be modified so as to become anonymous, so that individuals may not readily be identified. However, even “de-identified”/”anonymized” data sets can potentially contain enough information to allow identification of individuals, as occurred when journalists were able to find several individuals based on a set of search histories that were inadvertently released by AOL.

    Situation in the United States

    In the United States, privacy concerns have been addressed to some[weasel words] extent by the US Congress via the passage of regulatory controls such as the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA). The HIPAA requires individuals to give their “informed consent” regarding information they provide and its intended present and future uses. According to an article in Biotech Business Week’, “‘[i]n practice, HIPAA may not offer any greater protection than the longstanding regulations in the research arena,’ says the AAHC. More importantly, the rule’s goal of protection through informed consent is undermined by the complexity of consent forms that are required of patients and participants, which approach a level of incomprehensibility to average individuals.” This underscores the necessity for data anonymity in data aggregation and mining practices.

    U.S. information privacy legislation such as HIPAA and the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA) applies only to the specific areas that each such law addresses. Use of data mining by the majority of businesses in the U.S. is not controlled by any legislation.

    Situation in Europe

    Europe has rather strong privacy laws, and efforts are underway to further strengthen the rights of the consumers. However, the U.S.-E.U. Safe Harbor Principles currently effectively expose European users to privacy exploitation by U.S. companies. As a consequence of Edward Snowden’s Global surveillance disclosure, there has been increased discussion to revoke this agreement, as in particular the data will be fully exposed to the National Security Agency, and attempts to reach an agreement have failed.

    Software
    See also category: Data mining and machine learning software

    Free open-source data mining software and applications

    • Carrot2: Text and search results clustering framework.
    • Chemicalize.org: A chemical structure miner and web search engine.
    • ELKI: A university research project with advanced cluster analysis and outlier detection methods written in the Java language.
    • GATE: a natural language processing and language engineering tool.
    • KNIME: The Konstanz Information Miner, a user friendly and comprehensive data analytics framework.
    • ML-Flex: A software package that enables users to integrate with third-party machine-learning packages written in any programming language, execute classification analyses in parallel across multiple computing nodes, and produce HTML reports of classification results.
    • MLPACK library: a collection of ready-to-use machine learning algorithms written in the C++ language.
    • NLTK (Natural Language Toolkit): A suite of libraries and programs for symbolic and statistical natural language processing (NLP) for the Python language.
    • OpenNN: Open neural networks library.
    • Orange: A component-based data mining and machine learning software suite written in the Python language.
    • R: A programming language and software environment for statistical computing, data mining, and graphics. It is part of the GNU Project.
    • RapidMiner: An environment for machine learning and data mining experiments.
    • SCaViS: Java cross-platform data analysis framework developed at Argonne National Laboratory.
    • SenticNet API: A semantic and affective resource for opinion mining and sentiment analysis.
    • Tanagra: A visualisation-oriented data mining software , also for teaching.
    • Torch: An open source deep learning library for the Lua programming language and scientific computing framework with wide support for machine learning algorithms.
    • UIMA: The UIMA (Unstructured Information Management Architecture) is a component framework for analyzing unstructured content such as text, audio and video – originally developed by IBM.
    • Weka: A suite of machine learning software applications written in the Java programming language.

    Commercial data-mining software and applications

    • Angoss KnowledgeSTUDIO: data mining tool provided by Angoss.
    • Clarabridge: enterprise class text analytics solution.
    • HP Vertica Analytics Platform: data mining software provided by HP.
    • IBM SPSS Modeler: data mining software provided by IBM.
    • KXEN Modeler: data mining tool provided by KXEN.
    • LIONsolver: an integrated software application for data mining, business intelligence, and modeling that implements the Learning and Intelligent OptimizatioN (LION) approach.
    • Microsoft Analysis Services: data mining software provided by Microsoft.
    • NetOwl: suite of multilingual text and entity analytics products that enable data mining.
    • Neural Designer: data mining software provided by Intelnics.
    • Oracle Data Mining: data mining software by Oracle.
    • QIWare: data mining software by Forte Wares.
    • SAS Enterprise Miner: data mining software provided by the SAS Institute.
    • STATISTICA Data Miner: data mining software provided by StatSoft.

    Microsoft Data Mining

    http://www.microsoft.com/en-us/server-cloud/solutions/business-intelligence/predictive-analytics.aspx#fbid=__stmh7ZDtN

    Microsoft Server and Cloud Platform

    Business intelligence

    Give everyone in your organization a powerful new way to work with data.

    Mine your data, find new insights and make better decisions

    Mining historical data can provide new insights, form a reliable basis for accurate forecasting and help companies make better decisions. SQL Server provides a spectrum of technology that helps customers build predictive analytics solutions that integrate into the tools that are already familiar to most users. The business analyst can manipulate advanced data mining tools in Excel with the Data Mining Add-ins, while developers can build sophisticated data-mining solutions using familiar SQL Server Development Tools and IT can manage the solution from SQL Server Management Studio. Each person plays a role in creating a solution and each player can interact with the solution from a familiar environment.

    Read the SQL Server Data Mining Datasheet http://download.microsoft.com/download/D/9/4/D9424937-4727-4CE4-BD6C-414591307F39/SQL_Server_2012_Data_Mining_Datasheet_Mar2012.pdf

    Read the SQL Server Data Mining technical documentation http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/bb510516(v=sql.120).aspx

    Benefits

    • Make informed decisions with intuitive and comprehensive predictive insights
    • Integrate prediction into every step of the data life cycle to discover hidden insights
    • Extend prediction and enhance data-mining functionality to create intelligent applications
    • Improved user productivity through familiar tools in Excel and SQL Server
    • Take advantage of enterprise-class capabilities like high availability, superior performance, and scalability

    Capabilities

    Rely on a complete predictive analytics platform

    • Use rich and innovative algorithms like inventory forecast and most profitable customer identification
    • Uncover non-intuitive data relationships and identify trends in unstructured data
    • Deliver insights with Microsoft Office by using a familiar Excel environment with the Data Mining Add-ins

    Integrate predictive analysis everywhere

    • Extract quality data by using in-flight mining for ETL data loads
    • Perform insightful analysis by including data-mining results as dimensions in your Analysis Services cubes
    • Add prediction functions to calculations and key performance indicators
    • Natively integrate reporting by using data-mining queries as the source in Reporting Services
    • Surface predictive KPIs in SharePoint Server

    Extend predictive analysis

    • Build applications by using predictive programming, and take advantage of XMLA, Data Mining extensions, ADOMD.NET, OLE DB, and Analysis Management objects
    • Customize algorithms and visualizations using procedures, predictive model markup language, algorithms and visualizations

    http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/database/options/advanced-analytics/odm/index.html

    Oracle Data Mining

    Powering Next-Generation Predictive Applications

    Oracle Data Mining (ODM) provides powerful data mining functionality as native SQL functions within the Oracle Database. Oracle Data Mining enables users to discover new insights hidden in data and to leverage investments in Oracle Database technology. With Oracle Data Mining, you can build and apply predictive models that help you target your best customers, develop detailed customer profiles, and find and prevent fraud. Oracle Data Mining, a component of the Oracle Advanced Analytics Option, helps companies better “compete on analytics.” The Oracle Data Miner “work flow” based GUI, an extension to SQL Developer, allows data analysts to explore their data, build and evaluate models, apply them to new data and save and share their analytical methodologies. Data analysts and application developers can use the SQL APIs to build next-generation applications that automatically mine star schema data to build and deploy predictive models that deliver real-time results and predictions throughout the enterprise. Because the data, models and results remain in the Oracle Database, data movement is eliminated, information latency is minimized and security is maintained. Additionally, Oracle Data Mining models can be included in SQL queries and embedded in applications to offer improved business intelligence.

    Data analysts can quickly access their Oracle data using Oracle Data Miner work flow based graphical user interface and explore their data to find patterns, relationships, and hidden insights. Oracle Data Mining provides a collection of in-database data mining algorithms that solve a wide range of business problems. Anyone who can access data stored in an Oracle Database can access Oracle Data Mining results-predictions, recommendations, and discoveries using Oracle Business Intelligence Solutions.

    Oracle Data Miner

    The free Oracle Data Miner GUI is an extension to Oracle SQL Developer that enables data analysts to work directly with data inside the database, explore the data graphically, build and evaluate multiple data mining models, apply Oracle Data Mining models to new data and deploy Oracle Data Mining’s predictions and insights throughout the enterprise. Oracle Data Miner work flows capture and document the user’s analytical methodology and can be saved and shared with others to automate advanced analytical methodologies.

    Oracle Data Miner work flows GUI accelerates development and deployment of predictive analytics methodologies

    General Information
    New Video demos: Oracle Advanced Analytics/Oracle Data Mining (blog)
    New Presentation: Oracle In-Database Analytics (pdf) http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/database/options/advanced-analytics/oaa12cpreso-1964644.pdf
    New Oracle Open World 2013 Presentation: Transform Big Data into Bigger Insight with Oracle Exadata and Oracle Advanced Analytics (pdf) http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/database/options/advanced-analytics/oracleadvancedanalyticsoow13-2027233.pdf
    New Oracle Advanced Analytics data sheet 12c
    New White paper: Oracle Data Mining 11gR2
    Presentation: Anomaly and Fraud Detection with Oracle Data Mining 12c
    Techcast: ODM overview and several demos
    White paper: High Performance Scoring with Oracle 10.2 Data Mining (pdf) http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/database/options/advanced-analytics/odm/overview/twp-bi-secure-data-mining-10gr2-050-134204.pdf
    White paper: Secure Data Mining in Oracle10g ( pdf)
    Sample Data Mining Use Cases
    Customer Successes

    Technical Information
    OAA SQL API Data Mining Algorithms
    New White Paper: Oracle Data Miner: Integrate Oracle R Enterprise Algorithms into workflow using the SQL Query node
    (pdf, companion files) http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/database/options/advanced-analytics/odmrrintegrationwhitepaperv2-2008659.pdf http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/database/options/advanced-analytics/companion-2006031.zip
    New White Paper: Oracle Data Miner: Generate a PL/SQL script for workflow deployment (pdf, companion files) http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/database/options/advanced-analytics/odmrcodegenwhitepaper-2042206.pdf http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/database/options/advanced-analytics/companion-2042207.zip
    White Paper: Using Oracle Data Miner 11g Release 2 with Star Schema data – A Telco Churn Case Study (pdf) (Zip files) http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/database/options/advanced-analytics/odm/overview/odmtelcowhitepaper-1920551.pdf http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/database/options/advanced-analytics/odm/overview/odmtelcochurn-1920552.zip
    DSS Performance in Oracle Database 10g Release 2 (pdf) http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/database/options/advanced-analytics/odm/overview/twp-dss-performance-with-10gr2-133706.pdf
    Support Vector Machines in Oracle Database 10g (pdf) http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/database/options/advanced-analytics/odm/overview/support-vector-machines-paper-1205-129825.pdf
    Data Mining-Based Intrusion Detection (pdf) http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/database/options/advanced-analytics/odm/overview/odm-based-intrusion-detection-paper-130287.pdf
    Performance Improvement of Model Building in Oracle 11.1 Data Mining (pdf) http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/database/options/advanced-analytics/odm/overview/dmwpbuild-final-131399.pdf
    Data-Centric Automated Data Mining (pdf) http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/database/options/advanced-analytics/odm/overview/automated-data-mining-paper-1205-128874.pdf
    Mining High-Dimensional Data for Information Fusion (pdf) http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/database/options/advanced-analytics/odm/overview/information-fusion-paper-1205-131149.pdf

    Resources
    Oracle Technology Network ODM Discussion Forum
    Oracle Data Miner 3.2 Tutorials
    Oracle Data Miner 4.0 Tutorials
    Spreadsheet Add-In for Predictive Analytics
    ODM Documentation
    2-Day Oracle University Course

    New – Oracle Data Mining Blog
    Oracle Data Mining on Twitter
    Wikipedia Entry
    Sample Programs

    Attend BIWA (BI, DW & Analytics) Summit User Group Event, Jan 27-29, 2015 at Oracle HQ

    Applications Powered by Oracle Data Mining
    Oracle Fusion HCM Workforce Predictions
    Oracle Fusion CRM Sales Prediction Engine
    Oracle Spend Classification
    Oracle Sales Prospector

    Oracle Adaptive Access Manager
    Oracle Airline Data Model
    Oracle Communications Data Model
    Oracle Retail Data Model
    Oracle Security Governor for Healthcare

    Related Technologies
    Oracle Advanced Analytics
    Oracle BI Home
    Oracle Database BI Features
    SQL Developer
    Oracle Exalytics In-Memory Machine

    Oracle R Enterprise
    Oracle BI DW Technology Center
    Oracle Statistical Functions
    Oracle OLAP


     
  • Virtual Chitchatting 10:29 AM on 2014/06/16 Permalink  

    Finally, Microsoft is legitimising its piracy statement of will, wants, intentions, and agreement
    S3ra Sutan Rajo Ali
    Jakarta, 16 June 2014

    Google has done it before. They used to call it user experiences. Likewise Yahoo. I am doing it too. Who do not? Ignorant people do.

    Rules of the games playing by Microsoft are changing. Microsoft finally admits its piracy intention. Read below:

    We’re updating our terms of use and PIRACY statement.

    oops, sorry, We’re updating our terms of use and privacy statement.

    Our users’ needs are at the center of everything we do. That’s why we are updating the Microsoft Services Agreement and providing a Privacy Statement for Windows Services. We want to take this opportunity to highlight some of the key changes and what they mean for you.

    Privacy
    As part of our ongoing commitment to respecting your privacy, we won’t use your documents, photos or other personal files or what you say in email, chat, video calls or voice mail to target advertising to you.

    Transparency
    We updated our Code of Conduct so you can better understand the types of behaviors that could affect your account, and added language that parents are responsible for minor children’s use of Microsoft account and services, including purchases.

    Simplicity
    We tailor our privacy statements for each of our products to help make it easier for you to find the information that is important to you.

    The Microsoft Services Agreement applies to your Microsoft account and includes many of our customer services such as Outlook.com, OneDrive, and Bing, while the privacy statement explains how your personal information is collected, used and protected across your Microsoft account, Outlook.com and OneDrive.

    The new updates to these will take effect on July 31, 2014. If you continue to use our services after July 31, 2014, you agree to the updated terms or, if you don’t agree, you can cancel your service at any time.

    We encourage you to use the links below for further details and to view the full agreements online.

    Thank you for using Microsoft products and services.

    Privacy Policy
    Microsoft Services Privacy Statement

    http://www.microsoft.com/privacystatement/en-us/windowsservices/default.aspx

    Microsoft Services Agreement

    http://windows.microsoft.com/en-us/windows/microsoft-services-agreement

    Microsoft Services Agreement FAQ

    http://windows.microsoft.com/en-us/windows/microsoft-services-agreement-faq


    Privacy & Cookies

    Last Updated: June 2014
    Windows Services Privacy Statement

    Windows Services provide you with account authentication with Microsoft account, email with Outlook.com, parental controls with Family Safety and online storage and syncing of files with OneDrive. These services are available on Windows and, in many cases, on other Microsoft devices and services, including Windows Phone and Xbox, as well as third-party devices and services. This privacy statement applies to these Windows Services. It does not apply to other Microsoft products and services that do not link to this privacy statement.

    Please read the summaries below and click “Learn More” for more details. Some products, services or features mentioned in this statement may not be available in all markets. You may find more information about Microsoft’s commitment to protecting your privacy at http://www.microsoft.com/privacy.

    Cookies & Similar Technologies

    Most Microsoft websites use “cookies,” which are small text files stored on your device, to help operate the sites and collect information about online activity. For instance, we use cookies to store your preferences and settings; help with sign-in; provide targeted ads; combat fraud; and analyze site operations.

    We also use web beacons to help deliver cookies and compile analytics. These may include web beacons from third-party service providers.

    You have a variety of tools to control cookies and similar technologies, including:
    * Browser controls to block and delete cookies;
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    * Controls from some analytics service providers to opt out of data collection through web beacons.

    Microsoft account

    Microsoft account (formerly known as Windows Live ID and Microsoft Passport) is a service that allows you to sign in to Microsoft products, web sites and services, as well as those of select Microsoft partners.

    Microsoft account is a service that lets you sign in to Microsoft products, web sites and services, as well as those of select Microsoft partners. When you create a Microsoft account, we ask you to provide certain information. When you sign in to a site or service using your Microsoft account, we collect certain information in order to verify your identity on behalf of the site or service, to protect you from malicious account usage and to protect the efficiency and security of the Microsoft account service. We also send some of this information to sites and services that you sign in to with your Microsoft account.

    We use demographic information – gender, country, age and postal code but not your name or contact information – from your Microsoft account to provide personalized ads to you. You may opt out of receiving targeted ads from Microsoft Advertising by visiting our opt-out page.

    To view additional details about Microsoft account, including how to create and use a Microsoft account, how to edit account information, and how we collect and use information relating to a Microsoft account, please click on Learn More.

    Creating a Microsoft account

    You can create a Microsoft account here by providing an email address, a password and other security information, such as an alternate email address and a phone number. We will use your security information for security purposes only – for instance, to verify your identity or to reset your password if you cannot access your Microsoft account. Some services may require added security, and in those cases, you may be asked to provide additional information. The email address and password that you use to sign up for your Microsoft account are your “credentials” that you will use to authenticate with our network. We assign a unique ID number to your credentials to identify your credentials and associated information.

    You can use an email address provided by Microsoft (such as those ending in outlook.com, live.com, hotmail.com or msn.com) or an email address provided by a third party (such as those ending in gmail.com or yahoo.com) when signing up for your Microsoft account. You must use an email address that you own on an email service that you have access to.

    When you create a Microsoft account, we will also ask you to provide the following demographic information: gender, country, birthdate and postal code. We may use birthdate to verify that children obtain appropriate consent from a parent or guardian to use a Microsoft account, as required by local law. We use this demographic information for market research. This demographic information also is used by our online advertising systems to provide you with personalized advertisements about products and services you might find useful, but our advertising systems do not receive or use any information that can personally and directly identify you (such as your name, email address or phone number). If you prefer not to receive personalized ads, you may register your preference with your Microsoft account by visiting our opt-out page so that whenever you sign in to web sites or services with your Microsoft account, our advertising systems will not serve you personalized ads. For more information about how Microsoft uses information for advertising, please see the Microsoft Advertising Privacy Statement.

    Upon creating a Microsoft account using an email address provided by a third party, we will send you an email asking you to verify that you are the owner of the email address associated with your Microsoft account. This is designed to verify the validity of the email address and help prevent email addresses from being used without the permission of their owners.

    We will use the email address you used to create your Microsoft account to send you communications relating to your use of Microsoft products and services and to the security of your account. We may also send you promotional emails about Microsoft products and services as permitted by local law. For information about managing your receipt of promotional communications, please visit Communications.

    Signing into software, sites or services with your Microsoft account

    When you sign in to a site or service using your Microsoft account, we collect certain information in order to verify your identity on behalf of the site or service, to protect you from malicious account usage and to protect the efficiency and security of the Microsoft account service. For instance, when you sign in, the Microsoft account service receives your credentials and logs your sign-in name and other information, such as the unique number assigned to your credentials, your IP address, your operating system and web browser version and a time and date. If you use a Microsoft account to sign in to a device or software that is installed on a device, a random unique ID is assigned to the device; this random unique ID will be sent as part of your credentials to the Microsoft account service when you sign in to a site or service with your Microsoft account and will be used to help protect your account. The Microsoft account service sends the following limited verification information to the site or service that you have signed in to: the unique ID number assigned to your credentials that permits the site or service to determine whether you are the same person from one sign-in session to the next; the version number assigned to your account (a new number is assigned each time you change your sign-in information); whether your email address has been confirmed; and whether your account has been deactivated.

    When you sign in to Windows with a Microsoft account, Windows will send standard computer information to Microsoft as well as your device’s manufacturer, model name and version. We may use this to personalize certain communications to you, such as emails intended to help you get started with your device. If you sign in to your Windows 8.1 device with your Microsoft account, Windows uses your Microsoft account information to sign you in to Microsoft applications, web sites and services. To learn more about signing in to Windows with a Microsoft account, please see the Windows 8.1 Privacy Statement.

    Some third-party sites and services that permit you to sign in with your Microsoft account require your email address in order to provide you with their services. In those cases, when you sign in, Microsoft will provide your email address but not your password to the site or service. If you created your Microsoft account credentials with the site or service, it may have limited access to information associated with your credentials and profile as noted during account creation.

    If you received your account from a third party, like a school, a business, an internet service provider or the administrator of a managed domain, that third party may have rights with respect to your account, including the ability to reset your password, view your account usage or profile information, read or store content in your account, and suspend or cancel your account. In these cases, you are subject to the Microsoft Services Agreement and to any additional terms of use from that third party. If you are the administrator of a managed domain and have provided your users with Microsoft accounts, you are responsible for all activity that takes place within those accounts.

    Please note that sites and services that permit you to sign in with your Microsoft account can use or share your email address or other personal information that you provide to them as described in their privacy statements. They can share the unique ID number the Microsoft account service provides them only in order to fulfill a service or transaction that you may have requested. All sites or services that use the Microsoft account are required to have a posted privacy statement, but we do not control or monitor the privacy practices of those sites, and their privacy practices will vary. You should carefully review the privacy statement for each site you sign in to in order to determine how each site or service will use the information it collects.

    Connecting your Microsoft account to your social network accounts

    You may connect your Microsoft account to your account on a social network such as Facebook, Twitter or LinkedIn in order to access information from that social network in your Microsoft account. For example, connecting your Microsoft account to your social network account lets you see status updates or messages from people you have friended or are following on the social network in your Outlook.com inbox; include them in your Microsoft account address book; and view their birthdays in your Microsoft account calendar. If you choose to connect your Microsoft account to your account on a social network, we will cache certain information about your social network account on our servers so that we can display updated information from your social network account.

    You can see a list of the social networks that offer accounts to which you can connect your Microsoft account, as well as the social network accounts that you’ve actually connected to your Microsoft account, by signing in and going to profile.live.com/services. You can disconnect a social network account from your Microsoft account at any time at profile.live.com/services. If you disconnect a social network account, we will no longer cache information from that account.

    Microsoft is not responsible for content originating from non-Microsoft services or for information you share with or send to those services. If you use a third-party service, its use of your information is subject to its privacy practices. You should carefully review the privacy statement for each social network account you connect to your Microsoft account to determine how it will use the information it collects.

    Accessing your personal information and closing your account

    You can access the personal information in your Microsoft account by going to the Microsoft account summary page. You can change your username if your Microsoft account does not belong to a managed domain. And you can change your password, alternate email address and phone number. You may also close your Microsoft account by going to account and then “Close your account.” If your Microsoft account is within a managed domain, there may be a special process for closing your Microsoft account. Please note that if you are an Outlook.com user or have a billing account with Microsoft, if you go to account, you may be redirected to your account page for those services.

    If you use an email address provided by Microsoft (such as those ending in outlook.com, live.com, hotmail.com or msn.com) when signing up for your Microsoft account, that email address will be unique to you for as long as your Microsoft account is active. If you or Microsoft close your Microsoft account as provided in the Microsoft Services Agreement, that email address or username (but not the Microsoft account itself) may be recycled into our system and assigned to another user. More information about Microsoft account is available at the Microsoft account web site.

    Information We Collect

    Microsoft collects many kinds of information in order to operate effectively and provide you the best products, services and experiences we can.
    We collect information when you register, sign in and use our sites and services. We also may get information from other companies.
    We collect this information in a variety of ways, including from web forms, technologies like cookies, web logging and software on your computer or other device.

    Microsoft collects many kinds of information in order to operate effectively and provide you the best products, services and experiences we can. Some of this information you provide directly to us. Some of it we get from your interaction with our products and services. Some of it is available from other sources (like other companies) that we may combine with the information we collect directly. Regardless of the source, we believe it’s important to treat that information with care and to help you maintain your privacy.

    What we collect:

    * Registration – When you sign up to use our sites or services, including when you create a Microsoft account, you may be required to provide information about yourself, such as your name, email, birthdate, gender, country and postal code. If you create a public profile associated with your Microsoft account, you may provide information to be shared with your contacts, including age, contact details and information about your job and relationships.
    * Signing in – To access some Microsoft services, you will need to sign in with the e-mail address and password that you used to sign up for your Microsoft account. If you access our services via a mobile phone, you may also use your telephone number and a PIN as an alternative credential to your username and password. By signing in on one Microsoft site or service, you may be automatically signed in to other Microsoft sites and services that use Microsoft account. Click here for more Microsoft account privacy information.
    * Using our sites and services – We collect information that tells us how you interact with our services, including the browser you’re using, information about your device, operating system version, your IP address, location, cookies or other unique IDs, the pages you visit, services performance and how you use the service, including features you use. For apps such as the OneDrive app, we also collect information about the app version you’re using. We may automatically upload information about your device, your use of the services and services performance. And you may provide content – your communications and your files – while using our sites and services. Content includes the words in an e-mail in Outlook.com or the photos and documents stored on OneDrive.
    * Information from other sources – We may get additional information about you, such as demographic data we purchase from other companies.

    You may choose not to provide your personal information. But if you choose not to provide that information, you may not be able to use the products and services.

    How we collect:

    We use a number of methods and technologies to gather information about how you use our sites and services, such as:
    * Web forms, such as when you type information into a registration form or type a search query into a search box.
    * Technologies such as cookies and web beacons (Please visit this web page to learn more about these technologies).
    * Web logging, which enables us to collect the standard information your browser sends to every web site you visit – such as your IP address, browser type and language and the site you came from – as well as the pages you visit and the links you click while using our sites and services.
    * Software installed on your computer or other device, which may send back information needed to operate, update or improve that software.

    You can also choose to provide us information through such services as Send-a-Smile. Details about the information such services collect will be available through the services themselves. For example, if you choose to send feedback or comments through the Send-a-Smile feature, we will collect some information about your system configuration and ask you for your email address so that we can contact you if we need more information about your comment.

    How We Use Your Personal Information

    Microsoft uses the information we collect to operate, improve and personalize the products and services we offer.

    We also may use the information to communicate with you, for example, informing you about your account and security updates.

    And we may use the information to help make the ads you see on our ad-supported services more relevant. We do not use what you say in email, chat, video calls or voice mail to target advertising to you. We do not use your documents, photos or other personal files to target advertising to you. You may opt out of receiving targeted ads from Microsoft Advertising by visiting our opt-out page.

    Microsoft uses the information we collect to operate, improve and personalize the products and services we offer. For example, we use the Microsoft account credentials (email address, password) in order to identify you as our customer. We use age, gender, country and postal code from Microsoft account for market research, to personalize the advertising we show to you and, depending on local law, to verify your age in case parental consent is required for you to use the services. We use security information you provide (alternate email address, phone number) for security and to assist you in re-establishing your Microsoft account in the event of theft or loss. Information collected through one Microsoft service may be combined with information collected through other Microsoft services to give you a more consistent and personalized experience in your interactions with us. For example, your Outlook.com contacts are combined with OneDrive so that you can send files to your contacts directly from OneDrive. We also may supplement this with information from other companies. For example, we may use services from other companies to help us derive a general geographic area based on your IP address in order to customize certain services to your geographic area.

    We also may use the information to communicate with you, for example, informing you when a subscription or service is ending, alerting you to a problem with your account, letting you know when security updates are available or letting you know when you need to take action to keep your account active.

    Microsoft may use the content you upload to the services to provide, protect and improve our products and services. Our main use of the content you upload is to provide the services that you request. For example, when you send email, we will send your message on its way through our services. If you include a photo attachment with your email, we will send that too. We will store files you upload to OneDrive. We also access and use your information and content to respond to support questions you may have and to provide effective customer service to you.

    We also access and use your information for security and compliance. This includes accessing your information in order to protect you or the service from spam, viruses, hacks or other harms. We use automated means to isolate information from email, chats or photos in order to help detect and protect against spam and malware and to improve the services with new features that make them easier to use. We may also access and use your information and content when we are alerted to violations of the Microsoft Services Agreement. In many cases we are alerted to violations through customer complaints, but we also deploy automated technologies to detect child pornography or abusive behavior that might harm the system, our customers or others. When investigating these matters, Microsoft or its agents will review content in order to resolve the issue. As described in Sharing Your Information and Content, however, we will not inspect a customer’s private content ourselves if we receive information indicating that someone is using our services to traffic in stolen intellectual or physical property of Microsoft, but we may refer the matter to law enforcement.

    Microsoft provides many of our sites and services free of charge because they are supported by advertising revenue. The information we collect may be used to help make the advertisements you see more relevant to you. But we do not use what you say in email, chat, video calls or voice mail to target advertising to you. We do not use your documents, photos or other personal files to target advertising to you. You may opt out of receiving targeted ads from Microsoft Advertising by visiting our opt-out page.

    Reasons We Share Your Personal InformationSharing Your Information

    We will share your personal information with your consent.

    We may disclose information and content to Microsoft affiliates and vendors; when required by law or to respond to valid legal process; to protect our customers; to protect lives; and to maintain the security of our services. We may also disclose information and content to protect the rights or property of Microsoft – however, if we receive information indicating that someone is using our services to traffic in stolen intellectual or physical property of Microsoft, we will not inspect a customer’s private content ourselves, but we may refer the matter to law enforcement.

    We will share your personal information with your consent. For example, we share your content with third parties when you tell us to do so, such as when you send an email to a friend, share photos and documents on OneDrive or link accounts with another service. If you choose to report junk messages, we will share those messages with the original sender and may share them with those companies that help us fight junk email.

    We may share or disclose personal information with other Microsoft controlled subsidiaries and affiliates, and with vendors or agents working on our behalf. For example, companies we’ve hired to provide customer service support or assist in protecting and securing our systems and services may need access to personal information in order to provide those functions. In such cases, these companies must abide by our data privacy requirements and are not allowed to use the information for any other purpose. We may also disclose personal information as part of a corporate transaction such as a merger or sale of assets.

    Finally, we may access, disclose and preserve your personal information, including your private content (such as the content of your emails, other private communications or files in private folders), when we have a good faith belief that doing so is necessary to:
    1. comply with applicable law or respond to valid legal process from competent authorities, including from law enforcement or other government agencies;
    2. protect our customers, for example to prevent spam or attempts to defraud users of the services, or to help prevent the loss of life or serious injury of anyone;
    3. operate and maintain the security of our services, including to prevent or stop an attack on our computer systems or networks; or
    4. protect the rights or property of Microsoft, including enforcing the terms governing the use of the services – however, if we receive information indicating that someone is using our services to traffic in stolen intellectual or physical property of Microsoft, we will not inspect a customer’s private content ourselves, but we may refer the matter to law enforcement.

    Please note that some of our sites and services include links to sites or services of third parties that have privacy practices different from those of Microsoft. If you submit personal information to any of those sites or services, your information is governed by the privacy statements of those third parties.

    Outlook.com

    Outlook.com (formerly Hotmail) is Microsoft’s primary consumer email service. It also includes features that let you connect with your friends on social networks. You will first need to create a Microsoft account to use Outlook.com. Click here for Microsoft account privacy information.

    Deleting email

    When you delete an email from the Outlook.com web service, the email goes into your deleted mail folder, where it remains unless you move it back to your inbox, you manually empty the folder or the service empties the folder automatically, whichever comes first. When the deleted email folder is emptied, the deleted emails remain in our system for approximately 60 days before final deletion. This allows for recovery of accidentally deleted emails.

    Social Inbox – Displaying usernames and profile pictures from social networks

    The social inbox feature lets you know when the people who email you are available to connect with on social networks like Facebook, LinkedIn and Twitter. If you receive an email from someone whose name and profile picture are publicly accessible on a social network, we may retrieve that person’s name and profile picture from the social network to display it for you. For the people you have connected with on those social networks, we also show you information from their social network feed. We do not disclose your identity or your personal information when asking a social network for someone’s name and profile picture, and we do not store the social network usernames or profile pictures of the people who send you email. We will display information about users only from certain social networks — for a list of these networks, go to profile.live.com/services.

    You can turn off the social inbox feature by going to Inbox -> Options -> More Mail Settings -> Content from third-party networks and selecting “Don’t show public content from third-party networks.”

    OneDrive

    OneDrive lets you store and access your files on virtually any device. You can also share and collaborate on your files with others.

    When you store content in OneDrive, that content will inherit the sharing permissions of the folder in which you store it. For example, if you store content in a public folder, the content will be public and available to anyone on the Internet who can find the folder. If you store content in a private folder, the content will be private. By default, content stored in OneDrive is private unless you share it or store it in a public folder.

    OneDrive lets you store and access your files on virtually any device. You can also share and collaborate on your files with others. When you use OneDrive, we collect the content you store as well as device information so that you can sync content across devices and roam customized settings. You will first need to create a Microsoft account to use OneDrive. Click here for Microsoft account privacy information. You can access OneDrive online at onedrive.live.com and via OneDrive apps for Windows and other devices.

    When you store content in OneDrive, that content will inherit the sharing permissions of the folder in which you store it. For example, if you store content in the public folder, the content will be public and available to anyone on the Internet who can find the folder. If you store content in a private folder, the content will be private. By default, content stored in OneDrive is private unless you share it or store it in a public folder.

    When you share content to a social network like Facebook from a phone that you have synced with your OneDrive account, your content is either uploaded to that network or a link to that content is posted to that network. Content posted to social networks and hosted on OneDrive is accessible to anyone on that social network. This means that anyone with access to the link will be able to access the content and other content posted to that network. To delete the content, you need to delete it from the social network and on OneDrive.

    When you share your OneDrive content with your friends via a link, an email with the link is sent to those friends. The link contains an authorization code that allows anyone with the link to access your content. If one of your friends sends the link to other people, they will also be able to access your content, even if you did not choose to share the content with them. To revoke permissions for your content on OneDrive, sign in to your Microsoft account at http://www.onedrive.com and then select the specific content to manage the permission levels. Revoking permissions for a link effectively deactivates the link. No one will be able to use the link to access the content unless you decide to share the link again.

    Microsoft Family Safety

    Microsoft Family Safety helps parents protect their children when they use a Windows PC or tablet. Parents can control which apps, games and web sites children are allowed to use. Parents can also set time limits and receive regular activity reports via email. And they can manage restrictions and view activity reports online using the Microsoft Family Safety web site.

    Microsoft Family Safety helps parents protect their children when they use a PC or tablet. Parents can control which apps, games and web sites children are allowed to use. Parents can also set time limits and receive regular activity reports via email or access the reports on the device the child is using. And they can manage restrictions and view activity reports online using the Microsoft Family Safety web site.

    After you install or enable Family Safety on your device, you must sign in with a Microsoft account in order to configure the software and create a Family Safety account online. You will need to provide the name of the account you want to monitor. Microsoft will collect information on web traffic, sites visited and online search terms in order to provide activity reports and implement the online controls you set. Parents can set the Family Safety settings and view activity reports by signing in to the Family Safety web site with the Microsoft account they used to configure the Family Safety software.

    Only administrators can turn on Family Safety, and only users without administrative privileges can be monitored or restricted. So to use Family Safety properly, only parents should be administrators of their device, and children should not be granted administrative privileges. If Family Safety is turned on, children will receive a notification that Family Safety is monitoring their accounts each time they sign in to Windows. Children can see their settings but can’t change them. You are responsible for using Family Safety in compliance with applicable law, including laws regulating online monitoring.

    Parents can allow other people to view activity reports and change settings by adding them as parents on the Family Safety web site. People who are added as parents will be asked to sign in with their Microsoft accounts. Anyone added as a parent on the web site can view a child’s activity report and change the child’s Family Safety settings, even if the parent isn’t an administrator on the device the child uses.

    Family Safety settings and reports of your children’s activity are stored on your device. The underlying information used to generate the reports is stored on the device and sent to Microsoft. Activity reports include information about time spent using the computer, time spent in individual apps and games and web sites visited (including attempts to view blocked sites).

    Microsoft uses the information collected through Family Safety to provide the Family Safety feature. We may analyze aggregated activity log information for data quality purposes, but we don’t use this information to target advertising or to identify or contact individual users. When a child’s account is removed from Family Safety, new activity reports will no longer be delivered. Activity reports are routinely deleted after a short period of time.

    Children can request access to blocked web sites, games or applications or request additional time to use the device from their parents. Requests are stored for 30 days or until parents approve or deny the request, whichever comes first. We may email parents and their children as part of providing the service, including notifications of pending requests for access.

    Accessing Your Personal Information

    Some Microsoft services give you the ability to view or edit your personal information online. To help prevent others from viewing your personal information, you first will be required to sign in. How you can access your personal information will depend on which sites or services you have used. You also can contact Microsoft and request access to your personal information by using the web form.

    Some Microsoft services give you the ability to view or edit your personal information online. To help prevent your personal information from being viewed by others, you first will be required to sign in. How you can access your personal information will depend on which sites or services you have used.

    Microsoft Billing and Account Services – If you have a Microsoft Billing account, you can update your information at the Microsoft Billing web site by clicking on the “Personal Information” or “Billing Information” links.

    Microsoft account – If you wish to update the profile information on your Microsoft account, change your password, add security information, view the unique ID associated with your credentials or close your account, you can do so by visiting Microsoft account services.

    Public Profile – If you have created a public profile associated with your Microsoft account, you may edit or delete information in your public profile by signing in to your profile.

    If you cannot access personal information collected by Microsoft sites or services via the links above, these sites and services may provide you with other ways to access to your information. You also can contact Microsoft and request access to your personal information by using the web form. We will respond to requests to access or delete your personal information within 30 days.

    Please note that the Windows Services require that you sign in to your Microsoft account periodically, at a minimum every year, to keep your Windows Services active, unless provided otherwise in an offer for a paid portion of the services. If you do not sign in during this period, we will close your account, which means you won’t have access to the Windows Services, content stored in your account or any other product or service that uses Microsoft account. If your services are cancelled, we will delete information or content associated with your Microsoft account or will otherwise disassociate it from you and your Microsoft account unless the law requires us to keep it.

    The length of time we retain your content varies. For example, if you delete emails in Outlook.com, we retain those for approximately 60 days in case the deletion was not intentional. If you don’t sign in to your Outlook.com account, we retain your content for one year before deleting it. If you close your Outlook.com account, we retain the content for approximately 60 days and then delete it.

    Communication Preferences

    You can stop the delivery of future promotional e-mail from Microsoft sites and services by following the specific instructions in the e-mail you receive. You will also be able to make choices about receiving promotional e-mail, telephone calls and postal mail for particular Microsoft sites or services.

    If you receive promotional e-mails from us and would like to stop getting them in the future, you can do so by following the directions in that message.

    You can also set your preferences about receiving promotional e-mail, telephone calls and postal mail by visiting and signing into the following pages:
    * Microsoft’s Promotional Communications Manager lets you update contact information, manage Microsoft-wide contact preferences, opt out of subscriptions and choose whether to share your contact information with Microsoft partners. If you do not have a Microsoft account, you can manage your Microsoft email communication preferences by using this web form.
    * The Microsoft account marketing preferences page lets you choose whether you wish to receive promotional emails from Microsoft.

    In any case, you can inform Microsoft by using this web form about your wish to stop the delivery of future promotional e-mail. These choices do not apply to the display of online advertising; please refer to the “Display of Advertising” section for information on how to opt out of receiving targeted ads. Nor do they apply to the receipt of mandatory service communications that are considered part of certain Microsoft services, which you may receive periodically unless you cancel the service.

    Display of Advertising

    Most of the online advertisements on Microsoft sites and services are displayed by Microsoft Advertising. When we display online advertisements to you, we will place one or more cookies in order to recognize your computer when we display an ad to you. Over time, we may gather information from the sites where we serve ads and use the information to help provide more relevant ads.

    You may opt out of receiving targeted ads from Microsoft Advertising by visiting our opt-out page.

    Many of our sites and services are supported by advertising.

    Most of the online advertisements on Microsoft sites and services are displayed by Microsoft Advertising. When we display online advertisements to you, we will place one or more cookies on your computer in order to recognize your computer each time we display an ad to you. Because we serve advertisements on our own websites as well as those of our advertising and publisher partners, we are able to compile information over time about the types of pages, content and ads you, or others who are using your computer, visited or viewed. This information helps us select the ads we show you. For example, it helps us try to ensure that you do not see the same advertisements repeatedly. It also helps us select and display targeted advertisements that we believe may be of interest to you.

    You may opt out of receiving targeted ads from Microsoft Advertising by visiting our opt-out page. For more information about how Microsoft Advertising collects and uses information, please see the Microsoft Advertising Privacy Statement.

    We also allow third-party ad companies, including other ad networks, to display advertisements on our sites. In some cases, these third parties may also place cookies on your computer, and may collect information about your online activities across websites or online services. These companies currently include, but are not limited to: 24/7 Real Media, adblade, AdConion, AdFusion, Advertising.com, AppNexus, Atlas, Bane Media, Brand.net, CasaleMedia, Collective Media, InMobi, Interclick, Jumptap, Millennial Media, nugg.adAG, Mobclix, Mojiva, SpecificMedia, Tribal Fusion, ValueClick, Where.com, Yahoo!, YuMe, Zumobi. These companies may offer you a way to opt out of ad targeting based on their cookies. You may find more information by clicking on the company names above and following the links to the websites of each company. Many of them are also members of the Network Advertising Initiative or the Digital Advertising Alliance, which each provide a simple way to opt out of ad targeting from participating companies.

    You should also be aware that some browsers have incorporated “Do Not Track” (DNT) features that, when turned on, send a signal in the browser header to websites and online services indicating that you do not wish to be tracked. It is up to the website or online service you visit (and any third parties providing advertising, content, or other functionality on the website or online service) to decide how it will interpret and treat the signal. However, there is not yet a common understanding of how to interpret the DNT signal. As a result, Microsoft does not currently respond to the browser DNT signals on its own websites or online services, or on third-party websites or online services where Microsoft provides advertisements, content or is otherwise able to collect information. We continue to work with the online industry to define a common understanding of how to treat DNT signals. In the meantime, users may continue to opt-out of targeted ads from Microsoft as set forth above.

    Payment Data

    Payment Data is the information that you provide when you make online purchases. This may include your payment instrument number (e.g., credit card, PayPal), your name and billing address, and the security code associated with your payment instrument (e.g., the CSV or CVV). This section provides additional information regarding the collection and use of your payment information.

    Payment Data is the information that you provide when you make online purchases. This may include your payment instrument number (e.g., credit card, PayPal), your name and billing address, and the security code associated with your payment instrument (e.g., the CSV or CVV). This section provides additional information regarding the collection and use of your payment information.

    Payment Data is used to complete your transaction, as well as for the detection and prevention of fraud. In support of these uses, Microsoft may share your Payment Data with banks and other entities that process payment transactions or other financial services, and for fraud prevention and credit risk reduction.

    When you provide Payment Data while logged in with your Microsoft or organizational account we will store that data to help you complete future transactions.

    You may update or remove the payment instrument information associated with your Microsoft account by logging in at https://commerce.microsoft.com. You may remove the payment instrument information associated with your organizational account by contacting Customer Support. After you close your account or remove a payment instrument, however, Microsoft may retain your payment instrument data for as long as reasonably necessary to complete your existing transaction, to comply with Microsoft’s legal and reporting requirements, and for the detection and prevention of fraud.

    Children

    When a Microsoft site or service collects age information, it will block users under 13 or obtain consent from a parent or guardian before their child can use it.

    When consent is granted, the child’s account is treated much like any other account, including letting the account holder communicate with other users.

    Parents can change or revoke consent as described in this privacy statement.

    When a Microsoft site or service collects age information, it will either block users under 13 or will ask them to provide consent from a parent or guardian before they can use it. We will not knowingly ask children under 13 to provide more information than is necessary to provide the service.

    When consent is granted, the child’s account is treated much like any other account. The child may have access to communication services like email, instant messaging and online message boards and may be able to communicate freely with other users of all ages.

    Parents can change or revoke the consent choices previously made, and review, edit or request the deletion of their children’s personal information. For example, parents can visit their Microsoft account and click on “Permissions”.

    Voice Enabled Services

    If you use voice-enabled services, your voice input and performance data associated with the speech functionality will be sent to Microsoft. We use the voice input to provide the services to you and improve Microsoft products and services. We will not use your voice input for any other purpose.

    When voice commands are sent to Microsoft, Microsoft generates unique IDs to distinguish speech requests and responses. The IDs are randomly generated and do not contain any personal information.

    Other Important Privacy Information

    Learn more about
    * Protecting the security of personal information
    * Where we store and process information
    * Changes to our privacy statements

    How to Contact Us
    * If you have a technical or general support question, please visit http://support.microsoft.com/ to learn more about Microsoft Support offerings.
    * If you have a Microsoft account password question, please visit Microsoft account support.
    * If you have a general privacy question or a question for the Chief Privacy Officer of Microsoft or want to request access to your personal information, please contact us by using our Web form.
    o By mail: Microsoft Privacy, Microsoft Corporation, One Microsoft Way, Redmond, Washington 98052 USA
    o By Phone: 425-882-8080
    * To find the Microsoft subsidiary in your country or region, see http://www.microsoft.com/worldwide/.


    The terms of use of Microsoft’s products are changing
    June 2014

    We’re updating our terms of use and PIRACY statement.

    oops, sorry, We’re updating our terms of use and privacy statement.

    Our users’ needs are at the center of everything we do. That’s why we are updating the Microsoft Services Agreement and providing a Privacy Statement for Windows Services. We want to take this opportunity to highlight some of the key changes and what they mean for you.

    Privacy
    As part of our ongoing commitment to respecting your privacy, we won’t use your documents, photos or other personal files or what you say in email, chat, video calls or voice mail to target advertising to you.

    Transparency
    We updated our Code of Conduct so you can better understand the types of behaviors that could affect your account, and added language that parents are responsible for minor children’s use of Microsoft account and services, including purchases.

    Simplicity
    We tailor our privacy statements for each of our products to help make it easier for you to find the information that is important to you.

    The Microsoft Services Agreement applies to your Microsoft account and includes many of our customer services such as Outlook.com, OneDrive, and Bing, while the privacy statement explains how your personal information is collected, used and protected across your Microsoft account, Outlook.com and OneDrive.

    The new updates to these will take effect on July 31, 2014. If you continue to use our services after July 31, 2014, you agree to the updated terms or, if you don’t agree, you can cancel your service at any time.

    We encourage you to use the links below for further details and to view the full agreements online.

    Thank you for using Microsoft products and services.

    Privacy Policy
    Microsoft Services Privacy Statement

    http://www.microsoft.com/privacystatement/en-us/windowsservices/default.aspx

    Microsoft Services Agreement

    http://windows.microsoft.com/en-us/windows/microsoft-services-agreement

    Microsoft Services Agreement FAQ

    http://windows.microsoft.com/en-us/windows/microsoft-services-agreement-faq


    http://windows.microsoft.com/en-us/windows/microsoft-services-agreement

    Microsoft Services Agreement
    Updated June 11, 2014
    Effective July 31, 2014

    Code of conduct

    About Bing data suppliers

    IF YOU LIVE IN THE UNITED STATES, SECTION 10 CONTAINS A BINDING ARBITRATION CLAUSE AND CLASS ACTION WAIVER. IT AFFECTS YOUR RIGHTS ABOUT HOW TO RESOLVE ANY DISPUTE WITH MICROSOFT. PLEASE READ IT.

    Thank you for choosing Microsoft!

    This is an agreement between you and Microsoft Corporation (or based on where you live, one of its affiliates) that describes your rights to use the software and services identified in section 1.1. For your convenience, we have phrased some of the terms of this Agreement in a question and answer format. You should read the entire Agreement because all of the terms are important and together create a legal agreement that, once accepted by you, applies to you.

    1. Scope of agreement, acceptance, and changes

    1.1. What services are covered by this Agreement? Outlook.com (formerly Hotmail), OneDrive (formerly SkyDrive), Microsoft account, Microsoft Family Safety, Windows Photo Gallery, Windows Movie Maker, Windows Live Mail, Windows Live Writer (these services are collectively referred to as the “Windows Services”); Office.com, Microsoft Office 365 Home Premium, Microsoft Office 365 University, and other Microsoft Office-branded services that link to this Agreement through a supplemental agreement (the “Office Services”); Bing; and MSN are the primary services this Agreement covers. We refer to these services, as well as other software, websites, and services that link to this Agreement collectively as the “Services.” When using the Services, you must abide by these terms (“this Agreement”).

    1.2. How do I accept this agreement? By using or accessing the Services, or by agreeing to these terms where the option is made available to you in the user interface, you agree to abide by this Agreement without modification by you. If you don’t agree, you may not use the Services.

    1.3. Can Microsoft change this Agreement after I’ve accepted it? Yes. From time to time, Microsoft may change or amend these terms. If we do, we’ll notify you, either through the user interface, in an email message, or through other reasonable means. If you use the Services after the date the change becomes effective, you consent to the changed terms. If you don’t agree to the changes, you must stop using the Services, cancel any paid Services by following the instructions in section 9.10, and close your Microsoft account. Otherwise, the new terms will apply to you.

    1.4. What types of changes can I expect to the Services? We continuously work to improve the Services and may change the Services at any time. We may release the Services or their features in a beta version, which may not work correctly or in the same way the final version may work. From time to time we may stop providing portions of the Services. We may do so, for example, if it’s no longer feasible for us to provide a Service, the technology advances, customer feedback indicates a change is needed, our agreements with third parties no longer permit us to make their material available, or external issues arise that make it imprudent or impractical to continue.

    1.5. What age do I have to be to use the Services? By using the Services, you represent that you have either reached the age of “majority” where you live or have valid parent or legal guardian consent to be bound by the terms of this Agreement. If you don’t know whether you have reached the age of majority where you live, or don’t understand this section, please don’t create an account before you have asked your parent or legal guardian for help. If you’re the parent or legal guardian of a minor that creates an account, you accept this Agreement on the minor’s behalf and are responsible for all use of the accounts or Services, including purchases, whether the minor’s account is now open or created later.

    2. Microsoft account

    2.1. What is a Microsoft account? Microsoft account is a service that lets you sign in to Microsoft products, websites and services, as well as those of select Microsoft partners. When creating a Microsoft account we ask you to provide certain information, like your name and password, birth date, certain demographic information, and security information such as an alternate email address or phone number. The email address or user name that you use to create your Microsoft account will be unique to you for as long as your Microsoft account is still active. In the event your Microsoft account is closed either by you or by Microsoft pursuant to the terms of this Agreement, the email address or user name may be recycled into our system and assigned to another user. Existing Microsoft account holders may need to provide security information to continue using their Microsoft account. To access and manage your Microsoft account and security information, you can visit the Security info webpage (https://account.live.com/proofs/Manage). To access the Windows Services and Office Services, you must be logged in with a Microsoft account. Please review the Privacy Statements (as defined below) to understand how Microsoft collects and uses the information associated with your Microsoft account. you’re responsible for keeping your account information and password confidential and are responsible for all activity that occurs under your Microsoft account. You can use your Microsoft account to gain access to other Microsoft products, websites, or services (like Windows, Xbox Services, and Windows Phone). If you do so, the terms and conditions for those products, websites, or services, including their respective privacy statements, if different from this Agreement, may also apply to your use of those products, websites, or services. You must sign in to your Microsoft account periodically, at a minimum every year, to keep services associated with your Microsoft account active, unless provided otherwise in an offer for a paid portion of the Services. If you don’t sign in during this period, we will close your account (which means you won’t have access to the Windows Services, Office Services, Content stored in your account, and any other product or service that uses Microsoft account). If your Services are canceled, we will delete information or Content (as defined below) associated with your Microsoft account, or will otherwise disassociate it from you and your Microsoft account, unless the law requires us to keep it.

    2.2. What if I can’t access my Microsoft account? If you’ve forgotten your password or otherwise can’t access your Microsoft account, you can recover your Microsoft account by visiting the Reset your password webpage (https://account.live.com/password/reset). We’ll do our best to help you recover your Microsoft account; however we can’t guarantee that your Microsoft account will be restored or your Content will be recovered.

    2.3. What if I obtained my Microsoft account from someone other than Microsoft? Microsoft doesn’t permit users to transfer their Microsoft accounts, though in some cases, we allow you to obtain your Microsoft account through a third party, like a school, a business, an Internet service provider (ISP), or the administrator of a managed domain (http://www.domains.live.com). In such cases, that third party may have additional rights over your Microsoft account, like the ability to reset your password, view your account usage or profile data, read or store Content in your account, or suspend or cancel your Microsoft account. In these cases, you’re subject to this Agreement and any additional terms of use from that third party, which should be made available to you by such third party. Microsoft has no responsibility in relation to third parties’ additional terms of use. If you’re the administrator of a managed domain, you’re responsible for all activity that takes place within the accounts on that domain.

    3. Content

    3.1. Who owns my Content that I put on the Services? You do. Some Services enable you to communicate with others and share or store various types of files, such as photos, documents, music and video. The contents of your communications and your files are your “Content” and, except for material that we license to you that may be incorporated into your own Content (such as clip art), we don’t claim ownership of the Content you provide on the Services. Your Content remains your Content, and you’re responsible for it.

    3.2. Who can access my Content? You have initial control over who may access your Content. However, if you share Content in public areas of the Services, through features that permit public sharing of Content, or in shared areas available to others you’ve chosen, you agree that anyone you’ve shared Content with may, for free, use, save, reproduce, distribute, display, and transmit that Content in connection with their use of the Services and other Microsoft, or its licensees’, products, and services. If you don’t want others to have that ability, don’t use the Services to share your Content. You represent and warrant that for the duration of this Agreement you have (and will have) all the rights necessary for the Content you upload or share on the Services and that the use of the Content, as contemplated in this section 3.2, won’t violate any law.

    3.3. What does Microsoft do with my Content? When you transmit or upload Content to the Services, you’re giving Microsoft the worldwide right, without charge, to use Content as necessary: to provide the Services to you, to protect you, and to improve Microsoft products and services. Microsoft uses and protects your Content as outlined in the Windows Services Privacy Statement (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkID=253457), Bing Privacy Statement (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=248686), MSN Privacy Statement (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=248688), and Office Services Privacy Statement (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=327851) (collectively the “Privacy Statements”).

    3.4. What types of advertising are used by the Services? Some of the Services are supported by advertising. Controls for how Microsoft personalizes advertising are available on the Your privacy and Microsoft personalized ads website (http://choice.microsoft.com). We don’t use what you say in email, chat, video calls or voice mail, to target advertising to you. We don’t use your documents, photos or other personal files to target advertising to you. Our advertising policies are covered in detail in the Privacy Statements.

    3.5. Does Microsoft have voice enabled services? Yes. If you use a Service that is voice enabled, you consent to Microsoft recording and collecting your voice input for use by Microsoft to improve the quality and accuracy of voice enabled services and as further described in the Privacy Statements.

    3.6. What type of Content or actions aren’t permitted? In order to protect our customers and the Services, we have established this Code of Conduct governing the use of the Services. Content or actions that violate this Agreement aren’t permitted.
    i. Don’t use the Services to do anything illegal.
    ii. Don’t engage in any activity that exploits, harms, or threatens to harm children.
    iii. Don’t send spam or use your account to help others send spam. Spam is unsolicited bulk email, postings or instant messages.
    iv. Don’t publicly display inappropriate images (e.g. nudity, bestiality, pornography).
    v. Don’t engage in activity that is false or misleading (e.g. attempts to ask for money under false pretenses, impersonating someone else).
    vi. Don’t engage in activity that is harmful to the Services or others (e.g. viruses, stalking, hate speech, advocating violence against others).
    vii. Don’t infringe upon the rights of others (e.g. unauthorized sharing of copyrighted music, resale or other distribution of Bing maps, photographs and other Content).
    viii. Don’t engage in activity that violates the privacy of others.

    In many cases Microsoft is alerted to violations of the Code of Conduct through customer complaints, but we also deploy automated technologies to detect child pornography or abusive behavior that might harm the system, our customers, or others. When investigating these matters, Microsoft or its agents will review Content in order to resolve the issue. This is in addition to the uses we describe in this Agreement and the Privacy Statements.

    3.7. Can Microsoft remove my Content from the Services? Yes. Microsoft will remove, limit distribution of, or disable access to your Content if we determine it’s in violation of this Agreement, we receive a complaint from another user, we receive a notice of intellectual property infringement, or other legal instruction for removal. We may also block delivery of a communication (like email or instant message) to or from the Services as part of our effort to protect the Services or our customers, or otherwise enforce the terms of this Agreement.

    4. Services cancellation

    4.1. What happens if I don’t abide by this Agreement? If you violate this Agreement, there are a range of actions we may take including removing your Content from the Services, suspending or canceling your access to the Services, disabling or terminating your Microsoft account (which means you may no longer have access to those Microsoft products, services, or Content connected to your Microsoft account), and/or referring such activity to appropriate authorities. Content that is deleted may be irretrievable.

    4.2. Are there other ways I could lose access to the Services? Yes. Failing to sign in to your Microsoft account (whether through Outlook.com, OneDrive, or any other service that uses Microsoft account) at least once every year (see section 2.1) means that you won’t be able to access the Services and you’ll lose your Content (unless provided otherwise in an offer for paid Services). Additionally, Microsoft may stop providing portions of the Services, in accordance with section 1.4. If you sign up for a paid portion of the Services and fail to make an on-time payment, we may suspend or cancel that Service (see section 9.1 for more details).

    4.3. How can I terminate the Services? You may terminate the Services associated with your Microsoft account at any time and for any reason by going to your Account webpage (https://account.live.com/closeaccount.aspx). To cancel a paid portion of the Services, see section 9.10. If you’re canceling your Services, the quickest means of eliminating your Content on the Services is to manually remove it from the various components of the Services (for example, manually delete your email). However, please note that while Content you’ve deleted or that is associated with a closed account may not be accessible to you, it may still remain on our systems for a period of time. Please see the Privacy Statements for more information about Microsoft’s retention practices.

    4.4. What happens if my Services are canceled or terminated? If your Services are canceled or terminated (whether by you or us), your right to use the Services stops immediately and your license to use the software related to the Services ends. You must then uninstall that software, or, alternatively, we may disable it. If your Microsoft account is closed (whether by you or us), your right to use your Microsoft account stops immediately. If any your Services are canceled or terminated, or if your Microsoft account is closed, we will delete information or Content associated with your Microsoft account or will otherwise disassociate it from you and your Microsoft account. We are under no obligation to return Content to you.

    5. Privacy

    Your privacy is important to us. We describe how we use and protect your Content and any information we collect from you in the Privacy Statements. They are important so please read them carefully. This Agreement incorporates the Privacy Statements by reference. By using the Services or agreeing to these terms, you consent to Microsoft’s collection, use and disclosure of your Content and information as described in the Privacy Statements.

    6. Services disruptions and backup

    We strive to keep the Services up and running; however, all online services suffer occasional disruptions and outages, and Microsoft isn’t liable for any disruption or loss you may suffer as a result. You should regularly backup the Content that you store on the Services. Having a regular backup plan and following it can help you prevent loss of your Content. We make an effort to provide detailed service status on the Service status website (http://status.live.com).

    7. Software

    7.1. What terms govern the software that is part of the Services? Unless accompanied by a separate license agreement, any software provided by us to you as part of the Services is subject to the terms of this Agreement. The software is licensed, not sold, and Microsoft reserves all rights to the software not expressly granted by Microsoft, whether by implication, estoppel, or otherwise. If this Agreement governs the website you’re viewing, any third-party scripts or code, linked to or referenced from this website, are licensed to you by the third parties that own such code, not by Microsoft.

    7.2. How can I use the software that is provided as part of the Services? We grant you the right to install and use one copy of the software per device on a worldwide basis for use by only one person at a time as part of your use of the Services, but only if you comply with all other terms in this Agreement.

    7.3. Are there things I can’t do with the software or Services? Yes. In addition to the other restrictions in this Agreement, you may not circumvent or bypass any technological protection measures in or relating to the software or Services or disassemble, decompile, or reverse engineer any software or other aspect of the Services that’s included in or accessible through the Services, except and only to the extent that the applicable copyright law expressly permits doing so; separate components of the software or Services for use on different devices; publish, copy, rent, lease, or lend the software or the Services; or transfer the software, any software licenses, or any rights to access or use the Services. You may not use the Services in any unauthorized way that could interfere with anyone else’s use of them or gain access to any service, data, account, or network. You may not enable access to the Services by unauthorized third-party applications.

    7.4. How is the software updated? We may automatically check your version of the software. We may also automatically download updates to the software from time to time. You agree to accept such updates subject to these terms unless other terms accompany the updates. If so, those other terms apply. Microsoft isn’t obligated to make any updates available and doesn’t guarantee that we’ll support the version of the system for which you licensed the software.

    8. Additional terms for Office Services, MSN, and Bing

    8.1. Office Services media elements and templates. If you use Office Services, you may have access to media images, clip art, animations, sounds, music, video clips, templates, and other forms of material (“media elements”) provided with the software available on Office.com or as part of services associated with the software. Microsoft grants you a license to copy, distribute, perform and display media elements included with the Office Services in projects and documents, except that you may not (i) sell, license, or distribute copies of the media elements by themselves or as a product if the primary value of the product is the media elements; (ii) grant your customers rights to further license or distribute the media elements; (iii) license or distribute for commercial purposes media elements that include the representation of identifiable individuals, governments, logos, trademarks, or emblems or use these types of images in ways that could imply an endorsement or association with your product, entity or activity; or (iv) create obscene or scandalous works using the media elements. Other media elements, which are accessible on other websites through some Office Services, are governed by the terms on those websites.

    8.2. Bing and MSN Materials. The articles, photos, videos, third-party material and embeddable video player available on Bing and MSN are for your non-commercial, personal use only and, unless otherwise stated elsewhere in this Agreement or expressly permitted by Microsoft, may not be downloaded, copied, published, rented, leased, lent, or redistributed without authorization from the rights holders, except and only to the extent that the applicable copyright law expressly permits doing so. This material is licensed, not sold, and Microsoft or other rights holders reserve all rights to the material not expressly granted by Microsoft under the license terms, whether by implication, estoppel, or otherwise. Third parties may choose to make additional material or services available for sale or license within Bing or MSN. Microsoft isn’t responsible for such material or services. You may not use the embeddable video player on any website whose purpose is primarily for the display of advertising or collection of subscription revenues or is in direct competition with Bing or MSN unless you first get our express, written consent. You agree that your use if the embeddable video player may result in additional third-party costs, fees, and royalties, including applicable public performance royalties in your country or region.

    8.3. Bing Maps Bird’s Eye imagery. For Bing Maps, you may not use Bird’s eye imagery of the United States, Canada, Mexico, New Zealand, Australia or Japan for governmental use without our separate written approval.

    9. If you pay Microsoft, the following terms apply to you

    9.1. Charges. If there is a charge associated with a portion of the Services, you agree to pay that charge. The price stated for the Service excludes all applicable taxes and currency exchange settlements, unless stated otherwise. you’re solely responsible for paying such taxes or other charges. We may suspend or cancel the Services if we don’t receive an on time, full payment from you. Suspension or cancellation of the Services for non-payment could result in a loss of access to and use of your account and its Content.

    9.2. Your billing account. To pay the charges for a Service, you’ll be asked to provide a payment method at the time you sign up for that Service. You can access and change your billing account information and payment method on the Billing and Account Management website (https://commerce.microsoft.com). Additionally, you agree to permit Microsoft to use any updated account information regarding your payment method provided by your issuing bank or the applicable payment network. You agree to keep your billing account information current at all times. Changes made to your billing account won’t affect charges we submit to your billing account before we could reasonably act on your changes to your billing account.

    9.3. Billing. By providing Microsoft with a payment method, you (i) represent that you’re authorized to use the payment method that you provided and that any payment information you provide is true and accurate; (ii) authorize Microsoft to charge you for the Services using your payment method; and (iii) authorize Microsoft to charge you for any paid feature of the Services that you choose to sign up for or use while this Agreement is in force. We may bill you (a) in advance; (b) at the time of purchase; (c) shortly after purchase; or (d) on a recurring basis for subscription Services. Also, we may charge you up to the amount you’ve approved, and we’ll notify you in advance of any change in the amount to be charged for recurring subscription Services. We may bill you at the same time for more than one of your prior billing periods for amounts that haven’t previously been processed.

    9.4. Automatic renewal. Provided that automatic renewals are allowed in your country, province, or state, we’ll inform you by email before automatically renewing your Services. Once we have informed you that the Services will be automatically renewed, we may automatically renew your Services and charge you the then current price for the renewal term. We’ll also remind you that we’ll bill your chosen payment method for the Services renewal, whether it was on file on the renewal date or provided later. We’ll also provide you with instructions on how you may cancel the Services. You must cancel the Services before the renewal date to avoid being billed for the renewal.

    9.5. Online statement and errors. We’ll provide you with an online billing statement on the Billing and Account Management website (https://commerce.microsoft.com), where you can view and print your statement. This is the only billing statement that we provide. It’s your responsibility to print or save a copy of each online statement and retain such copy for your records. If we make an error on your bill, you must tell us within 120 days after the error first appears on your bill. We’ll then promptly investigate the charge. If you don’t tell us within that time, you release us from all liability and claims of loss resulting from the error and we won’t be required to correct the error or provide a refund. If Microsoft has identified a billing error, we’ll correct that error within 90 days.

    9.6. Cooling off period. When you request a Service from us, you agree that we may begin to provide the Services immediately. You won’t be entitled to a cancellation or “cooling off” period, except if the law requires a cooling off period. You may cancel paid Services as provided in section 9.10.

    9.7. Trial period offers. If you’re taking part in any trial period offer, you must cancel the Services by the end of the trial period to avoid incurring new charges, unless we notify you otherwise. If you don’t cancel your Services at the end of the trial period, we may charge you for the Services.

    9.8. Price changes. We may change the price of the Services at any time and will notify you by email at least 15 days before the price change. If you don’t agree to the price change, you must cancel and stop using the Services before the price change takes effect. If there is a fixed term and price for your Service offer, that price will remain in force for the term.

    9.9. Refund policies. Unless otherwise provided by law or by a particular Service offer, all purchases are final and non-refundable.

    9.10. Canceling the Services. You may cancel the Services at any time, with or without cause. Information and direction on how to cancel your Services is provided on the Billing and Account Management website (https://commerce.microsoft.com). You should refer back to the offer describing the Services as (i) you may not receive a refund at the time of cancellation; (ii) you may be obligated to pay cancellation charges (iii) you may be obligated to pay all charges made to your billing account for the Services before the date of cancellation; or (iv) you may lose access to and use of your account when you cancel the Services. If you cancel, your Services will end at the end of your current Service period or, if we bill your account on a periodic basis, at the end of the period in which you canceled.

    9.11. Late payments. You must pay for all reasonable costs we incur to collect any past due amounts. These include reasonable attorneys’ fees and other legal fees and costs.

    9.12. Payments to you. If we owe you a payment, then you agree to timely and accurately provide us with any information we need to get that payment to you. you’re responsible for any taxes and charges you may incur as a result of this payment to you. You must also comply with any other conditions we place on your right to any payment. If you receive a payment in error, we may reverse or require return of the payment. You agree to cooperate with us in our efforts to do this. We may also reduce the payment to you without notice to adjust for any previous overpayment.

    9.13. Internet access Services and charges. If the Services don’t include Internet access, you’re responsible for paying the fees charged by your Internet access or Wi-Fi providers. Those fees are in addition to the fees you pay us for the Services. If you access the Services through wireless devices (for example, phones and tablets), your wireless carrier may charge fees for alerts, web browsing, messaging, and other services that require the use of airtime and wireless data services. Check with your carrier to verify whether there are any such fees that may apply to you. you’re solely responsible for any costs you incur to access the Services through any wireless or other communication service.

    The rest of this section 9.13 applies only if your Services include Internet access. Internet access isn’t available outside the United States. If you use a dial-up modem, you may incur toll, roaming, or other access charges, depending on the number you call and from where you call. You should check with your local telephone company first to determine if the number you plan to use will incur such charges. Even if we suggest a phone number for you to call, you may still incur charges, depending on your local provider, calling location, and phone plan. We won’t reimburse you for such charges.

    10. BINDING ARBITRATION AND CLASS ACTION WAIVER IF YOU LIVE IN THE UNITED STATES

    This section applies to any dispute EXCEPT DISPUTES RELATING TO THE ENFORCEMENT OR VALIDITY OF YOUR, YOUR LICENSORS’, MICROSOFT’S, OR MICROSOFT’S LICENSORS’ INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS. The term “dispute” means any dispute, action, or other controversy between you and Microsoft concerning the Services (including their price) or this Agreement, whether in contract, warranty, tort, statute, regulation, ordinance, or any other legal or equitable basis. “Dispute” will be given the broadest possible meaning allowable under law.

    10.1. Notice of Dispute. In the event of a dispute, you or Microsoft must give the other a Notice of Dispute, which is a written statement that sets forth the name, address and contact information of the party giving it, the facts giving rise to the dispute, and the relief requested. You must send any Notice of Dispute by U.S. Mail to Microsoft Corporation, ATTN: LCA ARBITRATION, One Microsoft Way, Redmond, WA 98052-6399, U.S.A. A form is available on the Legal and Corporate Affairs (LCA) website (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=245499). Microsoft will send any Notice of Dispute to you by U.S. Mail to your address if we have it, or otherwise to your email address. You and Microsoft will attempt to resolve any dispute through informal negotiation within 60 days from the date the Notice of Dispute is sent. After 60 days, you or Microsoft may commence arbitration.

    10.2. Small claims court. You may also litigate any dispute in small claims court in your county of residence or King County, Washington, U.S.A. if the dispute meets all requirements to be heard in the small claims court. You may litigate in small claims court whether or not you negotiated informally first.

    10.3. Binding arbitration. If you and Microsoft don’t resolve any dispute by informal negotiation or in small claims court, any other effort to resolve the dispute will be conducted exclusively by individual binding arbitration governed by the Federal Arbitration Act (“FAA”). Class arbitrations aren’t permitted. you’re giving up the right to litigate disputes in court before a judge or jury (or participate in court as a party or class member). Instead, all disputes will be resolved before a neutral arbitrator, whose decision will be final except for a limited right of appeal under the FAA. Any court with jurisdiction over the parties may enforce the arbitrator’s award.

    10.4. Class action waiver. Any proceedings to resolve or litigate any dispute in any forum will be conducted solely on an individual basis. Neither you nor Microsoft will seek to have any dispute heard as a class action, private attorney general action, or in any other proceeding in which either party acts or proposes to act in a representative capacity. No arbitration or other proceeding will be combined with another without the prior written consent of all parties to all affected arbitrations or proceedings.

    10.5. Arbitration procedure. Any arbitration will be conducted by the American Arbitration Association (the “AAA”) under its Commercial Arbitration Rules. If you’re an individual and use the Services for personal or household use, or if the value of the dispute is $75,000 or less whether or not you’re an individual or how you use the Services, its Supplementary Procedures for Consumer-Related Disputes will also apply. For more information, see the American Arbitration Association website (http://www.adr.org) or call 1-800-778-7879. To commence arbitration, submit the form available on the Legal and Corporate Affairs (LCA) website (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=245497) to the AAA. You agree to commence arbitration only in your county of residence or in King County, Washington, U.S.A. Microsoft agrees to commence arbitration only in your county of residence. You may request a telephonic or in-person hearing by following the AAA rules. In a dispute involving $10,000 or less, any hearing will be telephonic unless the arbitrator finds good cause to hold an in-person hearing instead. The arbitrator may award the same damages to you individually as a court could. The arbitrator may award declaratory or injunctive relief only to you individually, and only to the extent required to satisfy your individual claim.

    10.6. Arbitration fees and payments

    10.6.1. Disputes involving $75,000 or less. Microsoft will promptly reimburse your filing fees and pay the AAA’s and arbitrator’s fees and expenses. If you reject Microsoft’s last written settlement offer made before the arbitrator was appointed (“Microsoft’s last written offer”), your dispute goes all the way to an arbitrator’s decision (called an “award”), and the arbitrator awards you more than Microsoft’s last written offer, Microsoft will: (i) pay the greater of the award or $1,000; (ii) pay twice your reasonable attorney’s fees, if any; and (iii) reimburse any expenses (including expert witness fees and costs) that your attorney reasonably accrues for investigating, preparing, and pursuing your claim in arbitration. The arbitrator will determine the amount of fees, costs, and expenses unless you and Microsoft agree on them.

    10.6.2. Disputes involving more than $75,000. The AAA rules will govern payment of filing fees and the AAA’s and arbitrator’s fees and expenses.

    10.6.3. Disputes involving any amount. In any arbitration you commence, Microsoft will seek its AAA or arbitrator’s fees and expenses, or your filing fees it reimbursed, only if the arbitrator finds the arbitration frivolous or brought for an improper purpose. In any arbitration Microsoft commences, Microsoft will pay all filing, AAA, and arbitrator’s fees and expenses. Microsoft won’t seek its attorney’s fees or expenses from you in any arbitration. Fees and expenses aren’t counted in determining how much a dispute involves.

    10.7. Conflict with AAA rules. This Agreement governs to the extent it conflicts with the AAA’s Commercial Arbitration Rules and Supplementary Procedures for Consumer-Related Disputes.

    10.8. Claims or disputes must be filed within one year. To the extent permitted by law, any claim or dispute to which section 10 applies must be filed within one year in small claims court (section 10.2) or in arbitration (section 10.3). The one-year period begins when the claim or Notice of Dispute first could be filed. If such a claim or dispute isn’t filed within one year, it’s permanently barred.

    10.9. Rejecting future arbitration changes. You may reject any change Microsoft makes to section 10 (other than address changes) by sending us notice within 30 days of the change by U.S. Mail to the address in section 10.1. If you do, the most recent version of section 10 before the change you rejected will apply.

    10.10. Severability. If the class action waiver in section 10.4 is found to be illegal or unenforceable as to all or some parts of a dispute, then section 10 won’t apply to those parts. Instead, those parts will be severed and proceed in a court of law, with the remaining parts proceeding in arbitration. If any other provision of section 10 is found to be illegal or unenforceable, that provision will be severed with the remainder of section 10 remaining in full force and effect.

    11. NO WARRANTIES

    MICROSOFT, AND OUR AFFILIATES, RESELLERS, DISTRIBUTORS, AND VENDORS, MAKE NO WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, GUARANTEES OR CONDITIONS WITH RESPECT TO YOUR USE OF THE SERVICES. YOU UNDERSTAND THAT USE OF THE SERVICES IS AT YOUR OWN RISK AND THAT WE PROVIDE THE SERVICES ON AN “AS IS” BASIS “WITH ALL FAULTS” AND “AS AVAILABLE.” MICROSOFT DOESN’T GUARANTEE THE ACCURACY OR TIMELINESS OF INFORMATION AVAILABLE FROM THE SERVICES. TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED UNDER YOUR LOCAL LAW, WE EXCLUDE ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING FOR MERCHANTABILITY, SATISFACTORY QUALITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, WORKMANLIKE EFFORT, AND NON-INFRINGEMENT. YOU MAY HAVE CERTAIN RIGHTS UNDER YOUR LOCAL LAW. NOTHING IN THIS AGREEMENT IS INTENDED TO AFFECT THOSE RIGHTS, IF THEY ARE APPLICABLE.

    YOU ACKNOWLEDGE THAT COMPUTER AND TELECOMMUNICATIONS SYSTEMS AREN’T FAULT-FREE AND OCCASIONAL PERIODS OF DOWNTIME OCCUR. WE DON’T GUARANTEE THE SERVICES WILL BE UNINTERRUPTED, TIMELY, SECURE, OR ERROR-FREE OR THAT CONTENT LOSS WON’T OCCUR.

    12. Limitation of liability

    If Microsoft breaches this Agreement, you agree that your exclusive remedy is to recover, from Microsoft or any affiliates, resellers, distributors, and vendors, direct damages up to an amount equal to your Services fee for one month (or up to USD$10.00 if the Services are free). YOU CAN’T RECOVER ANY OTHER DAMAGES OR LOSSES, INCLUDING, WITHOUT LIMITATION, DIRECT, CONSEQUENTIAL, LOST PROFITS, SPECIAL, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, OR PUNITIVE. These limitations and exclusions apply if this remedy doesn’t fully compensate you for any losses or fails of its essential purpose or if we knew or should have known about the possibility of the damages. To the maximum extent permitted by law, these limitations and exclusions apply to anything related to this Agreement such as loss of Content; any virus affecting your use of the Services; delays or failures in starting or completing transmissions or transactions; claims for breach of contract, warranty, guarantee, or condition; strict liability, negligence, misrepresentation, or omission; trespass, or other tort; violation of statute or regulation; or unjust enrichment. Some or all of these limitations or exclusions may not apply to you if your state, province, or country doesn’t allow the exclusion or limitation of incidental, consequential, or other damages.

    13. Microsoft contracting entity, court of venue, and applicable law-United States

    If you live in (or, if you’re a business, you’re headquartered in) the United States, you’re contracting with Microsoft Corporation, One Microsoft Way, Redmond, WA 98052, U.S.A. The laws of the state where you live govern the interpretation of this Agreement, claims for breach of it, and all other claims (including consumer protection, unfair competition, and tort claims), regardless of conflict of law principles, except that the FAA governs all provisions relating to arbitration. You and we irrevocably consent to the exclusive jurisdiction and venue of the state or federal courts in King County, Washington, for all disputes arising out of or relating to this Agreement or the Services that are heard in court (not arbitration and not small claims court).

    14. Third-party websites

    You may be able to access third-party websites or services via the Services. Microsoft isn’t responsible for third-party websites, services, or material available through those third-party services. you’re solely responsible for your dealings with third-parties (including advertisers). Your use of third-party websites or services may be subject to that third-party’s terms and conditions.

    15. Digital Rights Management

    If you access material protected with digital rights management (DRM), the DRM software may automatically request media usage rights from a rights server online and download and install DRM updates so that you can play the material.

    16. Microsoft .NET Framework software

    The software may contain Microsoft .NET Framework software. This software is part of Windows. The license terms for Windows apply to your use of the .NET Framework software.

    17. Survival

    This section, and sections 5, 9 (for amounts incurred before the end of this Agreement), 10, 11, 12, 13, 20, and those that by their terms apply after it ends will survive any termination or cancellation of this Agreement.

    18. Assignment and transfer

    We may assign this Agreement, in whole or in part, at any time without notice to you. You may not assign this Agreement or transfer any rights to use the Services.

    19. Notices

    You consent to Microsoft providing you notifications about the Services or information the law requires us to provide via email to the address that you specified when you signed up for the Services. Notices emailed to you’ll be deemed given and received when the email is sent. If you don’t consent to receive notices electronically, you must stop using the Services. You may notify Microsoft as stated in customer support for the Services.

    20. Contract interpretation

    This is the entire Agreement between you and Microsoft for your use of the Services. It supersedes any prior agreements between you and Microsoft regarding your use of the Services. All parts of this Agreement apply to the maximum extent permitted by relevant law. If a court or arbitrator holds that we can’t enforce a part of this Agreement as written, we may replace those terms with similar terms to the extent enforceable under the relevant law, but the rest of this Agreement won’t change. Section 10.10 says what happens if parts of section 10 (arbitration and class action waiver) are found to be illegal or unenforceable. Section 10.10 prevails over this section if inconsistent with it.

    21. No third-party beneficiaries

    This Agreement is solely for your and our benefit. It isn’t for the benefit of any other person, except for Microsoft’s successors and assigns.

    22. Font components

    You may use the fonts to display and print material only while using the Services. You may not circumvent any embedding restrictions in the fonts.

    23. Support

    Customer support for the Windows Services is available via Microsoft Community (http://answers.microsoft.com) and the Windows website (http://windows.microsoft.com). Customer support for MSN Internet Access is available at MSN Support (https://support.msn.com). Customer email support for Bing and Bing clients is available at Bing Support (https://support.discoverbing.com). Limited customer support for Office 365 Home Premium and Office 365 University is available at Office Support (http://office.com/support) (help/how to) and at Microsoft Support (http://support.microsoft.com/ph/13615) (technical support).

    24. Export restrictions

    Microsoft’s free software and services are subject to United States and other jurisdictions’ export and technology laws and you agree to comply with all such applicable laws and regulations that apply to the software and/or services. United States government permission is required to transfer these free software and services to governments of any embargoed country or certain prohibited parties. Please see the U.S. Department of Treasury website (http://www.treasury.gov/resource-center/sanctions/Programs/Pages/Programs.aspx) for more information. Additionally, paid services are subject to United States export laws and regulations with which you must comply. These laws include restrictions on destinations, end users, and end use. For additional information, see the Exporting Microsoft Products website (http://www.microsoft.com/exporting).

    NOTICES

    Notices and procedure for making claims of intellectual property infringement. Microsoft respects the intellectual property rights of third parties. If you wish to send a notice of intellectual property infringement, including claims of copyright infringement, please use our procedures for submitting Notices of Infringement (https://www.microsoft.com/info/cpyrtInfrg.aspx). ALL INQUIRIES NOT RELEVANT TO THIS PROCEDURE WON’T RECEIVE A RESPONSE.

    Microsoft uses the process set out in Title 17, United States Code, Section 512(c)(2) to respond to notices of copyright infringement. In appropriate circumstances, Microsoft may also disable or terminate accounts of users of Microsoft services who may be repeat infringers.

    Notices and procedures regarding intellectual property concerns in advertising. Please review our Intellectual Property Guidelines (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=243207) regarding intellectual property concerns on our advertising network.

    Copyright and trademark notices. All portions of the Services are Copyright © 2013 Microsoft Corporation and/or its suppliers, One Microsoft Way, Redmond, WA 98052, U.S.A. All rights reserved. We or our suppliers own the title, copyright, and other intellectual property rights in the Services and its content. Microsoft and the names, logos, and icons of all Microsoft products, software, and services may be either trademarks or registered trademarks of Microsoft (http://www.microsoft.com/about/legal/en/us/IntellectualProperty/Trademarks/EN-US.aspx) in the United States and/or other countries. The names of actual companies and products may be the trademarks of their respective owners. Any rights not expressly granted in this Agreement are reserved. Certain software used in certain Microsoft website servers is based in part on the work of the Independent JPEG Group. Copyright © 1991-1996 Thomas G. Lane. All rights reserved. “gnuplot” software used in certain Microsoft website servers is copyright © 1986-1993 Thomas Williams, Colin Kelley. All rights reserved.

    Stock quotes and index data (including index values). © 2013 Morningstar, Inc. All Rights Reserved. The information contained herein: (1) is proprietary to Morningstar and/or its content providers; (2) may not be copied or distributed; and (3) isn’t warranted to be accurate, complete or timely. Neither Morningstar nor its content providers are responsible for any damages or losses arising from any use of this information. Past performance is no guarantee of future results.

    You may not use any of the Dow Jones IndexesSM, index data, or the Dow Jones marks in connection with the issuance, creation, sponsorship, trading, marketing, or promotion of any financial instruments or investment products (for example, derivatives, structured products, investment funds, exchange-traded funds, investment portfolios, etc., where the price, return and/or performance of the instrument or investment product is based on, related to, or intended to track any of the Indexes or a proxy for any of the Indexes) without a separate written agreement with Dow Jones.

    Financial notice. Microsoft isn’t a broker/dealer or registered investment advisor under United States federal securities law or securities laws of other jurisdictions and doesn’t advise individuals as to the advisability of investing in, purchasing, or selling securities or other financial products or services. Nothing contained in the Services is an offer or solicitation to buy or sell any security. Neither Microsoft nor its licensors of stock quotes or index data endorse or recommend any particular financial products or services. Nothing in the Services is intended to be professional advice, including but not limited to, investment or tax advice.

    Notice about the H.264/AVC, MPEG-4 Visual, and VC-1 Video Standards. The software may include H.264/AVC, MPEG-4 Visual and/or VC-1 codec technology that may be licensed by MPEG LA, L.L.C. This technology is a format for data compression of video information. MPEG LA, L.L.C. requires this notice:

    THIS PRODUCT IS LICENSED UNDER THE H.264/AVC, MPEG-4 VISUAL, AND THE VC-1 PATENT PORTFOLIO LICENSES FOR THE PERSONAL AND NON-COMMERCIAL USE OF A CONSUMER TO (A) ENCODE VIDEO IN COMPLIANCE WITH THE STANDARDS (“VIDEO STANDARDS”) AND/OR (B) DECODE H.264/AVC, MPEG-4 VISUAL, AND VC-1 VIDEO THAT WAS ENCODED BY A CONSUMER ENGAGED IN A PERSONAL AND NON-COMMERCIAL ACTIVITY AND/OR WAS OBTAINED FROM A VIDEO PROVIDER LICENSED TO PROVIDE SUCH VIDEO. NONE OF THE LICENSES EXTEND TO ANY OTHER PRODUCT REGARDLESS OF WHETHER SUCH PRODUCT IS INCLUDED WITH THIS SOFTWARE IN A SINGLE ARTICLE. NO LICENSE IS GRANTED OR SHALL BE IMPLIED FOR ANY OTHER USE. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION MAY BE OBTAINED FROM MPEG LA, L.L.C. SEE THE MPEG LA WEBSITE (http://www.mpegla.com).

    For clarification purposes only, this notice doesn’t limit or inhibit the use of the software provided under this Agreement for normal business uses that are personal to that business which don’t include (i) redistribution of the software to third parties, or (ii) creation of material with the VIDEO STANDARDS compliant technologies for distribution to third parties.


    Archived Microsoft Services Agreement
    Updated August 27, 2012
    Effective October 19, 2012

    IF YOU LIVE IN THE UNITED STATES, SECTION 10 CONTAINS A BINDING ARBITRATION CLAUSE AND CLASS ACTION WAIVER. IT AFFECTS YOUR RIGHTS ABOUT HOW TO RESOLVE ANY DISPUTE WITH MICROSOFT. PLEASE READ IT.

    Thank you for choosing Microsoft!

    This is an agreement between you and Microsoft Corporation (or based on where you live one of its affiliates) that describes your rights to use the software and services identified in section 1.1. For your convenience, we have phrased some of the terms of this agreement in a question and answer format. You should review the entire agreement because all of the terms are important and together create a legal agreement, once accepted by you, that applies to you.

    1. Scope of agreement, acceptance, and changes

    1.1. What services are covered by this agreement? This agreement applies to Microsoft Hotmail, Microsoft SkyDrive, Microsoft account, Windows Live Messenger, Windows Photo Gallery, Windows Movie Maker, Microsoft Mail Desktop, Windows Live Writer (the foregoing are collectively referred to as the “Microsoft branded services”), Bing, MSN, Office.com, and any other software, website, or service that links to this agreement (collectively the “services”).

    1.2. What terms must I abide by when using the services? Our goal is to create a safer and more secure environment and therefore we require that, when using the services, users abide by these terms, the Microsoft Anti-Spam Policy (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=117951) and the Microsoft Code of Conduct (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=266426), which are incorporated into this agreement by this reference (the “agreement”).

    1.3. How do I accept this agreement? By using or accessing the services, or by agreeing to these terms where the option is made available to you in the user interface, you agree to abide by this agreement without modification by you. If you do not agree, you may not use the services.

    1.4. Can Microsoft change these terms after I have accepted them? Yes. From time to time, Microsoft may change or amend these terms. If we do, we will notify you, either through the user interface, in an email notification, or through other reasonable means. Your use of the services after the date the change becomes effective will be your consent to the changed terms. If you do not agree to the changes, you must stop using the services and cancel any paid services by following the instructions in section 9.10. Otherwise, the new terms will apply to you.

    1.5. What types of changes can I expect to the services? We continuously work to improve the services and may change the services at any time. Additionally, there are reasons why Microsoft may stop providing portions of the services, including (without limitation) that it’s no longer feasible for us to provide it, the technology advances, customer feedback indicates a change is needed, or external issues arise that make it imprudent or impractical to continue. We may release the services or their features in beta version, which may not work correctly or in the same way the final version may work.

    2. Microsoft account

    2.1. What is a Microsoft account? To access portions of the services, such as the Microsoft branded services, you will need a Microsoft account. The Microsoft account, formerly known as Windows Live ID, is the credentials you will use to authenticate with our network. To create a Microsoft account, you must provide a user name and password, certain demographic information, and “account proofs,” such as an alternate email address or phone number. Existing Microsoft account holders may need to provide “account proofs” to continue using their Microsoft account. You are responsible for keeping your account information and password confidential and are responsible for all activity that occurs under your Microsoft account. You can use your Microsoft account to gain access to other Microsoft products, websites, or services (like Windows, Xbox LIVE, and Windows Phone); however, the terms and conditions for those products, websites, or services, if different from this agreement, may also apply to your use of that product, website, or service. The Microsoft branded services require that you sign into your Microsoft account periodically, at a minimum every 270 days, to keep the Microsoft branded services portion of the services active, unless provided otherwise in an offer for a paid portion of the services. If you fail to sign in during this period, we may cancel your access to the Microsoft branded services. If the Microsoft branded services are canceled due to your failure to sign in, your data may be permanently deleted from our servers.

    2.2. What if I can’t access my Microsoft account? If you’ve forgotten your password or otherwise can’t access your Microsoft account, you can recover your Microsoft account by visiting the Reset your password webpage (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=238656). Microsoft doesn’t guarantee that your Microsoft account will be restored or your content (as defined later) will be safeguarded.

    2.3. What if I obtained my Microsoft account from someone other than Microsoft? In some cases, we allow you to obtain your Microsoft account through a third party, like a school, a business, an Internet service provider, or the administrator of a managed domain (http://www.domains.live.com). In such cases, that third party may have additional rights over your Microsoft account, like the ability to reset your password, view your account usage or profile data, read or store content in your account, or suspend or cancel your Microsoft account. In these cases, you are subject to this agreement and any additional terms of use from that third party, which should be made available to you by such third party. If you are the administrator of the managed domain, you are responsible for all activity that takes place within the accounts on the managed domain.

    3. Content

    3.1. Who owns the content that I put on the services? Content includes anything you upload to, store on, or transmit through the services, such as data, documents, photos, video, music, email, and instant messages (“content”). Except for material that we license to you that may be incorporated into your own content (such as clip art), we do not claim ownership of the content you provide on the services. Your content remains your content, and you are responsible for it. We do not control, verify, pay for, or endorse the content that you and others make available on the services.

    3.2. Who can access my content? You have initial control over who may access your content. If you share content in public areas of the services or in shared areas available to others you’ve chosen, you agree that anyone you have shared content with may, for free, use, save, reproduce, distribute, display, and transmit that content in connection with their use of the services and other Microsoft, or its licensees’, products and services. If you don’t want others to have that ability, don’t use the services to share your content. If you use or share content on the services in a way that infringes others’ copyrights, trademarks, other intellectual property rights, or privacy rights, you are breaching this agreement. You represent and warrant that for the duration of this agreement you have (and will have) all the rights necessary for the content you upload or share on the services and that the use of the content, as contemplated in this section 3.2, won’t violate any law.

    3.3. What does Microsoft do with my content? When you upload your content to the services, you agree that it may be used, modified, adapted, saved, reproduced, distributed, and displayed to the extent necessary to protect you and to provide, protect and improve Microsoft products and services. For example, we may occasionally use automated means to isolate information from email, chats, or photos in order to help detect and protect against spam and malware, or to improve the services with new features that makes them easier to use. When processing your content, Microsoft takes steps to help preserve your privacy.

    3.4. Does Microsoft have voice enabled services? Yes. If you use voice enabled services, you consent to Microsoft recording and collecting your voice input. The voice input will be used to provide the voice enabled services to you and improve Microsoft products and services. Microsoft won’t use your voice input for any other purpose.

    3.5. What type of content isn’t permitted? Content that violates this agreement, which includes the Microsoft Anti-Spam Policy (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=117951) and the Microsoft Code of Conduct (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=266426) or your local law isn’t permitted on the services. Microsoft reserves the right to review content for the purpose of enforcing this agreement. Microsoft may block or otherwise prevent delivery of any type of email, instant message, or other communication to or from the services as part of our effort to protect the services or our customers, or otherwise enforce the terms of this agreement.

    3.6. Can Microsoft remove my content from the services? Yes. We may ask you to remove your content from the services if it violates this agreement or the law. Failure to comply may result in loss of access to, or cancellation of, the services or your Microsoft account. Additionally, Microsoft may remove your content without asking you if we determine it’s in violation of this agreement or the law, or if we receive a notice of intellectual property infringement from a third party.

    4. Services cancellation

    4.1. What happens if I don’t abide by these terms? If you violate this agreement, we may take action against you including (without limitation) removing your content from the services, suspending your access to the services, asking you to refrain from certain activities, canceling your services, and/or referring such activity to appropriate authorities. Additionally, we enforce a policy that provides for the termination, in appropriate circumstances, of the accounts of users who are repeat infringers. In the event we take action against you for a violation of this agreement, we may permanently delete, and you may permanently lose, some or all of your content stored on the services and/or we may cancel your services in their entirety. Data that is deleted may be irretrievable.

    4.2. Are there other ways I could lose access to the services? Yes. Portions of the services require that you sign into your Microsoft account at least once every 270 days. Failing to do so will (unless provided otherwise in an offer for paid services) result in a closure of your access to and use of that portion of the services, and you may permanently lose your content on that portion of the services. If you sign up for a paid portion of the services and fail to make an on-time payment, we may suspend or cancel that service (see section 9.1 for more details).

    4.3. How can I terminate the services? You may terminate the services at any time and for any reason. You can do this by going to your Account webpage (https://account.live.com) and following the account closure process. To cancel a paid portion of the services, see section 9.10. If you are canceling your services, the quickest means of eliminating your content on the services is to manually remove it from the various components of the services (for example, manually delete your email). However, please note that while content you have deleted or that is associated with a closed account may not be accessible to you, it may still remain on our systems for a period of time.

    4.4. What happens if my services are canceled or terminated? If your services are canceled or terminated (whether by you or us), your right to use the services stops immediately and your license to use our software ends. You must then uninstall the software, or, alternatively, we may disable it. If your services are canceled or terminated, we may permanently delete your content from our servers and we have no obligation to return content to you.

    5. Privacy

    5.1. Does Microsoft collect my personal information? Your privacy is important to us. We use certain information that we collect from you to operate and provide the services. Additionally, as part of the services, we may also automatically upload information about your machine, your use of the services and services performance. Please read the Microsoft Online Privacy Statement (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/p/?LinkId=253457) to learn how we use and protect your information.

    5.2. Does Microsoft disclose my personal information outside of Microsoft? You consent and agree that Microsoft may access, disclose, or preserve information associated with your use of the services, including (without limitation) your personal information and content, or information that Microsoft acquires about you through your use of the services (such as IP address or other third-party information) when Microsoft forms a good faith belief that doing so is necessary (a) to comply with applicable law or to respond to legal process from competent authorities; (b) to enforce this agreement or protect the rights or property of Microsoft or our customers; or (c) to help prevent a loss of life or serious physical injury to anyone.

    5.3. How does Microsoft respond to legal process? Similar to other providers of Internet services, Microsoft is served with legal demands and requests from law enforcement, government entities, and private litigants for content stored on our network. This information may relate to an alleged crime or civil matter and is usually requested pursuant to the normal legal process of the country or locality where the activity occurred. Microsoft may be obligated to comply with requests for your information or your content as part of such investigations or legal proceedings.

    6. Services disruptions and backup

    We strive to keep the services up and running; however, all online services suffer occasional disruptions and outages, and Microsoft isn’t liable for any disruption or loss you may suffer as a result. You should regularly backup the content that you store on the services. Having a regular backup plan and following it can help you prevent loss of your content.

    7. Software

    7.1. What terms govern the software that is part of the services? If you use or receive software from us as part of the services, it’s governed by one of two sets of license terms (the “license terms”): If you are presented with a license for the software, the terms of that license apply to the software; if no license is presented to you, the terms of this agreement apply not only to the services but also to the software (and the term “services” in this agreement includes the software). The software is licensed, not sold, and Microsoft reserves all rights to the software not expressly granted by Microsoft under the license terms, whether by implication, estoppel, or otherwise. If this agreement governs the website you are viewing, any third party scripts or code, linked to or referenced from this web site, are licensed to you by the third parties that own such code, not by Microsoft.

    7.2. How can I use the software that is provided as part of the services? We grant you the right to install and use one copy of the software per device for use by only one person at a time as part of your use of the services, but only if you comply with all other terms in this agreement.

    7.3. Are there things I can’t do with the software or services? Yes. In addition to the other restrictions in this agreement, you may not circumvent or bypass any technological protection measures in or relating to the software or services or disassemble, decompile, or reverse engineer any software or other aspect of the services that is included in or accessible through the services, except and only to the extent that the applicable copyright law expressly permits doing so; separate components of the software or services for use on different devices; publish, copy, rent, lease, or lend the software or the services; or transfer the software, any software licenses, or any rights regarding the services, except as expressly permitted by this agreement. You may not use the services in any unauthorized way that could interfere with anyone else’s use of them or gain access to any service, data, account, or network. You may not enable access to the services by unauthorized third-party applications.

    7.4. How is the software updated? We may automatically check your version of the software. We may also automatically download updates to the software from time to time. You agree to accept such updates subject to these terms unless other terms accompany the updates. If so, those other terms apply. Microsoft isn’t obligated to make any updates available and doesn’t guarantee that we will support the version of the system for which you licensed the software.

    8. Additional terms for Office.com, MSN, and Bing

    8.1. Office.com and Office Web App media elements and templates.. If you use Microsoft Office.com or the Microsoft Office Web Apps, you may have access to media images, clip art, animations, sounds, music, video clips, templates, and other forms of content (“media elements”) provided with the software available on Office.com or as part of services associated with the software. You may copy and use the media elements in projects and documents. You may not (i) sell, license, or distribute copies of the media elements by themselves or as a product if the primary value of the product is the media elements; (ii) grant your customers rights to further license or distribute the media elements; (iii) license or distribute for commercial purposes media elements that include the representation of identifiable individuals, governments, logos, trademarks, or emblems or use these types of images in ways that could imply an endorsement or association with your product, entity or activity; or (iv) create obscene works using the media elements. For more information, see the Use of Microsoft Copyrighted Content webpage (http://www.microsoft.com/permission).

    8.2. MSN Video. The videos and embeddable video player available on MSN Video are for your non-commercial, personal use only and, unless otherwise stated elsewhere in this agreement, may not be downloaded, copied, or redistributed without authorization from the rights holders. You may not use the embeddable video player on any website whose purpose is primarily for the display of advertising or collection of subscription revenues or is in direct competition with MSN Video unless you first get our express, written consent. You agree that your use of the embeddable video player may result in additional third-party costs, fees, and royalties, including applicable public performance royalties in your country or region.

    8.3. Bing. If you have location enabled on your device when you use m.bing.com, you consent to Microsoft collecting and using your location information in accordance with the Microsoft Online Privacy Statement (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/p/?LinkId=253457). We use your location information to provide and improve search and mapping results.

    9. If you pay Microsoft, the following terms apply to you

    9.1. Charges. If there is a charge associated with a portion of the services, you agree to pay that charge. The price stated for the service excludes all applicable taxes and currency exchange settlements, unless stated otherwise. You are solely responsible for paying such taxes or other charges. We may suspend or cancel the services if we don’t receive an on time, full payment from you. Suspension or cancellation of the services for non-payment could result in a loss of access to and use of your account and its content.

    9.2. Your billing account. To pay the charges for a service, you will be asked to provide a payment method at the time you sign up for that service. You can access and change your billing account information and payment method on the Billing and Account Management website (https://billing.microsoft.com). Additionally, you agree to permit Microsoft to use any updated account information regarding your payment method provided by your issuing bank or the applicable payment network. You agree to keep your billing account information current at all times. Changes made to your billing account won’t affect charges we submit to your billing account before we could reasonably act on your changes to your billing account.

    9.3. Billing. By providing Microsoft with a payment method, you (i) represent that you are authorized to use the payment method that you provided and that any payment information you provide is true and accurate; (ii) authorize Microsoft to charge you for the services using your payment method; and (iii) authorize Microsoft to charge you for any paid feature of the services that you choose to sign up for or use while this agreement is in force. We may bill you (a) in advance; (b) at the time of purchase; (c) shortly after purchase; or (d) on a recurring basis for subscription services. Also, we may charge you up to the amount you’ve approved, and we’ll notify you in advance of any change in the amount to be charged for recurring subscription services. We may bill you at the same time for more than one of your prior billing periods for amounts that haven’t previously been processed.

    9.4. Automatic renewal. Provided that automatic renewals are allowed in your country, province, or state, we will inform you by email before automatically renewing your services. Once we have informed you that the services will be automatically renewed, we may automatically renew your services and charge you the then current price for the renewal term. We will also remind you that we will bill your chosen payment method for the services renewal, whether it was on file on the renewal date or provided later. We will also provide you with instructions on how you may cancel the services. You must cancel the services before the renewal date to avoid being billed for the renewal.

    9.5. Online statement and errors. We’ll provide you with an online billing statement on the Billing and Account Management website (https://billing.microsoft.com), where you can view and print your statement. This is the only billing statement that we provide. It’s your responsibility to print or save a copy of each online statement and retain such copy for your records. If we make an error on your bill, you must tell us within 120 days after the error first appears on your bill. We will then promptly investigate the charge. If you don’t tell us within that time, you release us from all liability and claims of loss resulting from the error and we won’t be required to correct the error or provide a refund. If Microsoft has identified a billing error, we will correct that error within 90 days.

    9.6. Cooling off period. When you request a service from us, you agree that we may begin to provide the services immediately. You won’t be entitled to a cancellation or “cooling off” period, except if the law requires a cooling off period. You may cancel paid services as provided in section 9.10.

    9.7. Trial period offers. If you are taking part in any trial period offer, you must cancel the services by the end of the trial period to avoid incurring new charges, unless we notify you otherwise. If you don’t cancel your services at the end of the trial period, we may charge you for the services.

    9.8. Price changes. We may change the price of the services at any time and will notify you by email at least 15 days before the price change. If you don’t agree to the price change, you must cancel and stop using the services before the price change takes effect. If there is a fixed term and price for your service offer, that price will remain in force for the term.

    9.9. Refund policies. Unless otherwise provided by law or by a particular service offer, all purchases are final and non-refundable.

    9.10. Canceling the services. You may cancel the services at any time, with or without cause. Information and direction on how to cancel your services is provided on the Billing and Account Management website (https://billing.microsoft.com). You should refer back to the offer describing the services as (i) you may not receive a refund at the time of cancellation; (ii) you may be obligated to pay cancellation charges; (iii) you may be obligated to pay all charges made to your billing account for the services before the date of cancellation; or (iv) you may lose access to and use of your account when you cancel the services. If you cancel, your services end at the end of your current service period or, if we bill your account on a periodic basis, at the end of the period in which you canceled.

    9.11. Late payments. You must pay for all reasonable costs we incur to collect any past due amounts. These include reasonable attorneys’ fees and other legal fees and costs.

    9.12. Payments to you. If we owe you a payment, then you agree to timely and accurately provide us with any information we need to get that payment to you. You are responsible for any taxes and charges you may incur as a result of this payment to you. You must also comply with any other conditions we place on your right to any payment. If you receive a payment in error, we may reverse or require return of the payment. You agree to cooperate with us in our efforts to do this. We may also reduce the payment to you without notice to adjust for any previous overpayment.

    9.13. Internet access services and charges. If the services don’t include Internet access, you are responsible for paying the fees charged by your Internet access provider. Those fees are in addition to the fees you pay us for the services. If you access the services through wireless devices (for example, mobile phones, tablets), your wireless carrier may charge fees for alerts, web browsing, messaging, and other services that require the use of airtime and wireless data services. Check with your carrier to verify whether there are any such fees that may apply to you. You are solely responsible for any costs you incur to access the services through any wireless or other communication service.

    The rest of this section 9.13 applies only if your services include Internet access. This service may not be available in your country or region. If you use a dial-up modem, you may incur toll, roaming, or other access charges, depending on the number you call and from where you call. You should check with your local telephone company first to determine if the number you plan to use will incur such charges. Even if we suggest a phone number for you to call, you may still incur charges, depending on your local provider, calling location, and phone plan. We won’t reimburse you for such charges.

    10. BINDING ARBITRATION AND CLASS ACTION WAIVER IF YOU LIVE IN THE UNITED STATES

    This section applies to any dispute EXCEPT IT DOESN’T INCLUDE A DISPUTE RELATING TO THE ENFORCEMENT OR VALIDITY OF YOUR, MICROSOFT’S, OR EITHER OF OUR LICENSORS’ INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS. The term “dispute” means any dispute, action, or other controversy between you and Microsoft concerning the services (including their price) or this agreement, whether in contract, warranty, tort, statute, regulation, ordinance, or any other legal or equitable basis. “Dispute” will be given the broadest possible meaning allowable under law.

    10.1. Notice of Dispute. In the event of a dispute, you or Microsoft must give the other a Notice of Dispute, which is a written statement that sets forth the name, address, and contact information of the party giving it, the facts giving rise to the dispute, and the relief requested. You must send any Notice of Dispute by U.S. Mail to Microsoft Corporation, ATTN: LCA ARBITRATION, One Microsoft Way, Redmond, WA 98052-6399, US. A form is available on the Legal and Corporate Affairs (LCA) website (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=245499). Microsoft will send any Notice of Dispute to you by U.S. Mail to your address if we have it, or otherwise to your email address. You and Microsoft will attempt to resolve any dispute through informal negotiation within sixty (60) days from the date the Notice of Dispute is sent. After sixty (60) days, you or Microsoft may commence arbitration.

    10.2. Small claims court You may also litigate any dispute in small claims court in your county of residence or King County, Washington, if the dispute meets all requirements to be heard in the small claims court. You may litigate in small claims court whether or not you negotiated informally first.

    10.3. Binding arbitration. If you and Microsoft don’t resolve any dispute by informal negotiation or in small claims court, any other effort to resolve the dispute will be conducted exclusively by binding arbitration as described in this section. You are giving up the right to litigate (or participate in as a party or class member) all disputes in court before a judge or jury. Instead, all disputes will be resolved before a neutral arbitrator, whose decision will be final except for a limited right of appeal under the Federal Arbitration Act. Any court with jurisdiction over the parties may enforce the arbitrator’s award.

    10.4. Class action waiver. Any proceedings to resolve or litigate any dispute in any forum will be conducted solely on an individual basis. Neither you nor Microsoft will seek to have any dispute heard as a class action or in any other proceeding in which either party acts or proposes to act in a representative capacity. No arbitration or proceeding will be combined with another without the prior written consent of all parties to all affected arbitrations or proceedings.

    10.5. Arbitration procedure. Any arbitration will be conducted by the American Arbitration Association (the “AAA”) under its Commercial Arbitration Rules. If you are an individual and use the services for personal or household use, or if the value of the dispute is $75,000 or less whether or not you are an individual or how you use the services, its Supplementary Procedures for Consumer-Related Disputes will also apply. For more information, see the American Arbitration Association website (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=248505) or call 1-800-778-7879. To commence arbitration, submit the form available on the Legal and Corporate Affairs (LCA) website (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=245497) to the AAA. You agree to commence arbitration only in your county of residence or in King County, Washington, US. Microsoft agrees to commence arbitration only in your county of residence. You may request a telephonic or in-person hearing by following the AAA rules. In a dispute involving $10,000 or less, any hearing will be telephonic unless the arbitrator finds good cause to hold an in-person hearing instead. The arbitrator may award the same damages to you individually as a court could. The arbitrator may award declaratory or injunctive relief only to you individually, and only to the extent required to satisfy your individual claim.

    10.6. Arbitration fees and incentives.

    10.6.1. Disputes involving $75,000 or less. Microsoft will promptly reimburse your filing fees and pay the AAA’s and arbitrator’s fees and expenses. If you reject Microsoft’s last written settlement offer made before the arbitrator was appointed (“Microsoft’s last written offer”), your dispute goes all the way to an arbitrator’s decision (called an “award”), and the arbitrator awards you more than Microsoft’s last written offer, Microsoft will give you three incentives: (i) pay the greater of the award or $1,000; (ii) pay twice your reasonable attorney’s fees, if any; and (iii) reimburse any expenses (including expert witness fees and costs) that your attorney reasonably accrues for investigating, preparing, and pursuing your claim in arbitration. The arbitrator will determine the amount of fees, costs, and expenses unless you and Microsoft agree on them.

    10.6.2. Disputes involving more than $75,000. The AAA rules will govern payment of filing fees and the AAA’s and arbitrator’s fees and expenses.

    10.6.3. Disputes involving any amount. In any arbitration you commence, Microsoft will seek its AAA or arbitrator’s fees and expenses, or your filing fees it reimbursed, only if the arbitrator finds the arbitration frivolous or brought for an improper purpose. In any arbitration Microsoft commences, Microsoft will pay all filing, AAA, and arbitrator’s fees and expenses. Microsoft won’t seek its attorney’s fees or expenses from you in any arbitration. Fees and expenses are not counted in determining how much a dispute involves.

    10.7. Conflict with AAA rules. This agreement governs to the extent it conflicts with the AAA’s Commercial Arbitration Rules and Supplementary Procedures for Consumer-Related Disputes.

    10.8. Claims or disputes must be filed within one year. To the extent permitted by law, any claim or dispute under this agreement must be filed within one year in small claims court (section 10.2), an arbitration proceeding (section 10.3), or in court, if section 10.9 permits the dispute to be filed in court instead of arbitration. The one-year period begins when the claim or Notice of Dispute first could be filed. If a claim or dispute isn’t filed within one year, it’s permanently barred.

    10.9. Severability. If the class action waiver in section 10.4 is found to be illegal or unenforceable as to all or some parts of a dispute, then section 10 won’t apply to those parts. Instead, those parts will be severed and proceed in a court of law, with the remaining parts proceeding in arbitration. If any other provision of this section 10 is found to be illegal or unenforceable, that provision will be severed with the remainder of section 10 remaining in full force and effect.

    11. NO WARRANTIES

    MICROSOFT, AND OUR AFFILIATES, RESELLERS, DISTRIBUTORS, AND VENDORS, MAKE NO WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, GUARANTEES OR CONDITIONS WITH RESPECT TO YOUR USE OF THE SERVICES. YOU UNDERSTAND THAT USE OF THE SERVICES IS AT YOUR OWN RISK AND THAT WE PROVIDE THE SERVICES ON AN “AS IS” BASIS “WITH ALL FAULTS” AND “AS AVAILABLE.” MICROSOFT DOESN’T GUARANTEE THE ACCURACY OR TIMELINESS OF INFORMATION AVAILABLE FROM THE SERVICES. TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED UNDER YOUR LOCAL LAW, WE EXCLUDE ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING FOR MERCHANTABILITY, SATISFACTORY QUALITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, WORKMANLIKE EFFORT, AND NON-INFRINGEMENT. YOU MAY HAVE CERTAIN RIGHTS UNDER YOUR LOCAL LAW. NOTHING IN THIS AGREEMENT IS INTENDED TO AFFECT THOSE RIGHTS, IF THEY ARE APPLICABLE.

    YOU ACKNOWLEDGE THAT COMPUTER AND TELECOMMUNICATIONS SYSTEMS ARE NOT FAULT-FREE AND OCCASIONAL PERIODS OF DOWNTIME OCCUR. WE DON’T GUARANTEE THE SERVICES WILL BE UNINTERRUPTED, TIMELY, SECURE, OR ERROR-FREE OR THAT CONTENT LOSS WON’T OCCUR.

    12. Limitation of liability

    If Microsoft breaches this agreement, you agree that your exclusive remedy is to recover, from Microsoft or any affiliates, resellers, distributors, and vendors, direct damages up to an amount equal to your services fee for one month. YOU CAN’T RECOVER ANY OTHER DAMAGES OR LOSSES, INCLUDING, WITHOUT LIMITATION, CONSEQUENTIAL, LOST PROFITS, SPECIAL, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, OR PUNITIVE. These limitations and exclusions apply if this remedy doesn’t fully compensate you for any losses or fails of its essential purpose or if we knew or should have known about the possibility of the damages. To the maximum extent permitted by law, these limitations and exclusions apply to anything related to this agreement such as loss of content; any virus affecting your use of the services; delays or failures in starting or completing transmissions or transactions; claims for breach of contract, warranty, guarantee, or condition; strict liability; negligence; misrepresentation or omission; trespass; violation of statute or regulation; or unjust enrichment. Some or all of these limitations or exclusions may not apply to you if your state, province, or country doesn’t allow the exclusion or limitation of incidental, consequential, or other damages.

    13. Microsoft contracting entity

    13.1. United States. If you live in (or, if you are a business, you are headquartered in) the United States, you are contracting with Microsoft Corporation, One Microsoft Way, Redmond, WA 98052, US. The laws of the state where you live govern the interpretation of this agreement, claims for breach of it, and all other claims (including consumer protection, unfair competition, and tort claims), regardless of conflict of law principles. You and we irrevocably consent to the exclusive jurisdiction and venue of the state or federal courts in King County, Washington, for all disputes arising out of or relating to this agreement or the services that are heard in court (not arbitration and not small claims court).

    13.2. North or South America outside the United States. If you live in (or, if you are a business, you are headquartered in) North or South America outside the United States, you are contracting with Microsoft Corporation, One Microsoft Way, Redmond, WA 98052, US. Washington state law governs the interpretation of this agreement and applies to claims for breach of it, regardless of choice of law principles. All other claims, including claims regarding consumer protection laws, unfair competition laws, and in tort, will be subject to the laws of the country to which we direct your services.

    13.3. Europe. If you live in (or, if you are a business, you are headquartered in) Europe, you are contracting with Microsoft Luxembourg S.à.r.l., 20 Rue Eugene Ruppert, Immeuble Laccolith, 1st Floor, L-2543 Luxembourg and the laws of Luxembourg govern the interpretation of this agreement and apply to claims for breach of it, regardless of conflict of laws principles, unless you live in or your business is headquartered in Spain, in which case the laws of Spain govern the interpretation of this agreement. All other claims, including claims regarding consumer protection laws, unfair competition laws, and in tort, will be subject to the laws of the country to which we direct your service. With respect to jurisdiction, you and Microsoft may choose the country to which we direct your service for all disputes arising out of or relating to this agreement, or in the alternative, you may choose the responsible court in Luxembourg. If you are accessing the services within Germany, the Germany agreement (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=266428) applies to you.

    13.4. Middle East or Africa. If you live in (or, if you are a business, you are headquartered in) the Middle East or Africa, you are contracting with Microsoft Luxembourg S.à.r.l., 20 Rue Eugene Ruppert, Immeuble Laccolith, 1st Floor, L-2543 Luxembourg, and the laws of Luxembourg govern the interpretation of this agreement and apply to claims for breach of it, regardless of conflict of laws principles. All other claims, including claims regarding consumer protection laws, unfair competition laws, and in tort, will be subject to the laws of the country to which we direct your services. You and we irrevocably agree to the exclusive jurisdiction and venue of the Luxembourg courts for all disputes arising out of or relating to this agreement.

    13.5. Asia or the South Pacific, unless your country is specifically called out. If you live in (or, if you are a business, you are headquartered in) Asia or the South Pacific, you are contracting with Microsoft Regional Sales Corp., a corporation organized under the laws of the State of Nevada, US, with a branch in Singapore, having its principal place of business at 438B Alexandra Road, #04-09/12, Block B, Alexandra Technopark, Singapore, 119968, and Washington state law governs this agreement, regardless of conflict of laws principles. Any dispute arising out of or in connection with this agreement, including any question regarding its existence, validity, or termination, will be referred to and finally resolved by arbitration in Singapore in accordance with the Arbitration Rules of the Singapore International Arbitration Center (SIAC), which rules are deemed to be incorporated by reference into this clause. The Tribunal will consist of one arbitrator to be appointed by the Chairman of SIAC. The language of arbitration will be English. The decision of the arbitrator will be final, binding, and incontestable, and it may be used as a basis for judgment in any country or region.

    13.6. Japan. If you live in (or, if you are a business, you are headquartered in) Japan, you are contracting with Microsoft Japan Co., Ltd (MSKK), Shinagawa Grand Central Tower, 2-16-3 Konan Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-0075. The laws of Japan govern this agreement and any matters arising out of or relating to it. You and we irrevocably agree to the exclusive original jurisdiction and venue of the Tokyo District Court for all disputes arising out of or relating to this agreement.

    13.7. China. If you live in (or, if you are a business, you are headquartered in) China, you are contracting with Shanghai MSN Network Communications Technology Company Limited, Suite B, 8th Floor, Building Ding, No. 555, Dongchuan Road, Minhang District, Shanghai, PRC, for your use of MSN, Bing, or Windows Live Messenger; PRC law governs this agreement as it relates to your use of the services under this agreement operated by Shanghai MSN Network Communications Technology Company Limited. For your use of MSN, Bing, or Windows Live Messenger under this agreement, any dispute arising out of or in connection with this agreement, including any question regarding the existence, validity or termination of this agreement will be referred to and finally resolved by arbitration in Hong Kong under the auspices of the Hong Kong International Arbitration Centre (“HKIAC”) in accordance with the UNCITRAL Arbitration Rules, which are deemed to be incorporated by reference into this clause. For such arbitration, there will be one arbitrator, who will be appointed by HKIAC in accordance with the UNCITRAL Arbitration Rules. The language of arbitration will be English. The decision of the arbitrator will be final, binding, and incontestable and may be used as a basis for judgment in China or elsewhere. For your use of all other services under this agreement, you are contracting with Microsoft Corporation, One Microsoft Way, Redmond, WA 98052, US. As to those services, Washington state law governs this agreement, regardless of conflict of laws principles. The jurisdiction of the state or federal courts in King County, Washington, US, is non-exclusive.

    13.8. Republic of Korea. If you live in (or, if you are a business, you are headquartered in) the Republic of Korea, you are contracting with Microsoft Korea, Inc., 6th Floor, POSCO Center, 892 Daechi-Dong, Kangnam-Gu, Seoul, 135-777, Korea, and the laws of the Republic of Korea govern this agreement. You and we irrevocably agree to exclusive original jurisdiction and venue of the Seoul District Court for all disputes arising out of or relating to this agreement.

    13.9. Taiwan. If you live in (or, if you are a business, you are headquartered in) Taiwan, you are contracting with Microsoft Taiwan Corp., 8F, No 7 Sungren Road, Shinyi Chiu, Taipei, Taiwan 110, and the laws of Taiwan govern this agreement. You and we irrevocably designate the Taipei District Court as the court of first instance having jurisdiction over any disputes arising out of or relating to this agreement.

    14. Third-party websites

    You may be able to access third-party websites or services via the services. Microsoft isn’t responsible for third-party websites, services, or content available through those third-party services. You are solely responsible for your dealings with third-parties (including advertisers). Your use of third-party websites or services may be subject to that third-party’s terms and conditions.

    15. DRM

    If you access content protected with Microsoft Digital Rights Management (DRM), the software may automatically request media usage rights from a rights server online and download and install DRM updates so that you can play the content. For more information, see the DRM information in the Microsoft Silverlight Privacy Statement (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=178857).

    16. Microsoft .NET Framework software

    The software may contain Microsoft .NET Framework software. This software is part of Windows. The license terms for Windows apply to your use of the .NET Framework software.

    17. Survival

    The “Privacy” section, and sections 9 (for amounts incurred before the end of this agreement), 10, 11, 12, 13, 20, and those that by their terms apply after it ends will survive any termination or cancellation of this agreement.

    18. Assignment and transfer

    We may assign this agreement, in whole or in part, at any time without notice to you. You may not assign this agreement or transfer any rights to use the services.

    19. Notices

    You consent to Microsoft providing you notifications about the services or information the law requires us to provide via email to the address that you specified when you signed up for the services. Notices emailed to you will be deemed given and received when the email is sent. If you don’t consent to receive notices electronically, you must stop using the services. You may notify Microsoft as stated in customer support for the services.

    20. Contract interpretation

    This is the entire agreement between you and Microsoft for your use of the services. It supersedes any prior agreements between you and Microsoft regarding your use of the services. All parts of this agreement apply to the maximum extent permitted by relevant law. If a court holds that we can’t enforce a part of this agreement as written, we may replace those terms with similar terms to the extent enforceable under the relevant law, but the rest of this agreement won’t change. The agreement’s section titles are for reference only and have no legal effect.

    21. No third-party beneficiaries

    This agreement is solely for your and our benefit. It isn’t for the benefit of any other person, except for Microsoft’s successors and assigns.

    22. Font components

    You may use the fonts to display and print content only while using the services. You may not circumvent any embedding restrictions in the fonts.

    23. Support

    Customer support for the Microsoft branded services is available via Microsoft Answers (http://answers.microsoft.com) and the Windows website (http://windows.microsoft.com). Customer support for MSN Internet Access is available at MSN Support (https://support.msn.com). Customer email support for Bing and Bing clients is available at Bing Support (https://support.discoverbing.com).

    24. Export restrictions

    Microsoft’s free software and services are subject to United States and other jurisdictions’ export and technology laws and you agree to comply with all such applicable laws and regulations that apply to the software and/or services. United States government permission is required to transfer these free software and services to governments of any embargoed country or certain prohibited parties. Please see the U.S. Department of Treasury website (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkID=243206) for more information. Additionally, paid services are subject to United States export laws and regulations with which you must comply. These laws include restrictions on destinations, end users, and end use. For additional information, see the Exporting Microsoft Products website (http://www.microsoft.com/exporting).

    NOTICES

    Notices and procedure for making claims of copyright infringement. Notifications of claimed copyright infringement should be sent to Microsoft’s designated agent. INQUIRIES NOT RELEVANT TO THE FOLLOWING PROCEDURE WILL RECEIVE NO RESPONSE For details and contact information, see Notice and Procedure for Making Claims of Copyright Infringement (http://www.microsoft.com/info/cpyrtInfrg.htm).

    Notices and procedures regarding intellectual property concerns in Sponsored Sites advertising. Please review our Intellectual Property Guidelines (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=243207) regarding intellectual property concerns on our advertising network.

    Copyright and trademark notices. All contents of the services are Copyright © 2012 Microsoft Corporation and/or its suppliers, One Microsoft Way, Redmond, WA 98052, US. All rights reserved. We or our suppliers own the title, copyright, and other intellectual property rights in the services and its content. Microsoft and the names, logos, and icons of all Microsoft products, software, and services may be either trademarks or registered trademarks of Microsoft (http://www.microsoft.com/about/legal/en/us/IntellectualProperty/Trademarks/EN-US.aspx) in the United States and/or other countries. The names of actual companies and products may be the trademarks of their respective owners. Any rights not expressly granted in this agreement are reserved. Certain software used in certain Microsoft website servers is based in part on the work of the Independent JPEG Group. Copyright © 1991-1996 Thomas G. Lane. All rights reserved. “gnuplot” software used in certain Microsoft website servers is copyright © 1986-1993 Thomas Williams, Colin Kelley. All rights reserved.

    Stock quotes and index data (including index values). All information provided by Interactive Data Corporation (“IDC”) and its affiliates (the “IDC Information”) included in the services is owned by or licensed to IDC and its affiliates. You are permitted to store, manipulate, analyze, reformat, print, and display the IDC Information only for your personal use. You may not publish, retransmit, redistribute or otherwise reproduce any IDC Information in any format to anyone. Nor will you use any IDC Information in or in connection with any business or commercial enterprise, including, without limitation, any securities, investment, accounting, banking, legal, or media business or enterprise. Before executing a security trade based upon the IDC Information, you are advised to consult with your broker or other financial representative to verify pricing information. Neither IDC nor its affiliates or their respective licensors will be liable to any user or anyone else for any interruption, inaccuracy, delays, error, or omission, regardless of cause, in the IDC Information or for any damages (whether direct or indirect, consequential, punitive or exemplary) that result. The terms of this section reflect Microsoft’s arrangement with IDC and its affiliates and you agree that this section, not other sections of this agreement, will apply to the IDC Information in the event of a conflict or inconsistency with another term of this agreement.

    You may not use any of the Dow Jones IndexesSM, index data, or the Dow Jones marks in connection with the issuance, creation, sponsorship, trading, marketing, or promotion of any financial instruments or investment products (for example, derivatives, structured products, investment funds, exchange-traded funds, or investment portfolios; where the price, return and/or performance of the instrument or investment product is based on, related to, or intended to track any of the Indexes or a proxy for any of the Indexes) without a separate written agreement with Dow Jones.

    Financial notice. Microsoft isn’t a broker/dealer or registered investment advisor under United States federal securities law or securities laws of other jurisdictions and doesn’t advise individuals as to the advisability of investing in, purchasing, or selling securities or other financial products or services. Nothing contained in the services is an offer or solicitation to buy or sell any security. Neither Microsoft nor its licensors of stock quotes or index data endorse or recommend any particular financial products or services. Nothing in the services is intended to be professional advice, including but not limited to, investment or tax advice.

    Notice about the H.264/AVC Visual Standard and the VC-1 Video Standard. The software may include H.264/MPEG-4 AVC and/or VC-1 decoding technology. MPEG LA, L.L.C. requires this notice:

    THIS PRODUCT IS LICENSED UNDER THE AVC AND THE VC-1 PATENT PORTFOLIO LICENSES FOR THE PERSONAL AND NON-COMMERCIAL USE OF A CONSUMER TO (A) ENCODE VIDEO IN COMPLIANCE WITH THE STANDARDS (“VIDEO STANDARDS”) AND/OR (B) DECODE AVC AND VC-1 VIDEO THAT WAS ENCODED BY A CONSUMER ENGAGED IN A PERSONAL AND NON-COMMERCIAL ACTIVITY AND/OR WAS OBTAINED FROM A VIDEO PROVIDER LICENSED TO PROVIDE SUCH VIDEO. NONE OF THE LICENSES EXTEND TO ANY OTHER PRODUCT REGARDLESS OF WHETHER SUCH PRODUCT IS INCLUDED WITH THIS SOFTWARE IN A SINGLE ARTICLE. NO LICENSE IS GRANTED OR SHALL BE IMPLIED FOR ANY OTHER USE. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION MAY BE OBTAINED FROM MPEG LA, L.L.C. SEE THE MPEG LA WEBSITE (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=31690).

    For clarification purposes only, this notice doesn’t limit or inhibit the use of the software provided under this agreement for normal business uses that are personal to that business which don’t include (i) redistribution of the software to third parties, or (ii) creation of content with the Video Standards compliant technologies for distribution to third parties.


    http://windows.microsoft.com/en-us/windows/microsoft-services-agreement-faq

    We’ve made a few changes
    We thought you should know about our revised Microsoft Services Agreement (MSA) and our new privacy statement for Windows services. We hope you’ll take a moment to see what’s new.

    Read the MSA http://windows.microsoft.com/en-us/windows/microsoft-services-agreement
    Check out the privacy statement http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/p/?LinkId=253457

    What are the highlights?

    Privacy
    You want to keep your personal information private when you go online. Which is why we won’t use the content in your emails to target you with ads.
    Privacy – As part of our ongoing commitment to respecting your privacy, we have updated the Microsoft Services Agreement to state that we do not use what you say in email, chat, video calls, or voice mail to target advertising to you. Nor do we use your documents, photos, or other personal files to target advertising to you.

    Transparency
    You like to know what you’re getting into when you use our products and services. So we’ve made our terms and policies more transparent.
    Transparency – We want our guidelines for use to be very clear, so we have moved the Code of Conduct into the Microsoft Services Agreement and updated it with easy-to-understand guidelines that clearly identify what behaviors could result in an action being taken on your Microsoft account. We’ve also added section 1.5, which states that parents are responsible for Microsoft account and Services usage by their minor children, including any purchases.

    Protection
    You want to more easily understand how Microsoft is respecting your privacy. That’s why we tailor our privacy statements for each of our products.

    Simplicity – We tailor our privacy statements for each of our products to help make it easier to find the information that’s important to you.

    Top questions

    What is the Microsoft Services Agreement?
    It’s an agreement between you and the Microsoft Corporation (or, depending on where you live, one of its affiliates) that describes your rights to use the software and services covered by the agreement.

    What Services does the Microsoft Services Agreement cover?
    The primary services covered by the services agreement are Bing, MSN, Outlook.com (formerly Hotmail), OneDrive (formerly SkyDrive), Microsoft account, Family Safety, Photo Gallery, Movie Maker, Windows Live Mail, Windows Live Writer, Office.com, Microsoft Office 365 Home Premium, Microsoft Office 365 University, and other Microsoft Office-branded services that link to the agreement through a supplemental agreement.

    What are the changes that Microsoft is making to the Microsoft Services Agreement?
    To see all of the updates, we recommend that you read the full agreement, but here are highlights of a few key changes:

    What are the changes that Microsoft is making to the privacy statements?
    Your privacy is of utmost importance to us, so with this release we’ve created unique privacy statements to cover Microsoft account, Outlook.com, OneDrive, and Family Safety, so you can easily review the privacy terms for the service you are using. Read the full privacy statement as well as privacy statements for Bing and MSN.

    Can parents accept the terms on behalf of their children?
    We added section 1.5, which states that parents are responsible for Microsoft account and Services usage by their minor children, including any purchases. Some of our services do require payment, such as ad-free Outlook.com, OneDrive extra storage, or an Office 365 consumer subscription.

    What products does the new privacy statement cover?
    The new privacy statement defines how your information is used and protected across your Microsoft account, Outlook.com, OneDrive, and Family Safety.

    When do these terms take effect?
    The Microsoft Services Agreement and privacy statement for Microsoft account, Outlook.com, OneDrive, and Family Safety take effect on July 31st, 2014.

    How do I accept these terms?
    By using or accessing the services after July 31st, 2014, you agree to abide by the terms of the agreement. If you do not agree, you can choose to discontinue use of the services.

    Does Microsoft share my information with anyone?
    We share your personal information with your consent. For example, we share your content with third parties when you tell us to do so, such as when you send an email to a friend, share photos and documents on OneDrive, or link accounts with another service. If you choose to report junk messages, we may share those messages with the original sender and may share them with those companies that help us fight junk email.

    We may also share information and content with and disclose information and content to Microsoft affiliates and vendors; when required by law or to respond to valid legal process; to protect our customers; to protect lives; and to maintain the security of our services. In addition, we may share and disclose information and content to protect the rights or property of Microsoft. However, if we receive information indicating that a customer is using our services to traffic in intellectual or physical property that was stolen from Microsoft, we will not inspect that customer’s private content ourselves, but we may refer the matter to law enforcement.


     
  • Virtual Chitchatting 6:31 PM on 2014/05/29 Permalink  

    tears flowing like a flood: desperately to hear when are you going to tell me

    there was a time
    someone sang this song
    in public
    in pekanbaru
    back in 1993

    terenyuh

    but i saw no tear drop
    tears from heaven
    tears of a broken heart
    tears of heaven

    who did you sing for
    you had made your choice
    but you were and have been still looking back
    at me

    until these years
    until these very seconds
    until the last breathe in your life
    until your last heartbeat

    then the second song sang

    yet
    and still
    i saw no tear drop
    tears from heaven
    tears of a broken heart
    tears of heaven

    you don’t love me
    you love yourself
    affirmative
    and confirmed


    Kasiah Tak Sampai
    Elly Kasim

    Malang bacinto bintang jo bulan
    Kasiah digungguang dek matoari
    Bia bacarai nyao jo badan
    Putuihlah tali jantuang jo hati
    Cinto ka uda den baok mati

    Ka dalam tanah maik bakubua
    Datang malaikaik yo nan batanyo
    Apo kadayo yo nan takana
    Kasiah ka uda nan indak sampai
    Yo nan takana, kasiah ndak sampai

    Cinto den indak ado duonyo
    Cinto den hanyo ka uda surang

    Bia mangamuak topan jo badai
    Cinto den indak ado duonyo
    Bia di dunia kasiah ndak sampai
    Yo di akhiraik den nanti juo
    Uda den nanti dalam sarugo
    Cinto den indak ado duonyo

    Ciptaan Syahrul Tarun Yusuf
    April 15, 2008


    Tears In Heaven
    Eric Clapton

    Would you know my name
    If I saw you in heaven?
    Would it be the same
    If I saw you in heaven?

    I must be strong
    And carry on,
    ‘Cause I know I don’t belong
    Here in heaven.

    Would you hold my hand
    If I saw you in heaven?
    Would you help me stand
    If I saw you in heaven?

    I’ll find my way
    Through night and day,
    ‘Cause I know I just can’t stay
    Here in heaven.

    Time can bring you down,
    Time can bend your knees.
    Time can break your heart,
    Have you begging please, begging please.

    Beyond the door,
    There’s peace I’m sure,
    And I know there’ll be no more
    Tears in heaven.

    Would you know my name
    If I saw you in heaven?
    Would it be the same
    If I saw you in heaven?

    I must be strong
    And carry on,
    ‘Cause I know I don’t belong
    Here in heaven.

    Writer(s): Stevie Wonder, Henry Cosby, WilliamRobinson Jr, William Robinson, Eric Patrick Clapton
    Copyright: Jobete Music Co. Inc., Jobete Music Co. Ltd., E C Music Ltd.


    When You Tell Me That You Love Me
    Diana Ross

    I wanna call the stars
    Down from the sky
    I wanna live a day
    That never dies
    I wanna change the world
    Only for you
    All the impossible
    I wanna do

    I wanna hold you close
    Under the rain
    I wanna kiss your smile
    And feel the pain
    I know what’s beautiful
    Looking at you
    In a world of lies
    You are the truth

    And baby
    Everytime you touch me
    I become a hero
    I’ll make you safe
    No matter where you are
    And bring you
    Everything you ask for
    Nothing is above me
    I’m shining like a candle in the dark
    When you tell me that you love me

    I wanna make you see
    Just what I was
    Show you the loneliness
    And what it does
    You walked into my life
    To stop my tears
    Everything’s easy now
    I have you here

    And baby
    Everytime you touch me
    I become a hero
    I’ll make you safe
    No matter where you are
    And bring you
    Everything you ask for
    Nothing is above me
    I’m shining like a candle in the dark
    When you tell me that you love me

    In a world without you
    I would always hunger
    All I need is your love to make me stronger

    And baby
    Everytime you touch me
    I become a hero
    I’ll make you safe
    No matter where you are
    And bring you
    Everything you ask for
    Nothing is above me
    I’m shining like a candle in the dark
    When you tell me that you love me

    You love me
    When you tell me that you love me

    Writer(s): John Bettis
    Copyright: John Bettis Music


    Diana Ross – When You Tell Me That You Love Me 1991 & 2004 …

    5 Jan 2009 – 6 menit – Diunggah oleh NilesNL69
    ► 5:45


    Westlife with Diana Ross – When You Tell Me That You Love Me …

    http://www.youtube.co.id/watch?v=MwSL-57pNqM

    3 Okt 2009 – 4 menit – Diunggah oleh westlifeVEVO
    ► 4:01


     
  • Virtual Chitchatting 6:30 PM on 2014/05/29 Permalink  

    rentangkanlah tanganmu


    USAH KAU LARA SENDIRI, Katon Bagaskara feat Ruth Sahanaya …

    13 Des 2010 – 4 menit – Diunggah oleh Katon Bagaskara
    ► 4:15


    Usah Kau Lara Sendiri
    KLA Project
    Katon Bagaskara – Ruth Sahanaya

    Kulihat mendung menghalangi pancaran wajahmu
    Tak terbiasa kudapati terdiam mendura
    Apa gerangan bergemuruh di ruang benakmu
    Sekilas kalau mata ingin berbagi cerita

    Kudatang sahabat bagi jiwa
    Saat batin merintih
    Usah kau lara sendiri
    Masih ada asa tersisa …

    Dekapkanlah tanganmu di atas bahuku
    Biar terbagi beban itu dan tegar dirimu
    Di depan sana cahya kecil ‘tuk memandu
    Tak hilang arah kita berjalan
    … menghadapinya …

    Sekali sempat kau mengeluh kuatkah bertahan
    Satu persatu jalinan kawan beranjak menjauh
    Kudatang sahabat bagi jiwa
    Saat batin merintih
    Usah kau lara sendiri
    Masih ada asa tersisa …

    Dekapkanlah tanganmu di atas bahuku
    Biar terbagi beban itu dan tegar dirimu
    Di depan sana cahya kecil ‘tuk membantu
    Tak hilang arah kita berjalan
    … menghadapinya …

    … music …

    Dekapkanlah tanganmu di atas bahuku
    Biar terbagi beban itu dan tegar dirimu
    Di depan sana cahya kecil ‘tuk membantu
    Tak hilang arah kita berjalan
    … menghadapinya …
    Tak hilang arah kita menjalaninya
    … menghadapinya … (usah kau lara sendiri)


    The Creation of Adam

    The Creation of Adam is a fresco painting by Michelangelo, forming part of the Sistine Chapel ceiling, painted circa 1511–1512. It illustrates the Biblical creation narrative from the Book of Genesis in which God breathes life into Adam, the first man. The fresco is part of a complex iconographic scheme and is chronologically the fourth in the series of panels depicting episodes from Genesis. It is the most well-known of the Sistine Chapel fresco panels, and its fame as a piece of art is rivaled only by the Mona Lisa by Leonardo da Vinci.

    The image of the near-touching hands of God and Adam has become iconic of humanity and has been reproduced in countless imitations and parodies. Leonardo da Vinci’s Last Supper and Michelangelo’s Creation of Adam are the most replicated religious paintings of all time.


     
  • Virtual Chitchatting 6:19 PM on 2014/05/26 Permalink  

    Bisnis pendidikan di Indonesia yang melegalisir kekerasan, bullying, senioritas, militerisme pendidikan, pendidikan wajib militer


    Kekerasan sebagai Prilaku, Budaya, dan Politik

    http://mayachitchatting.wordpress.com/2011/02/19/kekerasan-sebagai-prilaku-budaya-dan-politik/


    http://robmok.wordpress.com/2007/03/13/kekerasan-di-sekolah-sekolah-sok-militer/

    http://www.kombor.com/2007/03/kekerasan-di-sekolah-sekolah-sok.html

    Kekerasan di sekolah-sekolah SOK MILITER!!!
    20070313

    Catatan: Tulisan ini merupakan request dari dr. Dani Iswara

    Lagi!!! Kekerasan Di lingkungan Pendidikan, itu yang ditulis oleh layudhi. Sayang tidak ada pendapat dia di posting tersebut karena dia tidak tahu mau berkomentar apa lagi.

    Saya sengaja memberi judul komentar ini dengan Kekerasan di sekolah-sekolah SOK MILITER!!! karena memang sekolah-sekolah SOK MILITER-lah yang menghasilkan anak didik yang gemar melakukan kekerasan sampai membunuh. Mari kita coba ingat-ingat, sebelum kekerasan di STTD ini, kita sudah disuguhi kekerasan di STPDN. STPDN dan STTD keduanya kalau tidak salah merupakan sekolah kedinasan. Yang satu di lingkungan Departemen Dalam Negeri, yang satu dari Departemen Perhubungan. Ajaib toh…, sekolah kedinasan bukannya menciptakan calon pelayan rakyat, pengabdi negara yang adidaya melainkan menciptakan tukang jotos yang bisa membunuh sesama calon pengabdi negara. Tanya ken..napaaaa…

    Pendidikan ala militer adalah penyebabnya

    Dalam pengamatan saya yang ngawur ini, hal utama yang menjadi penyebab sekolah-sekolah kedinasan itu menghasilkan sebagian mahasiswa (di STTD disebut taruna, di STPDN disebut praja) tukang jotos dan bisa membunuh adalah karena mereka menerapkan sistem yang SOK MILITER. Dalam pendidikannya mereka:

    1. menerapkan sistem senior – junior
    2. menempatkan senior sebagai penguasa di lingkungan pendidikan
    3. menerapkan disiplin ala militer
    4. mahasiswa sok tahu cara-cara militer menghukum juniornya

    Di Akademi Angkatan Bersenjata (Akmil, AAU, AAL) dan Akpol memang diterapkan sistem senior – junior. Senior memiliki fasilitas yang lebih daripada junior. Ada hukum tidak tertulis di akademi-akademi itu yang berbunyi: (1) Senior selalu benar (2) Junior selalu salah (3) Kalau ada senior salah, lihat peratiran nomer 1. Senior ditempatkan sebagai penguasa dan tidak boleh dilawan oleh junior. Kalau junior kelihatan membandel, sok melawan atau tindak-tanduknya tidak mrenani ing penggalihe senior, maka si junior itu akan menerima pembinaan dari senior-seniornya. Jangan harap kata pembinaan ini memberikan arti yang positif…

    Wujud Pembinaan ala militer

    Kata pembinaan mungkin diasosiasikan dengan sesuatu yang baik. Dibina bisa berarti dibentuk (dilatih, dinasehati) untuk menjadi lebih baik. Itu yang ada di kepala kita. Akan tetapi, di kepala para taruna junior, kata pembinaan bisa berakibat pada cideranya anggota badan, atau, paling berat bisa berakibat nyawa melayang.

    Pembinaan yang dilakukan oleh para senior bisa dilakukan dengan cara:

    1. memanggil junior untuk datang menghadap
    2. menculiknya malam-malam dari baraknya

    Saya yakin banyak yang akan membantah hal ini tetapi, itulah yang sebenarnya terjadi di lingkungan pendidikan itu. Senior akan memanggil junior untuk menghadap. Junior yang dipanggil menghadap bisa satu saja atau dalam rombongan tergantung si senior ingin berapa orang junior yang dipanggil. Nah, dalam acara pembinaan itu, ada beberapa hal yang bisa diterima oleh junior:

    1. dimaki-maki oleh senior
    2. kena pukulan tiga setengah kancing alias pukulan tepat pada ulu hati
    3. pukulan dan tendangan dari para senior
    4. melakukan sikap-sikap tobat
    5. memakan makanan baru sampai makanan basi, bisa juga memakan hal-hal yang tidak layak dimakan.

    Kalau junior hanya dimaki-maki saja lalu disuruh memijit, itu adalah karunia yang tiada tara karena mereka tidak akan mendapat cidera fisik. Kalau lebih dari itu, si junior mungkin bisa saja hanya mengernyit kesakitan, memar-memar, sampai patah tulang. Biasanya tulang iga yang patah karena dipukul pakai tangan kosong atau pakai benda tumpul (kalau di akademi angkatan bersenjata biasanya popor) atau tendangan dengan kaki bersepatu.

    Selain dipukul atau ditendang, bisanya junior juga diminta memperagakan sikap-sikap tobat. Sikap tobat ini bentuknya macam-macam. Yang paling ringan adalah angkat kaki sebelah. Lalu ada pula kayang, ada pula yang disuruh membuat bentuk dengan kedua tangan berpegangan dipunggung dan kepala ditempelkan di lantai lalu pantat diangkat tinggi-tinggi dan kaki lurus. Sikap terakhir ini kalau dilakukan dalam waktu lama cukup menyiksa juga.

    Ada juga sikap tobat yang dilakukan dengan melentangkan kedua tangan di antara dua lemari yang didekatkan. Karena lemari itu cukup tinggi, otomatis badan akan menggantung dengan topangan dua lengan kanan dan kiri yang masing-masing diletakkan di lemari. Pasti pegel banget…

    Makanan… ya, makanan. Senior entah sengaja atau tidak ada kalanya menyimpan kudapan mereka sampai basi. Mungkin memang otak para senior itu disesaki dengan pikiran untuk mengisengi juniornya sehingga mereka sengaja membasikan kudapan untuk dijejalkan ke mulut junior yang sedang dibina. Senior akan sangat bahagia melihat juniornya melalap semua makanan basi itu sampai muntah-muntah. Kalau belum muntah, akan lebih banyak lagi makanan basi yang dijejalkan ke mulut junior.

    Oh ya, selain dipanggil baik-baik. Ada kalanya senior menculik junior dari baraknya pada waktu malam. Pada tahun 1993 Pra Akmil yang waktu itu sedang seleksi untuk masuk AKABRI dan bertetangga dengan Kotakta C (kotakta = komando taktis taruna) pernah akan menculik seorang teman Kang Kombor dari barak kami. Untung agenda penculikan itu bocor sehingga para Pra Akmil bodoh itu tidak menuai hasil ketika akan menculik teman Kang Kombor yang saat ini sudah menjadi perwira polisi. Pra Akmil adalah mereka-mereka yang mendaftar untuk menjadi Taruna AKABRI tetapi secara akademik belum memenuhi persyaratan sehingga perlu dibina di Akmil selama setahun untuk mengikuti seleksi lagi pad atahun berikutnya. Tahun 1993 itu selain Pra Akmil ada juga Pra AAU yang jumlahnya sedikit. Tidak seperti Pra Akmil yang sok jagoan (mungkin karena kalah saingan menggaet cewek-cewek Magelang), para Pra AAU itu lebih bersahabat.

    Perbaikan Sistem Kuncinya

    Pemecatan taruna-taruna pembunuh seperti yang dilakukan oleh pimpinan STPDN atau pun pimpinan STTD bukan merupakan obat paling mujarab untuk menghentikan tindakan-tindakan tidak edukatif itu. Sistem senior – junior yang diterapkan harus ditinjau ulang. Penerapan cara-cara mendidik seperti yang dilakukan di akademi-akademi angkatan bersenjata harus dihentikan. Sekolah-sekolah kedinasan itu dididirikan untuk menghasilkan para pejabat-pejabat sipil yang terampil di bidangnya, bukan untuk mencetak pejabat-pejabat yang mengerti taktik tempur atau pun membunuh lawan dengan singkat. Dalam Peratran Dinas Dalamnya, sebaiknya dituliskan dengan tegas jenis-jenis hukuman yang bisa diberikan oleh pengajar kepada taruna/praja dan senior kepada junior sesuai dengan bentuk-bentuk kesalahan yang ada.

    Entah mulainya dari mana, para senior di sekolah-sekolah seperti itu (juga di akademi angkatan bersenjata) sangatlah gemar mencari-cari kesalahan junior. Sekolah harus mengikis habis pikiran sesat itu. Para taruna/praja disekolahkan untuk menjadi pelayan publik, bukan menjadi jago interogasi atau menjadi detektif.

    Stop pendidikan ala militer! Sekolah-sekolah kedinasan bukan sekolah militer. Oleh karena itu, hentikanlah cara-cara sok militer yang selama ini diterapkan di sekolah-sekolah kedinasan. Tidak perlulah junior menghormat senior seperti di akademi angkatan bersenjata. Toh, kalau lulus sekolah pun mereka akan menemui lingkungan di mana mereka tidak perlu hormat pada atasan seperti tentara menghormat atasannya atau mereka yang berpangkat lebih tinggi.

    Jangan pisahkan senior dan junior di asrama. Akan lebih baik apabila dalam satu barak bisa terdapat senior dan junior. Hal ini akan menjadikan suasana yang berbeda. Senior dan junior akan menjadi akrab dan saling bantu dalam kebaikan. Kalau dipisah, pembinaan ala militer oleh senior kepada junior akan selalu terjadi.

    Pertunjukan ala pendidikan militer yang lain

    Keluarga korban terbunuh akan diberitahu kalau anggota keluarganya meninggal karena sakit. Sudahlah… tidak usah dibantah. Selama ini memang seperti itu kok yang terjadi di lingkungan pendidikan militer atau sekolah sok militer itu. Kalau ada yang terbubuh karena disiksa senior atau tewas ketika latihan (misalnya mati kena granat yang gagal dilempar atau tenggelam waktu latihan renang) maka kepada keluarga korban akan diinformasikan bahwa anggota keluarganya meninggal karena sakit. Ingat… biasanya peti mati tidak boleh dibuka sehingga keluarga korban tidak tahu yang di dalam peti mati itu korban atau sebuah guling… Hmm, maksudnya gini, supaya keluarga korban tidak menemukan kelainan-kelainan pada mayat korban.

    Apakah di SMA Taruna Nusantara ada hal-hal seperti itu?

    Hmm… sayangnya, dalam skala-skala yang lebih rendah zaman saya dulu ada. Tidak tahu kalau sekarang. Memang pemukulan-pemukulan terhadap adik kelas bisa dikatakan mendekati nol. Pukulan tiga setengah kancing meniru Sersan Mayor Taruna memukul Prajurit Taruna dulu sempat terjadi. Yang paling jamak terjadi di lingkungan SMA Taruna Nusantara adalah meminta adik kelas memakan kudapan sampai teler. Bukan kudapan basi melainkan kudapan baru. Tapi, kalau kudapan satu barak dikumpulkan semua untuk dimakan dua sampai tiga orang tentunya akan klenger juga.

    Saya merupakan siswa yang anti terhadap segala bentuk pembinaan kakak kelas kepada adik kelas. Apalagi, para kakak kelas itu memang sangat terlihat sekali belajar dari para taruna AKMIL mengenai cara-cara senior membina junior. Untuk yang mau masuk akademi angkatan bersenjata, mungkin hal itu dipandang sebagai latihan kalau-kalau mereka nanti dibina oleh senior atau membina junior. Well… saya katakan waktu itu, kita ini SMA dan tidak semua orang mau masuk AKABRI.

    Mudah-mudahan, acara-acara biadab sekecil apa pun bentuknya sudah benar-benar hilang di lingkungan SMA Taruna Nusantara.

    Pesan:
    Mohon maaf kalau terlalu apa adanya. Saya yakin banyak yang tidak suka dengan tulisan apa adanya ini, terutama bagi mereka yang mempraktekkan apa-apa yang saya tulis di atas.


    http://muradi.wordpress.com/2007/06/15/reformasi-brimob-polri-antara-tradisi-militer-dan-kultur-polisi-sipil/

    Reformasi Brimob Polri: Antara Tradisi Militer dan Kultur Polisi Sipil
    June 15, 2007

    I. Pendahuluan
    Permasalahan yang mendasar dalam proses transformasi kelembagaan Polri dari polisi dengan karakter militeristik menjadi polisi sipil adalah adanya faktor berpengaruh yang menghambat proses tersebut. Faktor tersebut banyak orang menuding dengan keberadaan Brigade Mobil (Brimob) Polri. kesatuan elit di Polri tersebut dianggap sebagai batu sandungan bagi proses penataan kelembagaan di Polri, karena paramiliter yang melekat di kesatuan tersebut. Bahkan sebagian kecil masyarakat menganggap bahwa Brimob layak untuk dibubarkan, agar proses transformasi tersebut dapat dijalankan.

    Setelah hampir delapan tahun berpisah dari TNI, sebagai ‘organisasi induk’, Polri masih menyisakan permasalahan pada permasalahan penataan kelembagaan dan kultur organisasi. Brimob secara kelembagaan memang sudah menyesuaikan diri dengan apa yang menjadi agenda Polri. Hanya saja, proses yang dirasakan terlalu lamban, untuk Brimob sendiri, sehingga dianggap tidak ikhlas melakukan perubahan. Di sinilah pangkal kunci, mengapa Brimob masih menjadi kerikil dari sepatu besar Polri.
    Proses perubahan, atau dalam bahasa internal Brimob sebagai penyesuaian dengan agenda Polri menambah beban psikologis di tubuh Brimob sendiri. Karena sejatinya, keberadaan Brimob sejak kali pertama terbentuk, telah difokuskan pada kekhususan penegakan hukum gangguan keamanan tingkat tinggi, yang tidak bisa dilakukan oleh anggota Polri biasa. Sehingga, pengadobsian warna militeristiknya juga menjadi satu kesadaran tersendiri, ketika terintegrasi secara formal dalam tubuh Polri. Sehingga ketika ‘dipaksa’ menanggalkan berbagai atribut kemiliteran yang telah melekat sejak tahun 1946, maka ada semangat penolakan yang sistematik, karena menyangkut esprit de corps.

    Tulisan ini akan membahas tentang proses reformasi yang terjadi di tubuh Brimob Polri, respon-respon yang dilakukan, termasuk pola pembinaan, operasional, dan struktur yang ada. Di samping itu akan dibahas juga bagaimana proses pergeseran dari tradisi yang sepenuhnya militeristik menjadi tradisi yang bercampur antara tradisi militeristik, dan tradisi sipil yang hendak dikembangkan.

    II. Lahir dari Tradisi Militeristik
    Brigade Mobil (Brimob) Polri sejak pembentukannya, 14 November 1946 merupakan respon dari Polri untuk bersama-sama dengan elemen bangsa lainnya mempertahankan kemerdekaan dari upaya Belanda dan sekutunya untuk kembali menjajah Indonesia. Hal ini tercermin dari upaya segenap anggota Brimob dan Polri ketika itu untuk mengintegrasikan diri dan bahu membahu dalam mempertahankan kemerdekaan bersama rakyat dan unsur TNI, disamping peran dan fungsinya dalam penegakan hukum. Apalagi secara eksplisit, Polri juga ikut dalam setiap langkah dan kebijakan dari pemerintah yang menyangkut penjagaan pada eksistensi bangsa dan negara dari rongrongan pihak asing dan upaya pemberontakan dengan dalih menganti ideologi dan dasar negara dengan yang lain, seperti yang tercermin pada Pemberontakan PKI Madiun 1948, yang ditumpas oleh Divisi Siliwangi, TNI, rakyat, serta Polri.

    Setelah kemerdekaan penuh direngkuh oleh rakyat dan bangsa Indonesia, Brimob tidak berhenti mengabdikan diri pada Ibu Pertiwi. Berbagai pemberontakan dan gerakan separatisme, yang mengancam keamanan dalam negeri (Kamdagri), dan eksistensi republik ini. Brimob menjadi satuan Polri yang terdepan untuk memadamkan berbagai pemberontakan dan gerakan separatisme bersama TNI. Pada masa Orde Lama ini, ternyata peran dan fungsi Polri tidak terbatas pada upaya penegakan hukum, preventif dan represif saja, tapi juga pada peran dan fungsi yang berkaitan dengan wilayah politik, serta bersama-sama dengan TNI terlibat dalam operasi penumpasan gerakan pemberontakan seperti Pemberontakan Andi Aziz, PRRI/Permesta, APRA, DI/TII, dan lain sebagainya.
    Kembali ke awal pembentukannya, Brimob Polri merupakan bagian dari metamorfosis polisi paramiliter bentukan Jepang dan Belanda ketika kedua negara tersebut menjajah bangsa ini. Pada tahun 1912, ketika masa penjajahan Belanda satuan polisi bersenjata dibentuk dengan nama Gewapende Politie dan digantikan oleh satuan lain bernama Veld Politie, tugasnya antara lain: bertindak sebagai unit reaksi cepat, menjaga ketertiban dan keamanan masyarakat, mempertahankan hukum sipil, menghindarkan munculnya suasana yang memerlukan bantuan militer, serta konsolidasi atas wilayah yang dikuasai.

    Bisa dikatakan Gewarpende Politie dan kemudian Veld Politie merupakan bagian dari unit pemadaman pemberontakan yang efektif, sebelum militer akhirnya turun tangan, sebab kedua kesatuan tersebut sesunguhnya merupakan bentuk lunak dari pasukan bersenjata selain militer.

    Sementara itu, ketika masa pendudukan Jepang, juga tidak kalah sigapnya untuk membentuk pasukan paramiliter pada April 1944, yang dikenal dengan Tokubetsu Keisatsu Tai, yang anggota terdiri dari para polisi muda dan pemuda polisi didikan Jepang. Tokubetsu Keisatsu Tai ini lebih terlatih dari pasukan polisi istimewa pada masa penjajahan Belanda. Selain diasramakan, polisi istimewa Jepang ini mendapatkan pendidikan dan latihan kemiliteran dari tentara Jepang. Tokubetsu Keisatsu Tai memiliki tugas dan tanggung jawab dalam bidang Kamtibmas, dan sekaligus di front pertempuran.

    Masa Tokubetsu Keisatsu Tai ini ternyata telah diupayakan menyebar ke wilayah-wilayah, di mana setiap kesatuan Tokubetsu Keisatsu Tai dibawah perintah kepala polisi keresidenan. Setiap wilayah memiliki variasi jumlah personil , yang berkisar antara 60 hingga 200 personil, tergantung kondisi dan situasi wilayah. Komandan kompi dari Tokubetsu Keisatsu Tai tersebut umumnya berpangkat Itto Keibu (Letnan Satu/Inspektur Satu). Salah satu komandan Tokubetsu Keisatsu Tai adalah Inspektur M. Jasin yang menjadi ‘Bapak Pendiri’ Brimob Polri dengan memaklumatkan pendirian polisi istimewa, atau pasukan polisi istimewa, atau Barisan Polisi Istimewa, yang merupakan cikal bakal dari Brigade Mobil (Brimob). Penamaan yang tidak satu tersebut kemudian mengundang permasalahan, karena satu sama lain merasa bahwa penamaan tersebut mencitrakan sebuah persaingan tidak terbuka antara pengusung nama-nama tersebut. Atas inisiatif Komisaris Tk. I Soemarto, yang menjabat sebagai Wakil Kepala Kepolisian Negara untuk mengubah nama polisi istimewa tersebut dengan Mobile Brigade (Mobrig)

    Perubahan nama tersebut memang sejalan dengan langkah untuk mempertegas eksistensi polisi istimewa dalam struktur Polri, dengan terbitnya Surat Perintah Kepala Muda Kepolisian No. Pol: 12/78/91, yang memerintahkan Inspektur M. Jasin untuk mempersiapkan berbagai hal untuk pembentukan Mobile Brigade (Mobrig), yang dilanjutkan dengan Mobile Brigade Karesidenan (MBK) berkekuatan satu kompi, struktur ini mengadopsi struktur Tokubetsu Keisatsu Tai.

    Pada masa Orde Lama, Mobrig menjadi kesatuan khusus yang dimiliki Polri dengan pengkhususan pada gangguan keamanan dan ketertiban tingkat tinggi, seperti konflik dan gerakan separatisme. Hal ini mendorong upaya penyempurnaan organisasi. Meski hanya bersifat sementara dan koordinatif, di tingkat karesidenan MBK diubah menjadi Rayon Mobrig dan MBB di tingkat provinsi diubah menjadi kompi reserve (cadangan). Di tingkat pusat dibentuk koordinator dan inspektur Mobile Brigade yang berkewajiban mengurusi pasukan Mobrig yang berkedudukan di Purwokerto dengan tugas membantu Kepala Djawatan Kepolisian Negara berkaitan dengan Mobrig. Sementara di tingkat provinsi dibentuk Koordinator dan Inspektur Mobile Brigade yang berkewajiban mengurusi pasukan Mobrig di daerah yang berkeduduakn di provinsi, di mana konsekuensinya di tiap kabupaten dibentuk kompi-kompi Mobrig.

    Mobrig kemudian ditingkatkan statusnya , yang semula setingkat kompi, maka berdasarkan Surat Keputusan Departemen Kepolisian Negara No. Pol: 13/MB/1959 tertanggal 25 April 1959 ditingkatkan statusnya menjadi setingkat batalyon, sementara koordinator daerah Mobrig diubah menjadi Komandemen Daerah serta Koordinator Mobile Brigade Djawatan Kepolisian Negara diubah menjadi komandemen Mobile Brigade Pusat, yang juga diubah lagi menjadi Komandemen Mobrig Pusat.

    Menjelang Ulang Tahun Mobrig ke 16, Menteri Kepala Kepolisian Negara mengeluarkan surat order (Perintah) dengan nomor: Y.M. No. Pol: 23/61 tertanggal 16 Agustus 1961, di mana berisi penetapan hari ulang tahun, dengan Inspektur Upacara Presiden Soekarno, yang mengubah sebutan Mobrig menjadi Brigade Mobil, atau Brimob. Akan tetapi pada perjalanannya, perubahan penamaan tersebut tidak memberikan satu persfektif bahwa penamaan tersebut kurang memberikan penekan akan pentingnya integralitas Brimob sebagai bagian dari kesatuan yang ada di Polri. justru perwatakan Brimob mengarah pada pengentalan karakteristik militer yang sesungguhnya bertolak belakang dengan esensi Polri sebagai organisasi pengelola keamanan yang berwatak sipil.

    Justru yang makin menarik adalah dari berbagai proses perubahan ketatanegaraan dan legal formalnya, hingga terbitnya UU Pokok Kepolisian No. 13/1961 yang mempertegas posisi Polri sebagai salah satu unsur ABRI. Perubahan tersebut mendorong internalisasi nilai militeristik dalam tubuh dan struktur Polri. Apalagi sejak dikeluarkannya Keppres No. 155/1965 tanggal 6 Juli 1965 tentang disamakannya pendidikan pada level akademi bagi ABRI dan Polri. Setelah itu dikembalikan ke masing-masing akademinya. Hal ini jelas mengubah perwajahan Polri dari sipil ke militer, dengan berbagai atribut yang dikenakannya. Permasalahan yang kemudian muncul adalah, bahwa Polri merupakan institusi sipil yang harus mencitrakan dirinya sebagai bagian dari sipil dalam operasionalnya. Tak terkecuali Brimob.

    Brimob yang sejak awal memang kesatuan paramiliter yang merupakan kesatuan khusus Polri makin mengentalkan warna militeristiknya ketika Polri disatukan dengan TNI dengan nama ABRI, warna militeristik makin kental, bukan hanya terbatas pada satuan Brimob saja, melainkan menjadi bagian dari kultur di Polri. Bahkan hal tersebut makin menguatkan kultur militeristik yang meresap di satuan Brimob. Perubahan ini sangat mempengaruhi kinerja Polri, dan Brimob pada khususnya dalam mengoperasionalkan peran dan fungsinya sebagai alat keamanan negara. Upaya mendorong agar proses demokrasi sebagai bagian dari komitmen Polri dalam mewujudkan Keamanan Dalam Negeri (Kamdagri) yang kondusif hampir tidak terjadi.

    Penekanan bahwa tugas Brimob dalam bidang Kamtibmas gangguan tingkat tinggi dan di front pertempuran, terkoreksi dengan keluarnya Surat Keputusan Kapolri No. Pol.: SK/05/III/1972, tertanggal 2 Maret 1972 tentang Refungsionalisasi dan Reorganisasi Organisasi Brimob, yang mengurangi peran front tempur dan militernya. Di samping itu Surat Keputusan tersebut menempatkan Brimob kembali pada esensi awal pendiriannya yakni di bawah komando langsung Kapolda, sama ketika organisasi Brimob kali pertama dengan nama MBK tersebut.

    Mengacu kepada SK tersebut pula, tugas dan fungsi Brimob dipangkas tidak lagi pada tugas tempur militer, tapi fungsi satuan bantuan operasional taktis kepolisian, guna menghadapi kriminalitas tingkat tinggi. Sehingga bentuk organisasinya juga tidak lagi bersifat korps yang bersifat vertikal, namun kesatuan yang dibatasi hanya sampai pada tingkat batalyon kedudukan kompi-kompi yang berdiri sendiri (BS), menjadi organik pada komando-komando kewilayahan Polri (Polda).

    Perubahan struktur organisasi tersebut hanya bertahan selama sebelas tahun, karena pada 14 November 1983, struktur Brimob kembali dirubah, dengan benar-benar melikuidasi keberadaan batalyon dan Kompi BS. Hal ini berarti ada penyempitan dengan keberadaan batalyon dan kompi dari mulai pertama pembentukannya hingga Surat Keputusan Polri No. Pol.: Skep/522/XI/1983, digantikan dengan pembentukan Satuan Brimob, yang membawahi kompi-kompi non-BS.

    Harus diakui bahwa rentang waktu antara tahun 1972 hingga 1983 posisi Brimob secara langsung menjadi ‘kaki tangan’ dari ABRI, yang secara organisasi melakukan sub ordinat kepada Polri, dan Brimob. Hal ini mempengaruhi psikologis anggota Brimob khususnya dikemudian hari. Tekanakan psikologis tersebut terkait perasaan lebih rendah, dan tidak lebih baik dibandingkan dengan personil ABRI lainnya. Bahkan dimasyarakat berkembang anekdot Brimob dikenal dengan “polisi bukan, tentara belum” , karena ketidakjelasan ‘kelamin’ Brimob Polri. Selama kurun waktu tersebut praktik-praktik militeristik sudah merupakan keseharian dalam perjalanan Brimob Polri. Hal ini ditopang karena rejim yang berkuasa cenderung melegitimasi.

    Yang menarik pada tahun 1996, validasi dan peningkatan status Brimob, yakni menjadi badan pelaksana pusat, yang berkedudukan dibawah Kapolri. Konsekuensinya tentu saja jabatan perwira menengah, dari setingkat kolonel (komisaris besar/Kombes) menjadi perwira bintang satu (brigadir jenderal), yang kali pertama di jabat oleh Brigjen Pol. Drs. Sutiyono. Peningkatan status ini juga berpengaruhi pada tugas dan pokok Brimob Polri, yakni: Membina kemampuan dan mengerahkan kekuatan Brimob guna menanggulangi gangguan Kamtibmas berkadar tinggi, utamanya kerusuhan massa, kejahatan terorganisir bersenjata api, atau bahan peledak, serta bersama-sama dengan unsur pelaksana operasional kepolisian lainnya mewujudkan tertib hukum dan ketentraman masyarakat di seluruh wilayah yuridiksi nasional Republik Indonesia.

    Harus diakui bahwa proses validasi tersebut merupakan bagian penorehan sejarah bagi eksistensi Brimob, karena pengakuan bahwa Brimob bukan lagi institusi pelengkap saja, tapi merupakan institusi penting dalam jajaran Polri. Karena kurang lebih tiga puluh tahun, status Brimob selama Orde Baru, lebih banyak menjadi alat kekuasaan bukan alat negara. Brimob menjelma menjadi aparat kekuasaan yang menjaga kelanggengankekuasaan Orde Baru. Bahkan dengan motto: “Sekali Melangkah Pantang Menyerah, Sekali Tampil Harus Berhasil”, nampak mencitrakan kekecaman dan menghalalkan segala cara, dalam rangka tugas pokoknya. Motto tersebut memberikan satu persfektif bahwa Brimob masih sangat dipengaruhi oleh jargon dan slogal berbau militeristik, sehingga dicap sebagai pelanggeng budaya militer di internal Polri. Apalagi secara garis besar, prilaku anggota Brimob mencitrakan perbedaan antara kesatuan tersebut dengan kesatuan lain di internal Polri.

    Dan menjelang kejatuhan Orde Baru, Brimob juga menjadi sasaran kecaman masyarakat karena praktik kekerasan yang dilakukan Brimob Polri. Upaya menggeser gerbong Brimob agar lebih condong ke sisi sipil terus dilakukan, dengan melakukan internalisasi nilai-nilai polisi sipil dalam kurikulum dan operasional di lapangan. Dan usaha tersebut belum membuahkan hasil yang maksimal, perubahan yang dibangun dengan mengikuti arus reformasi tidak serta merta mengubah paradigma Brimob secara esensial, karena perubahan yang terjadi lebih banyak parsial, dan lipservice saja. Karena hingga kejatuhan Soeharto, Brimob masih mewartakan diri sebagai polisi paramiliter yang memiliki kekhasan dan warna militeristik yang kental.

    III. Brimob dan Democratic Policing
    Perubahan yang signifikan pada posisi dan peran Polri seiring dengan era reformasi, yang mana ditandai dengan keputusan politik memisahkan Polri dari institusi dan garis komando TNI pada 1 April 1999 dengan adanya Inpres No. 2 Tahun 1999 . Karena mendapatkan dukungan publik yang luas, maka keputusan tersebut ditetapkan dalam Tap MPR/VI/2000 tentang pemisahan ABRI (TNI dan Polri) serta Tap MPR/VII/2000 tentang peran kedua lembaga tersebut dengan menempatkan TNI di bawah Departemen Pertahanan, khusus Polri berada langsung di bawah Presiden. Tindak lanjut dari keluarnya kedua Tap MPR tersebut adalah dikeluarkannya UU No. 2 Tahun 2002 Tentang Kepolisian Negara Republik Indonesia dan UU No. 3 Tahun 2002 Tentang Pertahanan Negara, yang berkaitan juga dengan peran dan posisi TNI dalam peran perbantuannya pada Polri.

    Dalam persfektif yang lebih umum, Polisi masih dikelompokkan ke dalam militer, sehingga yang disebut orang sipil adalah mereka yang bukan militer dan juga bukan polisi. Polisi masih dikategorikan militer karena sama dengan militer, masih memikul citra “having force and power”. Maka menjadi polisi sipil adalah mendekonstruksi pekerjaan polisi menjadi suatu kekuatan publik yang sejauh mungkin mengambil jarak dari “suatu force yang berbasis power”.

    Polisi Sipil selain sebagai paradigma juga merupakan tujuan dari reformasi itu sendiri. Oleh karena itu, pada dasarnya perubahan-perubahan yang dilaksanakan tidak dapat dilaksanakan secara parsial tetapi secara simultan, sehingga akan menghasilkan sinergi yang menjadi percepatan dalam mencapai tujuan yaitu terwujudnya Polisi Sipil. Beberapa parameter yang menjadi indikator Polisi Sipil, yakni : Profesional dan proposional, demokrasi, menjunjung tinggi HAM, Transparansi, akuntabilitas, supremasi hukum, dan sikap protagonis. Oleh karenannya perubahan struktural harus diikuti dengan perubahan instrumental dan kultural.

    Mengembalikan peran dan posisi Polri sebagai institusi yang terfokus pada keamanan dalam negeri dipertegas dalam UU No. 2 Tahun 2002, Pasal 2, Pasal 4, dan Pasal 5. Pada Pasal 2 dijelaskan megenai fungsi kepolisian adalah salah satu fungsi pemerintahan negara di bidang pemeliharaan keamanan dan ketertiban masyarakat, penegakan hukum, perlindungan, pengayoman, dan pelayanan kepada masyarakat. Sementara pada Pasal 4 ditegaskan tujuan dari Polri, yakni mewujudkan keamanan dalam negeri yang meliputi terpeliharanya keamanan dan ketertiban masyarakat, tertib dan tegaknya hukum, terselenggaranya perlindungan, pengayoman, dan pelayanan kepada masyarakat, serta terbinanya ketentraman masyarakat dengan menjunjung tinggi hak asasi manusia (HAM). Sedangkan pada Pasal 5 ditegaskan kembali peran dari Polri yang merupakan alat negara yang berperan dalam memelihara keamanan dan ketertiban masyarakat, menegakkan hukum, serta memberikan perlindungan, pengayoman, dan pelayanan kepada masyarakat dalam rangka terpeliharanya keamanan dalam negeri dalam kultur polisi sipil.

    Turunan dari pasal-pasal tersebut di atas, Brimob menjabarkan tugas pokok dan fungsinya sebagai berikut:

    “Tugas Pokok Brimob Polri adalah melaksanakan dan menggerakkan kekuatan Brimob Polri guna menanggulangi gangguan Kamtibmas berkadar tinggi, utamanya kerusuhan massa, kejahatan terorganisir bersenjata api, bom, bahan kimia, biologi dan radioaktif bersama unsur pelaksana operasional kepolisian lainnya mewujudkan tertib hukum serta ketentraman masyarakat di seluruh wilayah yuridiksi Negara Kesatuan Republik Indonesia dan tugas-tugas lain yang dibebankan kepadanya”

    “Fungsi Brimob Polri adalah sebagai satuan pamungkas Polri yang memiliki kemampuan spesifik penanggulangan keamanan dalam negeri (Kamdagri) yang berkadar tinggi dan penyelamatan masyarakat yang didukung oleh personil terlatih dan memiliki kepemimpinan yang solid, peralatan, perlengkapan dengan teknologi modern”

    “Peran Brimob Polri adalah melakukan manuver, baik secara individual atau dalam kelompok dengan daya gerak, daya tembak, dan daya sergap untuk membatasi ruang gerak, melumpuhkan, menangkap para pelaku kejahatan beserta saksi dan barang bukti dengan cara: membantu, melengkapi, melindungi, memperkuat, dan menggantikan”

    Sedangkan yang perlu diketahui juga tentang kemampuan dari Brimob Polri, yang terbagi menjadi dua kemampuan, yakni:
    1. Strata Kemampuan:
    a. Strata Kemampuan Brimob: Kemampuan Dasar Kepolisian, PHH, Resmob, Jibom, Wanteror, dan SAR
    b. Strata Kemampuan Pelopor: Kemampuan Brimob Dasar plus kemampuan lawan gerilya/lawan insurjensi
    c. Strata Kemampuan Gegana: kemampuan pelopor plus operator Jibom, intelijen, dan kemampuan kimia, biologi, dan radio aktif
    d. Strata Kemampuan Instruktur: kemampuan gegana plus pengajaran dan latihan, pengkajian dan pengembangan

    2. Kemampuan Brimob Polri:
    a. Kemampuan Dasar Kepolisian
    b. Penanggulangan Huru-Hara (PHH)
    c. Reserse Mobil (Resmob)
    d. Jihandak/Jibom (penjinakan bahan peledak/penjinakan bom)
    e. Perlawanan Teror (Wanteror)
    f. Search and Rescue (SAR)

    Jadi sesungguhnya sudah sangat jelas bahwa Brimob Polri mencoba mempertegas jati dirinya sebagai bagian integral dari Polri sebagai bagian untuk mendorong terciptanya tata pemerintahan yang baik (good governance). Oleh sebab itu, peningkatan kualitas kinerja kepolisian mutlak harus dilakukan secara terus menerus, berkelanjutan, dan harus dilaksanakan secara sungguh-sungguh oleh seluruh jajaran anggota Polri. Kepala Kepolisian Negara Republik Indonesia (Kapolri) sebagai pucuk pimpinan tertinggi organisasi Polri, telah melakukan terobosan untuk menjawab tuntutan reformasi, khususnya dalam reformasi perwujudan kultur poisi sipil dengan mengeluarkan Surat Keputusan Kapolri No. Pol : Skep/1320/VIII/1998, tanggal 31 Agustus 1998 mengenai Buku Petunjuk Lapangan tentang Peningkatan Pelayanan Polri dalam Era Reformasi. Brimob Polri pun meresponnya dengan mengeluarkan Buku Pedoman Pelaksanaan Opersional dan Pembinaan Brimob Polri sebagai tindak lanjut membangun dan mengembangkan satu kultur organisasi yang seirama dengan satuan-satuan lain di lingkungan Polri.

    Sementara yang berkaitan langsung dengan Brimob terbit Surat Keputusan Kapolri, No. Pol: Kep 53/X/2002 tertanggal 17 Oktober 2002 tentang Organisasi dan Tata Kerja Korps Brimob, maka sejak itu struktur organisasi Brimob mengalami perubahan lagi, di mana kepangkatan Komandan Korps Brimob menjadi bintang dua (Inspektur Jenderal), dan Irjen Pol. Drs. Yusuf Mangga Barani menjabat sebagai Kakorbrimob. Konsekuensinya juga ada perubahan struktur organisasi Brimob di daerah, dengan menghapus Kasi Intel pada satuan Brimob, dan menambahkan Subden Gegana di seluruh satuan Brimob, yang juga mengacu kepada Keputusan kapolri No Pol.: Kep/54/X/2002 tentang OTK Satuan-satuan Organisasi Kepolisian Daerah (Polda). Secara harfiah, perubahan ini mensiratkan langkah dan penataan Brimob untuk lebih terintegral dengan Polri. bahkan sebelum SK Kapolri No. 54 tersebut keluar, didahului keluarnya Surat Keputusan Kapolri No Pol: Skep/27/IX/2002 tentang Reformasi Brimob Polri, yang meliputi:
    a. Aspek Struktural
    1) Kekuatan Brimob Polri tidak terpusat (sentralisasi), tetapi lebih di arahkan kepada kewilayahan (desentralisasi pada tingkat Polda)
    2) Struktur organisasi tidak harus sama dengan struktur organisasi militer
    b. Aspek Instrumental
    1) Penyempurnaan piranti lunak yang berlaku di Brimob Polri mengarah dan mengacu kepada paradigma baru Polri, UU Polri, dan tuntutan masyarakat.
    2) Pengkajian secara terus menerus terhadap sistem dan metode oleh lingkungan Brimob Polri, guna mewujudkan anggota Brimob Polri sebagai pelindung, pengayom, dan pelayanan masyarakat serta penegak hukum yang profesional.
    c. Aspek Kultural
    1) Adanya perubahan yang signifikan dari perilaku anggota Brimob Polri yang militeristik menjadi anggota Brimob Polri yang berstatus sipil.
    2) Menghindari dan menghilangkan sifat kebanggan korps yang berlebihan dan arogan pada setiap perilaku anggota Brimob Polri dalam kehidupan sehari-hari di masyarakat maupun saat melaksanakan tugas.
    3) Mengimplementasikan penggunaan program yang komprehensif dan tepat dalam rangka memupuk loyalitas setiap personil Brimob Polri kepada misi organisasi, bukan pada pribadi atau pimpinan.

    Namun kenyataannya kultur polisi sipil belum bergeser jauh antara sebelum reformasi Polri dan setelah reformasi Polri. bahkan di satuan Brimob, perubahan tersebut belum nampak terlihat, hal ini dapat dilihat dengan kasat mata, di mana Brimob lebih menampakkan kesan militeristiknya dari pada satuan-satuan lainnya. Untuk itu perlu dicarikan solusinya tentang bagaimana strategi mengoptimalisasikan peran dan fungsi Brimob dalam kultur polisi sipil dalam memelihara keamanan dalam negeri (Kamdagri) untuk mewujudkan harapan dan kepercayaan masyarakat. Ketiga aspek yang ditegaskan dalam SK Kapolri tersebut belum sepenuhnya dapat diimplementasikan dengan efektif dan baik. Bahkan dalam berbagai proses selama tahun 1998 hingga tangun 2005, Brimob Polri yang bertugas di sejumlah daerah konflik seperti Aceh, Poso, Ambon, dan Papua menorehkan tinta negatif bagi upaya untuk menata dan mereformasi satuan khusus di lingkungan Polri tersebut.

    Di Aceh sepanjang kurun waktu tersebut terjadi berbagai pungli dan tindak kekerasan yang dilakukan oleh personil Brimob, selama kurun waktu 1998 hingga 2005, menyebutkan bahwa Brimob tergoda juga akhirnya melakukan berbagai aktivitas menyimpang, dari mulai pungli di pos perbatasan (check point), aktivitas ekonomi bayangan (Shadow economic), hingga pembekingan aktifitas kriminal, seperti penyelundupan, dan lain sebagainya.

    Kasus yang lebih menarik adalah penyimpangan tugas yang dilakukan Brimob Polri di Poso. Dalam sebuah paper ” Keterlibatan Polisi dalam Pemeliharaan Ketidakamanan di Sulawesi Tengah ” G. J. Aditjondro menyebutkan ada sekitar dua belas jenis keterlibatan oknum-oknum Polri dan Brimob dalam bisnis kelabu ini di wilayah Poso dan sekitarnya yakni (a) pemerasan secara langsung oleh ‘oknum’ berbaju seragam; (b) perlindungan bagi prostitusi terselubung; (c) sabung ayam; (d) bisnis satpam; (e) perburuan dan penyelundupan flora dan fauna langka; (f) perdagangan hasil hutan; (g) pengangkutan barang dan penumpang dengan kendaraan dinas; (h) bisnis pengawalan; (i) pungutan di pos-pos penjagaan; (j) proteksi properti milik pengusaha dan eks-pejabat tertentu; (k) bisnis proteksi operasi perusahaan-perusahaan bermodal besar; dan (l) perdagangan ilegal senjata api dan amunisi.

    Diluar penyimpangan tersebut adalah kekerasan yang dilakukan secara sistematis kepada masyarakat Poso, yang dilakukan oleh oknum Brimob Polri. Bahkan dalam penelitian awal yang dilakukan oleh penulis pada tahun 2005 lalu, ketidaksukaan masyarakat terhadap prilaku oknum Brimob Polri makin menjadi-jadi, dan hal tersebut terbukti saat beberapa kompi personil Brimob Polri sempat bentrok ketika ingin menangkap pelaku teror di awal tahun 2007 lalu.

    Terlepas dari proses reformasi yang tengah berjalan, Brimob Polri secara harfiah belum benar-benar melakukan reformasi internalnya secara menyeluruh, baru sebatas permukaan dan parsial saja. Hal ini dapat dilihat, misalnya pada struktur yang masih mengadopsi struktur militer, meski tidak secara penuh. Namun hal tersebut secara harfiah dipahami sebagai keengganan Brimob untuk melepas atribut dan kultur militeristik yang telanjur melekat. Meski demikian upaya terus dilakukan dengan mengganti motto Brimob, yang selama ini dianggap sangat militeristik, dari “Sekali Melangkah Pantang Menyerah, Sekali Tampil Harus Berhasil” menjadi “Jiwa Ragaku Demi Kemanusiaan”, filosofi dari motto tersebut sebenarnya lebih beradab dan bernuansa sipil. akan tetapi, pada pelaksanaannya memang belum dapat diimplementasikan secara maksimal.

    Kondisi ini menjadi catatan penting dalam evaluasi reformasi sektor keamanan, dalam hal ini Polri, yang menjadi titik lemah Polri dalam merajut kultur polisi sipil dan profesional dalam mewujudkan Keamanan Dalam Negeri (Kamdagri), sehingga perlu kembali ditegaskan tentang pentingnya mempercepat proses reformasi di internal Brimob. Langkah tersebut dilakukan dengan menerbitkan Surat Keputusan Kapolri No, Pol.: Kep/20/IX/2005 tertanggal 7 September 2005 tentang Rencana Strategis Kepolisian Negara Republik Indonesia 2005-2009, yang di dalamnya ditegaskan upaya Polri untuk memperbaiki dan mereposisi Brimob Polri sebagai satuan khusus polisi profesional dengan daya tangkal tinggi, akan tetapi berbeda fungsi dengan militer. Hal tersebut diperlukan bagi terwujudnya:
    a. Kemampuan menetralisir ancaman kekerasan terhadap masyarakat
    b. Memantapkan fungsi Brimob Polri dalam melawan insurgensi (separatisme) dengan cara bekerja sama dengan TNI
    c. Menerapkan proses rekrutmen dan seleksi Brimob yang lebih ketat dibandingkan polisi reguler
    d. Memberikan pengalaman magang dan pelatihan khusus berorientasi sipil yang berbeda sama sekali dengan militer.

    Terlepas dari berbagai kebijakan yang telah dibuat dan didukung agar Brimob Polri dapat mempertegas posisi Polri sebagai polisi sipil, namun realitas yang harus di lapangan justru sebaliknya. Tujuh hal yang menjadi titik krusial dan evaluasi bagi posisi Brimob dalam menopang reformasi Polri, yakni: Pertama, Meski kekuatan Brimob Polri tidak terpusat, namun dalam melakukan mobilisasi dan pengerahan masih tetap membutuhkan komando dari Mabes Polri, atau setidaknya Kakorbrimob. Hal ini sebenarnya relatif menyulitkan ketika terjadi di lapangan, di mana Brimob yang di-BKO-kan cenderung kurang sensitif dalam pengembangan tali komandonya dibandingkan dengan chain of command yang telah dibangun di masing-masing satuan brimob Polda. Sekedar contoh dalam pengerahan personil Brimob, Kapolres Poso, kesulitan melakukan pengerahan, karena tali komando tidak berada di tangannya sebagai penguasa kesatuan Operasional Dasar (KOD), melainkan pimpinan kompi, atau kesatuannya langsung.

    Kedua, meski berupaya menanggalkan struktur organisasi dan kultur militeristik, akan tetapi sepanjang delapan tahun Reformasi Polri bergulir, langkah tersebut tidak sepenuhnya berhasil. Justru hanya penamaannya saja diganti, tapi pola tali komando, serta atributnya tetap digunakan. Alhasil, secara kultur Brimob masih enggan menanggalkan baju dan kultur militernya. Contoh kasus yang paling mudah ditemukana adalah masih maraknya pendekatan kekerasan yang dilakukan oleh oknum Brimob di lapangan.

    Ketiga, upaya agar Brimob terintegral dengan agenda reformasi Mabes Polri terus dilakukan, namun efek positifnya masih belum nampak. Sekedar gambaran, keluarnya Surat Keputusan Kakorbrimob Polri No. Pol: Skep/94/X/2005 tentang Buku Pedoman Pelaksanaan Penerapan Perpolisian Masyarakat bagi Personil Brimob Polri, hingga saat ini belum mampu diterapkan oleh Brimob Polri.selain masalah perwatakan yang berlawanan, juga dikarenakan karakteristik pembentukan Brimob yang disiapkan menjadi personil pemukul.

    Keempat, penyempurnaan struktur dan berbagai bentuk pembinaan yang dilakukan masih dirasakan belum maksimal. Keluarnya Surak Keputusan Kepala Korps Brimob Polri No. Pol: Skep/115/XI/2006 tentang Buku Pedoman Pelaksanaan Operasional Brimob Polri juga masih menjadi wacana yang harus dipecahkan untuk dioperasionalisasikan. Hal ini masih nampak pada penyergapan buronan pelaku teror Poso, yang terjadi bentrok dengan masyarakat. Padahal dalam buku pedoman tersebut telah digarisbawahi tentang pentingnya mencitrakan Brimob sebagai institusi sipil yang profesional.

    Kelima, perubahan internal yang dilakukan pengkajian secara terus menerus terhadap sistem dan metode oleh lingkungan Brimob Polri, belum memberikan kontribusi yang efektif, karena terjadi kegamangan di internal Brimob Polri sendiri, apakah mengikuti arus perubahan dengan mengarahkan perubahan sebagaimana yang diharapkan oleh masyarakat, atau tetap bertahan dengan menjaga tradisi yang telah dibangun lebih dari 60 tahun lalu.

    Keenam, prilaku anggota Brimob di lapangan masih belum mencitrakan polisi sipil yang diharapkan oleh masyarakat. Watak militeristik masih nampak dalam proses menjalankan fungsinya. Pendekatan kekerasan masih dipraktikkan dalam berbagai permasalahan yang melibatkan Brimob, seperti di daerah konflik, dan kerusuhan massa.

    Ketujuh, ekslusivitas personil Brimob di antara satuan Polri yang lainnya. Bahkan dalam upaya penegakan hukum di ilayah konflik ataupun ancaman keamanan dengan intensitas tinggi, seperti pada bentrok massa dan petugas Polri dan Brimob di unjuk rasa pembebasan lahan untuk pembangunan lapangan terbang di Nusa Tenggara Barat beberapa waktu lalu.

    Kedelapan, Upaya pengembangan keterampilan dan keahlian personil Brimob masih sebatas pada keahlian profesional, belum keahlian pada penekanan untuk membangun interpersonal, sebagai salah satu prasyarat dari polisi sipil, dan kepolisian demokratik. Keahlian ini, meski telah didapat dalam keterampilan kepolisian dasar, namun ketika terintegral dalam kesatuan Brimob, keterampilan tersebut menyurut, dan berganti menjadi keterampilan dalam penegakan hukum pendekatan preventif dan represif.

    Kesembilan, rekruitmen personil Brimob Polri masih bersandar pada pola lama, yakni perekrutan dari jalur Akpol, bukan semata-mata karena minat, tapi penunjukkan atasan. Sementara di jalur non perwira, perekrutan terbatas pada penjaringan yang telah ada. Hasilnya memang tidak terukur, sehingga ketika yang muncul adalah semangat paramiliter, maka tidak bisa dipungkiri, hal tersebut merupakan bagian dari pola lama yang termanifes.

    Dari sembilan permasalahan tersebut, maka langkah dan upaya untuk menegaskan proses reformasi Brimob menjadi bagian yang tidak bisa ditunda lagi. Hal ini disebabkan karena posisi Brimob Polri yang sangat strategis dalam keluarga besar Polri. Sebab cepat atau lambat, Brimob Polri akan mengikuti arus, atau melawan arus dari perubahan tersebut. Dengan melawan arus, maka sejatinya Brimob tengah menggali kuburan bagi Polri, serta Polri sebagai organisasi induk Brimob akan terus mendapatkan kritik dan hujatan dari masyarakat, yang belum puas dengan performa Polri, selepas berpisah dari TNI delapan tahun lalu.

    Ada tujuh agenda yang harus menjadi prioritas bagi Brimob untuk menuntaskan agenda reformasi internal; mewujudkan Brimob Polri, sebagai polisi sipil yang profesional, yakni: Pertama, Melakukan penataan rekrutmen dan seleksi terhadap calon personil Brimob dengan baik. Ada dua model seleksi yang harus diterapkan secara serius; seleksi melalui jalur Akpol, dan seleksi bagi bintara dan tantama. Bila selama ini seleksi melalui jalur Akpol, setelah lulus dari Akpol maka para perwira pertama tersebut kemudian diplot ke Polda-polda yang ada. Dan dengan otoritas Kapolda dan atasannya si perwira muda ini kemudian mengambil kejuruan, ke pendidikan dan latihan Brimob Polri. Maka akan lebih baik, apabila keputusan untuk diplot ke Brimob Polri, didasari juga karena hasil analisis psikologi, minat dan bakat, serta kemampuan dasar, yang semuanya harus terukur. Sedangkan jalur bintara dan tantama, meski sudah benar, tapi upaya membaurkan dengan calon personil Polri lainnya harus terus diwacanakan dan kemudian direalisasikan.

    Kedua, perbaikan struktur organisasi Brimob yang tetap bersandar pada profesionalisme, dan kekhasan. Meski status Brimob sudah langsung di bawah Polri, bukan berarti Brimob telah tuntas dalam melaksanakan penataan internal. Justru Brimob menjadi satu bagian yang disorot, sebagai akibat dari belum banyak berubahnya kultur di Brimob. Perbaikan organisasi ini harus juga diupayakan untuk tetap berpatokan pada kepolisian demokratik.

    Ketiga, Melakukan berbagai pelatihan bagi personil Brimob, yang terkait dengan perpolisian masyarakat, kehumasan, teknik negoisasi, komunikasi sosial, psikologi sosial, di luar kemampuan utamanya. Langkah ini guna mengimbangi kultur militeristik yang telanjur mengakar. Dengan pelatihan-pelatihan tersebut, diharapkan akan terbangun satu paradigma baru tentang kultur polisi sipil.

    Keempat, melakukan sosialisasi secara efektif berbagai perangkat lunak, baik perundang-undangan maupun Surat Keputusan (SK) agar terjadi transformasi pemahaman di antara personil Brimob Polri. Langkah ini sebenarnya yang paling mungkin dilakukan di tengah keterbatasan anggaran Polri. Akan tetapi kembali ke soal kemauan. Berbagai undang-undang ataupun peraturan sekelas Surat Keputusanpun jika tingkat sosialisasinya rendah, maka hanya akan memperburuk keadaan.

    Kelima, membangun kultur polisi sipil. Pembangunan kultur ini dapat dilakukan dengan melakukan interaksi dengan kesatuan lain di lingkungan Polri, agar terjadi trasnfer pemahaman dan budaya. Hal ini juga diharapkan mampu mencairkan kebuntuan komunikasi antara personil Brimob dengan satuan lain.

    Keenam, menginternalisasi nilai-nilai democratic policing, yang terintegral dalam berbagai aktivitas Brimob yang harus merujuk kepada nilai-nilai demokrasi, menjunjung tinggi HAM, menegakkan supremasi hukum, dan lain sebagainya.

    Ketujuh, mengembangkan pendekatan pre emtif dan preventif, selain pendekatan penegakkan hukum dan reprrsif. Hal ini perlu dipertegas karena dalam banyak kasus, Brimob juga tidak hanya melakukan penegakkan hukum dan represif, tapi juga pencegahan dan rehabilitasi terhadap lokasi atau wilayah pasca konflik.

    Penutup

    Dari uraian di atas dapat disimpulkan bahwa Reformasi Brimob Polri masih belum mampu menopang lokomotif besar Polri, karena proses internalisasi polisi sipil dan democratic policing belum tuntas. Hal ini disadari karena proses terbentuknya Brimob Polri tidak terlepas dari tujuan awalnya, yakni sebagai pasukan paramiliter di tubuh kepolisian, yang mengacu kepada pasukan polisi para militer di era Jepang dan Belanda. Artinya, butuh suatu proses yang lebih lama untuk dapat menempatkan Brimob dalam lokomotif polisi sipil yang tengah diusung oleh Polri. kondisi ini memang kurang menguntungkan bagi Polri dan Brimob secara organisasi. Hanya saja perlu suatu penekanan bahwa salah satu konsekuensi logis dari pemisahan Polri dari TNI adalah membangun paradigma baru yang sama sekali berbeda dan jauh dari watak dan kultur militeristik di Polri, dengan membenamkan kaki Polri pada kultur polisi sipil dan democratic policing. Cepat atau lambat Brimob harus mampu mengembangkan suatu paradigma berpikir, serta operasionalisasi di lapanga, yang mencerminkan suatu perwatakan dari democratic policing dan polisi sipil. sebab, apabila Brimob tetap bertahan dengan kultur lama dan enggan melakukan perubahan, maka cepat atau lambat Brimob akan menjadi bagian dari musuh masyarakat, yang menginginkan agar Polri, dan Brimob yang ada di dalamnya benar-benar mencerminkan perwatakan polisi sipil dan democratic policing, di mana kontrol aktif masyarakat dapat dilakukan. Dan tuntutan agar Brimob dibubarkan yang berkembang dimasyarakat seharusnya menjadi refleksi bagi Brimob untuk secara bersungguh-sungguh melakukan perubahan dan penyesuaian dengan agenda reformasi Polri. Karena kita masih ingin melihat dan memiliki satuan khusus di Polri yang dapat menjadi kebanggan masyarakat, dengan tetap berada di koridor democratic policing.

    DAFTAR PUSTAKA

    Gunawan, Budi. 2006. Membangun Kompetensi Polri. Yakarta YPKIK.

    Korps Brimob. 1992. Pembinaan Korps Brimob. Jakarta: Brimob Polri

    —,2003. Pendayagunaan Satuan Brimob Polri dalam Rangka
    Operasi Kepolisian Khususnya di Daerah Rawan GPK.
    Juklak/OIR/III/2003

    —, 2005. Upaya Peningkatan Pelayanan Publik Sesuai Dengan Standar
    Pelayanan Korps Brimob POlri

    Meliala, Adrianus. 2002. Problema Reformasi Polri. Jakarta: Trio Repro

    Mabes Polri. Pendayagunaan Brimob. Petunjuk Pelaksana Kapolri No:
    Juklak/08/V/1994

    —, Himpunan Petunjuk Lapangan Polri bagi Satuan Brimob

    Mabes Polri. 1983. Keputusan Kapolri No. Pol. Kep/552/XI/1983. Tentang
    Likuidasi Satuan Brimob dan Redislokasi Kompi-kompi BS Brimob

    Miswan. 1998. Pasukan Khusus dan Perang Gerilya. Pusdik Brimob
    Watukosek

    Mabes Polri. 2002Kep Kapolri No. Pol: Kep/27/IX/2002 Tanggal 20 September
    2002 tentang Reformasi Brimob Polri

    Rahardjo, Satjipto. 2002. Polisi Sipil Dalam Perubahan Social di Indonesia.
    Jakarta: Kompas.

    Suparno, Atim. 1998. Pelopor. Pusdik Brimob Watukosek


    http://budisansblog.blogspot.com/2014/05/strategi-militer-dalam-politik.html

    Strategi Militer dalam Politik
    Seno Gumira Ajidarma ; Wartawan
    TEMPO.CO, 19 Mei 2014

    Terhadap strategi militer, telah dilakukan banyak adaptasi, agar strategi itu dapat diterapkan dalam pertempuran di dunia sipil. Dengan kata lain, selain untuk bisnis dan manajemen, strategi militer dapat diberlakukan dalam persaingan politik. Dari khazanah klasik, Seni Perang karya Sun Tzu (544-496 SM) dan Buku Lima Cincin karya Miyamoto Musashi (1584-1645) adalah yang paling populer, sehingga tergolong pembunuh waktu luang yang banyak dijual di bandara. Tidak kurang dari pendiri pabrik kelontong elektronik Panasonic, Konosuke Matsushita (1894-1989), mencatat: “Segenap anggota staf kami wajib membaca Seni Perang karya Suhu Sun dan menerapkan ajarannya secara luwes, sehingga perusahaan saya akan berkembang.” (Minford, 2008: ix).

    Sebaliknya, Mao Zedong (1893-1976), yang bersama Tentara Merah telah melakukan long march selama setahun (1934-1935) dari Ruijin ke Xi’an, maupun berbagai pertempuran melawan tentara fasis Jepang dan nasionalis Kuomintang, ternyata sampai 1936 belum pernah membaca Sun Tzu-kecuali sejumlah kutipan dalam “Catatan-catatan dalam Kelas” (Jikun, 1993: 4). Ini menunjukkan bahwa, bagi Mao, yang sebetulnya adalah pemimpin dan ideolog partai, persoalannya bukanlah perbedaan militer dengan sipil, melainkan bahwa dalam kedua ranah itu sama-sama diperlukan strategi. Meski disebut sebagai jenius strategi perang, sebetulnya yang bekerja adalah imajinasi tentang strategi berdasarkan bakat politik Mao.

    Dengan begitu, strategi perang militer bisa diterapkan dalam politik, dan sebaliknya kiat-kiat politik yang rumit bukan tak berguna dalam pemenangan perang. Dalam berbagai wacana operasi militer, sering terdengar istilah “pendekatan teritorial” yang sangat politis, ketika pihak militer dituntut untuk “bertempur” dengan memenangkan keberpihakan sipil di wilayah yang dikuasainya. Bahkan Sun Tzu pun berpikir bahwa perang adalah kemungkinan terakhir, sehingga, meskipun berjudul Seni Perang, konteks pertempurannya tak selalu dalam pemahaman militer menghadapi medan.

    Postulat Sun Tzu terkenal: “Bertempur seratus kali dan mendapat seratus kemenangan bukanlah yang terbaik dari yang terbaik. Menundukkan lawan tanpa sekalipun bertempur adalah yang terbaik dari yang terbaik.” Artinya, betapa pun politik itu merupakan alternatif yang lebih baik daripada perang. Ini juga mengarah kepada pengertian bahwa dunia politik bisa menjadi penyaluran bakat para ahli siasat, ahli taktik, dan strategi militer. Baik dalam keadaan para ahli ini sudah pensiun maupun karena kasus tertentu lantas tidak menjadi anggota militer lagi. Keanggotaan terbatasi aturan, tapi militerisme jelas tak akan lepas hanya karena berstatus sipil. Bukan tak mungkin, politik identitasnya di dunia politik justru mengandalkan militerisme sebagai ideologi!

    Masalahnya, benarkah alih wahana dari strategi militer menuju strategi politik ini bisa menghilangkan ciri kekerasan yang merupakan unikum militer? Dalam hal orang sipil yang terpaksa berperang seperti Mao, dikatakannya, “Kami tidak membawa satu pun buku ketika kami bertempur. Yang kami lakukan adalah menganalisis situasi pertarungan antara musuh dan diri kami, (yakni) kondisi aktualnya.” (ibidem). Meskipun buku yang dimaksud Mao itu adalah buku-buku siasat perang dari zaman klasik Tiongkok, misalnya Kisah Tiga Negara (Luo Guanzhong, abad ke-14), tetapi yang harus dicatat: Mao tidak membawa-bawa kesipilannya dalam ranah militer. Mungkinkah jika posisinya dibalik akan berlangsung kesetaraan serupa, bahwa dalam ranah sipil para praktisi siasat militer melucuti diri dari kemiliteran, dalam pengertian melepas faktor kekerasannya?

    Perkara ini merupakan kasus adaptasi atau alih wahana. Dengan meminjam kasus alih wahana dari teks ke film dan sebaliknya, dapat diacu bahwa secara teoretis terdapat tiga garis besar tipe-tipe alih wahana, yakni (a) transposisi (nyaris tanpa penyesuaian), (b) commentary (keasliannya dinegosiasikan), dan (c) analogi (terleburkan dalam wahana tujuan, sampai tak dikenali meski tetap terhubungkan) (Cartmell & Whelehan, 1999: 8). Adapun alih wahana itu sendiri merupakan proses hibrida, yang berlangsung dengan berbagai faktor determinan, seperti (1) keaslian, (2) kesetiaan, dan (3) faktor sosial historis (ketiganya terhubungkan kepada nostalgia sejarah), serta (4) pemujaan dan (5) ideologi (keduanya terhubungkan kepada makna, kesenangan, dan kebutuhan akan identitas sosial).

    Dalam penerapan strategi militer para eks-jenderal yang “mendadak dangdut” (baca: mendadak jadi politikus) di dunia politik, para pengamat dapat membaca dan memperkirakan strategi politiknya berdasarkan konstruksi teoretik tersebut. Akan dapat diperbincangkan, apakah dalam strategi politik itu militerismenya masih dominan, bernegosiasi dengan cara-cara sipil, atau melebur sama sekali. ?


    http://unggulo.wordpress.com/2008/06/19/pakar-pendidikan-atau-pakar-komentar-pendidikan/

    Pakar Pendidikan.. atau Pakar Komentar Pendidikan ?
    June 19, 2008

    Mohon maaf apabila judulnya agak-agak gimana gitu dan menyinggung perasaan seseorang (dan pendukungnya) yang sering mondar-mandir di televisi dengan title tag “pakar pendidikan”..

    Kronologisnya kenapa beliau ini muncul adalah banyaknya kasus-kasus yang meruak belakangan ini yang mencerminkan buruknya sistem pendidikan dan buruknya pengawasan terhadap anak didik, kalau tidak bisa kita sebut buruknya mental generasi muda indonesia belakangan ini.

    Mulai kasus kekerasan ala STPDN -> dilanjutkan kekerasan juga oleh IPDN yang sudah berganti kulit, kasus geng motor, kasus asusila, kasus tawuran antar pelajar SMP, hingga terbaru (pada saat saya tulis), kasus STIP (Sekolah tinggi Ilmu Pelayaran) dan kasus kekerasan geng cewek ala Nero (Neko-neko ngeroyokan).

    Hasilnya, ada anggota geng yang divonis 4 tahun (Briges) yaitu geng motor di bandung yang menewaskan I Putu Ogik, Pemecatan praja, penangkapan para pelajar yang tawuran (di jakarta) dan ngeroyok (nero di Pati, Jateng).

    Lalu, yang tidak kalah seru, berulangkali di televisi ada analisis menghadirkan so called pakar pendidikan yang ngomongin hal-hal yang menurut saya dari tiap saat esensi omongannya sama. Yang bikin saya geleng-geleng kepala, seringkali ada penyesalan dan ngomong kalo ini itu buruk di indonesia. Padahal, logikanya, ANDA pakar pendidikan, Loh, piye, Anda lah bertanggungjawab! Dulu anda NGAPAIN? Apakah ujug-ujug lulus dari perguruan tinggi langsung dapat gelar Pakar? Saya berani bertaruh, sudah PULUHAN tahun sang pakar bergelut di dunia pendidikan – yang dia komentari sangat rusak, dst dst. Begitulah di Indonesia..

    Kasus IPDN, salah satu tim evaluasi adalah “pakar pendidikan” dimana IPDN tidak dibubarkan. Dijamin bla bla aman sentosa hehe..Kulitnya diganti, trus pimpinannya dganti. Basi. Buktinya, hingga detik ini masih terjadi penyimpangan. Kasus terakhir ada pengeroyokan, ada yang mati karena mabuk, ada yang perkosaan. Kalau soal itu semua, silakan tanya Pak Inu Kencanaboleh lihat di detikcom deh, pasti beliau bilang masih ada hingga sekarang. Rekomendasi dari pakar pendidikan tuh.. ditambah Presidennya Militer, ya susah bubarin adat istiadat militer secara sang presiden dulu juga kayak gitu. (padahal laen pak presiden, ini sekolah sipil.. )

    Trus, ada lagi nih barusan kasus STIP. Sama, plonco-plonco ga jelas. Tau-tau tewas. Saya ngga perlu komentar banyak, harusnya dari dulu sudah ngga ada itu yang namanya sekolah kedinasan ber budaya militer (baca : kekerasan). Kalau nggak mau ya bubarkan aja. Gitu aja kok repot. Kalau ngga mau bubar, hilangkan sama sekali hingga taraf NOL semua atribut militer mulai makan bareng, rambut cepak, seragam dan perut yang terus-terusan seksi karena dipaksa olahraga pushup tiap pagi dst hehe.. kalau sekarang trendnya adalah penyeimbangan antara otak kanan dan otak kiri, maka kayaknya di sekolah ini perlu penyeimbangan antara Fisik dan Otak. Masih jauh klo mo ngomong otak kanan dan kiri.

    Nah, balik ke topik, ya kalau pakar pendidikan kasih solusi dong. Ini sih menurut saya pakar KOMENTAR pendidikan, sebab komen-komen saja. Semua omongannya saya juga sebagai Non Pakar apa-apa bisa tuh ngomong gituan. Cuman emang media indonesia rada error sih.. Lah wong kayak Mr KMRT you know who aja bisa disebut Pakar Telematika.. hehe..

    Udah ah, saya nggak mau banyak komentar, nanti dibilang pakar komentar pendidikan hehe.. jadi, tolong dong, please deh, you yang ngemeng, tapi you dulu ngapain aja? kalo belajar di Luar negeri en pengalaman puluhan taun ngajar dan bergelut pendidikan di luar negeri, trus balik ke Indonesia, wajar kalau geleng-geleng kepala dan bilang ini nggak bener. Lah, ini dulu bagian dari sistem, eh sekarang koar-koar.. apa karena “jaman reformasi” adalah jamannya koar-koar hehe.. coba dulu dibenahi di jaman soeharto… (mana pendukung soeharto hehe..)

    ya sutralah, makin panjang makin error en makin banyak komentarnya. Intinya, kalau saya, yang bisanya cuma komen dan bukan pakar, radikal negh, hilangkan SAMA SEKALI Senioritas, hilangkan SAMA SEKALI atribut dan cara militer dari sekolah sipil.. Hilangkan SAMA SEKALI guru-guru yang nggak jelas, mindset jadul, nggak banyak pengetahuan, money oriented, guru cabul, guru sok, dst.. Hidup Onizuka ! (loh?)


    Marinir itu dari bahasa Belanda “marinier” yang artinya prajurit darat Angkatan Laut. Bahasa Inggrisnya “marines” atau “marine corps”. Kalau “mariner” bahasa Inggris artinya “pelaut”. Kadet itu adalah siswa sekolah militer atau pelayaran. Di mana2 di sekolah calon perwira kapal niaga (merchant marine officer school), kadetnya dibentuk dengan tata cara militer Angkatan Laut karena mereka diarahkan menjadi perwira cadangan AL di masa darurat (naval reserve officer). Di Amerika Serikat, Akademi Pelayaran Niaga A.S. (U.S. Merchant Marine Academy) di Kings Point bukan cuma institusi semi militer tetapi FULL akademi militer, demikian bunyi undang-undang federal A.S.. Menurut undang-undang federal A.S., Amerika Serikat memiliki lima akademi militer federal (the five service academies), yaitu U.S. Military Academy di West Point, U.S. Naval Academy di Annapolis, U.S. Air Force Academy di Colorado Springs, U.S. Coast Guard Academy di New London, dan U.S. Merchant Marine Academy di Kings Point.

    Para kadet U.S. Merchant Marine Academy tunduk sepenuhnya pada yurisdiksi hukum militer. Para lulusan U.S.M.M.A akan memperoleh Bachelor of Science Maritime Transportation, Sertipikat Perwira Kapal Niaga, dan Letnan Dua Laut Cadangan Angkatan Laut A.S. (Ensign, U.S. Naval Reserve). Itru sekolah keras tapi bukan kekerasan. Kadet U.S.M.M.A. yang menganiaya yuniornya apalagi sampai cacat atau meninggal dunia bakal diseret ke court martial alias mahkamah militer !.

    Anda tahu Robert Kiyosaki ?, itu pengarang buku “Rich Dada Poor Dad”. Kiyosaki adalah lulusan U.S.M.M.A. angkatan tahun 1969, yang setelah menghabiskan masa dinas militernya sebagai pilot helikopter tempur marinir (U.S. Marine Corps) di Vietnam, ia kemudian menghabiskan beberapa tahun sebagai perwira kapal niaga dan kemudian terjun ke business.

    Istilah “sailor” tidak pernah dipakai di kapal karena itu adalah istilah yang digunakan oleh orang-orang darat. Orang-orang pelaut menggunakan istilah “seaman” dan “seafarer”. Siswa akademi pelayaran di atas kapal tidak pernah disebut “mahasiswa” (student) tapi “kadet” (“cadet” atau “apprentice”).

    Banyak orang darat yang tidak mengerti istilah-istilah bahari, apakah anda tahu bedanya “jurumudi” dengan “mualim/stirman” ?. Jurumudi itu anak buah kapal bawahan (rating crew member), sedangkan mualim/stirman itu statusnya perwira (officer). Statusnya berbeda, jurumudi makan bersama dengan ABK bawahan lainnya, sedangkan mualim/stirman makan di salon perwira (officer’s dining room).

    Inilah yang banyak tidak dipahami oleh masyarakat ketika memantau kasus STIP.

    Sekolah pelaut, apa itu pelaut TNI-AL, atau pelaut pelayaran niaga, itu sekolah keras tapi tidak boleh dengan kekerasan. Kalau mau sekolah lembek, ya orang harus masuk sekolah perawatan kecantikan saja !.

    Tahun 1960 sekolah yang namanya sekarang STIP dahulu adalah Akademi Ilmu Pelayaran (AIP) berdiri sejak 1953, waktu itu Direkturnya orang Angkatan Laut (Mayor Laut Subekti), semua pelatihnya juga dari Korps Komando AL (KKo-AL ; sekarang Marinir), tapi tidak ada kekerasan.

    Sekarang semuanya orang sipil, mengapa kekerasan terjadi ?
    Mari kita instrospeksi diri !.


    Menurut Collins Royal English Dictionary : “cadet ” : student of military, naval, or nautical school. (siswa sekolah militer, AL, atau pelayaran). Jadi memang sekolah pelayaran itu rada beda, rasanya gak mungkin siswa sekolah pelayaran modelnya kayak mahasiswa kuliahan biasa.

    Aku cuma sumbang pengalaman sebagai bekas kelasi kapal tanker 80.000 ton berbendera Liberia selama 3 tahun. Nakhodaku berkebangsaan Australia bekas perwira Royal Australian Navy berpangkat Lieutenant Commander (kalau di TNI-AL setara Mayor Laut). Kehidupan di laut itu keras karena resiko yang ditanggung juga berat. Seperti halnya di semua kapal di seluruh dunia, baik kapal dagang maupun kapal perang, jadwal jaga laut selama 12 jam itu dibagi menjadi 3 shift, jaga pertama antara 12 sampai 4, lalu 4 sampai 8, dan 8 sampai 12. Tidak boleh ada yang meleset dari jadwal jaga ini, mereka yang kebagian jaga antara jam 00.00 sampai jam 04.00 jangan coba2 ngantuk dan tertidur, karena resikonya bisa tahu2 tidur selamanya di dasar laut !.

    Kapal laut apalagi kapal tanker sebobot 80.000 ton gak bisa disamakan dengan angkutan bus di darat, mas !. Biar sudah masuk pelabuhan sekalipun, bahaya senantiasa mengintai. Ingat saja kasus kapal Levina tempo hari, sudah jadi bangkai pun masih bisa makan korban, beberapa polisi dari Puslabfor mati sia2 akibat tidak mengikuti prosedur keamanan di atas kapal.

    Saya kira itu umum dan wajar di mana2 di seluruh dunia, sekolah pelayaran selalu memakai metode pendidikan militer untuk membentuk karakter yang disiplin dalam lingkungan yang serba keras seperti di atas kapal. Saya kira tidak ada sekolah pelayaran pun di seluruh dunia yang modelnya seperti mahasiswa kuliahan biasa, pakai blue jean, sandal etc., karena memang sifat pendidikannya berbeda.

    Kami di kapal jadwal makan pun di atur, harus makan bersama supaya selaras dengan jadwal jam kerja, tidak boleh makan sendiri2. Para perwira seperti Captain, Chief Officer, 2nd Officer, 3rd Officer, dan para Engineer dan Radio Officer makan di ruang khusus perwira, dan dilayani oleh messmen. Kalau kami para crew member biasa makan di ruang makan dek bawah (deck zero) dan dilayani oleh messboys.

    Pendidikan keras itu memang sifat bawaan sekolah pelayaran, tapi bukan dengan kekerasan, itu beda sekali latihan keras namanya hard training, tapi kekerasan adalah violence dan masuk masuk perbuatan pidana yang kudu dihukum ! apalagi sampai orang cacat atau meninggal !.

    Saya punya teman orang Malaysia waktu itu kadet di ALAM (Akademi Laut Malaysia ; setara STIP kita), saya pernah kunjungi di di base trainingnya, waduh luar biasa kerasnya latihan mereka, mereka dilatih oleh personel TLDM (Tentera Laut Diraja Malaysia). Tapi tidak ada seorangpun yang sampai cacat atau meninggal, karena yang melatih sadar bahwa tujuan mereka melatih bukan untuk menghasilkan pelaut2 cacat tapi perwira2 kapal yang tangguh dan sehat.

    Jelas bedanya antara keras dan kekerasan.

    Anyway, mereka yang masuk sekolah pelayaran tapi mengharapkan suasana santai dan lembut seperti universitas biasa, yah tentunya salah pilih sekolah !. Karena ganasnya ombak samudra tidak mengakomodir hadirnya sekolah seperti itu di lingkungannya.


    Kalau menurut saya, ganasnya ombak samudra tidak mengakomodir jadinya kekerasan, rambut cepak, seragam, perut langsing dan setiap makan musti nunggu bel. Ohya.. bener sekali, nenek moyang ku orang pelaut. Bokap gw aseli Bugis, gw dari kecil dah maen di kapal-kapal phinisi, bahkan ikut jualan es kelapa muda di pinggir jalan. Ndak ada tuh model2 STIP… ada juga om-om gw pada bawa badik buat jaga diri dan pertahanan, dan fungsinya sangat dasar, yaitu untuk memotong tali, membelah kelapa dst. Survive mereka kok..

    Ya mungkin saya aja yang katro, nggak tau kalau orang sipil di atas kapal akan menjadi militer semiliter-militernya. :)

    Memang, Ada bebrapa sih yang saya setuju, misalnya jadwal jaga, jadwal tidur dst. cuman semuanya diatur atas satu filosofi dasar, kalau saya failed menjalankan amanah saya saat ini, maka yang kena adalah kita semua, yang celaka kita semua. Jadi sekali lagi, ini sifatnya dari bottom up, dan internal diri bukan dari pola-pola kemiliteran (biasanya disebut militerisme oleh kalangan “kiri”)

    Salam..

    Mengenai contoh yang Anda berikan, ya bener sekali pak, kalau yang melatih personel TLDM ya silakeun.. nah kalau perhubungan, siapa yach kira-kira yang melatihnya..

    kembali lagi ke analogi Sekolah Pilot sama Sekolah Penerbang TNI AU, bedanya juga jelas dari judulnya.

    Btw, saya setuju pendapat anda antara KERAS dan KEKERASAN itu berbeda, Tapi, Sudut pandang ini juga bisa bias, sebab apakah DISIPLIN sama dengan KERAS ?? Sebab, Disiplin belum tentu keras, tapi keras itu memang identik dengan disiplin.

    Silakan beropini lebih lanjut.


    Mas Pompey baiknya anda cari informasi bandingan bagaimana sekolah2 pelayaran di luar negeri ini gimana, gak usah jauh2 cari aja dengan key word “philippines merchant marine academy”, nanti anda bisa mempunyai wawasan luas mengenai dunia bahari yang tidak dikenal orang di Indonesia. Katanya Indonesia bangsa bahari, tapi membedakan lancang kuning dengan pinisi saja orang tak tahu !.

    Tidak semua orang Bugis itu pelaut, walapun kultur dasar Bugis itu memang budaya bahari.

    Dari dulu juga Perhubungan Laut itu yang melatih adalah Angkatan Laut. Anda harus tahu bahwa pendiri TNI-AL the founding fathers of the Indonesian Navy adalah 99% berasal dari orang pelayaran niaga, mulai dari Natsir, Mas Pardi, John Lie, Martadinata, Josaphat Sudarso, Ali Sadikin and others.

    Kapal itu tidak bisa disamakan dengan angkutan kota. Di mana pun juga di seluruh dunia, kapal niaga nasional dianggap sebagai komponen cadangan (ready reserve force) dari komando lintas laut militer (Kolinlamil). Silakan anda click cari data dari Amerika “ready reserve force”.

    STIP itu jelas tidak bisa disamakan dengan STPDN. Dasarnya apa memiliterisasi STPDN ?, itu adalah sekolah civil service.

    Tapi kalau STIP itu jelas mengacu pada U.S. Merchant Marine Academy di Amerika (silakan click data sekolah ini di Google), sejarah STIP juga sudah lama sekali, tahun 1953 sudah berdiri tepian Gunung Sahari Ancol dengan pelatih2 orang Amerika.

    Kalau anda tidak tahu bahwa siswa sekolah pelayaran namanya “kadet”, well anda harus lebih banyak browsing !.
    Salam !.


    Ada sedikit tambahan buat Mas Pompey. Menurut International Naval Treaty 1927 (Konferensi Angkatan Laut Internasional), kapal niaga dianggap aset pertahanan, dan boleh dihancurkan atau ditenggelamkan tanpa dianggap sebagai kejahatan perang (war crime) !. Karena itu tidak heran berdasarkan Geneva Convention 1949 tentang Tawanan Perang disebutkan bahwa pelaut kapal niaga dan juga awak pesawat penerbangan sipil statusnya dipersamakan dengan anggota militer, dan akan diberi status Prisoner of War (PoW) yang akan ditempatkan dalam PoW Camp bersama dengan tawanan2 militer. Menurut konvensi itu, penumpang kapal niaga dan pesawat sipil yang terperangkap dalam konflik dilindungi tapi statusnya bukan PoW.

    Nah itu menurut konvensi internasional. Dokumennya ada di perpustakaan UI, anda bisa lihat.


    Hari geenee masih mau melatih pelaut pake perahu pinisi en bawa badik ?Kenapa gak sekalian pakai tutup mata sebelah saja sekalian dan bikin film ” PIRATES OF BUGIS”, Ha ha ha ha ha !..,sampai sakit perut gw nih !. Namanya tetap STIP tapi kependekan dari SEKOLAH TINGGI ILMU PINISI.

    Pantas saja sektor maritim Indonesia makin terpuruk ! Justru dulu Presiden Sukarno dan Perdana Menteri Djuanda meresmikan Akademi Ilmu Pelayaran (A.I.P.) tahun 1957 supaya masa depan Indonesia gak tenggelam kayak pininisi diamuk badai.

    Gw bukan menghina perahu Bugis, gw sendiri dari nyokap masih turunan Bugis-Makassar, kerabat dari Laksamana Muda Mursalin D.M., Menteri jaman Presiden Sukarno, cuma ya nalar dikitlah bang.

    Gw pernah dibawa berlayar sama kawan anggota Explorer Club pake perahu pinisi dari Sunda Kelapa ke Surabaya, kagak bakal mau sekali lagi !. Itu betul2 pelaut tradisional kaga tahu aturan rule of way pelayaran modern, disiplin juga kaga ada. Rambu bouy keluar masuk lintasan dilanggar begitu saja, padahal resikonya kan ditabrak kapal lain. Pantas aja banyak cilaka bang !.

    Kalo Merchant Marine Academy di Amerika bisa menghasilkan person sekaliber Robert Kiyosaki, apa yang bisa dihasilkan oleh sekolah pelayaran ala pinisi ?.

    Kalo menurut gw justru STIP sekarang itu modelnya meniru Merchant Marine Academy Amerika tapi kelakuannya Sekolah Tinggi Ilmu Pinisi !, Ha ha ha ha !. Bawa badik, bawa parang !.

    Gw setuju kalo sekolah pelayaran dibentuk kayak di Filipina sana, full militer diasuh oleh Philippines Navy, latihan penuh disiplin tapi semua masih dalam koridor normal, gak ada perploncoan, gak ada penganiayaan.

    Gw juga amin kalo dibilang kalo mau masuk sekolah yang lembut2 ya masuk sekolah salon rambut ajalah sama Rudi Hadisuwarno !, dijamin kaga bakal “dicuki ombak” seperti kata kawan dari Manado !.


    Ada sedikit tambahan dari saya, Mas Pompey. Pendiri TNI-Angkatan Udara kita sejak awal juga berasal dari penerbangan sipil. Mereka disebut “the sixty TALOAs”, sebanyak 60 orang pada tahun 1950 dikirim oleh Pemerintah RI ke Transoceanic Air Lines Oakland Airport (TALOA). Anda bisa cari di Google dengan keyword TALOA and Indonesian Air Force.

    Ke60 orang ini disebut “the founding father of modern Indonesian Air Force”.

    Baru pada pertengahan tahun 1950an Indonesia membentuk Akademi Penerbangan Indonesia (API yang sekarang jadi Sekolah Tinggi Penerbangan Indonesia / STPI), semua calon penerbang Angkatan Udara juga dididik di sini. Barulah pada tahun 1970an, didirikan Sekolah Penerbang ABRI di Solo.

    Jadi begitulah, it is not just that simple !.

    Di dunia pelayaran (maritime) dan penerbangan (aeronautical), ada wilayah abu-abu antara dikotomi sipil-militer, itu karena kapal (“a ship”) apapun jenisnya selalu dianggap sebagai alatsista (alat utama sistem senjata / main instrumen) Angkatan Laut, dan pesawat terbang (“an aircraft”) apapun jenisnya selalu dianggap alutsista Angkatan

    Udara. Kalau di darat lain, sebuah bus atau truk tidak pernah dianggap alutsista Angkatan Darat !.

    Mengapa ? karena Angkatan Laut dan Angkatan Udara adalah “manned weapon” (senjata yang diawaki), dan Angkatan Darat adalah “armed people” (orang yang dipersenjatai). It means Navy adalah nothing without a ship, dan Air Force adalah nothing without an aircraft. It means juga begitu Navy mempunyai sebuah kapal, any type of ship, maka ia betul menjadi Navy, begitu juga Air Force begitu mempunyai sebuah pesawat terbang, any type of aircraft ia mempunyai jati diri sebagai Air Force.

    Tetapi Army tidak begitu, dengan senjata apapun, asal sudah diorganisir, ia tetap army. Ada baiknya Mas Pompey buka http://vlnavmar.usnaweb.org/academy.html http://www.tamug.tamu.edu/corps/index.html

    di situ Mas Pompey bisa nambah wawasan. Saya cuma sarjana hukum pengangguran yang sempat terdampar hampir 4 tahun kerja di kapal dengan rank paling rendah, karena susahnya cari kerjaan di Indonesia, kita berbagi pengetahuan dan pengalaman Mas!.


     
  • Virtual Chitchatting 6:07 PM on 2014/05/26 Permalink  

    Pelayanan Satu Pintu PTSP yang Masih dan Harus Mengecewakan 

    dulu namanya KTSP, sekarang PTSP. birokrasi yang menyebalkan!


    http://www.koran-sindo.com/node/385650

    Pelayanan Satu Pintu Masih Mengecewakan
    20140504

    JAKARTA – Kinerja personel di Pelayanan Terpadu Satu Pintu (PTSP) Jakarta Barat masih mengecewakan. Belum ada kekompakan antara petugas satuan kerja perangkat daerah (SKPD) dan petugas PTSP.

    Akibat itu, sejumlah penyelesaian permohonan izin para pemohon terbilang lambat. Seperti yang dialami Syahri, 25, warga Meruya Utara. Ketika hendak membuat surat izin usaha perdagangan (SIUP) untuk usaha toko elektronik, dia diminta waktu untuk bersabar selama 14 hari. Padahal sepengetahuannya, permohonan SIUP itu hanya memakan waktu paling lama tiga hari, terlebih semua persyaratan datanya sudah lengkap.

    “Kata petugasnya surat permohonan SIUP saya jadi 14 hari lagi. Itu kan sangat lama, berkas sudah lengkap. Setahu saya, paling lama itu tiga hari,” kata dia yang mengaku tidak dipungut bayaran dalam pengurusan tersebut kemarin. Kepala Unit PTSP Jakarta Barat Koeat Leksana mengakui seharusnya masalah perizinan SIUP itu maksimal tiga hari kerja. Namun, diaengganberkomentar banyak lantaran pihaknya sejauh ini sebatas melayani para pemohon dan segala urusan teknis di PTSP.

    Sedangkan masalah perizinan bergantung petugas kantor di SKPD terkait. “Kami selama ini memang belum memiliki kekompakan antara petugas PTSP dan SKPD yang berada di back officePTSP,” ungkapnya. Koeat menjelaskan, di PTSP terdapat 21 unit SKPD di antaranya Usaha Mikro Kecil Menengah (UMKM), Tata Ruang, Kesehatan, serta Pengawasan dan Penertiban Bangunan (P2B). Namun, para petugasnya sering berganti-ganti.

    Ketika dicek, kadang petugasnya bahkan tidak ada dengan alasan pergi ke kantor SKPD terkait. Untuk itu, Koeat meminta para petugas SKPD yang ditempatkan di back officetidak setengah hati melayani para pemohon.” Kadang-kadangsayacek di back office PTSP, mereka tidak ada. Katanya lagi balik ke kantor SKPD-nya. Pas saya cek ke kantor SKPD dia enggak ada,” keluhnya.

    Kepala Suku Dinas UMKM Jakarta Barat Slamet Widodo mengatakan, lambatnya proses perizinan itu bukan lantaran tidak seriusnya petugas di SKPD, tapi tidak lengkapnya data pemohon. Misalnya pemohon yang ingin mendirikan usaha toko elektronik di pertokoan. Ternyata pas diperiksa masih ada tiga pilihan yang belum dicoret di kelurahan. Selain itu, kata Slamet, input data yang masih menggunakan sistem lama juga terkadang menjadi kendala. Untuk memasukkan satu data saja memakan waktu sekitar 20 menit.

    Setelah itu data yang sudah masuk harus diketik ulang petugas SKPD. “Sehari itu minimal 20 pemohon di UMKM. Kalau memasukkan satu data saja 20 menit, ya rasanya kurang efisien. Padahal kalau sudah terdata di PTSP dan masuk ke SKPD, sehari juga sudah selesai. Jadi bukan karena petugas SKPD di PTSP itu tidak bekerja,” paparnya. ?bima setiyadi


    http://koran-indonesia.com/2010/11/masih-banyak-kinerja-ptsp-yang-mengecewakan/

    Masih banyak kinerja PTSP yang mengecewakan
    Adrian Sanjaya, November 4, 2010

    JAKARTA. Banyak kantor penyelenggara Pelayanan Terpadu Satu Pintu (PTSP) yang belum bekerja optimal. Dari 130 PTSP terdapat 80 kantor yang hanya berfungsi sebagai layaknya kantor pos. PTSP itu hanya berperan sebagai perantara dalam pelayanan perizinan penanaman modal.

    Kepala Badan Koordinasi Penanaman Modal (BKPM) Gita Wirjawan bilang PTSP seperti itu ada karena belum ada pendelegasian wewenang oleh pemerintah daerah setempat padahal, sesuai Instruksi Presiden Nomor 1 tahun 2010 tentang Percepatan Pelaksanaan Pembangunan Nasional dan Surat Edaran bersama Menteri Dalam Negeri, Menteri Pendayagunaan Aparatur Negara dan Kepala BKPM sudah berhak memberikan perizinan.

    “Kenyataannya, mereka (PTSP) hanya mengurusi administrasi saja, sedang keputusannya masih harus dibawa ke kepala daerah dan kementerian terkait,” kata Gita, saat memberikan penganugerahan penghargaan kepada PTSP, Kamis (4/11).

    Gita menduga hal tersebut terjadi karena belum tercipta sinkronisasi antara kebijakan pemerintah pusat dan daerah. “Banyak pimpinan daerah yang belum mendorong kinerja PTSP,” lanjutnya.

    Sayangnya, Gita tidak bisa menjelaskan daerah asal kantor PTSP tersebut. Yang jelas, saat ini, baru ada 30 PTSP yang kinerjanya cukup memuaskan. Diantaranya, PTSP di Kota Bandung, Bitung, Cimahi, Denpasar, Surabaya, Pekalongan, Yogyakarta, Palembang, Magelang, dan Tegal.

    Di tingkat kabupaten berasal dari Sragen, Sidoarjo, Pasuruan, Gresik, Ngawi, Banyumas, Sukabumi, Purwakarta, Karanganyar, dan Purbalingga. Sedang di provinsi dari DKI Jakarta, Nusa Tenggara Barat, Jawa Timur, Aceh, Sumatera Selatan, Maluku, Jawa Barat, Kepulauan Banka Belitung, Bali, dan Banten.

    Ke depan, BKPM akan memperbaiki kinerja PTSP tersebut. Caranya, BKPM akan meminta pimpinan daerah setempat memberikan kewenangan perizinan ke PTSP. “Makanya, saat ini kami sering keliling daerah,” terang Gita.

    Selain itu, BKPM juga akan mendorong kantor-kantor PTSP yang belum memenuhi kualifikasi. Saat ini, ada 440 PTSP yang tersebar di seluruh daerah. Sebanyak 130 diantaranya, sudah memenuhi kualifikasi. “Pada 2011, kami targetkan 260 PTSP bisa memenuhi kualifikasi,” ujar Gita.


    http://www.beritasatu.com/megapolitan/67565-3-pelayanan-ptsp-jakpus-mengecewakan.html

    3 Pelayanan PTSP Jakpus Mengecewakan
    Kamis, 23 Agustus 2012 | 17:58

    Gubernur DKI Jakarta Fauzi Bowo melihat langsung Jembatan Muara Karang usai diresmikannya di Penjaringan, Jakarta, Minggu (5/8). Jembatan sepanjang 52 meter dan lebar 15 meter ini menghabiskan anggaran sekitar Rp11,4 miliar yang berasal dari APBN.
    Foke melihat ada tiga jenis pelayanan yang membutuhkan waktu terlalu lama.

    Pada hari pertama masuk kerja PNS DKI usai libur Lebaran, Gubernur DKI Jakarta Fauzi Bowo melakukan inspeksi mendadak (Sidak) ke kantor Pelayanan Terpadu Satu Pintu (PTSP) Jakpus.

    Saat melihat pelayanan di PTSP Jakarta Pusat, Foke mengaku kecewa terhadap tiga dari 18 pelayanan yang ada. Karena memperlihatkan indeks ketidakpuasan masyarakat yang cukup tinggi.

    Ketiga pelayanan tersebut adalah Pembuatan Surat Izin Usaha Perdagangan Usaha Mikro Kecil Menengah (SIUP UMKM), Pelayanan Sudin Energi dan Industri, dan Pelayanan Sudin Lingkungan Hidup.

    “Saya justru mempertanyakan pembuatan SIUP UMKM kan sifatnya sederhana sekali, tetapi kenapa malah menimbulkan ketidakpuasan dari masyarakat yang tinggi? Ini menjadi pekerjaan rumah kita ke depan. Pelayanan total harus ditingkatkan melalui penyederhanaan prosedur perizinan,” kata Foke, saat Sidak di PTSP Jakarta Pusat, hari ini.

    Dari hasil Sidak, Foke melihat ada tiga jenis pelayanan yang dinilai membutuhkan waktu terlalu lama. Misalnya, saja dalam pembuatan izin mendirikan bangunan yang membutuhkan waktu sampai 35 hari, juga pelayanan di Sudin Tata Ruang, dan Sudin Lingkungan Hidup.

    Oleh karena itu, Foke meminta masing-masing prosedur yang ada akan dievaluasi kembali dengan melakukan pembahasan bersama dinas teknisnya. Pembahasan mengarah setiap pembuatan izin tersebut dapat lebih dipermudah dan disederhanakan lagi.

    “Pemprov DKI sedang melakukan reformasi birokrasi melalui peningkatan kualitas pegawai juga lingkungan kerja. Proses pengajuan perizinan misalnya, akan diberikan perhatian khusus untuk perbaikan agar penanganannya lebih efektif dan efisien,” ujarnya.

    Sementara itu, Kepala Badan Penanaman Modal dan Promosi (BPMP) DKI Jakarta Terman Siregar menerangkan, meskipun sudah dibentuk pusat pelayanan terpadu sejak 2010, hanya terdapat tiga Satuan Kerja Perangkat Daerah (SKPD) dari 14 SKPD yang secara aktif terlibat dalam PSTP Penanaman Modal DKI Jakarta.

    SKPD yang telah menunjuk staf teknis untuk bertugas langsung di PTSP Penanaman Modal adalah Dinas Koperasi, Usaha Mikro, Kecil, Menengah, dan Perdagangan, Dinas Tata Ruang, dan Satuan Polisi Pamong Praja. Sementara itu untuk Dinas Energi dan Industri, sudah ada petugasnya tapi tidak terlalu rutin.

    Sedangkan SKPD lainya yang termasuk menjadi bagian dalam PTSP Penanaman Modal masih melayani di kantor masing-masing, seperti Dinas Energi dan Industri juga Badan Pengelolaan Lingkungan Hidup Daerah (BPLHD).

    Padahal berdasarkan Pergub 14/2010 tentang Organisasi dan Tata Kerja Unit PTSP Pelayanan Modal, sambungnya, seluruh SKPD sudah tidak diperbolehkan lagi membuka loket pelayanan di masing-masing dinas terkati, sejak pergub tersebut keluar 2 tahun lalu.

    “Sejauh ini, masing-masing dinas banyak memberikan alasan keberadaan PTSP Penanaman Modal akan membuat simpul birokrasi semakin banyak dan masih merasa tidak cocok dengan sistem yang diterapkan. Masih ada kebiasaan, dari masing-masing dinas untuk membangun citra saat berhadapan langsung dengan pemohon. Tatap muka antara pihak eksekutif dengan investor seharusnya harus dihindari. Tapi sepertinya masih butuh waktu untuk penyesuaian,” katanya.


    http://www.merdeka.com/jakarta/jokowi-kecewa-pelayanan-ptsp-lambat-tapi-masih-main-game.html

    Jokowi kecewa pelayanan PTSP lambat tapi masih main game
    Nurul Julaikah | Jumat, 18 Oktober 2013 17:05

    Merdeka.com – Gubernur DKI Jakarta, Joko Widodo (Jokowi), kecewa dengan kinerja PNS UMKM di Pelayanan Terpadu Satu Pintu (PTSP) Jakarta Timur, pelayanannya lambat namun masih sempat main game di kantor. Jokowi tak permasalahkan main game di kantor, tetapi PNS itu berani jamin kalau pelayanannya bisa lima menit selesai.

    “Sebetulnya main game enggak apa-apa, tapi ngelayani lima menit. Ini ngelayanin sampai dua minggu, masak mau maen game. Kecewa saya,” ujar Jokowi di Balai Kota, Jakarta, Jumat (18/10).

    Menurut Jokowi, munculnya praktik percaloan di PTSP karena pelayanannya yang lambat, apalagi soal pembuatan Tanda Daftar Perusahaan (TDP). Jokowi yakin, calo akan hilang jika PNS tidak lelet dalam pengurusan di PTSP.

    “Kenapa pakai calo ya karena terlalu lama. Hilang kalau genjot kecepatan,” katanya.

    Sebenarnya, kedatangan dirinya ke PTSP Jakarta Timur hanya ingin melihat kecepatan pelayanan saja. Tetapi, kenyataannya kecepatan pelayanan jauh dari harapannya hingga membuat dirinya murka.

    “Kalau lihat tempat dan sistem baik. Tapi kecepatan kurang. Saya mau ke atas lihat gimana input data. Saya mau ngecek berapa menit aja. Ngapain 3 hari?,” jelasnya.

    Dia mengatakan tidak perlu mengumpulkan data pemohon yang kemudian baru diproses. Melainkan, langsung dilayani hingga selesai setiap kali ada permohonan pengajuan TDP. “Ngapain ngumpulin bertumpuk. Lima atau 1 ya langsung rampungin dong. Paling 5 menit rampung. 2-3 menit selesai,” ketusnya.

    Begitu pula, pengurusan Surat Izin Kesehatan (SIK) harusnya selesai cepat. “Ngapain kayak gitu musti dua minggu,” tegasnya.
    [ded]


    http://lipsus.kompas.com/gebrakan-jokowi-basuki/read/xml/2014/02/03/1916343/Sidak.Pertama.Mengecewakan.Jokowi.Bakal.ke.Wali.Kota.Jakbar.Lagi

    Sidak Pertama Mengecewakan, Jokowi Bakal ke Wali Kota Jakbar Lagi
    C18-11 | Senin, 3 Februari 2014 | 19:16 WIB

    JAKARTA, KOMPAS.com – Gubernur DKI Jakarta Joko Widodo merasa penasaran dengan laporan positif yang diterimanya di Pusat Pelayanan Terpadu Satu Pintu (PTSP) Wali Kota Jakarta Barat. Meski dalam blusukan pertamanya ia tak mendapatkan fakta sesuai laporan, Jokowi berjanji akan meninjaunya kembali.

    “Pelayanan ke masyarakatnya mungkin bagus. Tapi tadi warga belum ada yang datang. Pas saya ke sana juga belum ada orang. Kalau pas ada, mungkin bagus. Nantilah dibuktikan lagi saya ke sana, kepengin lihat,” kata Jokowi, Senin (3/2/2014).

    Jokowi merahasiakan waktu kunjungan berikutnya. Dia ingin melihat kondisi PTSP yang sebenar-benarnya untuk bisa dievaluasi.

    Berdasarkan kunjungannya ke kantor tersebut pada pagi tadi, Jokowi melihat ketepatan waktu buka pelayanan masih di bawah standar. Oleh sebab itu, Jokowi meminta Wali Kota Jakarta Barat Fatahillah untuk mengevaluasi ketepatan waktu buka itu. Jokowi ingin pelayanan kepada masyarakat harus diutamakan.

    “Harusnya cepat dong, bayarnya jelas berapa, durasi waktunya cepat, syaratnya apa. Kalau tadi ke sana jam setengah 8, masak saya harus nunggu satu jam baru dilayani,” kata Jokowi.

    Dalam kunjungan tadi pagi, Jokowi kecewa karena petugas PTSP di kantor Wali Kota Jakbar tidak lengkap. Selain itu, Wali Kota Jakbar juga tidak ada. Jokowi mengatakan akan segera memanggil Fatahillah untuk memberikan penjelasan terhadap pelayanan itu.

    Fatahillah akhirnya menyusul Jokowi saat blusukan di Tambora, Jakarta Barat. Ketika wartawan menanyakan soal kekecewaan Jokowi atas pelayanan di kantornya, Fatahillah mengatakan saat itu dirinya tengah mengecek lokasi banjir. “Hhmm… tadi lagi di lapangan,” kata Fatahillah tanpa mau menyebutkan di mana lokasi blusukan tersebut.

    Editor : Laksono Hari Wiwoho


    http://news.detik.com/read/2014/04/22/133621/2561902/10/ahok-seluruh-kantor-lurah-dan-camat-jadi-pelayanan-terpadu-satu-pintu-juni?nd771104bcj

    Hari ke-554 Jokowi
    Ahok: Seluruh Kantor Lurah dan Camat Jadi Pelayanan Terpadu Satu Pintu Juni
    Ropesta Sitorus – detikNews, Selasa, 22/04/2014 13:36 WIB

    Jakarta – Sistem di Kelurahan dan Kecamatan di Jakarta bakal dirombak menjadi Sistem Pelayanan Terpadu Satu Pintu (PTSP). Program ini ditargetkan terealisasikan mulai Juni 2014.

    “Kita mau seluruh kantor lurah camat itu adalah PTSP. Saya kira Juni itu bisa terealisasi, saya sudah kejar dan pasti bisa terkejar,” kata Wagub DKI Jakarta Basuki Tjahaja Purnama (Ahok) usai memberikan pengarahan dalam acara Sosialisasi Kebijakan Inovasi Pelayanan Publik di Balai Kota, Jalan Medan Merdeka Selatan, Jakarta Pusat, Selasa (22/4/2014).

    Ahok menuturkan konsep lurah dan camat yang ada saat ini masih ‘kacau’ lantaran lurah dan camat tidak punya kekuasaan untuk mengendalikan satuan kerja. Misalnya, untuk satpol PP, tidak bisa dikendalikan oleh lurah dan camat karena pusat kendalinya dipegang provinsi.

    Atas dasar itu, Ahok pun ingin mengubah konsep lurah dan camat saat ini. “Sehingga lurah dan camat juga bisa mengawasi taman, sekarang kan hanya kepala seksi dan suku dinas, lurah dan camat bingung. Buang sampah saja masih nyogok oknum supir. Bagaimana dia mau beresin karena dia enggak punya kekuasaan?”, paparnya.

    Mantan anggota Komisi II DPR ini berujar UU 32 tahun 2004 tentang Pemerintahan Daerah sudah mengamanatkan lurah dan camat bukan kepala pemerintahan tapi Unit Kerja. “Tapi prakteknya, mereka masih seolah-olah seperti kepala pemerintahan. Padahal konsepnya itu pelayanan publik, mereka sudah seperti manajer-manajer di perumahan,” kata dia.

    Akhiri diri anda dengan menyimak beragam informasi penting dan menarik sepanjang hari ini, di “Reportase Malam” pukul 01.30 WIB, hanya di Trans TV (ros/aan)


     
  • Virtual Chitchatting 4:59 PM on 2014/05/26 Permalink  

    Dilema Prabowo menetapkan PKS sebagai organisasi partai komunis terlarang, diharamkan, dan seluruh kadernya harus dibinasakan 

    Dilema Prabowo menetapkan PKS sebagai organisasi partai komunis terlarang, diharamkan, dan seluruh kadernya dibinasakan

    Di masa kepemimpinan Tifatul Sembiring, antek pantek manusia PKS (Partai Komunis Sejati), seluruh acara tivi di Indonesia menjadi sangat tidak layak untuk ditonton. Seluruh tivi lokal banyak menjual acara perdukunan dan obat-obatan ces-pleng yang pasti plasebo.

    Di sisi lain, dengan berbekal Surat Edaran, Surat Keputusan Menteri, Peraturan Menteri, Tifatul Sembiring memaksa oligopolis di industri penyiaran dan industri telekomunikasi di Indonesia untuk membayar BHP (biaya hak penggunaan) frekuensi radio yang mahalnya nggak ketulungan. jadi wajar, biaya internet untuk 2 gigabyte menjadi Rp 100.000 per bulan. Dasar edan manusia komunis ini.


    http://www.merdeka.com/uang/oligopoli-bisnis-stasiun-televisi.html

    Oligopoli bisnis stasiun televisi
    Novita Intan Sari | Kamis, 21 Februari 2013 07:32

    Merdeka.com – Satu bulan terakhir ini, isu pembelian televisi tvOne dan antv, menyeruak pada publik setelah Surya Paloh yang juga pemilik Metro TV mengungkapkannya pada publik. Bukan hanya itu saja, sejak dua tahun lalu, penyatuan SCTV dan Indonesia menjadi perdebatan hangat, setelah sebelumnya TPI, RCTI dan Global TV bersatu dalam group MNC milik Hary Tanoesoedibjo.

    Bahkan, otoritas Bursa Efek Indonesia segera mendepak salah satu perusahaan televisi yang listing di bursa, PT Surya Citra Media Tbk (SCMA) atau PT Indosiar Karya Media Tbk (IDKM), karena penggabungan usaha atau merger dua media tersebut ditargetkan rampung 1 Mei 2013. Merger dua stasiun televisi ini telah mengantongi izin dari dewan direksi 15 Februari 2013. Kemudian keduanya akan menggelar RUPS pada 5 April 2013.

    “Satu mau delisting, sifatnya sukarela tapi belum tahu yang mana, itu kan sama seperti merger ya, kita lihat nanti hasil dari Rapat Umum Pemegang Saham (RUPS) mereka, perusahaan mana yang kira-kira bisa surviving,” ujar Direktur Penilaian Bursa Efek Indonesia (BEI) Hoesen, Rabu (20/2).

    Pengajar di Fakultas Ilmu Komunikasi Universitas Padjadjaran Kunto Adi Wibowo mengatakan bisnis stasiun televisi saat ini sudah bukan hanya oligopoli atau hanya terpusat pada beberapa orang saja, tetapi sudah mengarah pada monopoli.

    “Bisnis stasiun televisi saat ini terus tumbuh dan menjanjikan. Porsi iklan terus meningkat. Tetapi terpusatnya kepemilikan bikin masyarakat rugi. Karena untuk mendapatkan informasi yang objektif jadi minim, ” katanya pada merdeka.com, Rabu (20/2).

    Dia mengatakan aturan televisi berjaringan yang bisa menggerakkan televisi di daerah sampai saat ini tidak jelas. Yang terjadi adalah televisi di daerah pun dimiliki korporasi besar Jakarta. “Ini semakin mengkhawatirkan, kepentingannya bukan melayani publik, tapi melayani kepentingannya, seperti dalam kampanye politik saat ini, ” katanya.

    Ceruk belanja iklan sampai saat ini terus meningkat sampai 20 persen per tahun. Bahkan mencapai 1,8 persen belanja iklan dunia. Tahun 2012, belanja iklan mencapai Rp 90 triliun. Di mana hampir 68 persen belanja iklan diserap televisi.

    Dia mengakui saat ini publik pun tidak bisa berbuat apa-apa dengan penguasaan bisnis stasiun televisi pada segelintir orang, karena minimnya edukasi. Masyarakat kelas bawah menganggap televisi sebagai hiburan semata dan masyarakat kelas menengah ke atas tidak kritis soal ini dan minim pengetahuan.

    “Akhirnya, yang bisnis stasiun televisi mengarah pada monopoli, pemerintah harus tegas dengan menegakkan undang-undang penyiaran,” ungkapnya.
    [arr]


    http://www.merdeka.com/teknologi/menkominfo-tayangan-televisi-harus-mendidik.html

    Menkominfo: Tayangan televisi harus mendidik
    Arif Pitoyo | Senin, 29 April 2013 10:03

    Merdeka.com – Mendekati pemilu 2014 ini, Menkominfo Tifatul Sembiring kembali mengajak media penyiaran untuk menjaga independensinya. Hal ini dikarenakan semakin besarnya pengaruh para pemilik yang kebanyakan berasal dari parpol.

    Seperti yang disampaikan dalam Breakfast Meeting Kemenkominfo (30/2), Tifatul menyatakan bahwa hal ini menjadi sebuah harapan pemerintah. “Harapan pemerintah, alangkah baiknya bila media itu independen dan agar ada firewall antara newsroom dengan owner. Kasihan idealisme jurnalis hancur ketika diganggu kepentingan politik pemilik,” ujarnya.

    Sementara itu, ketika berbicara mengenai tayangan televisi di Bulan Ramadhan, Menkominfo menyatakan agar televisi mampu lebih mendidik dan lebih religius, tidak hanya menayangkan lawakan saja.Meski begitu, dirinya menyatakan sudah puas dengan usaha yang ditunjukkan selama ini.

    “Saya lihat sekarang ini acara televisi sudah lebih baik, di mana sekarang rokok sudah di blur, baju wanita yang terlihat seksi juga di blur, jadi sudah lebih baik,” tuturnya.

    Lebih lanjut, dirinya menyatakan akan menindak tegas siaran yang tidak mendidik. Hal ini dikarenakan semuanya sebenarnya sedang diatur dalam UU Penyiaran yang baru.

    “KPI bisa memberikan sanksi administratif berupa teguran sampai penghentian tayangan sementara, dan apabila sudah mengarah ke penodaan agama, bisa masuk ke ranah kriminal sesuai dengan Pasal 6 ayat 36 UU Penyiaran 1992. Dan alhamdulillah, hingga saat ini, belum ada televisi yang melanggar ranah kriminal,” tuturnya.

    Acara breakfast meeting Kemenkominfo ini sendiri digelar secara rutin setiap bulan. Pada kesempatan kali ini, pesertanya datang dari kalangan pimpinan manajemen televisi, Majelis Ulama Indonesia (MUI), dan Komisi Penyiaran Indonesia (KPI).
    [nvl]


    http://www.merdeka.com/teknologi/menkominfo-pemerintah-segera-terapkan-layanan-televisi-digital.html

    Menkominfo: Pemerintah segera terapkan layanan televisi digital
    Arif Pitoyo | Senin, 29 April 2013 12:15

    Merdeka.com – Pemerintah bersama penyelenggara televisi secara bertahap sudah mulai mematikan televisi terestrial free to air (FTA) sebagai persiapan migrasi ke televisi digital.

    “Terutama di daerah-daerah, sudah mulai dilakukan, yang mana agar masyarakat tetap bisa menonton siaran free to air tanpa harus menyediakan set top box,” ujar Menkominfo Tifatul Sembiring kepada wartawan, Senin (30/4).

    Menurut dia, pemadaman televisi terestrial ini akan dilakukan secara bertahap mulai 2010 sampai 2018.

    Pemerintah membuka peluang tender untuk penyelenggaraan penyiaran multiplexing dalam rangka penyiaran televisi digital terestrial agar penerimaan layanan tersebut tetap tidak berbayar (free to air). Peluang usaha ini, akan diberikan kepada lembaga penyiaran swasta jasa penyiaran televisi nantinya.

    Untuk bisa menyelenggarakan penyiaran televisi digital terestrial itu, pemerintah telah menandatangani Keputusan Menteri Kominfo No. 95/KEP/M.KOMINFO/2/2012, tentang Peluang Usaha Penyelenggaraan Penyiaran Multipleksing Pada Penyelenggaraan Penyiaran Televisi Digital Terestrial Penerimaan Tetap Tidak Berbayar (Free To Air).

    Untuk tahap awal, layanan ini dibuka di Zona Layanan 4 (DKI Jakarta dan Banten), Zona Layanan 5 (Jawa Barat), Zona Layanan 6 (Jawa Tengah dan Yogyakarta), Zona Layanan 7 (Jawa Timur) dan Zona Layanan 15 (Kepulauan Riau).
    [dzm]


    http://www.merdeka.com/teknologi/penyelenggara-tv-satelit-tak-merasa-disaingi-tv-digital.html

    Penyelenggara TV satelit tak merasa disaingi TV digital
    Arif Pitoyo | Senin, 3 Juni 2013 16:59

    Merdeka.com – Kehadiran televisi digital yang rencananya mulai on air pada 2018 tidak menciutkan nyali penyelenggara televisi berbayar satelit.

    “Malah bagus kok, ini malah jadi sarana edukasi gratis penggunaan set top box. Saat ini, perangkat itu dianggap barang mahal, kalau sudah dalam penggunaan masal, pastinya akan kelihatan murahnya,” tutur Chief Marketing Officer Aora TV Rara Wilis, Senin (3/6).

    Pemerintah bersama penyelenggara televisi secara bertahap sudah mulai mematikan televisi terestrial free to air (FTA) sebagai persiapan migrasi ke televisi digital.

    “Terutama di daerah-daerah, sudah mulai dilakukan, yang mana agar masyarakat tetap bisa menonton siaran free to air tanpa harus menyediakan set top box,” ujar Menkominfo Tifatul Sembiring.

    Menurut dia, pemadaman televisi terestrial ini akan dilakukan secara bertahap mulai 2010 sampai 2018.

    Untuk tetap menikmati layanan televisi terrestrial, masyarakat mesti menyiapkan set top box seperti dulu, untuk mengakses siaran televisi swasta di luar TVRI, masyarakat harus memasang decoder.

    Menurut Rara, selama ini televisi berbayar dianggap mahal karena ada perangkat set top box dan antena parabola kecil, padahal itu murah dan tidak memberatkan


    http://www.merdeka.com/peristiwa/tifatul-sembiring-dinilai-lamban-atasi-persoalan-tv-digital.html

    Tifatul Sembiring dinilai lamban atasi persoalan TV digital
    Muhammad Sholeh | Selasa, 25 Juni 2013 02:45

    Merdeka.com – Kementerian Komunikasi dan Informasi (Kemkominfo) dinilai lamban dalam mengatasi masalah TV digital sejak putusan Mahkamah Agung (MA) mengabulkan uji materi terhadap Permenkominfo No 22/2011. Penyelenggaraan TV digital, hingga saat ini tidak ada Peraturan Menteri yang mengatur masalah tersebut. Sehingga program perpindahan saluran dari TV analog ke digital terancam gagal.

    Ketua Komisi Penyiaran Indonesia Daerah (KPID) Provinsi Jakarta Hamdani Masil mengatakan, pihaknya masih menunggu Peraturan Menteri yang mengatur TV digital. “Pak Menteri Tifatul bilang walau sudah ada putusan MA, TV digital tetap terus berjalan. Tetapi sampai saat ini belum dikeluarkan peraturan menterinya. Ini sangat meresahkan, karena belum ada payung hukumnya,” ujar Hamdani Masil di Jakarta, Senin (24/6).

    Hamdani menjelaskan, untuk zona Jakarta setidaknya ada lima puluh pemohon TV digital, dan sebagian sudah proses, dan sebagian lagi akan diproses selanjutnya. “Kebanyakan pemohon adalah televisi yang sudah ada, seperti Trans TV, Metro TV, SCTV, TV ONE, Berita Satu TV dan TVRI,” terangnya.

    Selama ini, TV di Indonesia masih menggunakan teknologi analog, 1 frekuensi hanya bisa menampung 1 kanal. Jika sudah bermigrasi ke saluran digital TV maka 1 kanal bisa menampung 12 stasiun TV.

    “Kalau di Jakarta ini ada 6 kanal dibuka berarti, 6 kali 12 berarti ada 72 stasiun TV bisa ditampung oleh 6 kanal itu. Jadi orang mau buat TV sekarang tak perlu bangun jaringan-jaringan lagi, tak perlu bangun tower yang tinggi-tinggi lagi. Yang sekarang ini kan main tinggi-tinggian, nah sekarang tak perlu, karena penyedia jaringan sudah ditunjuk,” jelas Hamdani.

    “Banyak yang sudah mengajukan permohonan jadi terhambat. Kami juga tidak bisa menindaklanjuti karena belum ada Permen yang mengatur tentang ini. Padahal September, seharusnya sudah bisa dilakukan investasi. Tiba-tiba ada putusan MA,” tandasnya.

    Perlu diketahui, Kemkominfo memastikan akan tetap menjalankan proyek migrasi siaran televisi dari analog ke digital meski keluar putusan Mahkamah Agung (MA). Kemkominfo sudah melaksanakan dua tahap seleksi TV digital untuk tujuh zona layanan, yakni Jawa, Kepulauan Riau, Aceh, Sumatera Utara, Kalimantan Timur, dan Kalimantan Selatan.

    Sesuai jadwal, pada akhir 2013 akan dilaksanakan seleksi untuk tahap ketiga yang meliputi seluruh provinsi di Sumatera dan Kalimantan.
    [has]


    http://www.merdeka.com/khas/serobot-pemain-lama-televisi-digital-2.html

    Televisi Digital (2)
    Serobot pemain lama
    Alwan Ridha Ramdani | Rabu, 12 Maret 2014 07:27

    Merdeka.com – Pemerintah ternyata tidak menggubris putusan Mahkamah Agung memenangkan gugatan diajukan Asosiasi Televisi Jaringan Indonesia (ATJI). Mereka ngotot ketetapan itu tidak mengubah hasil seleksi dan putusan Mahkamah Agung tidak bersifat retroaktif.

    Pemerintah menjamin tim seleksi telah melakukan proses pemilihan secara transparan, objektif, dapat dipertanggungjawabkan, dan tidak mengutamakan salah satu penyelenggara tertentu.

    Pengusaha jaringan belum satupun dapat kanal. Silakan saja mereka terus lanjut,” kata Ketua ATJI Bambang Santoso beberapa waktu lalu dalam diskusi problematik televisi digital.

    Bambang menegaskan inti dari gugatan mereka adalah soal seleksi. Mahkamah Agung menyatakan seleksi itu ilegal. Buat saya sederhana dan aneh, kenapa pemerintah mempertahankan sesuatu yang ilegal, ujarnya.

    Dia menjelaskan dalam satu frekuensi hanya boleh ada satu lembaga penyiaran. Pemerintah saat ini selalu merasa benar dan tidak mau disalahkan. Tapi dalam proses digitalisasi penyiaran ada hak publik. Saya tidak mengerti kenapa Kominfo seperti kejar tayang padahal tidak sedarurat itu, tutur Bambang.

    Para penguasa televisi lokal di daerah mulai mengeluh tidak ada kepastian pemerintah dalam aturan televisi digital. Bahkan, pemerintah pusat meminta mereka tidak menuntut ganti rugi. Padahal, pemegang kanal analog di daerah sangat sulit beralih ke digital karena teknologinya belum mendukung.

    Kami sudah mengeluarkan pengumuman, pemohon penyiaran untuk mengajukan izin kanal digital,” tutur seorang anggota Komisi Penyiaran Independen Daerah. “Bayangkan dalam empat tahun ini TV analog harus beralih, padahal bisnis di TV daerah itu seret.

    Hasil seleksi dua tahun lalu, Kementerian Informasi dan Telekomunikasi telah menetapkan para pemenang zona layanan di zona Jakarta dan Banten, Jawa Barat, Jawa Tengah, Jawa Timur. Mereka adalah perusahaan saat ini menguasai frekuensi publik, seperti PT Lativi Media Karya (pemilik tvOne), PT Media Televisi Indonesia (MetroTV), PT Surya Citra Televisi (SCTV), dan PT Televisi Transformasi Indonesia (Trans TV).

    Pemenang lainnya adalah PT Cakrawala Andalas Televisi Bandung dan Bengkulu (ANTV Bandung), PT Indosiar Bandung Televisi (Indosiar Bandung), PT Media Televisi Bandung (Metro TV Jawa Barat), PT RCTI Satu (RCTI Network), PT Trans TV Yogyakarta Bandung, PT GTV Dua (Global TV), PT Indosiar Televisi Semarang (Indosiar Semarang), PT Lativi Mediakarya Semarang-Padang (TV One Semarang), PT Media Televisi Semarang (Metro TV Jawa Tengah), dan PT Trans TV Semarang Makassar (Trans TV Semarang). PT Global Informasi Bermutu (Global TV), PT RCTI Sepuluh (RCTI Network), PT Surya Citra Pesona Media (SCTV Batam), dan PT Trans TV Batam Kendari (Trans TV Batam).

    Hal ini berlaku pula pada zona-zona lainnya. Pemilik media televisi saat ini hanya menambahkan nama daerah dalam rebutan kanal. Dari data itu, jelas para pemenang seleksi masih para pemilik lama dengan mendirikan nama perusahaan berbeda. Padahal, menurut Amir Effendi Siregar, adanya keragaman isi siaran dan keragaman kepemilikan menjauhkan dari otoritarianisme baru, otoritarianisme kapital, monopoli, dan oligopoli oleh segelintir orang dalam dunia penyiaran.

    Koordinator Divisi Penyiaran Aliansi Jurnalis Independen Dandhy Dwi Laksono mengingatkan pemerintah jangan melakukan kesalahan sama dalam pemberian frekuensi publik hanya pada kroni tertentu. Jika satu kanal dibagi begitu saja maka kita akan mengalami problem sama dengan isi. Satu grup akan memiliki konten sama, katanya.

    Dia mengatakan migrasi analog ke digital harus memunculkan pemain lokal baru dan tidak melanggengkan oligopoli atau pemusatan kepemilikan di tangan segelintir orang atau kelompok usaha dengan alasan kesiapan modal dan infrastruktur.

    Selain itu, distribusi kanal digital harus mempertimbangkan reputasi para pemegang izin frekuensi analog. Mereka terbukti kerap menyalahgunakan frekuensi publik untuk kepentingan pribadi, kelompok, atau golongan, tidak patut mendapatkan mandat mengelola domain publik, tutur Dandhy.
    [fas]


    http://www.merdeka.com/khas/kuasa-besar-menteri-tifatul-televisi-digital-3.html

    Televisi Digital (3)
    Kuasa besar Menteri Tifatul
    Alwan Ridha Ramdani | Rabu, 12 Maret 2014 07:54

    Merdeka.com – Proses digitalisasi dunia penyiaran masih belum tokcer. Rencana seluruh wilayah Indonesia pada 2015 sudah beralih pada penyiaran digital mungkin molor.

    Frekuensi publik saat ini dinikmati televisi grup besar tidak jadi tutup pada 2018. Sebab, aturan anyar dikeluarkan Menteri Komunikasi dan Informatika Tifatul Sembiring membatasi tidak ada penghentian dari analog ke digital.

    Setelah diperhitungkan 2020 kita membutuhkan bandwith sekitar 1.720 MHz. Sementara yang dialokasikan di Kominfo hanya 764MHz,” kata Staf Ahli Menteri Hendry Subianto dalam diskusi problematik penyiaran digital beberapa waktu lalu. “Maka pada 2020 suka atau tidak suka ada perubahan frekuensi dari 180 juta pengguna tidak bisa dipakai karena akan lemot.

    Tetapi bukan masalah bandwith dikeluhkan para aktivis media dan pengusaha media penyiaran daerah. Kewenangan dimiliki Menteri Tifatul sangat besar. Hanya bermodal peraturan menteri, aturan digitalisasi digulirkan di Indonesia. Idealnya, digitalisasi dengan segala problemnya diatur dalam undang-undang.

    Teranyar, Tifatul hanya mengganti nomor peraturan Kominfo nomor 22/PER/ M.KOMINFO/11/2011 tentang Penyelenggaraan Penyiaran Televisi Digital Teresterial Penerimaan Tetap Tidak Berbayar menjadi nomor 32 tahun 2013 setelah dibatalkan Mahkamah Agung. Pemerintah berkukuh dasar hukum digitalisasi dunia penyiaran merujuk Undang-undang nomor 32 tahun 2002 dan Peraturan Pemerintah nomor 11 tahun 2005. “Ini sudah berkali-kali sudah digugat dan menang, ujar Hendry.

    Direktur Lembaga Pemantau Regulasi dan Regulator Media (PR2Media) Amir Effendi Siregar menilai aturan dikeluarkan Menteri Tifatul berarti melawan Mahkamah Agung. Seharunya permen itu tidak sah, termasuk proses dan pengumuman pemenang. Maka itu akal-akalan dan memaksakan diri, tuturnya.

    Secara substansial isi Peraturan Menteri nomor 22 dan Peraturan Menteri nomor 32 tidak jauh berbeda. Alasannya, aturan pengganti itu mempertahankan konsentrasi kepemilikan media penyiaran.

    Selain itu, aturan sepihak menteri telah menyingkirkan peranan Komisi Penyiaran Indonesia (KPI) sebagai lembaga mengatur penyiaran. Menurut saya itu otoriter dan hendak menyingkirkan KPI. Peraturan seharusnya memberikan peluang kepada semua pihak dan digitalisasi memang seharusnya diatur dalam undang-undang, kata Amir.

    Komisioner KPI Azimah Subagijo mengakui digitalisasi televisi tidak cukup diatur lewat peraturan menteri. Apalagi peraturan ini juga mengikis beberapa kewenangan KPI. “Jangan sampai KPI menjadi kempis dan ini menjadi tugas kita. Ada di bab 7 pasal 23 tentang pengawasan dan pengendalian secara menyeluruh. Ini yang kami perjuangkan agar KPI masuk dalam tim itu, ujarnya.

    Ketua Komisi I Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat Mahfudz Siddiq menegaskan pihaknya mengakui merujuk pada negara lain, digitalisasi diatur dalam undang-undang. Atas dasar itu Komisi I ramai mendiskusikan ini dan sepakat digitalisasi di Indonesia harus dipayungi oleh UU. Ketika ditelaah UU Penyiaran dan UU Telekomunikasi belum menyentuh persoalan digital, katanya.

    Dia menjelaskan langkah dilakukan DPR adalah mendorong revisi UU Penyiaran sehingga kebijakan negara menjadi kuat. Dia mengakui pemerintah tidak menyiapkan aturan digitalisasi dengan baik. Padahal, Komisi I DPR telah mengambil inisiatif merevisi UU Penyiaran.
    [fas]


    http://budisansblog.blogspot.com/2014/04/akal-akalan-permen-digital.html

    Akal-akalan Permen Digital
    Amir Effendi Siregar ; Ketua Pemantau Regulasi dan Regulator Media, KOMPAS, 05 April 2014

    PADA 27 Desember 2013 Menkominfo mengeluarkan Peraturan Menteri Nomor 32/2013 tentang Penyelenggaraan Penyiaran Televisi secara Digital dan Penyiaran Multipleksing Melalui Sistem Terestrial. Akhir Februari lalu Asosiasi Televisi Jaringan Indonesia (ATVJI) dan Asosiasi Televisi Lokal Indonesia (ATVLI) melayangkan somasi agar pemerintah mencabut aturan ini. Awal Maret 2014 ATVJI kembali menggugat dan meminta Mahkamah Agung membatalkan Permen No 32/2013. Permen ini memang tampak memaksakan diri, akal-akalan, kejar tayang, dan-lagi-lagi-bertentangan dengan undang-undang. Mengapa?

    Permen No 32/2013 adalah pengganti Permen No 22/2011 tentang Penyelenggaraan Penyiaran Televisi Digital Terestrial Penerimaan Tetap Tidak Berbayar, yang dinyatakan tidak sah oleh MA pada 3 April 2013. Permen No 22/2011 itu digugat oleh ATVJI dan ATVLI.

    Di Putusan 38/P/HUM/2012, yang disampaikan pada 26 September 2013, ketika mengabulkan gugatan ATVJI, MA tegas menyatakan, Permen No 22/2011 “…bertentangan dengan peraturan perundang-undangan yang lebih tinggi, yaitu Undang-Undang No 32 Tahun 2002 tentang Penyiaran… dan karenanya tidak sah dan tidak berlaku umum”. Selanjutnya, MA memerintahkan menteri mencabut permen itu.

    Berdasarkan putusan MA itu, semua keputusan turunan Permen No 22/2011 seharusnya tak sah dan harus menyesuaikan diri dengan peraturan perundang-undangan yang berlaku. Namun, apa yang tercantum dalam Permen No 32/2013 tampak akal-akalan dan memaksakan diri.

    Dalam Ketentuan Peralihan Pasal 25 dinyatakan bahwa lembaga penyiaran swasta yang telah ditetapkan oleh menteri sebagai Lembaga Penyiaran Penyelenggara Penyiaran Multipleksing (LPPPM) berdasarkan Permen 22/2011 tetap diakui keberadaannya, termasuk hak menyelenggarakan penyiaran multipleksing dan hak penggunaan spektrum frekuensi radio yang telah dimilikinya, serta tetap dapat menjalankan kegiatannya. Ini adalah perlawanan terhadap MA yang, menurut Menkominfo pada Mei tahun lalu, “lebay” bila permen ini dianggap melawan MA.

    Uniknya, Permen No 32/2013 dalam ketentuan menimbang hanya mengutip putusan MA yang mengabulkan gugatan ATVJI tanpa mengutip Putusan MA No 40 P/HUM/2012-disampaikan akhir Desember 2013-yang juga mengabulkan gugatan ATVLI. MA juga menyatakan Permen No 22/2011 bertentangan dengan peraturan di atasnya dan “…karenanya tidak sah dan tidak berlaku umum”.

    Pertahankan konsentrasi

    Pemerintah tampak terburu-buru mengeluarkan Permen No 32/2013. Sebetulnya ada apa? Secara substansial, isi Permen No 22/2011 dan Permen No 32/2013 tak berbeda. Permen No 22/2011 membagi dua lembaga penyiaran, yaitu Lembaga Penyiaran Penyelenggara Program Siaran (LPPPS) dan LPPPM. Bentuk ini tak dikenal dalam UU Penyiaran.

    Permen No 32/2013 menetapkan dua fungsi penyelenggaraan penyiaran. Pertama, penyelenggaraan penyiaran televisi secara digital melalui sistem terestrial dilaksanakan Lembaga Penyiaran Publik (LPP) TVRI, LPP Lokal, Lembaga Penyiaran Swasta (LPS), dan Lembaga Penyiaran Komunitas (LPK). Kedua, penyelenggaraan penyiaran multipleksing melalui sistem terestrial dilaksanakan LPP TVRI dan LPS.

    Dua fungsi ini juga tak dikenal dalam UU Penyiaran, tetapi pemerintah mengakali UU dengan menyatakan pelaksana multipleksing adalah LPP TVRI dan LPS, bukan lembaga baru seperti LPPPS dan LPPPM. Ini adalah juga bentuk diskriminasi terhadap LPK dan LPP Lokal.

    Lebih jauh lagi, Permen No 32/2013 sama dengan Permen No 22/2011 hanya memberi izin penyelenggaraan penyiaran multipleksing bagi yang sudah memiliki izin penggunaan spektrum frekuensi radio dan izin penyelenggaraan penyiaran (IPP). Itu adalah lembaga yang kini eksis.

    Semua ini memperlihatkan bahwa Permen No 32/2013 juga mempertahankan konsentrasi kepemilikan. Penyiaran tetap dikuasai oleh lima kelompok besar, Grup MNC, TV One/ANTV (VIVA), SCTV/Indosiar, Metro TV, dan Trans TV yang juga adalah pemenang penyelenggara multipleksing di banyak zona. Permen No 22/2011 membagi Indonesia dalam 15 zona dengan 216 wilayah, sementara Permen No 32/2013 membaginya dalam 33 provinsi dengan 236 wilayah.

    Kemudian LPS yang akan melakukan penyiaran digital harus bekerja sama dengan LPS yang menyelenggarakan penyiaran multipleksing dan membayar sewa. Ini yang disebut sebagai “anak kos” oleh beberapa lembaga penyiaran di daerah.

    Lebih menarik lagi, RUU Penyiaran versi pemerintah yang sedang dibahas di DPR justru lebih terbuka dengan menyatakan bahwa penyelenggara multipleksing adalah badan hukum Indonesia berbentuk perseroan terbatas, yang bidang usahanya hanya menyelenggarakan layanan multipleksing untuk penyiaran dan juga oleh LPP. Sementara itu, RUU Penyiaran versi DPR memberi kesempatan terbuka kepada banyak pihak dengan menyatakan penyelenggara multipleksing berbentuk badan hukum yang bergerak di bidang penyiaran yang dimiliki konsorsium atau oleh satu atau lebih badan usaha milik negara, badan usaha milik swasta.

    KPI dimarjinalkan

    Permen 32 tetap menyingkirkan peran Komisi Penyiaran Indonesia (KPI) yang seharusnya dilibatkan dalam proses seleksi lembaga penyelenggara multipleksing, sebagaimana dinyatakan oleh UU Penyiaran, khususnya Pasal 33 Ayat (4d): “…izin alokasi dan penggunaan spektrum frekuensi radio oleh pemerintah atas usul KPI”. Lebih menyedihkan lagi, pemerintah membiarkan penyiaran analog mati dengan sendirinya dengan membiarkan persaingan terbuka antara penyiaran analog dan digital.

    Seharusnya negara secara sistematis dan terencana mengatur migrasi penyiaran analog ke digital, termasuk perencanaan meningkatkan efisiensi dan memaksimalkan penghasilan untuk negara. Peraturan seharusnya memberi peluang bagi semua pihak secara terbuka dan adil menjadi pemain di industri penyiaran. Konsentrasi kepemilikan harus dipecah. KPI harus diberi peran penting. Digitalisasi televisi seharusnya diatur oleh UU. Bila pemerintah bersikeras dengan Permen No 32/2013, ini memang “lebay”. ?


     
  • Virtual Chitchatting 4:43 PM on 2014/05/26 Permalink  

    antara mengajar, pengajaran, pembelajaran, pendidikan, mendidik


    http://suaraguru.wordpress.com/2012/03/15/yang-sulit-mengajar-atau-mendidik/

    Yang Sulit, Mengajar atau Mendidik?
    Dr Djuwari MHum, 15 Maret, 2012 at 12:01 am
    Dosen STIE Perbanas Surabaya

    Pada dasarnya dua kata antara ‘mengajar’ dan ‘mendidik’ sering dicampuradukkan. Dalam dunia praktik, dua kata senantiasa dipakai bersamaan. Misalnya, pendidikan dan pengajaran. Namun, dua kata ini sangat berbeda baik asal mula proses pembentukan kata maupun maknanya secara semantik.

    Mengajar berasal dari kata ‘ajar’ berawalan ‘me’, yang berarti kata kerja aktif dan transitif. Dalam keseharian, kata mengajar sering diucapkan dan dituliskan. Misalnya, Pa Fulan mengajara di Matemetika kelas. Pak Fulan mengajar Bahasa Indonesia di sekolah lanjutan, dan seterusnya. Dalam kaitannya makna kalimat itu, maka didapat pengertian bahwa mengajar cenderung memberikan pengetahuan tentang mata pelajaran atau materi kuliah.

    Mendidik berasal dari kata ‘didik’ berawalan ‘me’, yang juga berupa kata kerja aktif dan transitif. Dalam dunia praktik, mendidik berarti memberikan wawasan dalam bentuk ilmu dan perilaku yang menjadikan anak yang didik menjadi lebih dewasa dan mandiri. Kata ‘mendidik’ berasal dari kata ‘to educate’ dan berasal dari bahasa Inggris, ‘to educate’, yang ebrarti ‘to develop mentally, morally, or aesthetically especially by instruction’.

    Jadi, mendidik berarti mengembangkan potensi anak didik baik mental, moral, bahkan estetikanya. Tindakan mendidik itu dilakukan melalui proses insturksional atau pengajaran. Mendidik memiliki makna lebih luas daripada mengajar. Mendidik lebih menekankan pada perkembangan jiwa dan moralitas anak didik.

    Dengan demikian, mengajar dan mendidik itu beda. Mengajar lebih pada transfer pengetahuan sesuai dengan materi ajaran yang diberikan. Pengetahuan ini terkait dengan ilmu dan teknologi. Adapun mendidik lebih pada menekankan pada proses perkembangan mental, jiwa dan moral anak didik. Dari sinilah, dua kata ‘mengajar’ dan ‘mendidik’ itu tampak jelas berbeda.

    Mengajar diperlukan kecerdasan pengajarnya (dosen atau guru) terhadap ilmu yang idembannya. Misalnya, pengetahuan tentang matematika, bahasa, seni, dan ilmu-ilmu lain. Adapun mendidik memerlukan kemampuan pengajarnya (dosen atau guru) dalam bersikap secara psikoligis, moral, dan estetika di depan kelas untuk menjunjug nilai-nilai dan menanamkan pada anak didik.

    Sifat-sifat menjunjung tinggi etika, moral, dan keterbukaan serta keadilan sampai pada estetika itu sangat menunjang keberhasilan mendidik. Namun, dua tindakan antara ‘mengajar’ dan ‘mendidik’ itu senantiasa menjadi satu yaitu Pendidikan dan Pengajaran. Ini secara imlpisit siapa saja yang mengajar diharapkan juga sekaligus mendidik. Itu sebabnya, dalam dunia pendidikan, istilah pendidikan dan pengajaran senantiasa menjadi satu paduan kata yang tak terpisahkan.

    Lebih jelas lagi, sekarang guru maupun dosen mulai diwajibkan memiliki sertifikat dalam sertifikasi profesi. Namanya adalah sertifikat pendidik bukan sertifikat pengajar. Nah, dari sini, maka pengajar dan pendidik seharusnya sudah menjadi jati diri seorang guru atau dosen. Jika hanya piawai mengajar tetapi belum bisa mendidik, tentunya sertifikatnya bernama sertifikat pengajar, bukan sertifikat pendidik.

    Namun, dari pembicaraan tentang dua kata ‘mengajar’ dan ‘mendidik’, kita bisa merenungkan betapa sulitnya mendidik itu. Mengajar lebih dominan daripada mendidik jika dua kata tersebut tidak dipahami secara konseptual. Padahal, dilihat dari konsep makna kata dan dalam dunia praktik, mendidik itu lebih sulit daripada mengajar.

    Mendidik membutuhkan kepribadian seorang guru atau dosen yang lebih memiliki sifat-sifat mental, moral, dan estetika yang lebih tinggi. Intinya, tidak sekadar memiliki keilmuan atau kedisiplinan ilmu pengetahuan dan teknologi. Lebih penting lagi justru mengarah pada sifat terkait moralitas dan mentalitas seseorang. (Sumber: IndonesiaPos, 15 Maret 2012).


    http://www.sekolahdasar.net/2012/11/mengajar-dan-mendidik-dengan-hati.html

    Mengajar dan Mendidik dengan Hati

    Rasa kasih sayang pada anak didik menimbulkan rasa aman pada mereka. Ketika kegiatan belajar mengajar berlangsug, mereka merasa bahagia dan senang melakuakan apapun yang ditugaskan guru. Karena perasaan sayang pada gurunya, mereka tidak mau gurunya sedih karena kenakalannya. Ini terutama ketika kita sebagai guru mengajar di kelas rendah, kelas I misalnya. Mereka akan bermanja-manja pada kita selayaknya pada orang tuanya sendiri.

    Di sanalah kita bisa menerapkan segala yang kita inginkan untuk merubah prilaku mereka sesuai dengan tujuan pendidikan yang dicanangkan pemerintah. Ketelatenan kita pada mereka sangat diperlukan, kesabaran, kepedulian layaknya orang tua di rumah sangat mereka harapkan. Kita sebagai {guru} harus bisa menarik simpati mereka sehingga betah di sekolah.

    Belakangan ini banyak sekali anak-anak yang kurang perhatian di rumahnya karena kesibukan kedua orang tua mereka. Tidak heran kalau banyak sekali permasalahan yang terjadi pada mereka, misalnya suka berkelahi, suka bolos sekolah karena mereka tahu orang tuanya mereka tidak ada di rumah. Mereka berangkat sekolah dari rumah diantar ibu atau bapaknya ke sekolah. Setelah ibu bapaknya pergi si anak juga pergi misalnya menghabiskan waktu di warnet dan pulang ketika jam sekolah selesai. Jadi disangka sama orang tuanya mereka belajar di sekolah.

    Kita sebagai guru harus ekstra dalam memantau kehadiran siswa jangan sampai kecolongan, kontak sama orang tua sangat diperlukan untuk mencegah hal-hal yang tak didinginkan terjadi pada anak didik kita. Tantangan untuk kita sebagai guru adalah menciptakan suasana supaya anak betah di sekolah, jangan sampai mereka merasa tertekan, bosan, takut bahkan merasa terbebani dengan banyak tugas. Ini adalah yang harus kita cari solusinya, mungkin inilah yang pemerintah harapkan dari kita-kita sebagai guru untuk melaksanakan tugas sebagai guru profesional, sanggupkah kita? Kita pasti bisa!

    Mengajar dan mendidik dengan hati sangat diperlukan untuk mengubah karakter mereka supaya lebih baik. Sanggupkah kita sebagai guru menciptakan suasana yang menjadikan {anak betah di sekolah}? ayo kita berusaha dengan memohon bantuan para pakar pendidikan.

    Guru kelas I yang kadang-kadang diremehkan, misalnya kekurangan jam mengajar, padahal mereka mempunyai peranan penting dalam {mengasuh anak} layaknya di rumah, penuh kasih sayang, sabar, menciptakan suasana senang sehingga anak lupa pada orang tuanya sehingga tidak ingin cepat pulang. Mereka mampu membuat susana hati anak nyaman di pangkuan mereka, sehingga tidak sulit lagi para orang tua untuk membujuk anaknya pergi sekolah karena mereka akan rindu pada bu gurunya yang baik dan menyenangkan.

    Selamat pada guru kelas I yang sudah sekuat tenaga sampai bercucuran keringat mengasuh anak-anak yang walaupun hanya 2 jam dalam sehari tapi sangat menguras tenaga, semoga menjadi amal baik dan menjadikan anak didik kita anak yang sholeh dan sholehah, Amin.

    Haryati
    Penulis adalah pengajar di SDN Nagrog Cicalengka. Dalam kurun waktu 30 tahun mengajar dan diberikan tugas hampir separuh masa kerja itu di kelas I . Penulis dapat ditemui @HARYATI25818334 di twitter dan blognya http://catatan-haryati.blogspot.com
    SekolahDasar.Net | 18/11/12


    http://edukasi.kompasiana.com/2013/01/02/mendidik-beda-dengan-mengajar-521618.html

    Mendidik Beda dengan Mengajar!
    Iwan Permadi, 2 January 2013 | 11:20

    Dua istilah diatas kadang bagi sebagian orang sama saja. Padahal dalam terminologi dan operasional di lapangan sebenarnya berbeda. Apalagi kalau dikaitkan dengan pendidikan formal seperti sekolah dari TK (Taman Kanak-Kanak) hingga SMA/SMU (Sekolah Menengah Atas/Umum), pengertian keduanya mencakup lingkup wilayah yang berbeda. Guru di sekolah mungkin paling banyak punya waktu 3-6 jam perhari mengetahui sepak terjang siswanya, namun orang tua di rumah punya waktu terbanyak sebab si anak yang belum punya pendapatan sendiri pastilah masih hidup serumah bersama orang tuanya dari bangun tidur hingga pergi tidur lagi.

    Banyak contoh memperlihatkan prestasi buruk anak di sekolah kadang-kadang ditimpakan kepada kesalahan guru semata karena dalam memberikan pelajaran/pengajaran tidak cocok/pas dengan si siswa sehingga berakibat si siswa mengadu kepada orang tua bahwa dia “tidak suka” dengan guru tersebut. Kata “Tidak Suka” bisa beberapa hal sebenarnya mungkin penjelasannya seperti cara mengajarnya, metode pengajaran yang digunakan, serta presentasinya (volume suara, penguasaan materi, terlalu cepat/lambat mengajarnya, tidak sabar, pemarah dll).

    Keterampilan mengajar memang secara profesional ada dan itu kebanyakan dari produk sekolah guru seperti dulu ada IKIP (Institut Keguruan Ilmu Pendidikan) yang ada beberapa ibu kota propinsi, sekarang di beberapa universitas sudah ada FKIP (Fakultas Keguruan dan Ilmu Pendidikan) yang mencetak guru-guru. Profesional disini berarti banyak yaitu metode pengajarannya sudah melalui uji kelayakan dan kepatutan serta diadaptasikan dengan budaya lokal sehingga tidak sembarangan. Keterampilan ini secara praktis ditunjukkan dengan cara bagaimana mempresentasikan materi kepada murid/siswa seperti cara berpakaian yang rapi dan necis serta cara bersikap yang mengutamakan etika-etika yang berlaku di masyarakat seperti menjujung tinggi kesopanan, tutur kata yang teratur, dan pemberian contoh-contoh yang sesuai dengan adab yang berlaku.

    Problem yang ada sekarang karena banyak guru berasal dari latar belakang yang berbeda-beda yang sebenarnya sah-sah saja, dan jadi guru bidang studi tertentu, mahasiswa kuliahan juga bisa jadi guru asal mampu namun akhirnya banyak aspek “mendidik” yang terlupakan/tergeser. Gaya bertutur, bersikap, dan berpakaian yang “asal saja” kebanyakan mereduksi “peran sakral” guru/pendidik sehingga apa yang didapatkan siswa/murid tersebut adalah karakter siswa pintar dan cerdas tapi berpenampilan dan berkata semau gue.

    Memang nggak salah juga mengikuti perkembangan jaman, karakter anak muda yang pemberontak diperlukan, namun pengertian memberontak disini harusnya juga tetap mengikuti aturan yang ada. Pemberontak yang cerdas selain hebat di arena demonstrasi juga harus punya prestasi akademik yang mengesankan. Pemberontak yang mumpuni juga harus mampu berdebat (bukan debat kusir) dengan mengutarakan pendapatnya berdasarkan referensi yang up to date dan diakui keberadaannya. Pemberontak yang jempolan punya visi dan misi yang mencerahkan bangsanya dan itu bukan dihasilkan dari budaya instan dan berperilaku hedonis.

    Terakhir pendidikan yang terarah merupakan hasil dari pendidikan dan pengajaran yang sudah didesain dari sebelumnya. Tidak mungkin anak berjalan keliru bila tidak ada contoh yang meyakinkannya bahwa cara itu salah. Tidak mungkin pula anak memilih lingkungan teman dan pergaulannya yang buruk bila dia tidak mempunyai orang tua yang berwibawa dan layak jadi panutan.

    Akhirnya sebenarnya tugas mengajar dan mendidik adalah tugas bersama antara Guru, Masyarakat dan Orang tua namun catatannya peran orang tua lebih besar karena baik dan buruknya perilaku si anak adalah cermin dari orang tua bukan guru. Seperti pernah disebutkan bahwa orang tua adalah dunia bagi si anak , artinya perilaku orang tua baik dan buruknya adalah etalase anak untuk meniru. Bukan salah Bunda mengandung, tapi salah bunda (dan ayah) mendidik…….


    http://agusprayugo.wordpress.com/tag/perbedaan-mengajar-dan-mendidik/

    Peran dan Fungsi Guru
    agusprayugo, Mei 10, 2013

    Status guru mempunyai implikasi terhadap peran dan fungsi yang menjadi tanggung jawabnya. Guru memiliki satu kesatuan peran dan fungsi yang tidak terpisahkan, antara kemampuan mendidik, membimbing, mengajar dan melatih. Keempat kemampuan tersebut merupakan kemampuan integratif, antara satu dengan yang lain tidak dapat dipisahkan.

    Namun dalam praktiknya di lapangan sulit untuk menemukan guru yang mampu mengintegrasikan keempat kemampuan tersebut dengan sempurna. Seorang guru adalah manusia biasa. Ia sama sekali bukan manusia super yang tanpa cacat. Guru adalah manusia biasa yang sekaligus memiliki kelebihan dan kekurangan. Itulah sebabnya keempat kemampuan yang harus dimiliki guru juga berada dalam tingkatan yang beranekaragam.

    Berikut tabel perbedaan dari keempat kemampuan yang harus dimiliki guru

    Aspek

    Mendidik

    Membimbing

    Mengajar

    Melatih

    Isi Moral dan kepribadian

    Norma dan tata tertib

    Bahan ajar berupa ilmu pengetahuan dan teknologi Ketrampilan atau kecakapan hidup
    Proses Memberikan motivasi untuk belajar dan mengikuti ketentuan/ tata tertib yang telah menjadi kesepakatan bersama Menyampaikan/ mentransfer bahan ajar yang berupa ilmu pengetahuan, teknologi, dan seni dengan menggunakan strategi dan metode mengajar yang sesuai dengan perbedaan individual siswa Memberikan contoh kepada siswa/ mempraktikkan ketrampilan tertentu/ menerapkan konsep yang diberikan kepada siswa menjadi kecakapan yang dapat digunakan sehari-hari Menjadi contoh teladan dalam hal moral dan kepribadian
    Strategi dan Metode Keteladanan, pembiasaan Motivasi dan pembinaan Ekspositori, enkuiri Praktik kerja, simulasi, magang

    Disisi lain peran guru sering dicitrakan memiliki peran ganda atau yang dikenal dengan EMASLIMDEF ( educator, manager, administrator, supervisor, leader, inovator, motivator, dinaminsator, evaluator dan facilitator ). EMASLIMDEF lebih merupakan peran kepala sekolah. Akan tetapi, dalam skala mikro di kelas, peran itu juga harus dimiliki oleh guru.

    Wright (1987) sebagaimana dikutip oleh Robiah Sidin (1993:8), dalam buku yang bertajuk Classroom Management, menyatakan bahwa guru memiliki dua peran utama, yakni : the management role dan the intructional role. Dalam kata lain peran guru adalah sebagai manager dan sekaligus instruktur. Selain peran tersebut guru juga mempunyai fungsi sebagai pembimbing siswa dalam memecahkan kesulitan pembelajaran, sebagai narasumber yang dapat membantu siswanya menjawab pertanyaan-pertanyaan siswa atau untuk menemukan jawaban atau memperoleh informasi lanjutan dan juga sebagai penilai hasil belajar.

    Dari uraian di atas dapat disimpulkan bahwa peran dan fungsi guru adalah sebagai pendidik, pengajar, fasilitator, pembimbing, pelayan, perancang, pengelola, inovator, dan penilai. Peran dan fungsi guru tersebut membutuhkan keahlian khusus yang biasanya diperoleh oleh calon guru/ guru disaat mereka menempuh pendidikan formal keguruan baik di SPG, D2, atau S1 Kependidikan. Namun banyak juga calon guru/ guru yang belajar dari pengalaman mereka dalam pembelajaran di kelas, belajar pada masalah-masalah yang mereka hadapi di kelas dan sharing dengan rekan sejawat. Oleh karena itu seorang guru dituntut untuk selalu belajar dan belajar.

    Sumber : Suparlan, Menjadi guru efektif


    http://suaraguru.wordpress.com/2014/02/13/antara-pengajaran-dan-pembelajaran/

    Antara Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran
    Prof Dr Cahyo Yusuf MPd, 13 Februari, 2014 at 12:00 am
    Rektor Universitas Tidar Magelang (UTM)

    “Penggunaan kata pembelajaran, dalam konstruksi frasa atau kalimat sering tidak benar”
    Kata pengajaran dan pembelajaran bisa dibahas lewat ilustrasi berikut. Para pendidik (guru/do¬sen) dalam konteks kelas-sekolah melaksanakan kegiatan yang disebut proses mengajar. Imple¬mentasi proses mengajar, guru berceramah kepada siswa, sedangkan siswa mendengarkan ceramah guru. Dalam perkembangan pendidikan, proses mengajar ini dikatakan, ìguru aktif, siswa pasifî.

    Guru berceramah, kadang disisipi keaktifan siswa, yaitu siswa bertanya kepada guru, siswa me¬nanggapi isi ceramah guru, atau siswa menjawab per¬tanyaan guru. Guru aktif, siswa kurang aktif. Cara (metode dan teknik) yang dilakukan guru ini dikata¬kan mengajar satu arah. Cara mengajar seperti itu tidak tepat.

    Perihal proses mengajar ìberdampakî pada kata pengajaran yang sudah digunakan oleh pendidik. Kata pengajaran dikatakan pula mengajar satu arah. ìDiyakiniî bahwa kata pengajaran tersebut salah.

    Secara proposional, dalam kegiatan mengajar tentu terjadi kegiatan belajar. Implementasi kata pengajaran terdapat kegiatan mengajar dan kegiatan belajar, terjadi proses (interaksi). Dilihat dari guru, guru berkegiatan mengajar/mengelola/memfasilitasi siswa, sedangkan dilihat dari siswa, siswa berkegiatan belajar. Cara mengajar ini terjadi dua arah. Cara ini dikatakan belajar siswa-aktif.

    Dari segi bentuk, kata pengajaran benar, pem¬ben¬tukannya sesuai dengan sistem Bahasa Indone¬sia. Berdasarkan teori Hockett kita bisa menguraikan, pertama; model penataan (item and arrangement), kata pengajaran dijabarkan (diuraikan) berupa peng-an dan ajar, kata pengajaran bermakna “proses ajar”.

    Kedua; model proses (item and process), kata pengajaran dijabarkan berupa peng-an dan mengajar, kata pengajaran bermakna “proses mengajar”. Kekeliruan implementasi perihal proses mengajar, para pendidik membentuk dan menggunakan kata pembelajaran (interaction). Kata pengajaran ìdigantiî dengan kata pembelajaran.

    Pembentukan kata pembelajaran sesuai dengan sistem Bahasa Indonesia. Penggunaan kata pembelajaran, dalam konstruksi frasa/kalimat sering tidak benar disebabkan oleh pemaknaan yang tidak tepat. Ketidaktepatan pemaknaan kata pembelajaran terlihat pada penggunaan, misal dalam judul Suara Merdeka (1) “Guru Kunci Perubahan Budaya”, “Pembelajaran Satu Arah Ketinggalan Zaman”, dan (2) “Guru Belum Paham Konsep Pembelajaran Tematik”, dan (3) “Pembelajaran matematika”.

    Pembaca yang tahu makna kata pembelajaran terasa terganggu ketika membaca frasa (judul) itu. Kata pembelajaran bermakna proses membelajarkan’ Kata pembelajaran mengandung pengertian arah. Kata pembelajaran diikuti nomina persona secara opsional. Analisis berikut menjawab pernyataan ini.

    Kata pembelajaran ditelaah dari bentuk dan makna berdasarkan teori Hockett, (1) kata pembelajaran terdiri atas pem-an + bel- + ajar (kata dasar pri¬mer), belajar kata dasar (sekunder), maka kata pem¬belajaran bermakna “proses belajar”, atau (2) kata pembelajaran terdiri atas pem-an dan membelajarkan, kata dasarnya membelajarkan maka kata pembelajaran bermakna proses membelajarkan atau proses menjadikan… belajar.

    Kata (proses) membelajarkan bermakna “mela¬kukan kegiatan yang menjadikan/menyebabkan… belajar”. Dalam konteks kelas-sekolah, kata (proses) mem-be¬lajarkan bermakna “(guru) melakukan/me¬nge¬lola serangkaian kegiatan yang menjadi-kan/menyebabkan (siswa) belajar”.

    Penjelasan Makna

    Logika atas pertanyaan berikut dapat memberikan penjelasan makna membelajarkan. Siapa yang mengajar? Jawabnya guru. Siapa yang belajar? Jawabnya siswa. Pertanyaan dan jawaban ini dapat dirangkum bahwa kegiatan guru mengajar dan kegiatan siswa belajar menggunakan kata membelajarkan. Kata membelajarkan (verba/kata kerja) dibentuk dengan pengafiksan pem-an menjadi kata turunan pembelajaran (nomina/kata benda).

    Kata pembelajaran digunakan secara tepat, contoh sebagai judul pada Suara Merdeka (1) “Guru Kunci Perubahan Budaya”, “Pembelajaran Sesuai Zaman”. Penggunaan kata pembelajaran pada frasa ini tidak diikuti nomina persona, dan (2) “Guru Kunci Perubahan Budaya”, “Pembelajaran Siswa-Aktif Sesuai Zaman”. Penggunaan kata pembelajaran pada frasa ini diikuti nomina siswa-aktif. Artinya, nomina persona setelah kata pembelajaran bersifat pilihan (opsional).

    Dalam konstruksi frasa lain, kata pembelajaran wajib diikuti nomina persona, misalnya pembelajaran siswa tentang matematika bermakna “proses membelajarkan siswa tentang matematika”. Kemiripan bentuk dan karaktesistik dengan kata pembelajaran adalah kata bentukan pemberdayaan.

    Dengan teori Hockett tersebut, kata pemberdayaan terdiri atas (1) pem-an + berdaya, kata pemberdayaan bermakna “proses berdaya”, (2) pem-an dan memberdayakan, kata pemberdayaan bermakna “proses memberdayakan” atau “(orang) melakukan serangkaian kegiatan yang menjadikan/menyebabkan… berdaya”.

    Jika kata wanita dipasangkan setelah pemberdayakan, frasa pemberdayaan wanita bermakna “proses memberdayakan wanita”, “proses yang dilakukan (orang) agar wanita berdaya” atau “(orang) melakukan serangkaian kegiatan yang menjadikan/menyebabkan wanita berdaya”. (Sumber: Suara Merdeka, 13 Februari 2014)


    http://www.koran-sindo.com/node/385651

    Mengajar dan Mendidik
    20140503

    Sekolah sebagai institusi pendidikan memiliki tanggung jawab yang besar untuk mencetak manusia yang berkualitas baik. Fungsi itu sesuai dengan UU Nomor 20 Tahun 2003 tentang Sistem Pendidikan Nasional, Pasal 3 menyatakan bahwa tujuan pendidikan nasional yaitu

    “Mengembangkan potensi peserta didik agar menjadi manusia yang beriman dan bertakwa kepada Tuhan Yang Maha Esa, berakhlak mulia, sehat, berilmu, cakap, kreatif, mandiri dan menjadi warga negara yang demokratis serta bertanggung jawab”. Oleh karena itu, tidak berlebihan rasanya jika 20% APBN Indonesia dialokasikan untuk biaya pendidikan mengingat pentingnya pencapaian tujuan pendidikan tersebut.

    Tetapi dengan anggaran yang besar tidak serta-merta menjamin peningkatan kualitas dan mutu pendidikan tanpa adanya manajemen, pengawasan dan komitmen yang kuat dari pihakpihak terkait seperti guru, kepala sekolah, pengawas, dinas pendidikan, dan kementerian terkait. Mengajar dan mendidik adalah paket keahlian yang semestinya dimiliki oleh seorang guru.

    Karena sekadar menyampaikan materi pelajaran di kelas tanpa memberikan pendidikan sikap, etika, semangat bela negara dan nilai-nilai luhur lainnya hanya akan menghasilkan generasi pintar tapi tak bermoral. Jangan sampai institusi pendidikan hanya mencetak manusia-manusia yang pintar, tapi gemar melakukan korupsi, kolusi, nepotisme, dan lalai dalam tugas. Oleh karena itu, guru jangan hanya melakukan fungsi mengajar tetapi juga fungsi mendidik.

    Di kalangan pelajar, kata “mencontek” sepertinya merupakan kata yang sudah tidak asing lagi didengar. Mencontek sering dianggap sebagai kasus yang ringan oleh siswa dan bahkan guru sekalipun. Padahal mencontek mengajarkan kita banyak hal buruk seperti kemalasan, tidak percaya diri, curang, manajemen waktu yang salah, tidak bertanggung jawab, dan membohongi guru dan juga membohongi diri sendiri.

    Tidakkah hal ini harus mendapat penanganan segera? Kebiasaan ini harus disikapi dengan serius oleh para guru karena ini merupakan bagian dari pendidikan yang harus ditanamkan sejak dini. Kasus lain adalah nilai rapor siswa yang kebanyakan hanya nilai besar tak berisi ilmu, dengan kata lain dimanipulasi. Apalagi sekarang dengan sistem akumulasi nilai UN dan nilai rapor sebagai nilai kelulusan, membuat sekolah meningkatkan nilai siswa secara massal tanpa objektivitas.

    Bagaimana penilaian itu bisa dipertanggungjawabkan? Hal ini mengajarkan kebohongan kepada kita dengan nilai yang tidak sesuai dengan kemampuan kita yang sesungguhnya. Belum lagi masalah bolos, tawuran, dan tidak menghormati guru adalah proyek yang harus terus dibenahi oleh para pengajar dan pendidik khususnya dan masyarakat pada umumnya. Sering kita tersandung bukan karena benda yang besar, tetapi tersandung itu lazimnya oleh benda yang kecil yang biasanya kita anggap sepele.

    Oleh karena itu, jangan sekali-kali mengabaikan kekurangan kita, dalam hal ini kebiasaan buruk dunia pendidikan seperti mencontek, manipulasi nilai, tawuran, dan telat masuk kelas, jangan sampai harapan kita tersandung dengan hal-hal kecil tadi.

    Tentu kita berharap pendidikan Indonesia dapat membaik sehingga menghasilkan manusia-manusia yang berkualitas yang mampu bersaing dengan masyarakat internasional, menjadi bangsa yang makmur, sejahtera, dan berwibawa. ??
    M FIKRI ALY
    Mahasiswa Jurusan Hubungan Internasional, FISIP UIN Syarif Hidayatullah Jakarta


    http://www.koran-sindo.com/node/388165

    Minimalisasi Kekerasan – Sekolah Kedinasan Ditarik ke Kemendikbud
    20140512

    SORONG – KementerianPendidikan dan Kebudayaan (Kemendikbud) akan mengambil alih kewenangan sekolah kedinasan. Mulai dari pembinaan akademik hingga seleksi perizinannya. Dirjen Pendidikan Tinggi (Dikti) Kemendikbud Djoko Santoso mengatakan, Kemendikbud sudah merancang bentuk pengaturan sekolah kedinasan.

    Salah satunya terkait sistem akademik, kurikulum sekolah kedinasan di bawah kementerian atau lembaga lain akan diatur oleh Kemendikbud. “Yang terpenting itu adalah pembinaan. Kami akan atur itu. Sekarang sudah terlanjur akademiknya diatur kementerian/ lembaga sendiri-sendiri,” katanya selepas peringatan Hari Pendidikan Nasional (Hardiknas) di alun-alun Kota Sorong, Papua, kemarin. Dia yakin, jika rambu-rambu akademik sudah ditarik oleh Kemendikbud, budaya kekerasan di sekolah kedinasan akan terhapuskan.

    Terlebih, Kemendikbud sudah mewajibkan seluruh kampus yang ada di bawah Kemendikbud untuk menghapus masa orientasi yang disimpulkan menjadi akar dendam antara yunior dan senior di kampus. Dalam sistem akademik sekolah kedinasan yang baru, juga disusun metode pendekatan senior dan yunior sebagai satu keluarga besar. Djoko menambahkan, pemberian izin operasional sekolah kedinasan memang selamanya dipegang Kemendikbud.

    Pihaknya pun akan memperketat proses pemberian izin. Jika sistem akademik dan perizinan sekolah kedinasan sudah ditarik, kementrian/ lembaga tersebut hanya mengurusi sumber daya manusia dan infrastrukturnya. Djoko menambahkan, sekolahkedinasantidakbolehlagi berbentuk sekolah tinggi atau institut, akan diubah menjadi politeknikkarenaprogramstudiyang diampu sekolah kedinasan kebanyakanmengajarkanketerampilan secara spesifik atau vokasi. Djoko menyampaikan, perubahan tersebut akan segera terlaksana.

    Saat ini peraturan pemerintah (PP) yang mengatur tentang sistem pendidikan di kementerian/ lembaga lain sedang digodok. PP ini merupakan turunan dari UU No 12 tahun 2012 tentang Pendidikan Tinggi. Anggota Komisi X DPR Tubagus Dedy Gumelar sepakat jika sekolah kedinasan itu diambil alih Kemendikbud. Pasalnya, dalam UU Sisdiknas sudah dinyatakan jika pengelolaan pendidikan disemua jenjang itu ditanganisatukementerian yang membidangi pendidikan.

    Saat ini, ketika sekolah kedinasan dibangun kementerianlaindanperizinannya dipegang Kemendikbud, menyebabkan sulitnya menentukan pihak yang bertanggung jawab bila terjadi kasus kekerasan maupun penyimpangan lain. Kemendikbud bakal lebih mudah mengawasi sekolah pencetak aparatur negara jika memiliki kewenangan. ?neneng zubaidah


     
  • Virtual Chitchatting 4:28 PM on 2014/05/26 Permalink  

    Isu lama dengan nama baru: Dulu namanya KKN, sekarang politik dinasti, dinasti politik.

    https://id-id.facebook.com/Tolak.Politik.Dinasti/posts/272847242801935

    Rakyat Buleleng Menolak Politik Dinasti
    I Nyoman Subanda, 10 April 2012

    ISTILAH feodalisme muncul di Eropa, khususnya di Inggris pada abad keemasan ketika negara Inggris berada di puncak kejayaan dan menjadi imperialisme yang kuat. Imperialisme muncul setelah era kejayaan Romawi runtuh yang diawali pecahnya wilayah Romawi menjadi Romawi Barat dan Romawi Timur.

    Konsep feodalisme mengacu pada kekuasaan kalangan aristokrat yakni keluarga raja di Inggris. Dalam penggunaan bahasa sehari-hari istilah feodalisme sering digunakan untuk memaknai perilaku negatif seorang penguasa yang selalu ingin dihormati dan cenderung ingin mempertahankan nilai lama yang sudah mulai ditinggalkan. Feodalisme juga sering ini dimaknai sebagai perilaku penguasa yang tidak demokratis dan berusaha sekuat tenaga mempertahankan dinasti kekuasaannya. Dalam konteks Indonesia istilah feodalisme oleh Cliffort Geertz digunakan untuk menjelaskan karakteristik feodal kalangan priyayi di Indonesia khususnya suku Jawa. Dalam bukunya Priyayi, Santri, dan Abangan, Cliffort Geertz mengulas tentang kekuasaan feodal yang tersirat dalam tiga kelas kasta di Indonesia.

    Spirit karakteristik kekuasaan ala feodalisme melanggengkan kekuasaan melalui politik kekerabatan dan kekeluargaan yang saat ini sering disebut politik dinasti. Antara feodalisme dan politik dinasti tertangkap nilai yang menunjukkan tendensi untuk membangun suatu kekuasaan dengan mempertahankan tradisi turun-temurun atau masih dalam lingkungan kerabat dekat.
    Politik dinasti juga bisa terjadi dalam organisasi negara yang demokratis. Fenomena ini pernah disampaikan Robert Michels yang mengatakan, dalam organisasi demokratis sekalipun jika seorang pemimpin terpilih ia akan membuat kekuasaannya makin mapan agar sulit untuk digeser atau digantikan bahkan bisa melakukan dengan cara mengerus prinsip demokrasi di lapangan permainan politiknya.

    Politik dinasti dengan karakteristik seperti itu merupakan fenomena cukup berkembang dalam sistem politik Indonesia. Pesta demokrasi melalui pilkada merupakan salah satu contoh konkret tentang berkembangnya politik dinasti. Politik dinasti seolah-olah telah menjadi trendi bahkan cenderung telah menjadi identitas khas politik Indonesia. Anehnya, hampir semua dari kita menerima bahkan membiarkan politik dinasti ini berkembang di segala lini di era kedaulatan rakyat saat ini.
    Dalam skala politik lokal Bali, trendi politik dinasti ini juga menggema dalam beberapa helatan politik khususnya pilkada di kabupaten/kota. Dalam beberapa pilkada seperti pilkada Tabanan, Jembrana, termasuk di Buleleng yang akan melaksanakan pilkada, juga ikut “mengadu nasib” mempertahankan politik dinasti.

    Dari berbagai kasus, politik dinasti di Indonesia memperlihatkan tedensi penyalahgunaan kekuasaan (abuse of power). Abuse of power tersebut akhirnya menumbuhkembangkan terjadinya korupsi, kolusi, dan nepotisme. Dinasti kekuasaan akhirnya bertujuan untuk menutupi kesalahan orangtua atau kerabatnya dari abuse of power. Politik dinasti identik dengan teori Lord Action yang menyatakan “Absolutely power tends to corrupt”.

    Politik dinasti biasanya menggunakan nama besar orangtua atau kerabat sebagai sarana mengampanyekan diri. Ada juga yang menggunakan ideologi dan program kerakyatan pendahulunya yang relevan sebagai kekuatan menarik massa. Namun, politik dinasti kita saat ini tidak memiliki kekuatan jual, dari segi prestasi orangtua maupun ideologi atau program kerakyatan yang layak untuk dikembangkan dan dipertahankan. Dapat dikatakan politik dinasti Indonesia hanya politik “mengadu nasib” secara turun-temurun atau politik pengganti pensiun ala birokrasi Indonesia zaman orde baru yang sudah kita tinggalkan.

    Agar politik dinasti di Indonesia tidak menjadi latah, harus dimulai dari iktikad dan komitmen politik partai politik. Parpol harus ditradisikan melakukan fit and propertest terhadap calon gubernur, bupati, dan wali kota yang akan menggunakan kendaraan politik partainya sehingga dapat dihasilkan calon pemimpin yang memiliki kapabelitas, elaktibilitas, serta rekor baik dan diterima publik. Parpol juga wajib melakukan pendidikan politik pada masyarakat sehingga masyarakat mampu sebagai penyeleksi, tidak hanya sebagai pemilih. Setelah berhasil mengantarkan “tumpangannya” sebagai gubernur, bupati dan wali kota, parpol wajib memosisikan diri sebagai infrastruktur yang efektif serta social control yang representatif mewakili kepentingan publik.

    Kunci penting lainnya yang wajib kita tumbuhkembangkan sekaligus kita tradisikan adalah membiasakan diri sebagai pendengar yang baik dan sensitif terhadap berbagai isu publik dan sekaligus keresahan masyarakat. Kalau tradisi mendengar dan sensitifitas elite politik itu terasah dengan baik semestinya politik dinasti tidak terjadi. Dalam Kompas 24 Agustus 2010 dimuat uangkapan Presiden SBY yang mengatakan, “tidak patut jika kepala daerah yang habis masa jabatannya digantikan anak atau istrinya”. Dalam Kompas 24 Oktober 2011 Dirjen Otonomi Daerah Kemendagri Djohermansyah Djohan mengatakan, “keluarga inti kepala daerah tidak bisa mencalonkan diri sebagai calon gubernur mapun bupati atau wali kota. Keluarga inti yang dimaksud adalah suami atau istri dan anak”. Kalau kita mau sensitif dan mengasah tradisi mendengar, camkan dan laksanakan apa yang dikatakan SBY dan Dirjen Otonomi Daerah Kemendagri tersebut.

    • Dr. I Nyoman Subanda, M.Si.
    Dosen FISIP dan Pascasarjana
    Undiknas University


    http://kabarwashliyah.com/2013/07/24/politik-dinasti-harus-dibatasi/

    Politik Dinasti Harus Dibatasi
    Kabar Washliyah, Gardo, Rabu, 24 Juli 2013

    JAKARTA – Fakta politik terjadinya penyimpangan dan penyalahgunaan fasilitas daerah dan negara oleh pejabat daerah dan negara dalam politik dinasti, maka pemerintah dan DPR RI perlu mengatur pembatasan terhadap proses politik dan demokrasi terkait keluarga. Langkah itu untuk memberi peluang kepada orang lain, sekaligus untuk meminimalisir terjadinya penyimpangan, penyalahgunaan, dan korupsi. Bahwa politik dinasti itu berpotensi besar untuk melakukan penyimpangan.

    “Faktanya dinasti politik itu mampu membangun kekuatan kekuasaan dan uang, sehingga dalam proses politik di daerah kemungkinan besar akan terjadi penyalahgunaan birokrasi kekuasaan, dan juga uang seperti yang terjadi di berbagai daerah, meski pejabat yang bukan dinasti juga tidak ada jaminan bersih,” tandas Direktur Indobarometer M. Qodari dalam diskusi “Fenomena Politik Dinasti” bersama anggota DPD RI dari Banten Ahmad Subadri, dan pakar hukum tata negara Margarito Kamis, di Gedung DPD RI Jakarta, Rabu (24/7/2013).

    Namun demikian kata Qodari, politik dinasti itu tidak sederhana. Misalnya, tak sekadar suami, istri dan anaknya menjabat sebagai pejabat daerah atau negara, melainkan jika sudah berlangsung setidaknya tiga periode atau tiga generasi, dan selama itu membangun kekuatan politik struktural dan kapital, maka itu bisa disebut dinasti. “Tapi, dalam pemilihan tergantung rakyat. Kalau rakyat sudah maju, berpendidikan, mapan, dan medianya independen, maka rakyat tak akan memilih. Jadi, tergantung kondisi sosial. Kalau buta mata dan buta hati, maka politik dinasti bisa lolos,” ujarnya.

    Qodari mengakui jika politik dinasti itu ada plus minusnya, seperti sudah mapan dan pendidikannya lebih baik. Sedangkan minusnya, sistem politiknya tertutup, tak memberi kesempatan pada orang lain, mudah meritokrasi, minim mekanisme kontrol dan sebagainya. “Pembatasan itu misalnya setelah satu periode selesai, dan setelah periode berikutnya dijabat orang lain selesai, maka dinasti politik itu bisa maju mencalonkan diri. Tapi, ini akan menjadi perdebatan mendalam secara filosofis maupun konstitusi, dan bisa berakhir di Mahkamah Konstitusi (MK),” pungkasnya.

    Dinasti Politik yang Sempurna

    Anggota DPD RI dari Provinsi Banten Ahmad Subadri menegaskan jika politik dinasti yang sukses dan paling sempurna sebagai contoh adalah dinasti Gubernur Banten, Ratu Atut Chosiyah. Semua pejabat perlu belajar dari Banten. Sebab, yang semula tak dikenal, tapi dengan kemampuan menggalang kekuatan massa kemudian Ratu Atut terpilih sebagai Gubernur Banten, dan keluarganya saat ini menjadi pejabat penting di kabupaten/kota yang ada di Banten.

    “KKN (kolusi, kourpsi dan nepotisme yang menjadi musuh bersama, tapi kini seolah biasa karena melibatkan berbagai elemen masyarakat, dan malah memberi toleransi terhadap nepotisme politik. Hanya saja dampak kemenangan dengan penggalangan dana yang besar, dan massa yang besar, bagaimana ketika menjabat setelah menghabiskan uang ratusan miliar?” tanya Subadri.

    Subadri memastikan dinasti politiki tersebut tak akan memperhatikan rakyat, dan bagaimana mengelola daerah, melainkan akan sibuk mengembalikan modal yang telah dihabiskan untuk menjadi pejabat tersebut. “Banten bukan saja kerabatnya yang menjadi pejabat, tapi memiliki kekuatan uang. Entah dari APBD atau mana? Tentu Komisi Pemberantasan Korupsi (KPK) yang mengetahui,” ujarnya.

    Lebih bahaya lagi lanjut Subadri, kalau pejabat tersebut bisa meng-order hakim pengadilan, kepolisian, dan pejabat tinggi lainnya, maka politik dinasti itu akan makin mulus. “Untuk itu saya mendukung pembatasan dinasti politik tersebut untuk memberi kesempatan kepada orang lain,” tegasnya.

    Namun demikian, pakar hukum tata negara Margarito Kamis tidak mempermasalahkan politik dinasti tersebut, karena semua orang mempunyai hak yang sama di depan hukum dan politik sebagai warga negara. “Konstitusi pun tak melarang. Kalaupun dibatasi dan digugat ke MK, saya yakin politik dinasti ini akan dikabulkan oleh MK. Yang melakukan penyimpangan itu bukan karena politik dinasti, tapi pejabat daerah yang masuk penjara sekarang ini malah banyak yang bukan dinasti,” katanya. (am/gardo)


    http://nasional.kompas.com/read/2013/10/16/1711348/Politik.Dinasti.Makin.Suburkan.Korupsi

    Politik Dinasti Makin Suburkan Korupsi
    Rabu, 16 Oktober 2013 | 17:11 WIB

    JAKARTA, KOMPAS – Politik dinasti makin menyuburkan praktik korupsi, kolusi, dan nepotisme. Di Indonesia, praktik politik dinasti yang merupakan anomali dalam demokrasi dibangun untuk mempertahankan dan mengendalikan kekuasaan secara penuh hingga lepas dari kontrol.

    “Politik dinasti membuat demokrasi kehilangan daya tarik di mata publik,” kata pengajar sosiologi Universitas Gadjah Mada, Arie Sudjito, saat dihubungi dari Jakarta, Selasa (15/10).

    Wacana politik dinasti belakangan mencuat setelah Komisi Pemberantasan Korupsi menangkap Tubagus Chaeri Wardana alias Wawan, adik Gubernur Banten Ratu Atut Chosiyah, dalam kasus dugaan suap ke Ketua Mahkamah Konstitusi (nonaktif) Akil Mochtar.

    Kasus itu memunculkan dugaan adanya praktik politik dinasti di Banten. Namun, Ketua Umum Partai Golkar Aburizal Bakrie mengatakan, keluarga Atut dipilih sesuai dengan aturan yang ada. Jika mau diubah, aturannya harus diubah.

    Namun, Presiden Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono mengingatkan, meskipun konstitusi ataupun undang-undang tidak melarang orang yang memiliki hubungan kekerabatan menduduki jabatan di daerah, ada batasan norma kepatutan.

    Menurut Presiden, berbahaya jika kekuasaan politik dan kekuasaan bisnis menyatu di daerah (Kompas, 12/10).

    Namun, belakangan juga beredar nama sejumlah kerabat Presiden Yudhoyono yang menjadi calon anggota legislatif dari Partai Demokrat pada Pemilu 2014.

    Ketua Harian Partai Demokrat Sjarifuddin Hasan menyatakan, pencalonan sejumlah kerabat Yudhoyono itu tidak menjadi masalah karena telah memenuhi batas kepatutan yang diadopsi Partai Demokrat.

    “Pertama, dia memiliki kemampuan atau kualitas. Kedua, harus dibatasi. Di Partai Demokrat, misalnya, dibatasi tidak boleh lebih dari dua dalam satu keluarga inti,” kata Sjarifuddin.

    DPR dan pemerintah

    Sementara itu, pimpinan Panitia Kerja Rancangan Undang- Undang Pemilihan Kepala Daerah (RUU Pilkada) Komisi II DPR, Arif Wibowo, menyatakan, semua fraksi di DPR sepakat mencegah adanya praktik politik dinasti. Namun, mereka belum sepakat dengan model pencegahan yang diusulkan pemerintah karena dapat berarti mengebiri hak politik warga negara.

    Untuk mencegah politik dinasti, dalam Pasal 12 Huruf (p) RUU Pilkada yang disusun pemerintah disebutkan, calon gubernur tidak boleh memiliki ikatan perkawinan, garis keturunan lurus ke atas, ke bawah, dan ke samping dengan gubernur, kecuali ada selang waktu minimal satu tahun. Sementara dalam Pasal 70 Huruf (p) disebutkan, calon bupati tidak mempunyai ikatan perkawinan, garis keturunan lurus ke atas, ke bawah, dan ke samping dengan gubernur dan bupati/wali kota, kecuali ada selang waktu minimal satu masa jabatan.

    “Kami mengusulkan jalan tengah, antara mencegah politik dinasti yang cenderung menyeleweng dan jaminan terhadap hak politik warga negara. Misalnya dengan memperberat syarat pencalonan agar tak muncul calon karbitan dari keluarga kepala daerah. Kepala daerah juga harus mundur jika ada kerabatnya ikut pilkada,” ujar Arif.(IAM/NTA/OSA/WHY/ILO)
    Penulis : Stefanus Osa Triyatna
    Editor : Caroline Damanik
    Sumber : KOMPAS CETAK


    http://kupang.tribunnews.com/2013/10/25/politik-dinasti-mendistorsi-demokrasi

    Politik Dinasti Mendistorsi Demokrasi
    Yan Djoko Pietono, Jumat, 25 Oktober 2013 00:29 WITA
    Pimpinan Cabang Lembaga Pendidikan dan Pelatihan LP3I Course Center Kupang

    POLITIK kekerabatan bisa dimaklumi sebagai hak asasi manusia, bila yang bersangkutan memiliki kapabilitas, kompetensi, integritas dan kemampuan human socialisme. Tetapi dalam realitasnya cenderung nihil dan dipaksakan sehingga hanya membentuk sebuah koloni atau klan kekerabatan dengan tujuan melanggengkan kekuasaan dan meraup proyek-proyek pemerintah. Di sinilah terjadinya distorsi demokrasi yang tidak sepandangan dengan kehendak rakyat pada umumnya. Terjadi birokrasi yang tidak transparan dan akuntabel sehingga cenderung terjadinya manipulasi dan korupsi. Politik dinasti bila dibiarkan, maka akan semakin menggurita sampai ketingkat paling bawah, sehingga mengakar semakin kuat dengan mengatasnamakan demokrasi terselubung.

    Siti Zuhro, pengamat poltik LIPI, mengatakan bahwa politik dinasti yang terjadi di Indoesia dengan di luar negeri sangat berbeda. Jika di luar negeri tatanan demokrasi sudah sangat matang, sehingga pelaksanaa demokrasi benar-benar transparan dan akuntable. Berbeda dengan apa yang terjadi di negeri ini yang masih “belajar” demokrasi belum matang sehingga pelaksanaannya dipenuhi intrik-intrik politik terselubung yang mengelabuhi rakyat. Partai politik sangat mempengaruhi dominasi kekuasaan dengan berbagai cara untuk mendapatkan legimitasi kekuasaan mengatasnamakan demokrasi. Bila kita mau mendengar suara-suara rakyat pasti kontradiktif dengan apa yang terjadi didalam kelangsungan kekuasaan yang menggunakan penekanan (baca: pemaksaan) terhadap rakyat pemilih yang bisa dilakukan dengan money politik atau politik premanisme. Bila politik dynasti ini berlangsung mengepidemi Indonesia, maka partai-partai yang kuat akan mendominasi kekuasaan sehingga tidak ada penyeimbang dari partai lain, maka gurita kekuasaan akan semakin kokoh dalam kekuasaan tanpa batas. Maka di dalam RUU pilkada yang sedang digodok di DPR jangan sampai menimbulkan konflik yang mengatasnamakan HAM tapi pembatasan-pembatasan yang bisa diterima semua pihak dalam rangka membangun Indonesia terbebas dari politik dinasti yang lebih banyak mudaratnya dari pada manfaatnya dan rawan penyimpangan. Sehingga terjadinya kekerabatan yang berlimpah ruah dengan kekayaan sedang rakyat hanya penonton.

    Lihat kasus Ratu Atut di Banten dengan kekayaan sangat fantastis, sedangkan rakyat di sekitarnya masih banyak yang melarat. Jika kita melihat adiknya Atut yaitu Tubagus Chaeri Wardhana suami dari Walikota Tangerang Selatan memiliki mobil mewah sebanyak 11 unit, betapa Wardhana bergelimang dengan harta. “Kami di Banten sudah pada tahapan lebih dari prihatin (atas politik dinasti), serba salah. Yang paling sempurna politik dinasti ya di Banten, semua orang mungkin harus ‘berguru’ ke Banten,” kata anggota DPD RI, Ahmad Subadri, dalam diskusi DPD bertema ‘Fenomena Politik Dinasti’ di Gedung DPR, Senayan, Jakarta. Politik dinasti tumbuh setelah tumbangnya era orde baru. Sistem seperti itu menjadi penyebab tumbuhnya korupsi, kolusi dan nepotisme.

    Menurut politisi Partai Golkar, Indra J Piliang dalam diskusi polemik politik dinasti di Warung Daun Cikini, “Kalau saya lihat politik dinasti justru bangkit setelah orde baru. Kerajaan-kerajaan muncul sangat banyak dan mempunyai peran. Terutama sejak otonomi daerah. Pasalnya, politik dinasti adalah politik kekerabatan karena tidak dapat dipisahkan oleh budaya dan tumbuh subur di parpol. Sistem ini penyebab tumbuhnya korupsi kolusi dan nepotisme secara bersaman. Tidak dapat dipisahkan oleh budaya dan tumbuh subur di partai politik.”

    Sementara itu, pengaruh negatif yang didapat adanya politik dinasti membuat partai politik hanya sebagai simbolis saja. Sehingga banyak implikasi negatif yang didapat, seperti pengaruh sukses dalam pemilu. Parpol hanya kumpulan gerombolan dan fans club. Di mana tidak melakukan kompetensi secara profesional. Politik dinasti mengajarkan kita untuk menjadi mental menerobos hal ini tidak diperlukan jenjang-jenjang sebagaimana mestinya dan ini menimbulkan hal yang tidak baik.

    Keserakahan Partai Politik
    Menurut Pengamat Politik Universitas Mercu Buana, Heri Budianto, mengatakan, terbentuknya dinasti politik seperti di Provinsi Banten turut serta menjadi kesalahan Partai Golkar. Menurutnya, Golkar seolah melakukan pembiaran dan ikut memupuk terbentuknya dinasti tersebut. Merajalelanya kekuasaan politik Atut di tingkat nasional DPR dan DPD, serta di tingkat lokal dengan kendaraan Partai Golkar menunjukkan Golkar hanya memikirkan kekuasaan semata. Hal itu semakin terlihat jelas ketika Partai Golkar menganggap Dinasti Atut memiliki pengaruh yang kuat dan elektabilitas yang tinggi di Banten. Tak pelak, Partai Golkar dianggap hanya mempertimbangkan kekuasaan semata. Apalagi beberapa alasan yang dikemukan oleh elite Golkar bahwa Klan Atut memiliki tingkat elektabilitas tinggi karenanya dicalonkan sebagai caleg dari Partai Golkar. Dapat dinilai Golkar hanya berpikir tentang kekuasaan. Begitupula dengan partai Demokrat yang juga sedang menyusun dinasti politik tahun 2014. Keserahkahan partai politik menguasai kekuasaan sah-sah saja bila cara-cara mendapatkan kekuasaan dengan cara demokrasi yang tranparan dan beretika. Bagaimana dengan dinasti politik partai lain dan didaerah lain?

    Dinasti Politik Harus Dicegah
    Praktik dinasti politik di Indonesia, kian mengkhawatirkan. Pasalnya, kebanyakan dari penguasa hanya ingin melanggengkan oligarki kekuasaannya. Maka dari itu pelanggengan kekuasaan harus dicegah. Praktik dinasti politik di negeri ini cenderung semakin tak sehat. Itu adalah contoh, bagaimana demokrasi Indonesia masih mengalami pendangkalan, saat etika tidak pernah menjadi dasar dalam berpolitik. Lantaran selama ini begitu banyak aturan tentang pemilukada memang tak memiliki makna. Alhasil persoalan etika tidak lagi menjadi perhatian utama masyarakat. Publik dan pemilih terlalu apatis, bahkan sebagian besar pragmatis. Sehingga dinasti politik makin menggurita sampai ke level paling bawah kekuasaan. Karena itu elemen masyarakat yang masih kritis mesti bersikap, untuk tak lelah berikhtiar mencegah politik dinasti yang terbukti korup.

    Tantangan serius ke depan adalah bagaimana melakukan perombakan besar untuk mengatasi korupsi politik dinasti dan praktik oligarki. Karena bila dinasti politik yang terbukti pernah korupsi menguasai lingkar kekuasaan, demokrasi pun akan makin bangkrut. Karena digerogoti koruptor dalam lingkaran kekuasaan. Ini bahaya bagi masa depan politik Indonesia, maka Politik akuntabel dan populis yang didasari ideologi sangat diperlukan. Politik dinasti menyebabkan rakyat lemah semakin terpinggirkan. Apabila penguasa sudah tidak lagi memikirkan rakyatnya, hanya saja memikirkan dirinya, dan kekuasaan. Kondisi ini tidak boleh dibiarkan merajalela, karena masyarakat akan menjadi korban. Masyarakat yang lemah akan selalu tertindas akibat cengkeraman dinasti politik. Selama ini politik dinasti di Indonesia mudah terjadi. Di mana ada uang, di situlah disitulah kekuasaan bisa diperoleh. Intinya, kita tidak boleh mengedepankan ego sendiri, kita taati demokrasi yang ada, di mana semua kalangan baik yang lemah dan yang kuat berhak untuk meraih keinginannya. Biar tidak ada lagi pemimpin yang selalu haus akan kekuasaan. Jika dirujuk ke belakang, filsuf Italia Gaetano Mosca, dalam karyanya The Rulling Class (1980) menyatakan bahwa, “setiap kelas menunjukkan tendensi untuk membangun suatu tradisi turun-menurun di dalam kenyataan, jika tidak bisa di dalam aturan hukum”. Bahkan dalam organisasi demokratis sekalipun, jika sebuah kepemimpinan terpilih, ia akan membuat kekuasaannya sedemikian mapan agar sulit untuk digeser atau digantikan, bahkan menggerus prinsip-prinsip demokrasi di lapangan permainan politiknya (Robert Michels, 1962).

    Bahaya dari politik dinasti adalah hasratnya untuk mengekalkan diri dan melembagakannya dalam kepolitikan. Sifat alamiahnya adalah kekuasaan politik hendak dijalankan secara turun-temurun di atas garis trah dan kekerabatan, bukan didasarkan pada kualitas kepemimpinan, tujuan-tujuan bersama, keputusan dan kerja-kerja asosiatif. Pengekalan dan pelembagaan politik dinasti dimungkinkan dengan merajalelanya politik-uang. Demokrasi diubah teksturnya sedemikian rupa bukan lagi sebagai ruang kontestasi ide, gagasan, program dan ideologi, melainkan pasar transaksi jual-beli kepentingan individu dan kelompok-kekerabatan. Politik dinasti di dalam partai politik dimungkinkan tumbuh saat cuaca demokrasi bersifat semu. Demokrasi semu lebih berupa pasar transaksi kepentingan pribadi, namun dengan menggunakan alat-alat kelengkapan demokrasi seperti partai politik, lembaga dan institusi negara, serta media massa. Peralatan sistem demokrasi tersebut digunakan bukan untuk menopang sistem demokrasi, melainkan memanipulasinya menjadi penopang sistem oligarki. Politik dipersempit menjadi ruang perebutan kekuasaan politik dan penimbunan kekayaan antar para oligarkis, sementara rakyat kebanyakan dibayar untuk berduyun-duyun melegalkan manipulasi tersebut lewat pemilu, pilkada dan aksi-aksi protes lainnya. Semoga dinasti politik tidak sampai merambah di bumi Flobamor yang terdiri dari banyak suku bangsa mampu berdiri sama tinggi duduk sama rendah, sehingga tidak ada suku yang derajatnya paling tinggi sehingga bisa membentuk koloni kekuasaan atas dasar kesukuan.*
    Editor: agustinus_sape


    http://www.suaramerdeka.com/v2/index.php/read/cetak/2013/10/17/240258/Dinasti-Politik-Dewi-Sri

    http://khoerulanamsyahmadani.blogspot.com/2013/10/dinasti-politik-dewi-sri.html

    Dinasti Politik Dewi Sri
    25 Okt 2013

    Publik kembali ramai memperbincangkan demokrasi oligarkis seiring sorotan terhadap Gubernur Banten Ratu Atut Chosiyah dan sejumlah kerabatnya yang menjabat pada berbagai lini strategis di provinsi paling barat Jawa. Secara sederhana politik dinasti berarti praktik kekuasaan dengan ‘memberi’ posisi anggota keluarga dalam struktur kekuasaan.

    Dinasti politik bukan hanya muncul di ujung barat Jawa. Bila kita bergeser ke Jawa bagian tengah, ada pula tiga wilayah (dalam politik daerah masa lalu biasa disebut Tiga Daerah), yaitu Kota Tegal, Kabupaten Brebes dan Pemalang, yang ‘dikuasai’ keluarga sedarah, yakni keluarga pengusaha Dewi Sri.

    Tiga kakak beradik, masing-masing menjadi wali kota, bupati, dan wakil wali kota. Dinasti politik Dewi Sri mulai menancapkan kuku di Tiga Daerah tersebut, bermula ketika Ikmal Jaya memenangi Pilkada Kota Tegal 2008. Ikmal didampingi Habib Ali Zaenal Abidin. Adapun dalam Pilkada Kota Tegal 2013, Ikmal kembali maju, menggandeng Edy Suripno, kader partainya di PDIP.

    Euforia dinasti Dewi Sri berlanjut ketika 2010 Mukti Agung Wibowo menjadi Wakil Bupati Pemalang mendampingi Bupati Junaedi. Berikutnya, tahun 2012 giliran Idza Priyanti berhasil menjadi perempuan pertama bupati di Brebes berdampingan dengan wabup Narjo dari PDIP. Tak cukup di tiga wilayah, kakak tertua, Edi Utomo, tahun ini mencoba peruntungan lewat Pilbup Tegal. Berbeda dari adik-adiknya yang melenggang melalui PDIP, Edi sebagai cabup, berkendaraan politik Golkar, setelah sebelumnya gagal mendapatkan restu dari Megawati.

    Wangsa Reksonegaran

    Mau tidak mau kita bernostalgia pada perjalanan sejarah Tiga Daerah. Sejak dulu, Tegal, Brebes, dan Pemalang terikat dalam satu kesatuan karena dipimpin oleh satu marga, yaitu Wangsa Reksonegaran. Kekuasaan Wangsa Reksanegaran di Tegal dimulai ketika Tumenggung Secamenggala menjadi bupati Tegal bergelar Reksanegara I (1680-1697).

    Hal itu dilanjutkan Tumenggung Secamenggala II sebagai Reksanegara II (1697-1700), kemudian bergelar Reksanegara III Tumenggung Badrayuda Secawardaya I (1702-1746), Reksanegara IV Tumenggung Secawerdaya II, Reksanegara V Tumenggung Kertayuda (1776-1800), Reksanegara VI Tumenggung Sumadiwongso (1816-1819), Rekasanegara VII Tumenggung Singasari Panatayuda, dan Reksanegara VIII yang dijabat RMA Reksadiningrat.

    Di Brebes, trah Wangsa Reksanegaran lahir dari RMPH Cokronegoro, putra dari Reksanegara IV. Putra Cokronegoro, yang berarti cucu dari Reksanegara IV bernama RM Pusponegoro yang kemudian menjadi bupati Brebes.

    Sementara di Pemalang, bermula ketika Reksanegara V yang beristri putri Mangkunegara, punya putra bernama Reksadiningrat dan Jayanegara (Notonegoro) yang kemudian menjadi Bupati Pemalang. Putri Reksanegara V yang diperistri Pangeran Singosari Ponotoyudo kemudian melahirkan beberapa bupati di Brebes.

    Politik kekerabatan justru makin menunjukkan akar feodalisme dan tradisi monarki belum sepenuhnya berubah. Bukan meritokrasi yang melandasi pilkada, melainkan nepotisme dan kolusi. Ketika politik dinasti coba dijauhkan dari sistem demokrasi, maksudnya untuk mencegah penguasaan politik pada satu kelompok.

    Penguasaan politik yang terpusat pada satu kelompok membuka peluang terjadinya praktik korupsi. Jika akar feodalisme masih menancap kuat di negeri ini, rasanya mengikis dinasti politik tak bisa berjalan dengan mudah. Apalagi sistem demokrasi kita yang belum mapan benar.

    Pada akhirnya, kita sulit berharap ada perubahan besar dari proses politik , sepanjang sistem feodal masih mengakar kuat seperti sekarang ini. Pasalnya, jawaban itu selalu ditarik pada persoalan hak asasi manusia, dan semua itu kehendak rakyat?

    Artikel ini dimuat di Suara Merdeka, Kamis 17 Oktober 2013

    http://www.suaramerdeka.com/v2/index.php/read/cetak/2013/10/17/240258/Dinasti-Politik-Dewi-Sri


    http://kabarwashliyah.com/2013/04/01/politik-dinasti-jangan-halangi-kader-partai-untuk-bersaing/

    Politik Dinasti Jangan Halangi Kader Partai Untuk Bersaing
    Kabar Washliyah, Gardo, Senin, 1 April 2013

    JAKARTA – Politik dinasti tidak masalah asal figur terkait sudah melalui proses politik yang cukup dan teruji. Sehingga kehadirannya sebagai elit parpol tidak secara tiba-tiba atau langsung mewarisi dari ayah atau keluarga, tanpa melalui proses politik yang seharusnya di internal partai itu sendiri.

    Layak dipertanyakan jika yang memegang jabatan strategis seperti Ketua Umum dan Sekjen partai adalah satu keluarga seperti Partai Demokrat (PD). Memang tak ada yang salah selama fokus menjalankan tugas negara, konsisten dalam penegakan hukum, mewujudkan kesejahteraan rakyat, dan pengalolaan keuangan negara secara transparan dan akuntabel.

    “Tak ada yang salah dalam politik dinasti selama tetap komitmen menegakkan hukum, mensejahterakan rakyat, transparan, dan akuntabel. Selain itu, jangan sampai menghalangi kader-kader terbaik untuk bersaing dalam kancah politik nasional,” tegas Wakil Ketua MPR RI A. Farhan Hamid dalam dialog politik dinasti di Gedung MPR/DPR RI Jakarta, Senin (1/4/2013) bersama anggota FPPP Ahmad Yani dan pengamat politik Hanta Yudha.

    Menurut anggota DPD RI yang juga politisi PAN itu, politik dinasti tersebut memamg sulit dihindari selama proses demokratisasi itu sendiri belum matang. “Jangankan Indonesia, di Amerika Serikat masih ada klan Bush, Kennedy dll. di Thailand ada Takshin, di India ada Nehru, di Pakistan ada Bhutto, di Malaysia ada Razaq dll. Jadi, tak ada yang salah selama komitmen untuk mensejahterakan rakyat, menegakkan hukum, akuntabel, dan transparan,” ujarnya. Proses transisi pasca reformasi tersebut membutuhkan waktu antara 20-30 tahun.

    A. Yani mengatakan, terjadinya politik dinasti tersebut sebagai langkah mundur, karena parpol itu sebagai salah satu pilar demokrasi yang dibiayai negara. Karena itu, parpol yang dikuasai oleh keluarga, maka tak bisa dibiarkan, apalagi jabatan strategis yang dipegang oleh orang-orang yang tidak melalui kaderisasi yang baik di partai, juga tak pernah aktif di organisasi kemahasiswaan. “Memang sistem pemilu dan pilpres ini belum mengarahkan bangsa ini ke arah politik yang baik,” ungkapnya.

    Hanta Yudha menegaskan jika demokrasi itu seharusnya membagi kekuasaan, dan bukannya sentralisasi kekuasaan. Karena itu dinasti politik sesungguhnya tak masalah, asal melalui proses teruji di parpol dan publik. “Itu boleh-boleh saja. Demokrat memang ditegaskan menolak politik uang dalam pancelagen, tapi jatuh pada dinasti politik. Sehingga akan sulit dikontrol. Inilah yang disebut sebagai demokrasi seolah-olah atau basa-basi itu. Lalu, demokrasi yang bagaimana yang mesti diwariskan pada rakyat?” katanya mempertanyakan.

    Hanta melanjutkan, kuncinya ada pada pembenahan parpol itu sendiri. Di mana sistem politik dan pemilu kita masih terjebak pada dua hal; yaitu tergantung pada figur yang populer, dan kekuatan uang (modal). Selain sebagai kegagalan kaderisasi, juga sebagai kegagalan partai mendekatkan rakyat terhadap partai itu sendiri. Untuk itu ke depan parpol harus dikuatkan agar proses demokrasi akan lebih baik.

    Wakil Ketua DPR Pramono Anung berharap SBY tetap bisa fokus pada tugas-tugas negara. Sebagaimana harapan rakyat, yang penting SBY tetap konsen pada masalah negara daripada partai, karena satu bulan ini terlihat agak terganggu karena banyak mengurus partai. “Itu disayangkan kalau berlangsung ke depan. Memang tidak ada aturan yang mengatur larangan seseorang yang menjadi presiden dan mempunyai jabatan ketua umum partai, tapi tidak etis jika tugas negara terganggu dengan tugas partai. Karena presiden dan wakil presiden hanya satu, gubernur, bupati dan anggota DPR bisa banyak, tapi presiden hanya satu dan dia sebagai kepala negara maka tugas itu amat berat,” tutur politisi PDIP itu.

    Apakah perlu aturan yang mengatur presiden tak pelu mengurus partai? Memang sulit katanya, karena hal itu akan bertentangan dengan semangat demokrasi. “Itu kalau diatur akan bertentangan dengan demokrasi dan prinsip orang dalam membuat parpol, di negara manapun tak ada larangan. Tapi kalau demokrasinya lebih mapan, seyogyanya presiden lebih mencurahkan tenaganya untuk kepentingan bangsa dan negara,” katanya.

    Megawati dan Gus Dur pernah menjadi presiden juga sama-sama mengurus parpol (PDIP dan PKB). Terbukti hal itu tak mengganggu karena tugas partai dijalankan oleh pengurus harian lainnya. “Jadi, SBY yang tinggal 1,5 tahun tentu rakyat mengharpkan agar presiden bisa menyelesaikan persoalan bangsa, kalau ketua harian dan lain-lain saya nggak mau campuri, itu urusan internal partai,” katanya. (gardo)


    http://www.koran-sindo.com/node/388161

    Evaluasi Pemilu
    Dinasti Politik di Daerah Makin Mapan
    20140512

    JAKARTA – Pemilu Legislatif 2014 meninggalkan banyak catatan buruk untuk demokrasi Indonesia. Selain dinodai dengan masifnya kecurangan seperti penggelembungan suara, pemilu kali ini juga menjadi ajang bagi elite politik di daerah memapankan dinastinya.

    Wakil Ketua Dewan Perwakilan Daerah (DPD) La Ode Ida mengatakan, pemilu legislatif (pileg) inidengangamblangmemperlihatkan betapa keluarga pejabat terutama bupati dan gubernur bisa dengan mudah melenggang ke kursi DPR dan DPRD. “Periksalah hasil pileg, pasti ada sebagian keluarga pejabat lokal yang lolos, kalau tidak seluruhnya,” ujar La Ode pada diskusi politik bertema “Evaluasi Pemilu Legislatif 2014: Demokrasi Dibajak Kepala Daerah” kemarin di Warung Daun, Cikini, Jakarta.

    Akibat kecurangan oknum kepala daerah ini, menurut dia, dengan sendirinya menutup peluang caleg lain yang sebenarnya berpotensi untuk bekerja mengawal aspirasi rakyat. “Makanya, Andajanganterlalubermimpi bisa menang jika melawan keluarga oknum pejabat ini di pemilu lalu,” ujarnya. Dia menambahkan, pada pemilu lalu moralitas rakyat juga dirusak secara terstruktur, sistematis, dan masif. Masyarakat jadi pragmatis karena didorong elite politik lokal untuk menoleransi politik uang.

    “Celakanya ini seperti ditoleransi dan tidak ada upaya menghentikan praktik perusakan moral ini. Akhirnya, bayar-membayar dalam pemilu menjadi biasa. Nilai demokrasi kita pun menjadi sangat rendah,” ujarnya. Sementara itu, pakar hukum tata negara Universitas Khairun Ternate Margarito Kamis mengatakan, oknum kepala daerah telah bekerja secara sistematis dalam pembajakan pemilu ini. Mereka menggunakan pejabat satuan kerja perangkat daerah (SKPD), camat, lurah, kepala desa, dan RT untuk meraup suara bagi keluarganya yang jadi caleg.

    “Kecurangan ini sebenarnya bukan hal yang baru,” kata dia di tempat yang sama. Margarito mengatakan, mekanismekecurangandalampileg ataupun pilkada di daerah dilakukan dengan cara undangan pemilih (form C6) tidak diberikan kepada warga yang diidentifikasi bukan pendukung pejabat berkuasa. Selain itu, oknum kepala daerah sudah bekerja sejak jauh hari. Bahkan, pada waktu rekrutmen anggota KomisiPemilihanUmum(KPU), mereka sudah memasang orangnya untuk memudahkan dirinya memuluskan kepentingan. ?kiswondari


    http://www.koran-sindo.com/node/388167

    Kecurangan Masif, Perlu Pemilu Ulang
    20140512

    JAKARTA- Begitu marak dan masifnya kecurangan dalam pelaksanaan Pemilu Legislatif (Pileg) 2014 lalu telah memunculkan desakan penyelenggaraan pemilu ulang. Langkah ini perlu dilakukan untuk mengantisipasi adanya delegitimasi hasil pemilu.

    Pakar hukum tata negara Refly Harun mengatakan saat ini bola keabsahan hasil pemilu ada di tangan Mahkamah Konstitusi (MK). Karena itu, jika telah terjadi kecurangan dalam Pileg 9 April lalu, sebaiknya calon legislator (caleg) dan partai politik (parpol) melaporkan hal itu ke MK untuk kemudian MK yang memutuskan untuk diadakannya pemilu ulang di suatu daerah yang terbukti telah terjadi kecurangan.

    “Biar MK yang memutuskan untuk diadakannya pemilu ulang atau tidak,” kata Refly kepada KORAN SINDO kemarin. Selain itu, lanjutnya, dia mendorong agar pelaku penggelembungan suara, praktik money politic, dan kecurangan pemilu lainnya dikenai sanksi pidana dan diskualifikasi sebagai peserta pemilu. “Mereka yang terbukti harus mendapatkan hukuman yang setimpal,” tegasnya. Sementara itu, Direktur Lingkar Madani Indonesia (Lima) Ray Rangkuti mengatakan, opsi yang tersedia untuk menggelar pemilu ulang akibat banyak kecurangan hanya dapat dilakukan lewat dekrit presiden yang ditujukan pada dua hal.

    Pertama adalah membatalkan hasil pemilu. Lalu melantik anggota KPU baru. “Soal apakah itu buruk dan baiknya, nanti pertimbangan politik yang akan menentukan,” kata Ray. Kendati begitu, Ray menilai tidak mudah menemukan syarat yang dapat dijadikan landasan untuk menggelar pemilu ulang. Sebab semua parpol peserta pemilu sudah menerima hasil keputusan KPU. Menurut dia, pemilu ulang bisa digelar jika parpol peserta pemilu menolak hasil pemilu. “Sehingga muncul kekisruhan dan ketidakpuasan yang meluas di tengah masyarakat,” jelasnya.

    Politikus Partai Golkar Poempida Hidayatulloh mengatakan, tidak menutup kemungkinan dilakukan pemilu ulang melalui dikeluarkannya peraturan pemerintah pengganti undang-undang (perppu) dengan adanya berbagai kecurangan saat ini. Terutama jika dalam pemilu ditemukan kecurangan yang terjadi secara masif dan sistematis. “Kalau Pak SBY (Presiden Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono) mau keluarkan perppu, bisa saja dilakukan pileg ulang. Tapi SBY tak akan lakukan itu,” katanya. Menurut dia, praktik pelanggaran yang terjadi dalam pileg cukup memprihatinkan. Pelanggaran itu berupa politik uang, penggelembungan suara, dan aksi kecurangan lain.

    Kondisi itu membuat peserta pemilu banyak melakukan gugatan. Memang, tanpa perppu, keputusan pengadilan atas gugatan yang dilayangkan tersebut juga bisa dijadikan dasar untuk menggelar pemilu ulang. Ketua Fraksi Partai Hanura DPR Sarifudin Sudding mengatakan, untuk mewujudkan pemilu yang berkualitas, jujur, dan adil, Presiden SBY perlu membuat perppu untuk dilaksanakannya pemilu ulang. Karena, faktanya kecurangan banyak sekali terjadi di berbagai daerah di Indonesia. Bahkan, bukan hanya peserta yang bermain, tetapi juga penyelenggara pemilu di tingkat bawah ikut melakukan kecurangan dalam pemilu ini.

    “Bisa saja Presiden mengeluarkan perppu untuk mengadakan pemilu ulang,” kata anggota Komisi III DPR itu ketika dihubungi KORAN SINDO di Jakarta kemarin. Menurut Sudding, pemilu adalah suatu bentuk pelaksanaan demokrasi dan tidak dapat dimungkiri bahwa telah terjadi kejahatan demokrasi yang luar biasa. ”Bagaimana hasil demokrasi ini dapat menghasilkan elite-elite yang baik jika penyelenggaraannya sudah keluar jauh dari jalur yang semestinya? Kecurangan-kecurangan itu secara gamblang terjadi di depan mata kita,” jelasnya.

    Selain itu, lanjutnya, penyelenggara pemilu atau KPU seakan- akan terlihat melepas tanggung jawab atas protes dari berbagai parpol. Menurutnya, KPU telah mengambil jalan pintas dengan alasan deadline atau tenggat waktu penetapan hasil pileg yang sudah dekat. “Sangat disesalkan tindakan KPU yang mencobamenghindardari berbagai keluhan dan menyuruh menuntaskannya di MK,” tegasnya. Lebih jauh Sudding mengatakan, Partai Hanura bisa saja mendorong untuk diterbitkannya perppu tersebut.

    Tapi, semuanya itu perlu dikaji terlebih dahulu mengenai manfaat dan mudaratnya serta apakah agenda pemilu presiden (pilpres) dan agenda nasional lainnya akan terganggu dengan adanya pemilu ulang tersebut. “Demi mewujudkan pemilu adil dan jujur, hal itu (pemilu ulang) memang perlu dilakukan,” tandasnya. Seperti diberitakan, Pemilu 2014 merupakan pesta demokrasi terburuk yang pernah diselenggarakan di Tanah Air. “Kalau saya boleh jujur, pemilu tahun ini adalah pemilu yang terburuk. Banyak permainan dan itu sudah bukan rahasia lagi, kita semua tahu,” ujar Ketua Badan Pemenangan Pemilu (Bapilu) Partai Hanura Hary Tanoesoedibjo (HT).

    HT mencontohkan beberapa kecurangan yang terjadi, di antaranya penggelembungan suara, perpindahan suara dari caleg satu ke yang lain, dan modus kecurangan lain yang terjadi di level bawah hingga atas dan di berbagai daerah. Karena itu, dia memahami hasil rekapitulasi pun menjadi banyak dipertanyakan. HT yakin banyak pihak yang tidak puas atas hasil rekapitulasi suara nasional tersebut akan membawanya ke MK.

    Masalah Integritas

    Koordinator Nasional Komite Pemilih Indonesia (Tepi) Jeirry Sumampow menilai kecurangan pemilu yang terjadi secara masif disebabkan banyak faktor. Persoalan integritas penyelenggara pemilu yang tidak disertai pemberian sanksi tegas menjadikan kecurangan terus terjadi. “Mereka yang melakukan kejahatan pemilu tidak mendapat sanksi apa-apa,” kata Jeirry di Jakarta kemarin. Selain masalah integritas, pemilu disertai banyak kecurangan karena ada ruang manipulasiyangdibukaolehsistempemilu. Kondisi ini memungkinkan para penyelenggara dan peserta pemilu berani melakukan kecurangan berupa penggelembungan atau penghilangan suara.

    Dengan berbagai kecurangan yang ada, Jeirry menilai pemilu ulang bisa dilakukan jika ada rekomendasi MK, khususnya di daerah yang memang banyak ditemukan bukti kecurangan. Mantan Ketua Umum PB Nahdlatul Ulama (NU) KH Hasyim Muzadi mengungkapkan Pileg 2014 sarat dengan praktik politik uang. “Pemilihan umum telah menjadi pembelian umum dan pilihan masyarakat atas wakil mereka motifnya karena uang,” kata Hasyim Muzadi di Pamekasan kemarin. Menurut dia, “perselingkuhan” berupa kerja sama tidak baik antara politikus dan penyelenggara pemilu sangat terbuka.

    Banyaknya temuan pelanggaran berupa pengalihan hasil perolehan suara oleh oknum penyelenggara pemilu merupakan bukti adanya pelanggaran dan praktik penyelenggaraan pemilu yang menyimpang. Untuk meraih kemenangan, caleg bahkan tidak segan-segan melakukan tindakan apa pun, termasuk praktik politik uang. Padahal, menurut Hasyim, hal semacam itu hanya akan menciptakan pemimpin-pemimpin yang tidak amanah dan tidak peduli terhadap rakyatnya.

    “Kita akan sulit mencari pemimpin yang peduli kepada rakyat nantinya, sebab para wakil rakyat yang terpilih itu sudah merasa membeli atas dukungan suara yang telah mereka raih,” tutur Hasyim. Di sisi lain, Hasyim juga menjelaskan praktik politik uang akan menciptakan dinasti politik di berbagai tingkatan. Baik di tingkat kabupaten, provinsi maupun tingkat pusat. ?Kiswondari/ andi setiawan/ant


    http://pemilu.sindonews.com/read/2014/04/14/113/854096/politik-dinasti-di-daerah-sudah-tak-wajar

    Politik dinasti di daerah sudah tak wajar
    Dita Angga, Senin, 14 April 2014 – 21:43 WIB

    Sindonews.com – Politik dinasti di daerah masih jauh dari apa yang terjadi di negara berdemokrasi mapan. Tidak hanya pada proses kompetisi pemilukada yang tidak sehat, pemerintahan yang dihasilkan juga tidak akan efektif.

    Dirjen Otonomi Daerah (Otda) Kementerian Dalam Negeri (Kemendagri) Djohermansyah Djohan mengatakan, praktik politik dinasti di daerah seharusnya tidak menjadi masalah. Seperti halnya yang terjadi di Amerika Serikat, Keluarga Kennedy aktif dalam perpolitikan di sana.

    “Tidak ada salahnya kalau punya kompetensi dan integtiras. Ini kan tidak. Malahan tidak ada yang sehat. Disana (Amerika Serikat) semua keluarganya sudah ada di politik,” kata Djohermansyah saat ditemui di Kemendagri, Jakarta, Senin (14/4/2014).

    Praktik politik dinasti marak terjadi di daerah. Misalnya saja, jika seorang kepala daerah telah habis masa jabatannya, keluarganya akan mencalonkan di periode berikutnya.

    Hal tersebut terjadi karena seringkali politik dinasti hanya karena tidak ingin kehilangan kekuasaan dan menghalalkan segala cara tanpa mempertimbangkan kemampuan.

    “Bapaknya sudah habis masa jabatan jadi bupati tiba-tiba anaknya yang pengusaha dicalonkan lalu terpilih. Istrinya yang hanya pimpinan PKK jadilah dia bupati,” ungkapnya.

    Selain tidak jelasnya kompetensi, tidak sehatnya politik dinasti adalah pada saat proses pemilukada. Dalam hal ini, sering kali petahana akan memberikan dukungan kuat kepada sanak saudaranya yang mencalonkan kepala daerah. Dengan demikian kompetisi yang terjadi tidak sehat juga.

    “Mentang-mentang petahanana, dua periode, pimpinan partai di daerah pula lagi. Kemudian birokrasi, SKPD (Satuan Kerja Perangkat Daerah), pegang uang, pegang tokoh masyarakat. Powerful itu. Padahal tidak punya track record, tidak pernah main di politik, cuma kegiatan sosial,” pungkasnya.
    (maf)


    http://kupang.tribunnews.com/2014/05/24/bagi-bagi-proyek

    Salam Pos Kupang
    Bagi-bagi Proyek
    Sabtu, 24 Mei 2014 14:54 WITA

    SELAMA ini berhembus rumor bahwa sejumlah proyek dikuasai keluarga, tim sukses kepala daerah terpilih. Rumor tersebut terus didaur ulang dan semakin kencang berhembus manakala musim proyek tiba. Namun, lambat laun akan reda dan hilang begitu saja tanpa bukti.

    Kali ini pembicaraan tentang bagi-bagi proyek untuk orang-orang yang berada pada ring satu kekuasaan kembali berhembus dalam Musyawarah Daerah (Musda) Badan Pimpinan Daerah (BPD) Gapensi VIII NTT di Hotel Kristal, Rabu (21/5/2014). Di arena musda ini, rumor yang telah lama menjadi santapan kalangan pengusaha ini dikonfirmasi Paul Papo Belang, pengusaha asal Sikka kepada Kepala Dinas Pekerjaan Umum NTT, Ir. Andre Koreh.

    Disebutkan Belang, sejumlah proyek di daerah dikerjakan orang dekat atau keluarga Gubernur NTT, Kadis PU NTT dan oknum anggota DPRD NTT. Kita patut memberi apresiasi kepada Papo Belang yang dengan terbuka menyampaikan persoalan ini. Walaupun, semua orang bisa menebak jawaban normatif yang disampaikan Kadis PU NTT dengan mengedepankan peraturan yang berlaku.

    Apa yang diungkap Papo Belang ini memang memiliki dua dampak yang bertentangan. Jika ditanggapi secara negatif, maka kita dapat memastikan Papo Belang tidak akan mendapatkan proyek dari propinsi selama beberapa tahun ke depan. Bila ini yang terjadi, kita dapat menilai bahwa penentu kebijakan yang langsung bersentuhan dengan penanganan proyek memiliki dendam dan tidak mau dikoreksi oleh siapapun.

    Terkadang untuk mengungkapkan balas dendam karena tidak mau dikoreksi, kita menggunakan sejumlah aturan untuk dijadikan tameng.
    Kita perlu mengingatkan ini sehingga mereka yang menangani proyek di propinsi tidak bertindak takabur dan menaruh dendam karena pengakuan jujur Papo Belang yang ujung-ujungnya “mematikan” usaha Papo Belang.

    Selain itu, kepada para pengusaha juga perlu diingatkan bahwa siapa pun boleh melakukan usaha di republik ini sesuai ketentuan yang berlaku. Apakah itu anak, keluarga dan saudara bupati, walikota, gubernur, bahkan presiden sekalipun.

    Namun, di dalam membangun usahanya dilakukan dengan cara-cara elegan, bukan jalan pintas dengan menyebut sebagai anak atau keluarga pengambil kebijakan seperti bupati atau gubernur. Kepada aparat pelaksana, baik itu kepala dinas, panitia pelelangan dan perangkat lainnya, untuk tidak gentar dengan para pengusaha yang getol mengaku sebagai orang dekat atau keluarga bupati dan gubernur. Berpeganglah pada aturan dan abaikan saja pengusaha-pengusaha yang sukanya menerabas aturan. *
    Editor: benny_dasman
    Sumber: Pos Kupang Cetak


     
  • Virtual Chitchatting 10:07 AM on 2014/05/26 Permalink  

    carry on my wayward son, don’t you cry no more

    why i love supernatural

    humanising god, angels, demons, hell, heaven
    saving lives, speak of the devils,

    what are the family for? They’re supposed to make you and your life miserable!
    as it annoys Sam, in Dean’s world, it is a bonus.
    gory action-packed sequences, gruesome scenes,

    get their hands dirty, first
    “gank” them
    douching
    havoc wreaking
    tricksters

    LARPing

    full of cynics, sarcasms, rantings,
    hilarious,
    ridiculous,
    an emotional roller-coaster,
    bloodshed,

    it is carefully shown to demonstrate the result of the violence rather than the act of violence itself, allowing for the imagination to run and fill in the the gaps between the shots.

    a mystical underworld of paranormal beings that threaten the human way of life with modern day anti-heroes that becomes somewhat of a guilty pleasure to indulge in. It allows the audience to escape their lives and problems without getting completely lost in the world of the unknown.


    Your brother, bless his soul, is summoning me as I speak. Make a deal, bring you back. It’s exactly what I was talking about, isn’t it? It’s all become so… expected. You have to believe me.

    When I suggested you take on the Mark of Cain, I didn’t know this was going to happen. Not really. I mean, I might not have told you the entire truth. But I never lied. I never lied, Dean. That’s important. It’s fundamental.

    But…there is one story about Cain that I might have… forgotten to tell you. Apparently, he, too, was willing to accept death, rather than becoming the killer the Mark wanted him to be. So he took his own life with the Blade. He died. Except, as rumor has it, the Mark never quite let go.

    You can understand why I never spoke of this. Why set hearts aflutter at mere speculation? It wasn’t until you summoned me… No, it wasn’t truly until you left that cheeseburger uneaten…

    …that I began to let myself believe. Maybe miracles do come true.

    Listen to me, Dean Winchester, what you’re feeling right now –

    it’s not death. It’s life –
    a new kind of life.

    Open your eyes, Dean. See what I see. Feel what I feel. And let’s go take a howl at that moon.
    == sync, corrected by elderman ==
    @elder_man


    Carry On Wayward Son
    Kansas

    Carry on my wayward son
    There’ll be peace when you are done
    Lay your weary head to rest
    Don’t you cry no more

    Ah

    Once I rose above the noise and confusion
    Just to get a glimpse beyond this illusion
    I was soaring ever higher, but I flew too high

    Though my eyes could see I still was a blind man
    Though my mind could think I still was a mad man
    I hear the voices when I’m dreaming,
    I can hear them say

    Carry on my wayward son,
    There’ll be peace when you are done
    Lay your weary head to rest
    Don’t you cry no more

    Masquerading as a man with a reason
    My charade is the event of the season
    And if I claim to be a wise man,
    Well, it surely means that I don’t know

    On a stormy sea of moving emotion
    Tossed about, I’m like a ship on the ocean
    I set a course for winds of fortune,
    But I hear the voices say

    Carry on my wayward son
    There’ll be peace when you are done
    Lay your weary head to rest
    Don’t you cry no more no!

    Carry on,
    You will always remember
    Carry on,
    Nothing equals the splendor
    Now your life’s no longer empty
    Surely heaven waits for you

    Carry on my wayward son
    There’ll be peace when you are done
    Lay your weary head to rest
    Don’t you cry,
    Don’t you cry no more,

    No more!

    Writer(s): Kerry Livgren
    Copyright: Kirshner Don Music


    http://www.index-of-mp3s.com/download/mp3/lagu/id/444c4971/kansas-carry-on-my-wayward-son/


    Kansas Carry On My Wayward Son HD Live
    by CatariinaDiniz, 4 years ago, 563,488 views
    Uploaded on Feb 14, 2010


    Supernatural – Carry On My Wayward Son
    by starwars1359, 7 years ago, 5,830,644 views
    Uploaded on Apr 19, 2007


    Kansas – Carry On Wayward Son
    kansasVEVO, 1 year ago, 7,349,110 views


    Kansas – Carry On Wayward Son – YouTube

    5 Dec 2012 – 5 min – Uploaded by kansasVEVO
    ► 5:24


    This television drama is about two brothers, Sam and Dean, who were raised by their father, John, to hunt and kill all things that go “bump in the night” after his wife, Mary, was murdered by evil supernatural being when the boys were young. 22 years later the brothers set out on a journey, fighting evil along the way, to find their recently missing father who, when they finally meet up with, reveals he knows what killed their mother, a demon, and has found a way to track and kill it. Meanwhile, Sam starts to develop frightening abilities that include death visions, visions of people dying before it actually happens. These visions are somehow connected to the demon who murdered his mother and its mysterious plans that seem to be all about Sam. When their father dies striking a deal with the very same devil that had killed his wife, the brothers, now alone and without their mentor, are determined to finish the crusade their father started. But disturbing revelations about Sam’s part in… Written by Rachel B.



    http://www.hypable.com/2013/09/13/supernatural-dean-winchester-why-we-love-him/

    18 reasons why we love Dean Winchester

    He’s the best big brother ever.
    Via x-kaara-chan-x.tumblr.com

    He makes the word “bitch” sound like a compliment…
    Via i-was-soaring-ever-higher.tumblr.com

    …and the word “awesome” sound like the highest praise a person could ever receive.
    Via wallylock.tumblr.com

    He’s generous.
    Via wallylock.tumblr.com

    All kids love him.
    Via wallylock.tumblr.com

    He could have been a model if he wanted to…
    Via girlwith2leftshoes.tumblr.com

    …or even a rock star.
    Via staybeautifullytragic.tumblr.com

    After all, he has some pretty sweet dance moves.
    Via carryon-my-waywardsons.tumblr.com

    But he chose to carry on the family business.
    Via makesmilejensen.tumblr.com

    He ain’t afraid of no ghost.
    Via supernaatural.tumblr.com

    He got to use one of these. Who doesn’t wish they got to use one of these?!
    Via invisibleday.tumblr.com

    He asks the important questions.
    Via mrl0n3w01f96.tumblr.com

    He “wuvz hugz”…
    Via wallylock.tumblr.com

    …and pie.
    Via wallylock.tumblr.com

    He has a pretty hot bod. Of course we had to mention it.
    Via cafune-saudade.tumblr.com

    And that face… SO cute.
    Via cafune-saudade.tumblr.com

    And then, there’s the bitchface.
    Via wallylock.tumblr.com

    Above all else, he’s Batman.
    Via wallylock.tumblr.com


     
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