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  • Virtual Chitchatting 1:16 PM on 2014/03/21 Permalink  

    Failed to deal with the PTSD shall transform you to have at least dual personality
    by S3ra Sutan Rajo Ali
    Jakarta, 2014-03-21 PM 01:16


    http://www.psychologytoday.com/conditions/dissociative-identity-disorder-multiple-personality-disorder

    Dissociative Identity Disorder (Multiple Personality Disorder)
    10/10/2008
    Sources:
    * American Psychiatric Association
    * National Institute of Mental Health
    * Handbook of Psychology, Vol. 8 (John Wiley)

    Dissociative Identity Disorder (Multiple Personality Disorder).

    Dissociative Identity Disorder, formerly referred to as Multiple Personality Disorder, is a condition wherein a person’s identity is fragmented into two or more distinct personalities. Sufferers of this rare condition are usually victims of severe abuse.

    Definition

    Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) is a severe condition in which two or more distinct identities, or personality states, are present in-and alternately take control of-an individual. The person also experiences memory loss that is too extensive to be explained by ordinary forgetfulness.

    DID is a disorder characterized by identity fragmentation rather than a proliferation of separate personalities. The disturbance is not due to the direct psychological effects of a substance or of a general medical condition, yet as this once rarely reported disorder has become more common, the diagnosis has become controversial.

    Some believe that because DID patients are easily hypnotized, their symptoms are iatrogenic, that is, they have arisen in response to therapists’ suggestions. Brain imaging studies, however, have corroborated identity transitions in some patients. DID was called Multiple Personality Disorder until 1994, when the name was changed to reflect a better understanding of the condition-namely, that it is characterized by a fragmentation, or splintering, of identity rather than by a proliferation, or growth, of separate identities.

    DID reflects a failure to integrate various aspects of identity, memory and consciousness in a single multidimensional self. Usually, a primary identity carries the individual’s given name and is passive, dependent, guilty and depressed. When in control, each personality state, or alter, may be experienced as if it has a distinct history, self-image and identity. The alters’ characteristics-including name, reported age and gender, vocabulary, general knowledge, and predominant mood-contrast with those of the primary identity. Certain circumstances or stressors can cause a particular alter to emerge. The various identities may deny knowledge of one another, be critical of one another or appear to be in open conflict.

    Symptoms

    * The individual experiences two or more distinct identities or personality states (each with its own enduring pattern of perceiving, relating to, and thinking about the environment and self).
    * The reported range of identities is from 2 to more than 100. Half of the reported cases include individuals with 10 or fewer.
    * At least two of these identities or personality states recurrently take control of the person’s behavior. Each may exhibit its own distinct history, self-image, behaviors, and, physical characteristics, as well as possess a separate name.
    * Particular identities may emerge in specific circumstances. Alternative identities are experienced as taking control in sequence, one at the expense of the other, and may deny knowledge of one another, be critical of one another or appear to be in open conflict. Transitions from one identity to another are often triggered by psychosocial stress.
    * Frequent gaps are found in memories of personal history, including people, places, and events, for both the distant and recent past. Different alters may remember different events, but passive identities tend to have more limited memories whereas hostile, controlling or protective identities have more complete memories.
    * Symptoms of depression, anxiety, passivity, dependence and guilt may be present.
    * In childhood, problem behavior and an inability to focus in school are common.
    * Self-destructive and/or aggressive behavior may take place.
    * Visual or auditory hallucinations may occur.
    * The average time that elapses from the first symptom to diagnosis is six to seven years.
    * The disturbance is not due to the direct psychological effects of a substance or of a general medical condition.

    Causes

    Why some people develop DID is not entirely understood, but they frequently report having experienced severe physical and sexual abuse, especially during childhood. Though the accuracy of such accounts is disputed, they are often confirmed by objective evidence. Individuals with DID may also have post-traumatic symptoms (nightmares, flashbacks, and startle responses) or Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. Several studies suggest that DID is more common among close biological relatives of persons who also have the disorder than in the general population. As this once rarely reported disorder has grown more common, the diagnosis has become controversial. Some believe that because DID patients are highly suggestible, their symptoms are at least partly iatrogenic- that is, prompted by their therapists’ probing. Brain imaging studies, however, have corroborated identity transitions.

    Treatments

    The primary treatment for DID is long-term psychotherapy with the goal of deconstructing the different personalities and uniting them into one. Other treatments include cognitive and creative therapies. Although there are no medications that specifically treat this disorder, antidepressants, anti-anxiety drugs or tranquilizers may be prescribed to help control the mental health symptoms associated with it.


    http://www.webmd.com/mental-health/dissociative-identity-disorder-multiple-personality-disorder

    Dissociative Identity Disorder (Multiple Personality Disorder)
    Reviewed by Kimball Johnson, MD on May 26, 2012

    Dissociative identity disorder (previously known as multiple personality disorder) is an effect of severe trauma during early childhood, usually extreme, repetitive physical, sexual, or emotional abuse.

    What Is Dissociative Identity Disorder?

    Most of us have experienced mild dissociation, which is like daydreaming or getting lost in the moment while working on a project. However, dissociative identity disorder is a severe form of dissociation, a mental process, which produces a lack of connection in a person’s thoughts, memories, feelings, actions, or sense of identity. Dissociative identity disorder is thought to stem from trauma experienced by the person with the disorder. The dissociative aspect is thought to be a coping mechanism — the person literally dissociates himself from a situation or experience that’s too violent, traumatic, or painful to assimilate with his conscious self.

    Is Dissociative Identity Disorder Real?

    You may wonder if dissociative identity disorder is real. After all, understanding the development of multiple personalities is difficult, even for highly trained experts. But dissociative identity disorder does exist. It is the most severe and chronic manifestation of the dissociative disorders that cause multiple personalities.

    Other types of dissociative disorders defined in the DSM-IV, the main psychiatry manual used to classify mental illnesses, include dissociative amnesia, dissociative fugue, and depersonalization disorder.

    What Are the Symptoms of Dissociative Identity Disorder?

    Dissociative identity disorder is characterized by the presence of two or more distinct or split identities or personality states that continually have power over the person’s behavior. With dissociative identity disorder, there’s also an inability to recall key personal information that is too far-reaching to be explained as mere forgetfulness. With dissociative identity disorder, there are also highly distinct memory variations, which fluctuate with the person’s split personality.

    The “alters” or different identities have their own age, sex, or race. Each has his or her own postures, gestures, and distinct way of talking. Sometimes the alters are imaginary people; sometimes they are animals. As each personality reveals itself and controls the individuals’ behavior and thoughts, it’s called “switching.” Switching can take seconds to minutes to days. When under hypnosis, the person’s different “alters” or identities may be very responsive to the therapist’s requests.

    Along with the dissociation and multiple or split personalities, people with dissociative disorders may experience any of the following symptoms:
    * Depression
    * Mood swings
    * Suicidal tendencies
    * Sleep disorders (insomnia, night terrors, and sleep walking)
    * Anxiety, panic attacks, and phobias (flashbacks, reactions to stimuli or “triggers”)
    * Alcohol and drug abuse
    * Compulsions and rituals
    * Psychotic-like symptoms (including auditory and visual hallucinations)
    * Eating disorders

    Other symptoms of dissociative identity disorder may include headache, amnesia, time loss, trances, and “out of body experiences.” Some people with dissociative disorders have a tendency toward self-persecution, self-sabotage, and even violence (both self-inflicted and outwardly directed). As an example, someone with dissociative identity disorder may find themselves doing things they wouldn’t normally do such as speeding, reckless driving, or stealing money from their employer or friend, yet they feel they are being compelled to do it. Some describe this feeling as being a passenger in their body rather than the driver. In other words, they truly believe they have no choice.


    What’s the Difference Between Dissociative Identity Disorder and Schizophrenia?

    Schizophrenia and dissociative identity disorder are often confused, but they are very different.

    Schizophrenia is a severe mental illness involving chronic (or recurrent) psychosis, characterized mainly by hearing or seeing things that aren’t real (hallucinations) and thinking or believing things with no basis in reality (delusions). People with schizophrenia do not have multiple personalities. Delusions are the most common psychotic symptom in schizophrenia; hallucinations, particularly hearing voices, are apparent in about half of people.

    Suicide is a risk with both schizophrenia and dissociative identity disorder, although patients with multiple personalities have a history of suicide attempt more often than other psychiatric patients.

    How Does Dissociation Change the Way a Person Experiences Life?

    There are several main ways in which the psychological processes of dissociative identity disorder change the way a person experiences living, including the following:
    * Depersonalization. This is a sense of being detached from one’s body and is often referred to as an “out-of-body” experience.
    * Derealization. This is the feeling that the world is not real or looking foggy or far away.
    * Amnesia. This is the failure to recall significant personal information that is so extensive it cannot be blamed on ordinary forgetfulness. There can also be micro-amnesias where the discussion engaged in is not remembered, or the content of a meaningful conversation is forgotten from one second to the next.
    * Identity confusion or identity alteration. Both of these involve a sense of confusion about who a person is. An example of identity confusion is when a person sometimes feels a thrill while engaged in an activity (such as reckless driving, DUI, alcohol or drug abuse) which at other times would be revolting. In addition to these apparent alterations, the person may experience distortions in time, place, and situation.

    It is now acknowledged that these dissociated states are not fully-mature personalities, but rather they represent a disjointed sense of identity. With the amnesia typically associated with dissociative identity disorder, different identity states remember different aspects of autobiographical information. There is usually a host personality within the individual, who identifies with the person’s real name. Ironically, the host personality is usually unaware of the presence of other personalities.

    What Roles Do the Different Personalities Play?

    The distinct personalities may serve diverse roles in helping the individual cope with life’s dilemmas. For instance, there’s an average of two to four personalities present when the patient is initially diagnosed. Then there’s an average of 13 to 15 personalities that can become known over the course of treatment. While unusual, there have been instances of dissociative identity disorder with more than 100 personalities. Environmental triggers or life events cause a sudden shift from one alter or personality to another.


    Who Gets Dissociative Identity Disorder?

    While the causes of dissociative identity disorder are still vague, research indicates that a combination of environmental and biological factors work together to cause it. As many as 98% to 99% of individuals who develop dissociative disorders have recognized personal histories of recurring, overpowering, and often life-threatening disturbances at a sensitive developmental stage of childhood (usually before age 9). Dissociation may also happen when there has been insistent neglect or emotional abuse, even when there has been no overt physical or sexual abuse. Findings show that in families where parents are frightening and unpredictable, the children may become dissociative.

    How Is Dissociative Identity Disorder Diagnosed?

    Making the diagnosis of dissociative identity disorder takes time. It’s estimated that individuals with dissociative disorders have spent seven years in the mental health system prior to accurate diagnosis. This is common, because the list of symptoms that cause a person with a dissociative disorder to seek treatment is very similar to those of many other psychiatric diagnoses. In fact, many people who have dissociative disorders also have secondary diagnoses of depression, anxiety, or panic disorders.

    The DSM-IV provides the following criteria to diagnose dissociative identity disorder:
    1. Two or more distinct identities or personality states are present, each with its own relatively enduring pattern of perceiving, relating to, and thinking about the environment and self.
    2. At least two of these identities or personality states recurrently take control of the person’s behavior.
    3. The person has an inability to recall important personal information that is too extensive to be explained by ordinary forgetfulness.
    4. The disturbance is not due to the direct physiological effects of a substance (such as blackouts or chaotic behavior during alcohol intoxication) or a general medical condition (such as complex partial seizures).

    Are There Famous People With Dissociative Identity Disorder?

    Famous people with dissociative identity disorder include retired NFL star Herschel Walker, who says he’s struggled with dissociative identity disorder for years but has only been treated for the past eight years.

    Walker recently published a book about his struggles with dissociative identity disorder, along with his suicide attempts. Walker talks about a feeling of disconnect from childhood to the professional leagues. To cope, he developed a tough personality that didn’t feel loneliness, one that was fearless and wanted to act out the anger he always suppressed. These “alters” could withstand the abuse he felt; other alters came to help him rise to national fame. Today, Walker realizes that these alternate personalities are part of dissociative identity disorder, which he was diagnosed with in adulthood.

    How Common Is Dissociative Identity Disorder?

    Statistics show the rate of dissociative identity disorder is .01% to 1% of the general population. Still, more than 1/3 of people say they feel as if they’re watching themselves in a movie at times, and 7% percent of the population may have undiagnosed dissociative disorder.


    What’s the Recommended Treatment Plan for Dissociative Identity Disorder?

    While there’s no “cure” for dissociative identity disorder, long-term treatment is very successful, if the patient stays committed. Effective treatment includes talk therapy or psychotherapy, medications, hypnotherapy, and adjunctive therapies such as art or movement therapy.

    Because oftentimes the symptoms of dissociative disorders occur with other disorders, such as anxiety and depression, dissociative disorder may be treated using the same drugs prescribed for those disorders. A person in treatment for a dissociative disorder might benefit from antidepressants or anti-anxiety medication.


     
  • Virtual Chitchatting 1:15 PM on 2014/03/21 Permalink  

    Realising to incur PTSD
    by S3ra Sutan Rajo Ali
    Jakarta, 2014-03-21 PM 01:15

    It is your psychological resilience that can help you yourself deal with the PTSD.


    http://www.helpguide.org/mental/post_traumatic_stress_disorder_symptoms_treatment.htm

    Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD): Symptoms, Treatment and Self-Help for PTSD
    Melinda Smith, M.A., and Jeanne Segal, Ph.D., February 2014

    After a traumatic experience, it’s normal to feel frightened, sad, anxious, and disconnected. But if the upset doesn’t fade and you feel stuck with a constant sense of danger and painful memories, you may be suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). It can seem like you’ll never get over what happened or feel normal again. But by seeking treatment, reaching out for support, and developing new coping skills, you can overcome PTSD and move on with your life.

    In This Article:
    * What is PTSD?
    * PTSD vs. normal reaction to trauma
    * Signs & symptoms of PTSD
    * PTSD symptoms in children
    * PTSD causes and risk factors
    * Getting help for PTSD
    * Finding a therapist for PTSD
    * Self-help & support for PTSD

    What is post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)?

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can develop following a traumatic event that threatens your safety or makes you feel helpless.

    Most people associate PTSD with battle-scarred soldiers-and military combat is the most common cause in men-but any overwhelming life experience can trigger PTSD, especially if the event feels unpredictable and uncontrollable.

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can affect those who personally experience the catastrophe, those who witness it, and those who pick up the pieces afterwards, including emergency workers and law enforcement officers. It can even occur in the friends or family members of those who went through the actual trauma.

    PTSD develops differently from person to person. While the symptoms of PTSD most commonly develop in the hours or days following the traumatic event, it can sometimes take weeks, months, or even years before they appear.
    Traumatic events that can lead to PTSD include:
    * War
    * Natural disasters
    * Car or plane crashes
    * Terrorist attacks
    * Sudden death of a loved one
    * Rape
    * Kidnapping
    * Assault
    * Sexual or physical abuse
    * Childhood neglect
    Or any shattering event that leaves you stuck and feeling helpless and hopeless

    The difference between PTSD and a normal response to trauma

    The traumatic events that lead to post-traumatic stress disorder are usually so overwhelming and frightening that they would upset anyone. Following a traumatic event, almost everyone experiences at least some of the symptoms of PTSD. When your sense of safety and trust are shattered, it’s normal to feel crazy, disconnected, or numb. It’s very common to have bad dreams, feel fearful, and find it difficult to stop thinking about what happened. These are normal reactions to abnormal events.

    For most people, however, these symptoms are short-lived. They may last for several days or even weeks, but they gradually lift. But if you have post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), the symptoms don’t decrease. You don’t feel a little better each day. In fact, you may start to feel worse.

    A normal response to trauma becomes PTSD when you become stuck:
    After a traumatic experience, the mind and the body are in shock. But as you make sense of what happened and process your emotions, you come out of it. With post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), however, you remain in psychological shock. Your memory of what happened and your feelings about it are disconnected. In order to move on, it’s important to face and feel your memories and emotions.

    Signs and symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)

    The symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can arise suddenly, gradually, or come and go over time. Sometimes symptoms appear seemingly out of the blue. At other times, they are triggered by something that reminds you of the original traumatic event, such as a noise, an image, certain words, or a smell.
    While everyone experiences PTSD differently, there are three main types of symptoms:
    1. Re-experiencing the traumatic event
    2. Avoiding reminders of the trauma
    3. Increased anxiety and emotional arousal

    Symptoms of PTSD: Re-experiencing the traumatic event
    * Intrusive, upsetting memories of the event
    * Flashbacks (acting or feeling like the event is happening again)
    * Nightmares (either of the event or of other frightening things)
    * Feelings of intense distress when reminded of the trauma
    * Intense physical reactions to reminders of the event (e.g. pounding heart, rapid breathing, nausea, muscle tension, sweating)

    Symptoms of PTSD: Avoidance and numbing
    * Avoiding activities, places, thoughts, or feelings that remind you of the trauma
    * Inability to remember important aspects of the trauma
    * Loss of interest in activities and life in general
    * Feeling detached from others and emotionally numb
    * Sense of a limited future (you don’t expect to live a normal life span, get married, have a career)

    Symptoms of PTSD: Increased anxiety and emotional arousal
    * Difficulty falling or staying asleep
    * Irritability or outbursts of anger
    * Difficulty concentrating
    * Hypervigilance (on constant “red alert”)
    * Feeling jumpy and easily startled

    Other common symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
    * Anger and irritability
    * Guilt, shame, or self-blame
    * Substance abuse
    * Feelings of mistrust and betrayal
    * Depression and hopelessness
    * Suicidal thoughts and feelings
    * Feeling alienated and alone
    * Physical aches and pains

    Symptoms of PTSD in children and adolescents

    In children-especially those who are very young-the symptoms of PTSD can be different than the symptoms in adults. Symptoms in children include:
    * Fear of being separated from parent
    * Losing previously-acquired skills (such as toilet training)
    * Sleep problems and nightmares without recognizable content
    * Somber, compulsive play in which themes or aspects of the trauma are repeated
    * New phobias and anxieties that seem unrelated to the trauma (such as a fear of monsters)
    * Acting out the trauma through play, stories, or drawings
    * Aches and pains with no apparent cause
    * Irritability and aggression

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) causes and risk factors

    While it’s impossible to predict who will develop PTSD in response to trauma, there are certain risk factors that increase your vulnerability.

    Many risk factors revolve around the nature of the traumatic event itself. Traumatic events are more likely to cause PTSD when they involve a severe threat to your life or personal safety: the more extreme and prolonged the threat, the greater the risk of developing PTSD in response. Intentional, human-inflicted harm-such as rape, assault, and torture- also tends to be more traumatic than “acts of God” or more impersonal accidents and disasters. The extent to which the traumatic event was unexpected, uncontrollable, and inescapable also plays a role.

    Other risk factors for PTSD include:
    * Previous traumatic experiences, especially in early life
    * Family history of PTSD or depression
    * History of physical or sexual abuse
    * History of substance abuse
    * History of depression, anxiety, or another mental illness
    * High level of stress in everyday life
    * Lack of support after the trauma
    * Lack of coping skills

    Getting help for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)

    If you suspect that you or a loved one has post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), it’s important to seek help right away. The sooner PTSD is confronted, the easier it is to overcome. If you’re reluctant to seek help, keep in mind that PTSD is not a sign of weakness, and the only way to overcome it is to confront what happened to you and learn to accept it as a part of your past. This process is much easier with the guidance and support of an experienced therapist or doctor.

    It’s only natural to want to avoid painful memories and feelings. But if you try to numb yourself and push your memories away, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) will only get worse. You can’t escape your emotions completely-they emerge under stress or whenever you let down your guard-and trying to do so is exhausting. The avoidance will ultimately harm your relationships, your ability to function, and the quality of your life.

    Why Should I Seek Help for PTSD?
    * Early treatment is better. Symptoms of PTSD may get worse. Dealing with them now might help stop them from getting worse in the future. Finding out more about what treatments work, where to look for help, and what kind of questions to ask can make it easier to get help and lead to better outcomes.
    * PTSD symptoms can change family life. PTSD symptoms can get in the way of your family life. You may find that you pull away from loved ones, are not able to get along with people, or that you are angry or even violent. Getting help for your PTSD can help improve your family life.
    * PTSD can be related to other health problems. PTSD symptoms can make physical health problems worse. For example, studies have shown a relationship between PTSD and heart trouble. By getting help for your PTSD you could also improve your physical health.
    Source: National Center for PTSD

    Treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)

    Treatment for PTSD relieves symptoms by helping you deal with the trauma you’ve experienced. Rather than avoiding the trauma and any reminder of it, treatment will encourage you to recall and process the emotions and sensations you felt during the original event. In addition to offering an outlet for emotions you’ve been bottling up, treatment for PTSD will also help restore your sense of control and reduce the powerful hold the memory of the trauma has on your life.

    In treatment for PTSD, you’ll:
    * Explore your thoughts and feelings about the trauma
    * Work through feelings of guilt, self-blame, and mistrust
    * Learn how to cope with and control intrusive memories
    * Address problems PTSD has caused in your life and relationships

    Types of treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
    * Trauma-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for PTSD and trauma involves carefully and gradually “exposing” yourself to thoughts, feelings, and situations that remind you of the trauma. Therapy also involves identifying upsetting thoughts about the traumatic event-particularly thoughts that are distorted and irrational-and replacing them with more balanced picture.
    * Family therapy. Since PTSD affects both you and those close to you, family therapy can be especially productive. Family therapy can help your loved ones understand what you’re going through. It can also help everyone in the family communicate better and work through relationship problems caused by PTSD symptoms.
    * Medication is sometimes prescribed to people with PTSD to relieve secondary symptoms of depression or anxiety. Antidepressants such as Prozac and Zoloft are the medications most commonly used for PTSD. While antidepressants may help you feel less sad, worried, or on edge, they do not treat the causes of PTSD.
    * EMDR (Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing) incorporates elements of cognitive-behavioral therapy with eye movements or other forms of rhythmic, left-right stimulation, such as hand taps or sounds. Eye movements and other bilateral forms of stimulation are thought to work by “unfreezing” the brain’s information processing system, which is interrupted in times of extreme stress.

    Finding a therapist for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)

    When looking for a therapist for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), seek out mental health professionals who specialize in the treatment of trauma and PTSD. You can start by asking your doctor if he or she can provide a referral to therapists with experience treating trauma. You may also want to ask other trauma survivors for recommendations, or call a local mental health clinic, psychiatric hospital, or counseling center.

    Beyond credentials and experience, it’s important to find a PTSD therapist who makes you feel comfortable and safe, so there is no additional fear or anxiety about the treatment itself. Trust your gut; if a therapist doesn’t feel right, look for someone else. For therapy to work, you need to feel respected and understood. To find a trauma therapist, see the Resources and References section below.

    Help for veterans with PTSD

    If you’re a veteran suffering from PTSD or trauma, there are organizations that can help with counseling and other services. To find help in your country, see the Resources and references section below.

    Self-help treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)

    Recovery from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a gradual, ongoing process. Healing doesn’t happen overnight, nor do the memories of the trauma ever disappear completely. This can make life seem difficult at times. But there are many things you can do to cope with residual symptoms and reduce your anxiety and fear.

    PTSD self-help tip 1: Reach out to others for support
    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can make you feel disconnected from others. You may be tempted to withdraw from social activities and your loved ones. But it’s important to stay connected to life and the people who care about you. Support from other people is vital to your recovery from PTSD, so ask your close friends and family members for their help during this tough time.
    Also consider joining a support group for survivors of the same type of trauma you experienced. Support groups for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can help you feel less isolated and alone. They also provide invaluable information on how to cope with symptoms and work towards recovery. If you can’t find a support group in your area, look for an online group.

    PTSD self-help tip 2: Avoid alcohol and drugs
    When you’re struggling with difficult emotions and traumatic memories, you may be tempted to self-medicate with alcohol or drugs. But while alcohol or drugs may temporarily make you feel better, they make post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) worse in the long run. Substance use worsens many symptoms of PTSD, including emotional numbing, social isolation, anger, and depression. It also interferes with treatment and can add to problems at home and in your relationships.

    PTSD self-help tip 3: Challenge your sense of helplessness
    Overcoming your sense of helplessness is key to overcoming post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Trauma leaves you feeling powerless and vulnerable. It’s important to remind yourself that you have strengths and coping skills that can get you through tough times.
    One of the best ways to reclaim your sense of power is by helping others: volunteer your time, give blood, reach out to a friend in need, or donate to your favorite charity. Taking positive action directly challenges the sense of helplessness that is a common symptom of PTSD.

    Positive ways of coping with PTSD:
    * Learn about trauma and PTSD
    * Join a PTSD support group
    * Practice relaxation techniques
    * Pursue outdoor activities
    * Confide in a person you trust
    * Spend time with positive people
    * Avoid alcohol and drugs
    * Enjoy the peace of nature

    PTSD self-help tip 4: Spend time in nature
    The Sierra Club in the United States offers wilderness expeditions for veterans who have served in recent wars such as Iraq and Afghanistan. Anecdotal evidence suggests that pursuing outdoor activities like hiking, camping, mountain biking, rock climbing, whitewater rafting, and skiing may help veterans cope with PTSD symptoms and transition back into civilian life.
    It’s not just veterans who can benefit from spending time outdoors. Anyone with post-traumatic stress disorder can benefit from the relaxation, seclusion, and peace that come with being in the natural world. Focusing on strenuous outdoor activities can also help challenge your sense of helplessness and help your nervous system become “unstuck” and move on from the traumatic event. Seek out local organizations that offer outdoor recreation or teambuilding opportunities.

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and the family

    If a loved one has post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), it’s essential that you take care of yourself and get extra support. PTSD can take a heavy toll on the family if you let it. It can be hard to understand why your loved one won’t open up to you-why he or she is less affectionate and more volatile. The symptoms of PTSD can also result in job loss, substance abuse, and other stressful problems.

    Letting your family member’s PTSD dominate your life while ignoring your own needs is a surefire recipe for burnout. In order to take care of your loved one, you first need to take care of yourself. It’s also helpful to learn all you can about post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The more you know about the symptoms and treatment options, the better equipped you’ll be to help your loved one and keep things in perspective.

    Helping a loved one with PTSD
    * Be patient and understanding. Getting better takes time, even when a person is committed to treatment for PTSD. Be patient with the pace of recovery and offer a sympathetic ear. A person with PTSD may need to talk about the traumatic event over and over again. This is part of the healing process, so avoid the temptation to tell your loved one to stop rehashing the past and move on.
    * Try to anticipate and prepare for PTSD triggers. Common triggers include anniversary dates; people or places associated with the trauma; and certain sights, sounds, or smells. If you are aware of what triggers may cause an upsetting reaction, you’ll be in a better position to offer your support and help your loved one calm down.
    * Don’t take the symptoms of PTSD personally. Common symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) include emotional numbness, anger, and withdrawal. If your loved one seems distant, irritable, or closed off, remember that this may not have anything to do with you or your relationship.
    * Don’t pressure your loved one into talking. It is very difficult for people with PTSD to talk about their traumatic experiences. For some, it can even make things worse. Never try to force your loved one to open up. Let the person know, however, that you’re there when and if he or she wants to talk.


    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Posttraumatic_stress_disorder

    Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
    20 March 2014 at 23:25

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an anxiety disorder that may develop after a person is exposed to one or more traumatic events, such as sexual assault, serious injury, or the threat of death. The diagnosis may be given when a group of symptoms such as disturbing recurring flashbacks, avoidance or numbing of memories of the event, and hyperarousal (high levels of anxiety) continue for more than a month after the traumatic event.

    Most people having experienced a traumatizing event will not develop PTSD. Women are more likely to experience higher impact events, and are also more likely to develop PTSD than men. Children are less likely to experience PTSD after trauma than adults, especially if they are under ten years of age. War veterans are commonly at risk to PTSD.

    Classification

    Posttraumatic stress disorder is classified as an anxiety disorder; the characteristic symptoms are not present before exposure to the violently traumatic event. In the typical case, the individual with PTSD persistently avoids all thoughts and emotions, and discussion of the stressor event and may experience amnesia for it. However, the event is commonly relived by the individual through intrusive, recurrent recollections, flashbacks, and nightmares. The characteristic symptoms are considered acute if lasting less than three months, and chronic if persisting three months or more, and with delayed onset if the symptoms first occur after six months or some years later. PTSD is distinct from the briefer acute stress disorder, and can cause clinical impairment in significant areas of functioning.

    Causes

    PTSD is believed to be caused by the experience of a wide range of traumatic events and, in particular if the trauma is extreme, can occur in persons with no predisposing conditions.

    Persons considered at risk include combat military personnel, victims of natural disasters, concentration camp survivors, and victims of violent crime. Individuals not infrequently experience “survivor’s guilt” for remaining alive while others died. Causes of the symptoms of PTSD are the experiencing or witnessing of a stressor event involving death, serious injury or such threat to the self or others in a situation in which the individual felt intense fear, horror, or powerlessness. Persons employed in occupations that expose them to violence (such as soldiers) or disasters (such as emergency service workers) are also at risk.

    Children or adults may develop PTSD symptoms by experiencing bullying or mobbing.

    Family violence

    Trauma from family violence can predispose an individual to PTSD. Approximately 25% of children exposed to family violence can experience PTSD in a study of 337 school age children. Preliminary research suggests that child abuse may interact with mutations in a stress-related gene to increase the risk of PTSD in adults, in a cross-sectional study of 900 school age children. However, being exposed to a traumatic experience does not automatically indicate they will develop PTSD. It has been shown that the intrusive memories, such as flashbacks, nightmares, and the memories themselves, are greater contributors to the biological and psychological dimensions of PTSD than the event itself. These intrusive memories are mainly characterized by sensory episodes, rather than thoughts. People with PTSD have intrusive re-experiences of traumatic events that lack awareness of context and time. These episodes aggravate and maintain PTSD symptoms, since the individual re-experiences trauma as if it were happening in the present moment.

    Multiple studies show that parental PTSD and other posttraumatic disturbances in parental psychological functioning can, despite a traumatized parent’s best efforts, interfere with their response to their child as well as their child’s response to trauma. For example, in two studies by Schechter, one of 67 mothers and another of 25 mothers, this was shown to be the case. Parents with violence-related PTSD may, for example, inadvertently expose their children to developmentally inappropriate violent media due to their need to manage their own emotional dysregulation. Clinical findings indicate that a failure to provide adequate treatment to children after they suffer a traumatic experience, depending on their vulnerability and the severity of the trauma, will ultimately lead to PTSD symptoms in adulthood.

    Evolutionary psychology

    Evolutionary psychology views different types of fears and reactions caused by fears as adaptations that may have been useful in the ancestral environment in order to avoid or cope with various threats. In general, mammals display several defensive behaviors roughly dependent on how close the threat is: avoidance, vigilant immobility, withdrawal, aggressive defense, appeasement, and finally complete frozen immobility (the last possibly to confuse a predator’s attack reflex or to simulate a dead and contaminated body). PTSD may correspond to and be caused by overactivation of such fear circuits. Thus, PTSD avoidance behaviors may correspond to mammal avoidance of and withdrawal from threats. Heightened memory of past threats may increase avoidance of similar situations in the future as well as be a prerequisite for analyzing the past threat and develop better defensive behaviors if the threat should recur. PTSD hyperarousal may correspond to vigilant immobility and aggressive defense. Complex posttraumatic stress disorder (and phenomena such as the Stockholm syndrome) may in part correspond to the appeasement stage and possibly the frozen immobility stage.

    There may be evolutionary explanations for differences in resilience to traumatic events. Thus, PTSD is rare following traumatic fire that may be explained by events such as forest fires’ long being part of the evolutionary history of mammals. On the other hand, PTSD is much more common following modern warfare, which may be explained by modern warfare’s being a new development and very unlike the quick inter-group raids that are argued to have characterized the paleolithic.

    Genetics

    There is evidence that susceptibility to PTSD is hereditary. Approximately 30% of the variance in PTSD is caused from genetics alone. For twin pairs exposed to combat in Vietnam, having a monozygotic (identical) twin with PTSD was associated with an increased risk of the co-twin’s having PTSD compared to twins that were dizygotic (non-identical twins). There is also evidence that those with a genetically smaller hippocampus are more likely to develop PTSD following a traumatic event. Research has also found that PTSD shares many genetic influences common to other psychiatric disorders. Panic and generalized anxiety disorders and PTSD share 60% of the same genetic variance. Alcohol, nicotine, and drug dependence share greater than 40% genetic similarities.

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain. A recent study reported significant interactions between three polymorphisms in the GABA alpha-2 receptor gene and the severity of childhood trauma in predicting PTSD in adults. A study found those with a specific genotype for G-protein signaling 2 (RGS2), a protein that decreases G protein-coupled receptor signaling, and high environmental stress exposure as adults and a diagnosis of lifetime PTSD. This was particularly prevalent in adults with prior trauma exposure and low social support.

    Recently, it has been found that several single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in FK506 binding protein 5 (FKBP5) interact with childhood trauma to predict severity of adult PTSD. These findings suggest that individuals with these SNPs who are abused as children are more susceptible to PTSD as adults.

    This is particularly interesting given that FKBP5 SNPs have previously been associated with peritraumatic dissociation in a study of polymorphisms in FKBP5 associated with peritraumatic dissociation in medically injured children (that is, dissociation at the time of the birth trauma), which has itself been shown to be predictive of PTSD. Furthermore, FKBP5 may be less expressed in those with current PTSD.[34] Another recent study found a single SNP in a putative estrogen response element on ADCYAP1R1 (encodes pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide type I receptor or PAC1) to predict PTSD diagnosis and symptoms in females. Incidentally, this SNP is also associated with fear discrimination. The study suggests that perturbations in the PACAP-PAC1 pathway are involved in abnormal stress responses underlying PTSD.

    PTSD is a psychiatric disorder that requires an environmental event that individuals may have varied responses to so gene-environment studies tend to be the most indicative of their effect on the probability of PTSD then studies of the main effect of the gene. Recent studies have demonstrated the interaction between PFBP5 and childhood environment to predict the severity of PTSD. Polymorphisms in FKBP5 have been associated with peritraumatic dissociation in mentally ill children. A study of highly traumatized African-American subjects from inner city primary-care clinics indicated 4 polymorphisms of the FKBP5 gene, each of these functional. The interaction between the polymorphisms and the severity of childhood abuse predicts the severity of the adult PTSD symptoms. A more recent study of the African-American population indicated that the TT genotype of the FKBP5 gene is associated with the highest risk of PTSD among those having experienced childhood adversity, however those with this genotype that experienced no childhood adversity had the lowest risk of PTSD. In addition alcohol dependence interacts with the FKBP5 polymorphisms and childhood adversity to increase the risk of PTSD in these populations. Emergency room expression of the FKPB5 mRNA following trauma was shown to indicate a later development of PTSD.

    Catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT) is an enzyme that catalyzes the extraneuronal breakdown of catecholamines. The gene that codes for COMT has a functional polymorphism in which a valine has been replaced with a methionine at codon 158. This polymorphism has lower enzyme activity and has been tied to slower breakdown of the catecholamines. A study, of Rwandan Genocide survivors, indicated that carriers of the Val allel demonstrated the expected response relationship between the higher number of lifetime traumatic events and a lifetime diagnosis of PTSD. However, those with homozygotes for the Met/Met genotype demonstrated a high risk of lifetime PTSD independent of the number of traumatic experiences. Those with Met/Met genotype also demonstrated a reduced extinction of conditioned fear responses with may account for the high risk for PTSD experienced by this genotype.

    Many genes impact the limbic-frontal neurocircuitry as a result of its complexity. The main effect of the D2A1 allele of the dopamine receptor D2 (DRD2) has a strong association with the diagnosis of PTSD. The D2A1 allele has also shown a significant association to PTSD in those having engaged in harmful drinking. In addition a polymorphism in the dopamine transporter SLC6A3 gene has a significant association with chronic PTSD. A polymorphism of the serotonin receptor 2A gene has been associated with PTSD in Korean women. The short allele of the promoter region of the serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR) has been shown to be less efficient then the long allele and is associated with the amygdala response for extinction of fear conditioning. However, the short allele is associated with a decreased risk of PTSD in a low risk environment but a high risk of PTSD in a high risk environment. The s/s genotype demonstrated a high risk for development of PTSD even in response to a small number of traumatic events, but those with the l allele demonstrate increasing rates of PTSD with increasing traumatic experiences.

    Genome-wide association study (GWAS) offer an opportunity to identify novel risk variants for PTSD that will in turn inform our understanding of the etiology of the disorder. Early results indicate the feasibility and potential power of GWAS to identify biomarkers for anxiety-related behaviors that suggest a future of PTSD. These studies will lead to the discovery of novel loci for the susceptibility and symptomatology of anxiety disorders including PTSD.

    Epigenetics

    Gene and environment studies alone fail to explain the importance the developmental stressor timing exposure to the phenotypic changes associated with PTSD. Epigenetic modification is the environmentally induced change in DNA that alters the function rather than the structure of the gene. The biological mechanism of epigenetic modification typically involves the methylation of cytosine within a gene that produces decreased transcription of that segment of DNA. The neuroendocrine alteration seen in animal models parallel those of PTSD in which low basal cortisol and enhanced suppression of cortisol in response to synthetic glucocorticoid becomes hereditary. Lower levels of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) mRNA have been demonstrated in the hippocampus of suicide victims with histories of childhood abuse. It has not been possible to monitor the state of methylation over time, however the interpretation is early developmental methylation changes are long-lasting and enduring. It is hypothesized that epigenetic-mediated changes in the HPA axis could be associated with an increased vulnerability to PTSD following traumatic events. These findings support the mechanism in which early life trauma strongly validates as a risk factor for PTSD development in adulthood by recalibrating the set point and stress-responsivity of the HPA axis. Studies have reported an increased risk for PTSD and low cortisol levels in the offspring of female holocaust survivors with PTSD. Epigenetic mechanisms may also be relevant to the intrauterine environment. Mothers with PTSD produced infants with lower salivary cortisol levels only if the traumatic exposure occurred during the third trimester of gestation. These changes occur via transmission of hormonal responses to the fetus leading to a reprogramming of the glucocorticoid responsivity in the offspring.

    Risk factors (Psychological resilience)

    Most people (more than half) will experience at least one traumatizing event in their lifetime.[36] Men are more likely to experience a traumatic event, but women are more likely to experience the kind of high impact traumatic event that can lead to PTSD, such as interpersonal violence and sexual assault. Only a minority of people who are traumatized will develop PTSD, but they are more likely to be women. The average risk of developing PTSD after trauma is around 8% for men, while for women it is just over 20%. The risk is believed to be higher in young urban populations (24%): 13% for men and 30% for women. Rates of PTSD are higher in combat veterans than other men, with a rate estimated at up to 20% for veterans returning from Iraq and Afghanistan.

    Posttraumatic stress reactions have not been studied as well in children and adolescents as adults. The rate of PTSD may be lower in children than adults, but in the absence of therapy, symptoms may continue for decades. One estimate suggests that the proportion of children and adolescents having PTSD in a non-wartorn population in a developed country may be 1% compared to 1.5% to 3% of adults, and much lower below the age of 10 years.

    Predictor models have consistently found that childhood trauma, chronic adversity, and familial stressors increase risk for PTSD as well as risk for biological markers of risk for PTSD after a traumatic event in adulthood. Peritraumatic dissociation in children is a predictive indicator of the development of PTSD later in life. This effect of childhood trauma, which is not well-understood, may be a marker for both traumatic experiences and attachment problems. Proximity to, duration of, and severity of the trauma also make an impact, and interpersonal traumas cause more problems than impersonal ones.

    Quasi-experimental studies have demonstrated a relationship between intrusive thoughts and intentional control responses such that suppression increases the frequency of unwanted intrusive thoughts. These results suggest that suppression of intrusive thoughts may be important in the development and maintenance of PTSD.

    Military experience

    Schnurr, Lunney, and Sengupta identified risk factors for the development of PTSD in Vietnam veterans. The subjects were 68 women and 414 men of whom 88 were white, 63 black, 80 Hispanic, 90 Native Hawaiian, and 93 Japanese American. Among their findings were:
    * Hispanic ethnicity, coming from an unstable family, being punished severely during childhood, childhood asocial behavior, and depression as pre-military factors
    * War-zone exposure, peritraumatic dissociation, depression as military factors
    * Recent stressful life events, post-Vietnam trauma, and depression as post-military factors

    They also identified certain protective factors, such as:
    * Japanese-American ethnicity, high school degree or college education, older age at entry to war, higher socioeconomic status, and a more positive paternal relationship as pre-military protective factors
    * Social support at homecoming and current social support as post-military factors.[45] Other research also indicates the protective effects of social support in averting PTSD or facilitating recovery if it develops.

    Glass and Jones found early intervention to be a critical preventive measure:
    “PTSD symptoms can follow any serious psychological trauma, such as exposure to combat, accidents, torture, disasters, criminal assault and exposure to atrocities or to the sequelae of such extraordinary events. Prisoners of war exposed to harsh treatment are particularly prone to develop PTSD. In their acute presentation these symptoms, which include subsets of a large variety of affective, cognitive, perceptional, emotional and behavioral responses which are relatively normal responses to gross psychological trauma. If persistent, however, they develop a life of their own and may be maintained by inadvertent reinforcement. Early intervention and later avoidance of positive reinforcement (which may be subtle) for such symptoms is a critical preventive measure.

    Studies have shown that those prepared for the potential of a traumatic experience are more prepared to deal with the stress of a traumatic experience and therefore less likely to develop PTSD.

    Drug misuse

    Alcohol abuse and drug abuse commonly co-occur with PTSD.[49] Recovery from posttraumatic stress disorder or other anxiety disorders may be hindered, or the condition worsened, by medication or substance overuse, abuse, or dependence; resolving these problems can bring about a marked improvement in an individual’s mental health status and anxiety levels.

    Yohimbine (not considered specifically appropriate for PTSD) increases arousal by increasing release of endogenous norepinephrine and can worsen PTSD symptoms.

    Foster care

    In the Casey Family Northwest Alumni Study, conducted in conjunction with researchers from the Harvard Medical School in Oregon and Washington state, the rate of PTSD in adults who were in foster care for one year between the ages of 14-18 was found to be higher than that of combat veterans. Up to 25% of those in the study meet the diagnostic criteria for PTSD as compared to 12-13% of Iraq war veterans and 15% of Vietnam War veterans, and a rate of 4% in the general population. The recovery rate for foster home alumni was 28.2% as opposed to 47% in the general population.

    Dubner and Motta (1999) found that 60% of children in foster care having experienced sexual abuse had PTSD, and 42% of those having been physically abused met the PTSD criteria. PTSD was also found in 18% of the children not abused. These children may have developed PTSD due to witnessing violence in the home, or as a result of real or perceived parental abandonment.

    Pathophysiology

    Neuroendocrinology

    PTSD symptoms may result when a traumatic event causes an over-reactive adrenaline response, which creates deep neurological patterns in the brain. These patterns can persist long after the event that triggered the fear, making an individual hyper-responsive to future fearful situations. During traumatic experiences the high levels of stress hormones secreted suppress hypothalamic activity that may be a major factor toward the development of PTSD.

    PTSD causes biochemical changes in the brain and body that differ from other psychiatric disorders such as major depression. Individuals diagnosed with PTSD respond more strongly to a dexamethasone suppression test than individuals diagnosed with clinical depression.

    In addition, most people with PTSD also show a low secretion of cortisol and high secretion of catecholamines in urine, with a norepinephrine/cortisol ratio consequently higher than comparable non-diagnosed individuals. This is in contrast to the normative fight-or-flight response, in which both catecholamine and cortisol levels are elevated after exposure to a stressor.

    Brain catecholamine levels are high, and corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) concentrations are high. Together, these findings suggest abnormality in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis.

    The HPA axis is responsible for coordinating the hormonal response to stress. Given the strong cortisol suppression to dexamethasone in PTSD, HPA axis abnormalities are likely predicated on strong negative feedback inhibition of cortisol, itself likely due to an increased sensitivity of glucocorticoid receptors.

    Translating this reaction to human conditions gives a pathophysiological explanation for PTSD by a maladaptive learning pathway to fear response through a hypersensitive, hyperreactive, and hyperresponsive HPA axis.

    Low cortisol levels may predispose individuals to PTSD: Following war trauma, Swedish soldiers serving in Bosnia and Herzegovina with low pre-service salivary cortisol levels had a higher risk of reacting with PTSD symptoms, following war trauma, than soldiers with normal pre-service levels. Because cortisol is normally important in restoring homeostasis after the stress response, it is thought that trauma survivors with low cortisol experience a poorly contained-that is, longer and more distressing-response, setting the stage for PTSD.

    Other studies indicate that people that suffer from PTSD have chronically low levels of serotonin, which contributes to the commonly associated behavioral symptoms such as anxiety, ruminations, irritability, aggression, suicidality, and impulsivity. Serotonin also contributes to the stabilization of glucocorticoid production.

    Dopamine levels in patients with PTSD can help contribute to the symptoms associated. Low levels of dopamine can contribute to anhedonia, apathy, impaired attention, and motor deficits. Increased levels of dopamine can cause psychosis, agitation, and restlessness.

    Hyperresponsiveness in the norepinephrine system can be caused by continued exposure to high stress. Overactivation of norepinephrine receptors in the prefrontal cortex can be connected to the flashbacks and nightmares frequently experienced by those with PTSD. A decrease in other norepinephrine functions (awareness of the current environment) prevents the memory mechanisms in the brain from processing that the experience, and emotions the person is experiencing during a flashback are not associated with the current environment.

    However, there is considerable controversy within the medical community regarding the neurobiology of PTSD. A review of existing studies on this subject showed no clear relationship between cortisol levels and PTSD. However, the majority of reports indicate people with PTSD have elevated levels of corticotropin-releasing hormone, lower basal cortisol levels, and enhanced negative feedback suppression of the HPA axis by dexamethasone.

    Neuroanatomy

    Regions of the brain associated with stress and posttraumatic stress disorder

    Three areas of the brain in which function may be altered in PTSD have been identified: the prefrontal cortex, amygdala, and hippocampus. Much of this research has utilised PTSD victims from the Vietnam War. For example, a prospective study using the Vietnam Head Injury Study showed that damage to the prefrontal cortex may actually be protective against later development of PTSD. In a study by Gurvits et al., combat veterans of the Vietnam War with PTSD showed a 20% reduction in the volume of their hippocampus compared with veterans having suffered no such symptoms. This finding could not be replicated in chronic PTSD patients traumatized at an air show plane crash in 1988 (Ramstein, Germany).

    In human studies, the amygdala has been shown to be strongly involved in the formation of emotional memories, especially fear-related memories. Neuroimaging studies in humans have revealed both morphological and functional aspects of PTSD. However, during high stress times the hippocampus, which is associated with the ability to place memories in the correct context of space and time, and with the ability to recall the memory, is suppressed. This suppression is hypothesized to be the cause of the flashbacks that often plague PTSD patients. When someone with PTSD undergoes stimuli similar to the traumatic event, the body perceives the event as occurring again because the memory was never properly recorded in the patients memory.

    The amygdalocentric model of PTSD proposes that it is associated with hyperarousal of the amygdala and insufficient top-down control by the medial prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus in particular during extinction. This is consistent with an interpretation of PTSD as a syndrome of deficient extinction ability. A study at the European Neuroscience Institute-Goettingen (Germany) found that fear extinction-induced IGF2/IGFBP7 signalling promotes the survival of 17-19-day-old newborn hippocampal neurons. This suggests that therapeutic strategies that enhance IGF2 signalling and adult neurogenesis might be suitable to treat diseases linked to excessive fear memory such as PTSD. Further animal and clinical research into the amygdala and fear conditioning may suggest additional treatments for the condition.

    The maintenance of the fear involved with PTSD has been shown to include the HPA axis, the locus coeruleus-noradrenergic systems, and the connections between the limbic system and frontal cortex. The HPA axis that coordinates the hormonal response to stress, which activates the LC-noradrenergic system, is implicated in the over-consolidation of memories that occurs in the aftermath of trauma. This over-consolidation increases the likelihood of one’s developing PTSD. The amygdala is responsible for threat detection and the conditioned and unconditioned fear responses that are carried out as a response to a threat.

    The LC-noradrenergic system has been hypothesized to mediate the over-consolidation of fear memory in PTSD. High levels of cortisol reduces noradrenergic activity, and it is proposed that individuals with PTSD fail to regulate the increased noradrenergic response to traumatic stress. It is thought that the intrusive memories and conditioned fear responses to associated triggers is a result of this response. Neuropeptide Y has been reported to reduce the release of norepinephrine and has been demonstrated to have anxiolytic properties in animal models. Studies have shown people with PTSD demonstrate reduced levels of NPY, possibly indicating their increased anxiety levels.

    The basolateral nucleus (BLA) of the amygdala is responsible for the comparison and development of associations between unconditioned and conditioned responses to stimuli, which results in the fear conditioning present in PTSD. The BLA activates the central nucleus (CeA) of the amygdala, which elaborates the fear response, (including behavioral response to threat and elevated startle response). Descending inhibitory inputs from the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) regulate the transmission from the BLA to the CeA, which is hypothesized to play a role in the extinction of conditioned fear responses.

    Diagnosis

    Diagnostic and Statistical Manual

    The diagnostic criteria for PTSD, stipulated in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV (Text Revision) (DSM-IV-TR), may be summarized as:

    A: Exposure to a traumatic event. This must have involved both (a) loss of “physical integrity”, or risk of serious injury or death, to self or others, and (b) a response to the event that involved intense fear, horror, or helplessness (or in children, the response must involve disorganized or agitated behavior). (The DSM-IV-TR criterion differs substantially from the previous DSM-III-R stressor criterion, which specified the traumatic event should be of a type that would cause “significant symptoms of distress in almost anyone,” and that the event was “outside the range of usual human experience.”)

    B: Persistent re-experiencing. One or more of these must be present in the victim: flashback memories, recurring distressing dreams, subjective re-experiencing of the traumatic event(s), or intense negative psychological or physiological response to any objective or subjective reminder of the traumatic event(s).

    C: Persistent avoidance and emotional numbing. This involves a sufficient level of:
    * avoidance of stimuli associated with the trauma, such as certain thoughts or feelings, or talking about the event(s)
    * avoidance of behaviors, places, or people that might lead to distressing memories as well as the disturbing memories, dreams, flashbacks, and intense psychological or physiological distress
    * inability to recall major parts of the trauma(s), or decreased involvement in significant life activities
    * decreased capacity (down to complete inability) to feel certain feelings
    * an expectation that one’s future will be somehow constrained in ways not normal to other people.

    D: Persistent symptoms of increased arousal not present before. These are all physiological response issues, such as difficulty falling or staying asleep, or problems with anger, concentration, or hypervigilance. Additional symptoms include irritability, angry outbursts, increased startle response, and concentration or sleep problems.

    E: Duration of symptoms for more than 1 month. If all other criteria are present, but 30 days have not elapsed, the individual is diagnosed with Acute stress disorder.

    F: Significant impairment. The symptoms reported must lead to “clinically significant distress or impairment” of major domains of life activity, such as social relations, occupational activities, or other “important areas of functioning”.

    Assessment

    Since the introduction of DSM-IV, the number of possible events that might be used to diagnose PTSD has increased; one study suggests that the increase is around 50%. Various scales to measure the severity and frequency of PTSD symptoms exist. Standardized screening tools such as Trauma Screening Questionnaire and PTSD Symptom Scale can be used to detect possible symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder and suggest the need for a formal diagnostic assessment.

    DSM-5

    In DSM-5, published in May, 2013, PTSD is classified as a trauma- and stress-related disorder.
    * Criterion A: (applicable to adults, adolescents and children over 6. There is a separate Posttraumatic stress disorder for children 6 years and younger.) Exposure to real or threatened death, injury, or sexual violence.
    * Several items in Criterion B (intrusion symptoms) are rewritten to add or augment certain distinctions now considered important.
    * Special consideration is given to developmentally appropriate criteria for use with children and adolescents. This is especially evident in the restated Criterion B-intrusion symptoms. Development of age-specific criteria for diagnosis of PTSD is ongoing at this time.
    * Criterion C (avoidance and numbing) has been split into “C” and “D”:
    o Criterion C (new version) now focuses solely on avoidance of behaviors or physical or temporal reminders of the traumatic experience(s). What were formerly two symptoms are now three, due to slight changes in descriptions.
    o New Criterion D focuses on negative alterations in cognition and mood associated with the traumatic event(s) and contains two new symptoms, one expanded symptom, and four largely unchanged symptoms specified in the previous criteria.
    * Criterion E (formerly “D”), which focuses on increased arousal and reactivity, contains one modestly revised, one entirely new, and four unchanged symptoms.
    * Criterion F (formerly “E”) still requires duration of symptoms to have been at least one month.
    * Criterion G (formerly “F”) stipulates symptom impact (“disturbance”) in the same way as before.
    * Criterion H stipulated the disturbance is not due to the effects of a substance or another medical condition.

    Specify whether:
    With dissociative symptoms: (not due to effects of a substance or another medical condition)
    1. In addition, meets the criteria of Depersonalization
    2. In addition, meets the criteria of Derealization

    Specify if:
    With delayed expression Full criteria not met until more than 6 months after the event

    Research-based groups

    Emerging factor analytic research suggests that PTSD symptoms group empirically into four clusters, not the three currently described in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. One model supported by this research divides the traditional avoidance symptoms into a cluster of numbing symptoms (such as loss of interest and feeling emotionally numb) and a cluster of behavioral avoidance symptoms (such as avoiding reminders of the trauma). An alternative model adds a fourth cluster of dysphoric symptoms. These include symptoms of emotional numbing, as well as anger, sleep disturbance, and difficulty concentrating (traditionally grouped under the hyperarousal cluster). A literature review and meta-analysis did not find strong support across the literature for one of these models over the other.

    International Classification of Diseases

    The diagnostic criteria for PTSD, stipulated in the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10 (ICD-10), may be summarized as:
    * Exposure to a stressful event or situation (either short or long lasting) of exceptionally threatening or catastrophic nature, which is likely to cause pervasive distress in almost anyone.
    * Persistent remembering or “reliving” the stressor by intrusive flash backs, vivid memories, recurring dreams, or by experiencing distress when exposed to circumstances resembling or associated with the stressor.
    * Actual or preferred avoidance of circumstances resembling or associated with the stressor (not present before exposure to the stressor).
    * Either (1) or (2):
    1. Inability to recall, either partially or completely, some important aspects of the period of exposure to the stressor
    2. Persistent symptoms of increased psychological sensitivity and arousal (not present before exposure to the stressor) shown by any two of the following:

    * difficulty in falling or staying asleep
    * irritability or outbursts of anger
    * difficulty in concentrating
    * hyper-vigilance
    * exaggerated startle response.

    The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10 diagnostic guidelines state: In general, this disorder should not be diagnosed unless there is evidence that it arose within 6 months of a traumatic event of exceptional severity. A “probable” diagnosis might still be possible if the delay between the event and the onset was longer than 6 months, provided that the clinical manifestations are typical and no alternative identification of the disorder (e.g., as an anxiety or obsessive-compulsive disorder or depressive episode) is plausible. In addition to evidence of trauma, there must be a repetitive, intrusive recollection or re-enactment of the event in memories, daytime imagery, or dreams. Conspicuous emotional detachment, numbing of feeling, and avoidance of stimuli that might arouse recollection of the trauma are often present but are not essential for the diagnosis. The autonomic disturbances, mood disorder, and behavioural abnormalities all contribute to the diagnosis but are not of prime importance. The late chronic sequelae of devastating stress, i.e. those manifest decades after the stressful experience, should be classified under F62.0.

    Differential diagnosis

    A diagnosis of PTSD requires exposure to an extreme stressor such as one that is life-threatening. Any stressor can result in a diagnosis of adjustment disorder and it is an appropriate diagnosis for a stressor and a symptom pattern that does not meet the criteria for PTSD, for example a stressor like a partner being fired, or a spouse leaving. If any of the symptom pattern is present before the stressor, another diagnosis is required, such as brief psychotic disorder or major depressive disorder. Other differential diagnoses are schizophrenia or other disorders with psychotic features such as Psychotic disorders due to a general medical condition. Drug-induced psychotic disorders can be considered if substance abuse is involved.

    The symptom pattern for acute stress disorder must occur and be resolved within four weeks of the trauma. If it lasts longer, and the symptom pattern fits that characteristic of PTSD, the diagnosis may be changed.

    Obsessive compulsive disorder may be diagnosed for intrusive thoughts that are recurring but not related to a specific traumatic event.

    Malingering should be considered if a financial and/or legal advantage is a possibility.

    Prevention (Traumatic memories)

    Modest benefits have been seen from early access to cognitive behavioral therapy, as well as from some medications such as propranolol. Critical incident stress management has been suggested as a means of preventing PTSD, but subsequent studies suggest the likelihood of its producing iatrogenic outcomes. A review “…did not find any evidence to support the use of an intervention offered to everyone”, and that “…multiple session interventions may result in worse outcome than no intervention for some individuals. The World Health Organization recommends against the use of benzodiazepines and antidepressants in those having experienced trauma.

    Early detection

    The ability to prescreen individuals would be of great help in getting treatment to those at risk of PTSD prior to development of the syndrome. Several biological indicators have been identified that are related to later PTSD development. First, Delhanty found that higher response times and a smaller hippocampal volume were identified as linked to later PTSD development. However, both of these indicators are relatively difficult to test for and need specialized tests or equipment, or both, to identify. A blood biomarker is much easier to test for. Van Zuiden et al. found a biomarker when testing U.S. Army soldiers prior to deployment. They found that soldiers with more glucocorticoid receptors (GR) were more likely to be diagnosed with PTSD six months after deployment. However, higher GR levels have not been identified as a cause of PTSD, and may instead be an intermediator, or even an indicator that the individual has previously experienced traumatic events. There is a great deal of overlap between high GR levels and those later diagnosed with and without PTSD. Thus, the identification of high GR is simply a vulnerability indicator at this time.

    Delhanty found that biological precursors existed directly following traumatic exposure in those that later developed chronic PTSD and were significantly different from those who did not. Directly following the traumatic event, later sufferers often have significantly lower levels of hypothalamic pituitary-adrenal activity and a corresponding decrease in Cortisol. Other methods of early detection include the identification of specific risk factors associated with later PTSD symptoms. Resnick, Acierno, Holmes, Kilpatrick, and Jager, for example, were able to identify that the forensic exam given to victims after a rape was associated with PTSD. Finally, global treatments attempt to avoid the problems of early detection by simply treating everyone involved. However, many studies have found this to be often ineffective and for global treatments to at times increase prevalence rates of PTSD. Stepped collaborative care is where individuals who are at risk are monitored for symptoms. As symptoms of PTSD appear the level of care is increased to treat those symptoms.

    Psychological debriefing

    The first form of preventive treatment is that of a psychological debriefing.[95] Psychological debriefing is the most often used preventive measure. One of the main reasons for this is the relative ease with which this treatment can be given to individuals directly following an event. It consists of interviews that are meant to allow individuals to directly confront the event and share their feelings with the counselor and to help structure their memories of the event. However, while this form of therapy is the most often used, it is the least effective. Studies have had mixed findings concerning psychological debriefings and have ranged from being of significant help to helping in the formation of PTSD in individuals who would otherwise have not developed PTSD. Several meta-analyses have been published, including by the Cochrane Collaboration. They all concluded psychological debriefing is unhelpful and potentially harmful. The first Cochrane meta-analysis concerned single-session debriefing. More recently a Cochrane review on multiple session interventions was conducted and also found negative results. The American Psychological Association judges the status of psychological debriefing as No Research Support/Treatment is Potentially Harmful.

    Risk-targeted interventions

    Risk-targeted interventions are those that attempt to mitigate specific formative information or events. It can target modeling normal behaviors, instruction on a task, or giving information on the event. For example, rape victims were given an instruction video on the procedures for a forensic exam. Also included in the video was advice on how to identify and stop avoidance behavior and control anxiety. Finally, the individuals modeling the forensic exam were shown to be calm and relaxed. PTSD diagnosis for those having seen the video were 33% less than for those having gone through the standard forensic procedure.

    Medications

    Some medications have shown benefit in preventing PTSD or reducing its incidence, when given in close proximity to a traumatic event. These medications include:
    Alpha-adrenergic agonists: Anecdotal report of success in using clonidine (“Catapres”) to reduce traumatic stress symptoms suggests that it may have benefit in preventing PTSD.
    Beta blockers: Propranolol (“Inderal”), similar to clonidine, may be useful if there are significant symptoms of “over-arousal”. These may inhibit the formation of traumatic memories by blocking adrenaline’s effects on the amygdala.
    Glucocorticoids: There is some evidence suggesting that administering glucocorticoids immediately after a traumatic experience may help prevent PTSD. Several studies have shown that individuals who receive high doses of hydrocortisone for treatment of septic shock, or following surgery, have a lower incidence and fewer symptoms of PTSD.

    Psychobiological treatments have also found success, especially with cortisol. Psychobiological treatments target biological changes that occur after a traumatic event. They also attempt to chemically alter learning or memory formation. Cortisol treatments after a traumatic event have found success in mitigating later diagnosis of PTSD. As discussed earlier, cortisol is often lower in individuals at risk of PTSD after a traumatic event than their counterparts. By increasing cortisol levels to normal levels this has been shown to reduce arousal post event as well prevent GR upregulation.

    Management

    Psychological

    Many forms of psychotherapy have been advocated for trauma-related problems such as PTSD. Basic counseling practices common to many treatment responses for PTSD include education about the condition and provision of safety and support.

    The psychotherapy programs with the strongest demonstrated efficacy include cognitive behavioral programs, variants of exposure therapy, stress inoculation training (SIT), variants of cognitive therapy (CT), eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR), and many combinations of these procedures. A 2010 review disagrees that these treatments have proven efficacy and points out methodological flaws in the studies and previous meta-analyses.

    EMDR and trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (TFCBT) were recommended as first-line treatments for trauma victims in a 2007 review; however, “the evidence base [for EMDR] was not as strong as that for TFCBT … Furthermore, there was limited evidence that TFCBT and EMDR were superior to supportive/non-directive treatments, hence it is highly unlikely that their effectiveness is due to non-specific factors such as attention.” A meta-analytic comparison of EMDR and cognitive behavioral therapy found both protocols indistinguishable in terms of effectiveness in treating PTSD; however, “the contribution of the eye movement component in EMDR to treatment outcome” is unclear.

    Cognitive behavioral therapy

    Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) seeks to change the way a trauma victim feels and acts by changing the patterns of thinking or behavior, or both, responsible for negative emotions. CBT has been proven to be an effective treatment for PTSD and is currently considered the standard of care for PTSD by the United States Department of Defense. In CBT, individuals learn to identify thoughts that make them feel afraid or upset and replace them with less distressing thoughts. The goal is to understand how certain thoughts about events cause PTSD-related stress.

    Recent research on contextually based third-generation behavior therapies suggests that they may produce results comparable to some of the better validated therapies. Many of these therapy methods have a significant element of exposure and have demonstrated success in treating the primary problems of PTSD and co-occurring depressive symptoms.

    Exposure therapy is a type of cognitive behavioral therapy[120] that involves assisting trauma survivors to re-experience distressing trauma-related memories and reminders in order to facilitate habituation and successful emotional processing of the trauma memory. Most exposure therapy programs include both imaginal confrontation with the traumatic memories and real-life exposure to trauma reminders; this therapy modality is well supported by clinical evidence. The success of exposure-based therapies has raised the question of whether exposure is a necessary ingredient in the treatment of PTSD. Some organizations have endorsed the need for exposure. The US Department of Veterans Affairs has been actively training mental health treatment staff in prolonged exposure therapy and Cognitive Processing Therapy in an effort to better treat US Veterans with PTSD.

    Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing

    Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) is a form of psychotherapy developed and studied by Francine Shapiro. She had noticed that, when she was thinking about disturbing memories herself, her eyes were moving rapidly. When she brought her eye movements under control while thinking, the thoughts were less distressing.

    In 2002, Shapiro and Maxfield published a theory of why this might work, called adaptive information processing. This theory proposes that eye movement can be used to facilitate emotional processing of memories, changing the person’s memory to attend to more adaptive information. The therapist initiates voluntary rapid eye movements while the person focuses on memories, feelings or thoughts about a particular trauma. The therapists uses hand movements to get the person to move their eyes backward and forward, but hand-tapping or tones can also be used. EMDR closely resembles cognitive behavior therapy as it combines exposure (re-visiting the traumatic event), working on cognitive processes and relaxation/self-monitoring. However, exposure by way of being asked to think about the experience rather than talk about it has been highlighted as one of the more important distinguishing elements of EMDR.

    There have been multiple small controlled trials of four to eight weeks of EMDR in adults as well as children and adolescents. EMDR reduced PTSD symptoms enough in the short term that one in two adults no longer met the criteria for PTSD, but the number of people involved in these trials was small. There was not enough evidence to know whether or not EMDR could eliminate PTSD. There was some evidence that EMDR might prevent depression. There were no studies comparing EMDR to other psychological treatments or to medication. Adverse effects were largely unstudied. The benefits were greater for women with a history of sexual assault compared with people who had experienced other types of traumatizing events (such as accidents, physical assaults and war). There is a small amount of evidence that EMDR may improve re-experiencing symptoms in children and adolescents, but EMDR has not been shown to improve other PTSD symptoms, anxiety, or depression.

    The eye movement component of the therapy may not be critical for benefit. As there has been no major, high quality randomized trial of EMDR with eye movements versus EMDR without eye movements, the controversy over effectiveness is likely to continue.

    Interpersonal psychotherapy

    Other approaches, in particular involving social supports, may also be important. An open trial of interpersonal psychotherapy reported high rates of remission from PTSD symptoms without using exposure. A current, NIMH-funded trial in New York City is now (and into 2013) comparing interpersonal psychotherapy, prolonged exposure therapy, and relaxation therapy.

    Medication

    A variety of medications has shown adjunctive benefit in reducing PTSD symptoms, but “there is no clear drug treatment for PTSD”. In general, positive symptoms (re-experiencing, hypervigilance, increased arousal) respond better to medication than negative symptoms (avoidance, withdrawal), and it is recommended that any drug trial last for at least 6-8 weeks. With many medications, residual symptoms following treatment is the rule rather than the exception, which has led to increased research in the aggressive treatment of PTSD symptoms.

    Some studies have shown that treatment with hydrocortisone shortly after a traumatic event, in comparison to a placebo, decreases the likelihood that the patient will suffer from PTSD. Other studies have indicated that propranolol administered within 6 hours of a traumatic event decreases the physiological reactivity to a reminder of the traumatic event. However propranolol had no effect on the rate of PTSD. Despite these studies, there is not significant evidence that medication can prevent PTSD, therefore none is routinely administered.

    Symptom management
    SSRIs (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors). SSRIs are considered to be a first-line drug treatment. SSRIs for which there are data to support use include: citalopram, escitalopram, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, paroxetine, and sertraline.
    Among the anti-depressants described in this section, bupropion and venlafaxine have the lowest patient drop-out rates. Sertraline, fluoxetine, and nefazodone have a modestly higher drop-out rate (~15%), and the heterocyclics and paroxetine have the highest rates (~20%+). Where drop-out is caused or feared because of medication side-effects, it should be remembered that most patients do not experience such side-effects.
    Tricyclic antidepressants: Amitriptyline (“Elavil”) has shown benefit for positive distress symptoms and for avoidance, and imipramine (“Tofranil”) has shown benefit for intrusive symptoms.
    Alpha-adrenergic antagonists: Prazosin (“Minipress”), in a small study of combat veterans, has shown substantial benefit in relieving or reducing nightmares. Clonidine (“Catapres”) can be helpful with startle, hyperarousal, and general autonomic hyperexcitability.
    Anti-convulsants, mood stabilizers, anti-aggression agents: Carbamazepine (“Tegretol”) has likely benefit in reducing arousal symptoms involving noxious affect, as well as mood or aggression. Topiramate (“Topamax”) has been effective in achieving major reductions in flashbacks and nightmares, and no reduction of effect was seen over time. Zolpidem (“Ambien”) has also proven useful in treating sleep disturbances.
    Lamotrigine (“Lamictal”) may be useful in reducing reexperiencing symptoms, as well as avoidance and emotional numbing. Valproic acid (“Depakene”) and has shown reduction of symptoms of irritability, aggression, and impulsiveness, and in reducing flashbacks. Similarly, lithium carbonate has worked to control mood and aggressions (but not anxiety) symptoms. Buspirone (“BuSpar”) has an effect similar to that of lithium, with the additional benefit of working to reduce hyperarousal symptoms.
    Antipsychotics. Risperidone can be used to help with dissociation, mood issues, and aggression.
    Serotonin antagonists. Cyproheptadine (Periactin) can be used to help with sleep disorders and nightmares.
    Atypical antidepressants: Nefazodone (“Serzone”) can be effective with sleep disturbance symptoms and with secondary depression, anxiety, and sexual dysfunction symptoms. Trazodone (“Desyrel”) can also reduce or eliminate problems with anger, anxiety, and disturbed sleep.
    Beta blockers: Propranolol (“Inderal”) has demonstrated possibilities in reducing hyperarousal symptoms, including sleep disturbances.
    Benzodiazepines: These drugs are not recommended by clinical guidelines for the treatment of PTSD due to a lack of evidence of benefit. Nevertheless some doctors use benzodiazepines with caution for short-term anxiety relief, hyperarousal, and sleep disturbance. However, some authors believe that the use of benzodiazepines is contraindicated for acute stress, as this group of drugs promotes dissociation and ulterior revivals. While benzodiazepines can alleviate acute anxiety, there is no consistent evidence that they can stop the development of PTSD, or are at all effective in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder. Additionally, benzodiazepines may reduce the effectiveness of psychotherapeutic interventions, and there is some evidence that benzodiazepines may actually contribute to the development and chronification of PTSD. Other drawbacks include the risk of developing a benzodiazepine dependence and withdrawal syndrome; additionally, individuals with PTSD are at an increased risk of abusing benzodiazepines.
    Glucocorticoids: In addition, post-stress high-dose corticosterone administration was recently found to reduce “PTSD-like” behaviors in a rat model of PTSD. In this study, corticosterone impaired memory performance, suggesting that it may reduce risk for PTSD by interfering with consolidation of traumatic memories. The neurodegenerative effects of the glucocorticoids, however, may prove this treatment counterproductive.
    Monoamine-oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs): Phenelzine (“Nardil”) has for some time[when?] been observed to be effective with hyperarousal and depression and is especially effective with nightmares.
    Miscellaneous other medications: Clinical trials evaluating methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, “Ecstasy”) in conjunction with psychotherapy are being conducted in Switzerland and Israel.

    Medications by symptom group affected

    Medications can affect one or more of the symptoms, in one or more of the three major symptom classes[4] involved in diagnosing PTSD, which can be summarized in the following table:
    Symptom class Symptom Medication

    Reexperiencing Reexperiencing Reexperiencing
    intrusive recall amitriptyline; fluoxetine; imipramine; lamotrigine; sertraline
    intrusive reexperiencing amitriptyline; fluoxetine; imipramine; nefazodone; sertraline (women only); topiramate;
    sleep disturbance, nightmares benzodiazepines; carbamazepine; clonidine; nefazodone; phenelzine; prazosin; topiramate; trazodone; zolpidem
    dissociative recall risperidone
    intense psychological distress (anger, anxiety) when exposed to reminders of traumatic event(s) benzodiazepines; buspirone; carbamazepine; lithium (not for anxiety); nefazodone; trazodone

    Avoidance Avoidance Avoidance
    avoidance amitriptyline; fluoxetine; lamotrigine; nefazodone; sertraline
    feelings of detachment or estrangement from others amitriptyline; risperidone
    restricted range of affect (numbing) amitriptyline; lamotrigine; sertraline (women only)

    Hyperarousal Hyperarousal Hyperarousal
    general hyperarousal amitriptyline; nefazodone; phenelzine; sertraline (women only)
    sleep disturbance, nightmares benzodiazepines; carbamazepine; clonidine; nefazodone; phenelzine; trazodone; zolpidem
    irritability, anger (and impulsiveness) carbamazepine; nefazodone; valproic acid
    anger buspirone; fluoxetine; lithium; trazodone
    aggression risperidone
    exaggerated startle response; general autonomic hyperexcitability benzodiazepines; buspirone; carbamazepine; clonidine; propranolol; valproic acid

    Some medications can also help with symptoms that may occur secondary to PTSD:
    Secondary symptom Medication
    depression nefazodone; phenelzine
    dream content distortions nefazodone
    relapse of symptoms carbamazepine
    self-mutilation clonidine; buprenorphine
    sexual function reduction nefazodone
    sleep hours reduction nefazodone

    Other (Exercise, sport and physical activity)

    Physical activity can have an impact on people’s psychological wellbeing and physical health. The U.S. National Center for PTSD recommends moderate exercise as a way to distract from disturbing emotions, build self-esteem and increase feelings of being in control again. They recommend a discussion with a doctor before starting an exercise program.

    Some uncontrolled studies have found benefits for people with PTSD from exercise programs. A small trial studied adding a physical component to biofeedback-based CBT with traumatized refugees. The authors concluded that physical activity may lead to clinical improvement, but bigger trials are needed. More trials are underway.

    Play therapy for children

    Play is thought to help children link their inner thoughts with their outer world, connecting real experiences with abstract thought. Repetitive play can also be one of the ways a child relives traumatic events, and that can be a symptom of traumatization in a child or young person.

    Play is a familiar way for children and young people to indirectly address what worries them, so it is often used as an element of psychological treatment – for example, using play materials or drawing to help a child focus on their feelings and events. Play therapy means using games, drawings and play materials to express, understand and control feelings rather than as a means of communication. Although it is commonly used, there have not been enough studies comparing outcomes in groups of children receiving and not receiving play therapy, so the effects of play therapy are not yet understood.

    Epidemiology

    There is debate over the rates of PTSD found in populations, but, despite changes in diagnosis and the criteria used to define PTSD between 1997 and 2007, epidemiological rates have not changed significantly.

    The United Nations’ World Health Organization publishes estimates of PTSD impact for each of its member states; the latest data available are for 2004. Considering only the 25 most populated countries, ranked by overall age-standardized Disability-Adjusted Life Year (DALY) rate, the top half of the ranked list is dominated by Asian/Pacific countries, the USA, and Egypt. Ranking the countries by the male-only or female-only rates produces much the same result, but with less meaningfulness, as the score range in the single-sex rankings is much-reduced (4 for women, 3 for men, as compared with 14 for the overall score range), suggesting that the differences between female and male rates, within each country, is what drives the distinctions between the countries.

    United States

    The National Comorbidity Survey Replication has estimated that the lifetime prevalence of PTSD among adult Americans is 6.8%, with women (9.7%) more than twice as likely as men (3.6%) to have PTSD at some point in their lives. More than 60% of men and more than 60% of women experience at least one traumatic event in their life. The most frequently reported traumatic events by men are rape, combat, and childhood neglect or physical abuse. Women most frequently report instances of rape, sexual molestation, physical attack, being threatened with a weapon and childhood physical abuse.[18] 88% of men and 79% of women with lifetime PTSD have at least one comorbid psychiatric disorder. Major depressive disorder, 48% of men and 49% of women, and lifetime alcohol abuse or dependence, 51.9% of men and 27.9% of women, are the most common comorbid disorders.

    The United States Department of Veterans Affairs estimates that 830,000 Vietnam War veterans suffered symptoms of PTSD. The National Vietnam Veterans’ Readjustment Study (NVVRS) found 15.2% of male and 8.5% of female Vietnam Vets to suffer from current PTSD at the time of the study. Life-Time prevalence of PTSD was 30.9% for males and 26.9% for females. In a reanalysis of the NVVRS data, along with analysis of the data from the Matsunaga Vietnam Veterans Project, Schnurr, Lunney, Sengupta, and Waelde found that, contrary to the initial analysis of the NVVRS data, a large majority of Vietnam veterans suffered from PTSD symptoms (but not the disorder itself). Four out of five reported recent symptoms when interviewed 20-25 years after Vietnam.

    A 2011 study from Georgia State University and San Diego State University found that rates of PTSD diagnosis increased significantly when troops were stationed in combat zones, had tours of longer than a year, experienced combat, or were injured. Military personnel serving in combat zones were 12.1 percentage points more likely to receive a PTSD diagnosis than their active-duty counterparts in non-combat zones. Those serving more than 12 months in a combat zone were 14.3 percentage points more likely to be diagnosed with PTSD than those having served less than one year. Experiencing an enemy firefight was associated a 18.3 percentage point increase in the probability of PTSD, while being wounded or injured in combat was associated a 23.9 percentage point increase in the likelihood of a PTSD diagnosis. For the 2.16 million U.S. troops deployed in combat zones between 2001 and 2010, the total estimated two-year costs of treatment for combat-related PTSD are between $1.54 billion and $2.69 billion.

    History

    Earliest reports
    Psychiatrist Jonathan Shay has proposed that Lady Percy’s soliloquy in Henry IV, Part 1 (act 2, scene 3, lines 40-62), written around 1597, represents an unusually accurate description of the symptom constellation of PTSD.

    Military settings
    According to Stéphane Audoin-Rouzeau and Annette Becker, “One-tenth of mobilized American men were hospitalized for mental disturbances between 1942 and 1945, and, after thirty-five days of uninterrupted combat, 98% of them manifested psychiatric disturbances in varying degrees.”
    Although PTSD-like symptoms have also been recognized in combat veterans of many military conflicts since, the modern understanding of PTSD dates from the 1970s, largely as a result of the problems that were still being experienced by US military veterans of the war in Vietnam.
    Previous diagnoses now considered historical equivalents of PTSD include railway spine, stress syndrome, nostalgia, soldier’s heart, shell shock, battle fatigue, combat stress reaction, or traumatic war neurosis.

    Terminology
    The term post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was coined in the mid-1970s, in part through the efforts of anti-Vietnam War activists and the anti-war group Vietnam Veterans Against the War and Chaim F. Shatan, who worked with them and coined the term post-Vietnam Syndrome; the condition was added to the DSM-III as posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Early in 1978, the term was used in a working group finding presented to the Committee of Reactive Disorders. The term was formally recognized in 1980.

    In the DSM-IV, the spelling “posttraumatic stress disorder” is used, while in the ICD-10 the spelling is “post-traumatic stress disorder”.


     
  • Virtual Chitchatting 1:14 PM on 2014/03/21 Permalink  

    how to deal with a person ‘labeled’ to incur Stockholm Syndrome
    by S3ra Sutan Rajo Ali
    Jakarta, 2014-03-21 PM 01:14

    You must know their background, the history of their life, how they live their life, and mostly how they deal with the inflicting pains, physically or emotionally, romantically or the least to say, sexually, and financially. The keep on coming and incoming pains, the incredible ones.

    If that one is losing perspectives of that one’s, than that one must be institutionalised in mental institutions. Rumah Sakit Jiwa……

    They say the victim is and was a success to have been brainwashed.
    Congrats.


    http://health.howstuffworks.com/mental-health/mental-disorders/stockholm-syndrome.htm

    What causes Stockholm syndrome?
    by Julia Layton

    The room Natascha Kampusch lived in from age 10 to age 18
    Photo courtesy AP Photo/Austrian Police

    Ten-year-old Natascha Kampusch disappeared on her way to school in Austria in 1998. In 2006, 18-year-old Natascha Kampusch reappeared in a Vienna garden after escaping from her captor’s home while he wasn’t paying attention. In a statement to the media read by her psychiatrist, Kampusch had this to say about spending eight years in a locked cell beneath her kidnapper’s basement: “My youth was very different. But I was also spared a lot of things – I did not start smoking or drinking and I did not hang out in bad company.” By most experts’ accounts, Kampusch is in a traumatized state and appears to be suffering from Stockholm syndrome.

    People suffering from Stockholm syndrome come to identify with and even care for their captors in a desperate, usually unconscious act of self-preservation. It occurs in the most psychologically traumatic situations, often hostage situations or kidnappings, and its effects usually do not end when the crisis ends. In the most classic cases, victims continue to defend and care about their captors even after they escape captivity. Symptoms of Stockholm syndrome have also been identified in the slave/master relationship, in battered-spouse cases and in members of destructive cults.

    Symptoms of Stockholm Syndrome

    This photo was taken by the Stockholm police with a camera drilled through the roof to the main vault in the Kreditbanken bank in Sweden. The bearded man on the right is captor Jan Erik Olsson.

    Many people have a pretty good idea of what Stockholm syndrome is based on the origin of the term alone. In 1973, two men entered the Kreditbanken bank in Stockholm, Sweden, intending to rob it. When police entered the bank, the robbers shot them, and a hostage situation ensued. For six days, the robbers held four people at gunpoint, locked in a bank vault, sometimes strapped with explosives and other times forced to put nooses around their own necks. When the police tried to rescue the hostages, the hostages fought them off, defending their captors and blaming the police. One of the freed hostages set up a fund to cover the hostage-takers’ legal defense fees. Thus “Stockholm syndrome” was born, and psychologists everywhere had a name for this classic captor-prisoner phenomenon.

    In order for Stockholm syndrome to occur in any given situation, at least three traits must be present:
    * A severely uneven power relationship in which the captor dictates what the prisoner can and cannot do
    * The threat of death or physical injury to the prisoner at the hands of the captor
    * A self-preservation instinct on the part of the prisoner

    ­­Included in these traits are the prisoner’s belief (correct or incorrect, it doesn’t matter) that he or she cannot escape, which means that survival must occur within the rules set by the all-powerful captor; and the prisoner’s isolation from people not being held by the captors, which prohibits any outside view of the captors from infringing on the psychological processes that lead to Stockholm syndrome.

    Learn how a person develops Stockholm syndrome on the next page.

    The Stockholm Syndrome Process

    In the most basic, generalized way, the Stockholm syndrome process as seen in a kidnapping or hostage situation looks something like this:

    1. In a traumatic and extraordinarily stressful event, a person finds herself held captive by a man who is threatening to kill her if she disobeys him in any way. She may be abused – physically, sexually and/or verbally – and having trouble thinking straight. According to the captor, escape is not an option. She will end up dead. Her family may end up dead, too. Her only chance at survival is obedience.

    2. As time goes on, obedience alone may become less of a sure thing – the captor is under stress as well, and a change in his mood could mean harmful consequences to his prisoner. Figuring out what might set off her captor’s violence so she can avoid those triggers becomes another survival strategy. In this way, she gets to know her captor.

    3. A minor act of kindness on the part of the captor, which can include simply not killing the prisoner yet, positions the captor as the prisoner’s savior, as “ultimately good,” to quote young Anne Frank’s famous characterization of the Nazis who ultimately led to her death. In the traumatic, life-threatening circumstances in which the prisoner finds herself, the slightest act of kindness – or the sudden absence of violence – seems a sign of friendship in an otherwise hostile, terrifying world, and the prisoner clings to it for dear life.

    4. The captor slowly seems less threatening – more an instrument for survival and protection than one of harm. The prisoner undergoes what some call an act of self-delusion: In order to survive psychologically as well as physically – to lessen the unimaginable stress of the situation – the prisoner comes to truly believe that the captor is her friend, that he will not kill her, that in fact they can help each other “get out of this mess.” The people on the outside trying to rescue her seem less like her allies. They are going to hurt this person who is protecting her from harm. The fact that this person is also the source of that potential harm gets buried in the process of self-delusion.

    I­f you’ve read How Brainwashing Works, you’ve probably noticed the similarities between brainwashing and Stockholm syndrome. The two are actually closely related as effects of abnormal power relationships. In the case of publishing heiress Patty Hearst, who was kidnapped in the early ’70s by the political extremist group SLA (Symbionese Liberation Army), experts have pointed to both Stockholm syndrome and brainwashing as potential reasons for her subsequent actions. After Patty was locked in a closet and severely abused for weeks on end, she joined the SLA, changed her name, became engaged to one of its members and was caught robbing a bank with the group. However, once the police arrested members of SLA and Patty was returned to her family, she reversed her position. Instead of defending the group and holding the police officers in contempt, she distanced herself from the SLA and condemned their actions. It’s possible that what Hearst experienced was in fact neither true brainwashing nor Stockholm syndrome, but instead was a series of conscious choices designed to ensure her survival.

    For more on brainwashing and related topics, check out the links on the next page.

    Pola Muzyka · May 17, 2013 at 11:44am
    What you just said is called denial. When you begin to take sides, you stop seeing the truth.


    http://web2.iadfw.net/ktrig246/out_of_cave/sss.html

    Societal Stockholm Syndrome
    Kathleen Trigiani, 1999

    The term, Stockholm Syndrome, was coined in the early 70’s to describe the puzzling reactions of four bank employees to their captor. On August 23, 1973, three women and one man were taken hostage in one of the largest banks in Stockholm. They were held for six days by two ex-convicts who threatened their lives but also showed them kindness. To the world’s surprise, all of the hostages strongly resisted the government’s efforts to rescue them and were quite eager to defend their captors. Indeed, several months after the hostages were saved by the police, they still had warm feelings for the men who threatened their lives. Two of the women eventually got engaged to the captors.

    The Stockholm incident compelled journalists and social scientists to research whether the emotional bonding between captors and captives was a “freak” incident or a common occurrence in oppressive situations. They discovered that it’s such a common phenomenon that it deserves a name. Thus the label, Stockholm Syndrome, was born. It has happened to concentration camp prisoners, cult members, civilians in Chinese Communist prisons, pimp-procured prostitutes, incest victims, physically and/or emotionally abused children, battered women, prisoners of war, victims of hijackings, and of course, hostages. Virtually anyone can get Stockholm Syndrome it the following conditions are met:

    * Perceived threat to survival and the belief that one’s captor is willing to act on that threat
    * The captive’s perception of small kindnesses from the captor within a context of terror
    * Isolation from perspectives other than those of the captor
    * Perceived inability to escape.

    Stockholm Syndrome is a survival mechanism. The men and women who get it are not lunatics. They are fighting for their lives. They deserve compassion, not ridicule.

    Psychologist Dee Graham has theorized that Stockholm Syndrome occurs on a societal level. Since our culture is patriarchal, she believes that all women suffer from it–to widely varying degrees, of course. She has expanded on her theories in Loving to Survive: Sexual Terror, Men’s Violence, and Women’s Lives, which is well worth reading. While Graham’s book can get quite harsh, it does end on a hopeful note: The most reliable way to deal with Socketal Stockholm Syndrome is to develop strong friendships and political alliances with feminist women.

    Graham’s theory is controversial and it tends to put many women on the defensive. Still, I think it’s a much more convincing explanation of women’s “self-destructive” behavior than such theories as “masochism” and “codependency”. I also know from personal experience that Graham is “right on” with her view that feminist activism is the best way to deal with Societal Stockholm Syndrome. In college, my feminist friends saved me from some emotionally abusive romantic relationships. In discussing why many women like John Gray’s books, I think we should take Graham’s theory seriously.

    As I read Loving to Survive, I thought of all the women who lambasted Susan Hamson for criticizing John Gray. It reminded me of the Stockholm captives who resisted the police and protected their captors. I also thought of Oprah Winfrey, who understandably wants a soul mate but gets ridiculed for that desire because she’s “too successful and too independent”. The lack of social support undoubtedly has had an isolating effect, especially considering the groundless rumors a few years ago about her “lesbianism”. While I cringe at her support of John Gray, I must admit that he’s never ridiculed her for wanting a “great guy”. Gray’s anatomy plays very well into Societal Stockholm Syndrome, as it manipulates women’s fear of being alone but also shows “compassion” for their problems. “Dr” Gray did say, “Men are notorious for giving less in relationships” (MMWV, p. 191). But he never told them how to really give more.

    Graham’s Societal Stockholm Syndrome Theory probably can’t be “proven”, but neither can most other psychological theories. Nonetheless, I think Graham’s ideas are invaluable resources for anyone who wants to build alternatives to Mars&Venus.


    http://content.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1920301,00.html

    Stockholm Syndrome
    By Laura Fitzpatrick Monday, Aug. 31, 2009

    Corbis

    Among the most troubling aspects of the Jaycee Lee Dugard abduction case is her “strong feelings,” according to her stepfather, for her alleged abductor. Victims have a long history of identifying with their captors – and it often keeps them alive

    Time and again during the 18 harrowing years she allegedly spent in captivity, Jaycee Lee Dugard must have had the chance to cry for help. She assisted her alleged abductor, Phillip Garrido, with his home business, sorting out orders by phone or e-mail. She occasionally greeted customers alone at the door. She even went out in public. But she apparently never made a run for it, returning each day instead to a shed in the backyard of the man who allegedly kidnapped and raped her. “Jaycee has strong feelings with this guy,” her stepfather Carl Probyn – who saw…

    http://archive.is/2IS2c#selection-813.458-813.583

    • who saw Dugard snatched at age 11 from a bus stop in 1991 – said Aug. 28. “She really feels it’s almost like a marriage.”

    Baffling it may be, but Dugard’s response to her years in captivity is hardly unusual. Explaining it precisely is impossible, but one of the most common theories is the so-called Stockholm syndrome, the phenomenon in which victims display compassion for and even loyalty to their captors. It was first widely recognized after the Swedish bank robbery that gave it its name. For six days in August 1973, thieves Jan-Erik Olsson and Clark Olofsson held four Stockholm bank employees hostage at gunpoint in a vault. When the victims were released, their reaction shocked the world: they hugged and kissed their captors, declaring their loyalty even as the kidnappers were carted off to jail. Though the precise origin of the term Stockholm syndrome is debated, it is often attributed to remarks during a subsequent news broadcast by the Swedish criminologist and psychiatrist Nils Bejerot, who had assisted the police during the robbery.

    No widely accepted diagnostic criteria exist to identify Stockholm syndrome – also known as terror-bonding or traumatic bonding – and critics insist its apparent prevalence is largely a figment of the media’s overactive imagination. One FBI report called such close victim-captor relationships “overemphasized, overanalyzed, overpsychologized and overpublicized.” Nonetheless, the Swedish clerks’ puzzling response to their ordeal has been emulated over and over again in a series of high-profile cases. When heiress Patty Hearst was abducted by the Symbionese Liberation Army in 1974, for example, she famously became their accomplice, adopting an assumed name and abetting the radical political group in a bank robbery.

    A decade later, shortly after TWA Flight 847 took off from Athens in 1985, two gun-toting terrorists forced their way into the cockpit, demanding that the plane touch down in Lebanon. Once on the ground, they held passengers captive, threatened them with guns and murdered one hostage, dumping his body onto the tarmac. Nonetheless, after the captives were rescued, one of them reportedly later said of his captors, “They weren’t bad people; they let me eat, they let me sleep, they gave me my life.”

    Victims held captive for brief but intense periods aren’t the only ones to display curiously positive feelings for the perpetrators. Shawn Hornbeck, a Missouri boy kidnapped and held captive by pizzeria worker Michael Devlin in 2002 for more than four years, identified himself as Shawn Devlin when he contacted the police to report a stolen bike just 10 months after his abduction – using his captor’s name and giving no hint of what had happened. In an interview aired on CBS the year after Hornbeck was freed, the reporter noted that the boy’s parents had requested that Shawn not be asked why he never spoke up.

    Natascha Kampusch’s story is perhaps even more troubling. The Austrian girl was abducted at age 10 and held for eight years in a windowless cellar by her abductor, Wolfgang Priklopil. She ran away in August 2006. Yet upon learning that he had thrown himself in front of a train a few hours after she escaped, she reportedly burst into tears. “All I can say is that, bit by bit, I feel more sorry for him,” Kampusch said in a 2007 documentary intended to mark her first year of freedom, calling Priklopil a “poor soul – lost and misguided.” (Experts note that because they are especially vulnerable and impressionable, children may be particularly prone to forming bonds with their captors, a phenomenon that may differ from Stockholm syndrome in adults.) Victims generally stand a good chance of recovering from Stockholm syndrome, mental-health experts say, but the prognosis and road to recovery depend on the nature and intensity of the hostage situation and the victim’s individual way of coping.

    But as critics of Stockholm syndrome maintain, these captives were the exceptions. According to a 2007 FBI report, 73% of victims displayed no signs of such affection for their abductors. Nonetheless, crisis negotiators often actually try to encourage captor-hostage bonding by telling perpetrators about the victims’ families or personal lives. Being viewed as a fellow human being, the theory goes, may be a victim’s best hope for staying alive. Which means Dugard’s apparent reluctance to attempt an escape may ultimately have been her ticket to freedom.


    http://www.bbc.com/news/magazine-22447726

    What is Stockholm syndrome?
    By Kathryn Westcott BBC News Magazine
    21 August 2013 Last updated at 23:18 GMT

    Police snipers opposite Kreditbanken where Jan-Erik Olsson held workers hostage for six days

    Forty years ago, the term Stockholm Syndrome was coined at the end of a six-day bank siege. What is it and why is it cited time and again in hostage situations?

    Most people know the phrase Stockholm Syndrome from the numerous high-profile kidnapping and hostage cases – usually involving women – in which it has been cited.

    The term is most associated with Patty Hearst, the Californian newspaper heiress who was kidnapped by revolutionary militants in 1974. She appeared to develop sympathy with her captors and joined them in a robbery. She was eventually caught and received a prison sentence.

    But Hearst’s defence lawyer Bailey claimed that the 19-year-old had been brainwashed and was suffering from “Stockholm Syndrome” – a term that had been recently coined to explain the apparently irrational feelings of some captives for their captors.

    More recently the term was applied in media reports about the Natascha Kampusch case. Kampusch – kidnapped as a 10-year-old by Wolfgang Priklopil and held in a basement for eight years – was reported to have cried when she heard her captor had died and subsequently lit a candle for him as he lay in the mortuary.

    Natascha Kampusch was kidnapped as a 10-year-old by Wolfgang Priklopil

    While the term is widely known, the incident that led to its coinage remains relatively obscure.

    Outside Sweden few know the names of bank workers Birgitta Lundblad, Elisabeth Oldgren, Kristin Ehnmark and Sven Safstrom.

    It was 23 August 1973 when the four were taken hostage in the Kreditbanken by 32-year-old career-criminal Jan-Erik Olsson – who was later joined at the bank by a former prison mate. Six days later when the stand-off ended, it became evident that the victims had formed some kind of positive relationship with their captors.

    Stockholm Syndrome was born by way of explanation.

    The phrase was reported to have been coined by criminologist and psychiatrist Nils Bejerot. Psychiatrist Dr Frank Ochberg was intrigued by the phenomenon and went on to define the syndrome for the FBI and Scotland Yard in the 1970s.

    At the time, he was helping the US National Task Force on Terrorism and Disorder devise strategies for hostage situations.

    His criteria included the following: “First people would experience something terrifying that just comes at them out of the blue. They are certain they are going to die.

    “Then they experience a type of infantilisation – where, like a child, they are unable to eat, speak or go to the toilet without permission.”

    Small acts of kindness – such as being given food – prompts a “primitive gratitude for the gift of life,” he explains.

    “The hostages experience a powerful, primitive positive feeling towards their captor. They are in denial that this is the person who put them in that situation. In their mind, they think this is the person who is going to let them live.”

    But he says that cases of Stockholm Syndrome are rare.

    So, what went on in the bank on Stockholm’s Norrmalmstorg square that enabled the captives to experience positive feelings towards their captors, despite fearing for their lives?

    In a 2009 interview with Radio Sweden, Kristin Ehnmark explained: “It’s some kind of a context you get into when all your values, the morals you have change in some way.”

    It was Ehnmark that, according to reports, built up the strongest relationship with Olsson. There were even erroneous reports afterwards that the pair had become engaged.

    Employees taken hostage in the bank’s vault by Jan-Erik Olsson

    In one phone call from the bank’s vault to the country’s prime minister Olof Palme, Ehnmark begged to be allowed to leave the bank with the kidnappers. One of Olsson’s demands had been the delivery of a getaway car in which he planned to escape with the hostages. The authorities had refused.

    Telling Palme that she was “very disappointed” with him, Ehnmark said: “I think you are sitting there playing chequers with our lives. I fully trust Clark and the robber. I am not desperate. They haven’t done a thing to us. On the contrary, they have been very nice. But you know, Olof, what I’m scared of is that the police will attack and cause us to die.”

    American journalist Daniel Lang interviewed everyone involved in the drama a year later for the New Yorker. It paints the most extensive picture of how captors and captives interacted.

    The hostages spoke of being well treated by Olsson, and at the time it appeared that they believed they owed their lives to the criminal pair, he wrote.

    On one occasion a claustrophobic Elisabeth Oldgren was allowed to leave the vault that had become their prison but only with a rope fixed around her neck.

    She said that at the time she thought it was “very kind” of Olsson to allow her to move around the floor of the bank.

    Safstrom said he even felt gratitude when Olsson told him he was planning to shoot him – to show the police understood he meant business – but added he would make sure he didn’t kill him and would let him get drunk first.

    “When he treated us well, we could think of him as an emergency God,” he went on to say.

    Stockholm Syndrome is typically applied to explain the ambivalent feelings of the captives, but the feelings of the captors change too.

    Police officers wearing gas masks escort Jan-Erik Olsson from the bank

    Olsson remarked at the beginning of the siege he could have “easily” killed the hostages but that had changed over the days.

    “I learned that the psychiatrists I interviewed had left out something: victims might identify with aggressors as the doctors claimed, but things weren’t all one way,” wrote Lang.

    “Olsson spoke harshly. ‘It was the hostages’ fault,’ he said. ‘They did everything I told them to do. If they hadn’t, I might not be here now. Why didn’t any of them attack me? They made it hard to kill. They made us go on living together day after day, like goats, in that filth. There was nothing to do but get to know each other.'”

    The notion that perpetrators can display positive feelings toward captives is a key element of Stockholm Syndrome that crisis negotiators are encouraged to develop, according to an article in the 2007 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin. It can improve the chances of hostage survival, it explained.

    But while Stockholm syndrome has long been featured on police hostage negotiating courses, it is rarely encountered, says Hugh McGowan, who spent 35 years with the New York Police Department.

    McGowan was commanding officer and chief negotiator of the Hostage Negotiation Team, which was set up in April 1973 in the wake of a number of hostage incidents that took place in 1972 – the bank heist that inspired the film Dog Day Afternoon, an uprising that came to a violent end at Attica prison in New York and the massacre at the Munich Olympics.

    “I would be hard pressed to say that it exists,” he says. “Sometimes in the field of psychology people are looking for cause and effect when it isn’t there.

    “Stockholm was a unique situation. It occurred at around the time when we were starting to see more hostage situations and maybe people didn’t want to take away something that we might see again.”

    He acknowledges that the term gained currency partly because of the bringing together of the fields of psychology and policing in the field of hostage negotiating.

    There are no widely accepted diagnostic criteria to identify the syndrome, which is also known as terror-bonding or trauma bonding and it is not in either of the two main psychiatric manuals, The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders and the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD).

    But the underlying principles of how it works can be related to different situations, say some psychologists.

    “A classic example is domestic violence, when someone – typically a woman – has a sense of dependency on her partner and stays with him,” says psychologist Jennifer Wild, a consultant clinical psychologist at the University of Oxford.

    “She might feel empathy rather than anger. Child abuse is another one – when parents emotionally or physically abuse their children, but the child is protective towards them and either doesn’t speak about it or lies about it.”

    Forty years on and the term is evoked nearly every time an abductee is found after many years out of public sight. Some argue that its very nature implies a criticism of the survivor – a weakness perhaps.

    In a 2010 interview with the Guardian, Kampusch rejected the label of Stockholm Syndrome, explaining that it doesn’t take into account the rational choices people make in particular situations.

    “I find it very natural that you would adapt yourself to identify with your kidnapper,” she says. “Especially if you spend a great deal of time with that person. It’s about empathy, communication. Looking for normality within the framework of a crime is not a syndrome. It is a survival strategy.”


    Patricia “Patty” Hearst

    * 19-year-old American newspaper heiress Patty Hearst was kidnapped and held hostage by little-known group the Symbionese Liberation Army (SLA) in 1974
    * She was apparently brainwashed into accepting their ideas
    * In April 1974 she was caught on CCTV helping the group to rob a bank
    * She went on the run, but was caught by the FBI
    * Hearst was sentenced to seven years in prison, but was released after three years
    * She was pardoned in January 2001 by President Bill Clinton

    1974: Newspaper heiress kidnapped

    http://www.bbc.com/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/february/5/newsid_2867000/2867727.stm


    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stockholm_syndrome

    Stockholm syndrome
    11 March 2014 at 05:43

    Stockholm syndrome, or capture-bonding, is a psychological phenomenon in which hostages express empathy and sympathy and have positive feelings toward their captors, sometimes to the point of defending and identifying with them. These feelings are generally considered irrational in light of the danger or risk endured by the victims, who essentially mistake a lack of abuse from their captors for an act of kindness. The FBI’s Hostage Barricade Database System shows that roughly 8% of victims show evidence of Stockholm syndrome.

    Stockholm syndrome can be seen as a form of traumatic bonding, which does not necessarily require a hostage scenario, but which describes “strong emotional ties that develop between two persons where one person intermittently harasses, beats, threatens, abuses, or intimidates the other.” One commonly used hypothesis to explain the effect of Stockholm syndrome is based on Freudian theory. It suggests that the bonding is the individual’s response to trauma in becoming a victim. Identifying with the aggressor is one way that the ego defends itself. When a victim believes the same values as the aggressor, they cease to be a threat.

    Battered-person syndrome is an example of activating the capture-bonding psychological mechanism, as are military basic training and fraternity bonding by hazing.[dubious - discuss].

    Stockholm syndrome is sometimes erroneously referred to as Helsinki syndrome. Helsinki syndrome is more of a case of group think and inattentional blindness to the negative in order to achieve some perceived benefit, a reference to the non-binding Helsinki Accords that attempted to settle post WWII Cold War tensions.

    History

    Stockholm syndrome is named after the Norrmalmstorg robbery of Kreditbanken at Norrmalmstorg in Stockholm, Sweden, in which several bank employees were held hostage in a bank vault from August 23 to 28, 1973, while their captors negotiated with police. During this standoff, the victims became emotionally attached to their captors, rejected assistance from government officials at one point, and even defended their captors after they were freed from their six-day ordeal. The term was coined by the criminologist and psychiatrist Nils Bejerot as “Norrmalmstorgssyndromet” (Swedish) but it became known as “Stockholm Syndrome” abroad. It was originally defined by psychiatrist Frank Ochberg to aid the management of hostage situations.

    Evolutionary explanations

    In the view of evolutionary psychology, “the mind is a set of information-processing machines that were designed by natural selection to solve adaptive problems faced by our hunter-gatherer ancestors.”

    One of the “adaptive problems faced by our hunter-gatherer ancestors”, particularly females, was being abducted by another band. Life in the human “environment of evolutionary adaptiveness” (EEA) is thought by researchers such as Israeli military historian Azar Gat to be similar to that of the few remaining hunter-gatherer societies. “Deadly violence is also regularly activated in competition over women. . . . Abduction of women, rape, … are widespread direct causes of reproductive conflict …” Being captured and having their dependent children killed might have been fairly common. Women who resisted capture in such situations risked being killed.

    Azar Gat argues that war and abductions (capture) were typical of human pre-history. When selection is intense and persistent, adaptive traits (such as capture-bonding) become universal to the population or species.

    Partial activation of the capture-bonding psychological trait may lie behind battered-wife syndrome, military basic training, fraternity hazing, and sex practices such as sadism/masochism or bondage/discipline.[6] Being captured by neighbouring tribes was a relatively common event for women in human history, if anything like the recent history of the few remaining primitive tribes. In some of those tribes (Yanomamo, for instance) practically everyone in the tribe is descended from a captive within the last three generations. Perhaps as high as one in ten of females were abducted and incorporated into the tribe that captured them.

    In economics

    In June 2012, at the 9th International Conference on Developments in Economic Theory and Policy, in Bilbao, organised by the Department of Applied Economics of the Spanish University of the Basque Country and the British Cambridge Centre for Economic and Public Policy, Department of Land Economy of the University of Cambridge, the concept of Stockholm syndrome was introduced in economics referring to governments that have been “kidnapped” by financial capital because of their need to refinance public debt. They are coerced into accepting high interest rates and conditions that compromise their sovereignty.

    Lima syndrome

    A converse of Stockholm syndrome called Lima syndrome has been proposed, in which abductors develop sympathy for their hostages. It was named after an abduction at the Japanese Embassy in Lima, Peru, in 1996, when members of a militant movement took hostage hundreds of people attending a party at the official residence of Japan’s ambassador. Within a few hours, the abductors had set free most of the hostages, including the most valuable ones, owing to sympathy.

    Oslo syndrome

    A corollary of the Stockholm syndrome, was proposed by Kenneth Levin in his 2005 book The Oslo Syndrome: Delusions of a People Under Siege in which he argued that the syndrome can afflict an entire people.


    http://www.rainn.org/get-information/effects-of-sexual-assault/stockholm-syndrome

    Stockholm Syndrome

    Described as a victim’s emotional “bonding” with their abuser, Stockholm Syndrome was given its name following a hostage situation in Stockholm, Sweden when, following the end of a bank robbery, the hostages identified with and supported their captor.

    Dr. Joseph Carver, a clinical psychologist, describes emotionally bonding with an abuser as a survival strategy for victims of abuse and intimidation. For example, a victim who was abducted and raped may, years later, describe the captor as a “great person” with whom he/she formed an emotional bond, may be showing characteristics of a victim suffering from Stockholm Syndrome.1

    It is important to remember that Stockholm Syndrome develops subconsciously and on an involuntary basis. The strategy is a survival instinct that develops as an attempt to survive in a threatening and controlling environment.

    The Components and Progression of Stockholm Syndrome

    Following are the components of Stockholm Syndrome as they relate to abusive and controlling relationships. Common symptoms include:1
    * Victim having positive feelings toward the abuser
    * Victim having negative feelings toward family, friends, or authorities
    * Abuser having positive feelings toward the victim
    * Victim supporting or helping the abuser

    Following are several stages in the progression of Stockholm Syndrome:1
    * The victim dissociates from his or her pain, helplessness or terror by subconsciously beginning to see the situation / world from the abuser’s perspective. The victim begins to agree with the abuser and certain aspects of his or her own personality, opinions, and views will fade into the background.
    * By doing this, the victim begins to learn how to appease and please the abuser, which may keep him or her from being hurt or worse. Similarly this tactic can be used to manipulate the abuser into being less dangerous, at least for a little while.
    * After a while the victim begins to realize that his or her abuser portrays the same human characteristics as anyone else. At this point he or she will begin to see the abuser as less of a threat. Some abusers may even share personal information in an effort to bond with the victim and to promote pity rather than anger.
    * This bonding, in turn, leads to conflicting feelings (e.g., rage and pity) and illogical concern for the abuser. The victim may even ignore his or her own needs.
    * Once the traumatic event has ended, however, the victim must again learn not to dissociate from his or her emotions and not focus on the abuser. This can be a very difficult transition.

    Four situations or conditions are present that serve as a foundation for the development of Stockholm Syndrome:1
    1. Perceived or real threat to one’s physical or psychological survival and belief that the abuser will carry out the threat. The abuser may:
    * Assure the victim that only cooperation keeps loved ones safe.
    * Offer subtle threats or stories of revenge to remind the victim that revenge is possible if they leave.
    * Have a history of violence leading the victim to believe they could be a target.
    2. Presence of a small kindness from the abuser to the victim
    * In some cases, small gestures such as allowing a bathroom visit or providing food/water are enough to alter the victim’s perception of the abuser.
    * Other times, a birthday card, a gift (usually provided after a period of abuse), or a special treat can be seen as proof that the abuser is not “all bad.”
    3. Victim’s isolation from other perspectives
    * Victims have the sense they are always being watched. For their survival they begin to take on the abuser’s perspective. This survival technique can become so intense that the victim develops anger toward those trying to help.
    * In severe cases of Stockholm Syndrome the victim may feel the abusive situation is their fault.
    4. Perceived or real inability to escape from the situation
    * The victim may have financial obligations, debt, or instability to the point that they cannot survive on their own.
    * The abuser may use threats including taking the children, public exposure, suicide, or a life of harassment for the victim.

    How to Help: What to do and what not to do

    While each situation is different, there are general guidelines to consider if you know or suspect that someone you love is suffering from Stockholm Syndrome:1
    * Your loved one has probably been given a choice – the “relationship” or the family. Because the victim believes that choosing the family will result in adverse consequences, the family always comes second.
    * Your loved one is being told the family is trying to ruin their wonderful “relationship.” Remember: the more you pressure the victim, the more you prove that point.
    * Your goal is to remain in contact with your loved one during the abusive “relationship.” There are many channels of communication, including phone calls, letters, cards, emails, etc. Keep contact brief and consider contacting him or her at “traditional” times such as holidays, birthdays, and special occasions.
    * Your loved one may open up communication and provide subtle hints about his or her “relationship” with the abuser. If so, listen and let them know that you are behind any decision they need to make. Remember: he or she may be exploring what support is available but may not be ready to ask for help just yet.

    Endnotes
    1. Love and Stockholm Syndrome: The Mystery of Loving an Abuser. Counseling Resource. Dr. Joseph M Carver, PhD. January 2004. http://drjoecarver.makeswebsites.com/clients/49355/File/love_and_stockho…

    This product was supported by grant number 2009-D1-BX-KO23 awarded by the Office for Victims of Crime, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice. The opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this product are those of the contributors and do not necessarily represent the official position or policies of the U.S. Department of Justice.

    RAINN
    Rape, Abuse & Incest National Network
    The nation’s largest anti-sexual violence organization.
    One of “America’s 100 Best Charities” -Worth magazine

    2009 | 1220 L Street NW, Suite 505, Washington, DC 20005 | 202-544-1034


    http://counsellingresource.com/lib/therapy/self-help/stockholm/

    Love and Stockholm Syndrome: The Mystery of Loving an Abuser
    By Dr Joseph M Carver, PhD

    If you’re in a controlling and abusive relationship, you may recognize several of the characteristics described in this article by Consulting Clinical Psychologist Dr Joseph M. Carver, PhD. Beginning with a description of how bonds form between victim and abuser, the article continues with observations about cognitive dissonance and offers suggestions for friends and family of victims.

    Introduction

    People are often amazed at their own psychological conditions and reactions. Those with depression are stunned when they remember they’ve thought of killing themselves. Patients recovering from severe psychiatric disturbances are often shocked as they remember their symptoms and behavior during the episode. A patient with Bipolar Disorder recently told me “I can’t believe I thought I could change the weather through mental telepathy!” A common reaction is “I can’t believe I did that!”

    In clinical practice, some of the most surprised and shocked individuals are those who have been involved in controlling and abusive relationships. When the relationship ends, they offer comments such as “I know what he’s done to me, but I still love him”, “I don’t know why, but I want him back”, or “I know it sounds crazy, but I miss her”. Recently I’ve heard “This doesn’t make sense. He’s got a new girlfriend and he’s abusing her too…but I’m jealous!” Friends and relatives are even more amazed and shocked when they hear these comments or witness their loved one returning to an abusive relationship. While the situation doesn’t make sense from a social standpoint, does it make sense from a psychological viewpoint? The answer is – Yes!

    On August 23rd, 1973 two machine-gun carrying criminals entered a bank in Stockholm, Sweden. Blasting their guns, one prison escapee named Jan-Erik Olsson announced to the terrified bank employees “The party has just begun!” The two bank robbers held four hostages, three women and one man, for the next 131 hours. The hostages were strapped with dynamite and held in a bank vault until finally rescued on August 28th.

    After their rescue, the hostages exhibited a shocking attitude considering they were threatened, abused, and feared for their lives for over five days. In their media interviews, it was clear that they supported their captors and actually feared law enforcement personnel who came to their rescue. The hostages had begun to feel the captors were actually protecting them from the police. One woman later became engaged to one of the criminals and another developed a legal defense fund to aid in their criminal defense fees. Clearly, the hostages had “bonded” emotionally with their captors.

    While the psychological condition in hostage situations became known as “Stockholm Syndrome” due to the publicity, the emotional “bonding” with captors was a familiar story in psychology. It had been recognized many years before and was found in studies of other hostage, prisoner, or abusive situations such as:
    * Abused Children
    * Battered/Abused Women
    * Prisoners of War
    * Cult Members
    * Incest Victims
    * Criminal Hostage Situations
    * Concentration Camp Prisoners
    * Controlling/Intimidating Relationships

    In the final analysis, emotionally bonding with an abuser is actually a strategy for survival for victims of abuse and intimidation. The “Stockholm Syndrome” reaction in hostage and/or abuse situations is so well recognized at this time that police hostage negotiators no longer view it as unusual. In fact, it is often encouraged in crime situations as it improves the chances for survival of the hostages. On the down side, it also assures that the hostages experiencing “Stockholm Syndrome” will not be very cooperative during rescue or criminal prosecution. Local law enforcement personnel have long recognized this syndrome with battered women who fail to press charges, bail their battering husband/boyfriend out of jail, and even physically attack police officers when they arrive to rescue them from a violent assault.

    Stockholm Syndrome (SS) can also be found in family, romantic, and interpersonal relationships. The abuser may be a husband or wife, boyfriend or girlfriend, father or mother, or any other role in which the abuser is in a position of control or authority.

    It’s important to understand the components of Stockholm Syndrome as they relate to abusive and controlling relationships. Once the syndrome is understood, it’s easier to understand why victims support, love, and even defend their abusers and controllers.

    Every syndrome has symptoms or behaviors, and Stockholm Syndrome is no exception. While a clear-cut list has not been established due to varying opinions by researchers and experts, several of these features will be present:
    * Positive feelings by the victim toward the abuser/controller
    * Negative feelings by the victim toward family, friends, or authorities trying to rescue/support them or win their release
    * Support of the abuser’s reasons and behaviors
    * Positive feelings by the abuser toward the victim
    * Supportive behaviors by the victim, at times helping the abuser
    * Inability to engage in behaviors that may assist in their release or detachment

    Stockholm Syndrome doesn’t occur in every hostage or abusive situation. In another bank robbery involving hostages, after terrorizing patrons and employees for many hours, a police sharpshooter shot and wounded the terrorizing bank robber. After he hit the floor, two women picked him up and physically held him up to the window for another shot. As you can see, the length of time one is exposed to abuse/control and other factors are certainly involved.

    It has been found that four situations or conditions are present that serve as a foundation for the development of Stockholm Syndrome. These four situations can be found in hostage, severe abuse, and abusive relationships:
    * The presence of a perceived threat to one’s physical or psychological survival and the belief that the abuser would carry out the threat.
    * The presence of a perceived small kindness from the abuser to the victim
    * Isolation from perspectives other than those of the abuser
    * The perceived inability to escape the situation

    By considering each situation we can understand how Stockholm Syndrome develops in romantic relationships as well as criminal/hostage situations. Looking at each situation:


    If you’re in a controlling and abusive relationship, you may recognize several of the characteristics described in this article by Consulting Clinical Psychologist Dr Joseph M. Carver, PhD. Beginning with a description of how bonds form between victim and abuser, the article continues with observations about cognitive dissonance and offers suggestions for friends and family of victims.

    Perceived Threat to One’s Physical/Psychological Survival

    The perception of threat can be formed by direct, indirect, or witnessed methods. Criminal or antisocial partners can directly threaten your life or the life of friends and family. Their history of violence leads us to believe that the captor/controller will carry out the threat in a direct manner if we fail to comply with their demands. The abuser assures us that only our cooperation keeps our loved ones safe.

    Indirectly, the abuser/controller offers subtle threats that you will never leave them or have another partner, reminding you that people in the past have paid dearly for not following their wishes. Hints are often offered such as “I know people who can make others disappear”. Indirect threats also come from the stories told by the abuser or controller – how they obtained revenge on those who have crossed them in the past. These stories of revenge are told to remind the victim that revenge is possible if they leave.

    Witnessing violence or aggression is also a perceived threat. Witnessing a violent temper directed at a television set, others on the highway, or a third party clearly sends us the message that we could be the next target for violence. Witnessing the thoughts and attitudes of the abuser/controller is threatening and intimidating, knowing that we will be the target of those thoughts in the future.

    The “Small Kindness” Perception

    In threatening and survival situations, we look for evidence of hope – a small sign that the situation may improve. When an abuser/controller shows the victim some small kindness, even though it is to the abuser’s benefit as well, the victim interprets that small kindness as a positive trait of the captor. In criminal/war hostage situations, letting the victim live is often enough. Small behaviors, such as allowing a bathroom visit or providing food/water, are enough to strengthen the Stockholm Syndrome in criminal hostage events.

    In relationships with abusers, a birthday card, a gift (usually provided after a period of abuse), or a special treat are interpreted as not only positive, but evidence that the abuser is not “all bad” and may at some time correct his/her behavior. Abusers and controllers are often given positive credit for not abusing their partner, when the partner would have normally been subjected to verbal or physical abuse in a certain situation. An aggressive and jealous partner may normally become intimidating or abusive in certain social situations, as when an opposite-sex coworker waves in a crowd. After seeing the wave, the victim expects to be verbally battered and when it doesn’t happen, that “small kindness” is interpreted as a positive sign.

    Similar to the small kindness perception is the perception of a “soft side”. During the relationship, the abuser/controller may share information about their past – how they were mistreated, abused, neglected, or wronged. The victim begins to feel the abuser/controller may be capable of fixing their behavior or worse yet, that they (abuser) may also be a “victim”. Sympathy may develop toward the abuser and we often hear the victim of Stockholm Syndrome defending their abuser with “I know he fractured my jaw and ribs…but he’s troubled. He had a rough childhood!” Losers and abusers may admit they need psychiatric help or acknowledge they are mentally disturbed; however, it’s almost always after they have already abused or intimidated the victim. The admission is a way of denying responsibility for the abuse. In truth, personality disorders and criminals have learned over the years that personal responsibility for their violent/abusive behaviors can be minimized and even denied by blaming their bad upbringing, abuse as a child, and now even video games. One murderer blamed his crime on eating too much junk food – now known as the “Twinkie Defense”. While it may be true that the abuser/controller had a difficult upbringing, showing sympathy for his/her history produces no change in their behavior and in fact, prolongs the length of time you will be abused. While “sad stories” are always included in their apologies – after the abusive/controlling event – their behavior never changes! Keep in mind: once you become hardened to the “sad stories”, they will simply try another approach. I know of no victim of abuse or crime who has heard their abuser say “I’m beating (robbing, mugging, etc.) you because my Mom hated me!”

    Isolation from Perspectives Other than those of the Captor

    In abusive and controlling relationships, the victim has the sense they are always “walking on eggshells” – fearful of saying or doing anything that might prompt a violent/intimidating outburst. For their survival, they begin to see the world through the abuser’s perspective. They begin to fix things that might prompt an outburst, act in ways they know makes the abuser happy, or avoid aspects of their own life that may prompt a problem. If we only have a dollar in our pocket, then most of our decisions become financial decisions. If our partner is an abuser or controller, then the majority of our decisions are based on our perception of the abuser’s potential reaction. We become preoccupied with the needs, desires, and habits of the abuser/controller.

    Taking the abuser’s perspective as a survival technique can become so intense that the victim actually develops anger toward those trying to help them. The abuser is already angry and resentful toward anyone who would provide the victim support, typically using multiple methods and manipulations to isolate the victim from others. Any contact the victim has with supportive people in the community is met with accusations, threats, and/or violent outbursts. Victims then turn on their family – fearing family contact will cause additional violence and abuse in the home. At this point, victims curse their parents and friends, tell them not to call and to stop interfering, and break off communication with others. Agreeing with the abuser/controller, supportive others are now viewed as “causing trouble” and must be avoided. Many victims threaten their family and friends with restraining orders if they continue to “interfere” or try to help the victim in their situation. On the surface it would appear that they have sided with the abuser/controller. In truth, they are trying to minimize contact with situations that might make them a target of additional verbal abuse or intimidation. If a casual phone call from Mom prompts a two-hour temper outburst with threats and accusations – the victim quickly realizes it’s safer if Mom stops calling. If simply telling Mom to stop calling doesn’t work, for his or her own safety the victim may accuse Mom of attempting to ruin the relationship and demand that she stop calling.

    In severe cases of Stockholm Syndrome in relationships, the victim may have difficulty leaving the abuser and may actually feel the abusive situation is their fault. In law enforcement situations, the victim may actually feel the arrest of their partner for physical abuse or battering is their fault. Some women will allow their children to be removed by child protective agencies rather than give up the relationship with their abuser. As they take the perspective of the abuser, the children are at fault – they complained about the situation, they brought the attention of authorities to the home, and they put the adult relationship at risk. Sadly, the children have now become a danger to the victim’s safety. For those with Stockholm Syndrome, allowing the children to be removed from the home decreases their victim stress while providing an emotionally and physically safer environment for the children.

    Perceived Inability to Escape

    As a hostage in a bank robbery, threatened by criminals with guns, it’s easy to understand the perceived inability to escape. In romantic relationships, the belief that one can’t escape is also very common. Many abusive/controlling relationships feel like till-death-do-us-part relationships – locked together by mutual financial issues/assets, mutual intimate knowledge, or legal situations. Here are some common situations:

    * Controlling partners have increased the financial obligations/debt in the relationship to the point that neither partner can financially survive on their own. Controllers who sense their partner may be leaving will often purchase a new automobile, later claiming they can’t pay alimony or child support due to their large car payments.

    * The legal ending of a relationship, especially a marital relationship, often creates significant problems. A Controller who has an income that is “under the table” or maintained through legally questionable situations runs the risk of those sources of income being investigated or made public by the divorce/separation. The Controller then becomes more agitated about the possible public exposure of their business arrangements than the loss of the relationship.

    * The Controller often uses extreme threats including threatening to take the children out of state, threatening to quit their job/business rather than pay alimony/support, threatening public exposure of the victim’s personal issues, or assuring the victim they will never have a peaceful life due to nonstop harassment. In severe cases, the Controller may threaten an action that will undercut the victim’s support such as “I’ll see that you lose your job” or “I’ll have your automobile burned”.

    * Controllers often keep the victim locked into the relationship with severe guilt – threatening suicide if the victim leaves. The victim hears “I’ll kill myself in front of the children”, “I’ll set myself on fire in the front yard”, or “Our children won’t have a father/mother if you leave me!”

    * In relationships with an abuser or controller, the victim has also experienced a loss of self-esteem, self-confidence, and psychological energy. The victim may feel “burned out” and too depressed to leave. Additionally, abusers and controllers often create a type of dependency by controlling the finances, placing automobiles/homes in their name, and eliminating any assets or resources the victim may use to leave. In clinical practice I’ve heard “I’d leave but I can’t even get money out of the savings account! I don’t know the PIN number.”

    * In teens and young adults, victims may be attracted to a controlling individual when they feel inexperienced, insecure, and overwhelmed by a change in their life situation. When parents are going through a divorce, a teen may attach to a controlling individual, feeling the controller may stabilize their life. Freshmen in college may be attracted to controlling individuals who promise to help them survive living away from home on a college campus.

    In unhealthy relationships and definitely in Stockholm Syndrome there is a daily preoccupation with “trouble”. Trouble is any individual, group, situation, comment, casual glance, or cold meal that may produce a temper tantrum or verbal abuse from the controller or abuser. To survive, “trouble” is to be avoided at all costs. The victim must control situations that produce trouble. That may include avoiding family, friends, co-workers, and anyone who may create “trouble” in the abusive relationship. The victim does not hate family and friends; they are only avoiding “trouble”! The victim also cleans the house, calms the children, scans the mail, avoids certain topics, and anticipates every issue of the controller or abuse in an effort to avoid “trouble”. In this situation, children who are noisy become “trouble”. Loved ones and friends are sources of “trouble” for the victim who is attempting to avoid verbal or physical aggression.

    Stockholm Syndrome in relationships is not uncommon. Law enforcement professionals are painfully aware of the situation – making a domestic dispute one of the high-risk calls during work hours. Called by neighbors during a spousal abuse incident, the abuser is passive upon arrival of the police, only to find the abused spouse upset and threatening the officers if their abusive partner is arrested for domestic violence. In truth, the victim knows the abuser/controller will retaliate against him/her if 1) they encourage an arrest, 2) they offer statements about the abuse/fight that are deemed disloyal by the abuser, 3) they don’t bail them out of jail as quickly as possible, and 4) they don’t personally apologize for the situation – as though it was their fault.

    Stockholm Syndrome produces an unhealthy bond with the controller and abuser. It is the reason many victims continue to support an abuser after the relationship is over. It’s also the reason they continue to see “the good side” of an abusive individual and appear sympathetic to someone who has mentally and sometimes physically abused them.


    If you’re in a controlling and abusive relationship, you may recognize several of the characteristics described in this article by Consulting Clinical Psychologist Dr Joseph M. Carver, PhD. Beginning with a description of how bonds form between victim and abuser, the article continues with observations about cognitive dissonance and offers suggestions for friends and family of victims.

    Is There Something Else Involved?

    In a short response – Yes! Throughout history, people have found themselves supporting and participating in life situations that range from abusive to bizarre. In talking to these active and willing participants in bad and bizarre situations, it is clear they have developed feelings and attitudes that support their participation. One way these feelings and thoughts are developed is known as “cognitive dissonance”. As you can tell, psychologists have large words and phrases for just about everything.

    “Cognitive Dissonance” explains how and why people change their ideas and opinions to support situations that do not appear to be healthy, positive, or normal. In the theory, an individual seeks to reduce information or opinions that make him or her uncomfortable. When we have two sets of cognitions (knowledge, opinion, feelings, input from others, etc.) that are the opposite, the situation becomes emotionally uncomfortable. Even though we might find ourselves in a foolish or difficult situation – few want to admit that fact. Instead, we attempt to reduce the dissonance – the fact that our cognitions don’t match, agree, or make sense when combined. “Cognitive Dissonance” can be reduced by adding new cognitions – adding new thoughts and attitudes. Some examples:

    * Heavy smokers know smoking causes lung cancer and multiple health risks. To continue smoking, the smoker changes his cognitions (thoughts/feelings) such as 1) “I’m smoking less than ten years ago”, 2) “I’m smoking low-tar cigarettes”, 3) “Those statistics are made up by the cancer industry conspiracy”, or 4) “Something’s got to get you anyway!” These new cognitions/attitudes allow them to keep smoking and actually begin blaming restaurants for being unfair.

    * You purchase a $40,000.00 Sport Utility Vehicle that gets 8 miles a gallon. You justify the expense and related issues with 1) “It’s great on trips” (you take one trip per year), 2) “I can use it to haul stuff” (one coffee table in 12 months), and 3) “You can carry a lot of people in it” (95% of your trips are driver-only).

    * Your husband/boyfriend becomes abusive and assaultive. You can’t leave due to the finances, children, or other factors. Through cognitive dissonance, you begin telling yourself “He only hits me open-handed” and “He’s had a lot of stress at work.”

    Leon Festinger first coined the term “Cognitive Dissonance”. He had observed a cult (1956) in which members gave up their homes, incomes, and jobs to work for the cult. This cult believed in messages from outer space that predicted the day the world would end by a flood. As cult members and firm believers, they believed they would be saved by flying saucers at the appointed time. As they gathered and waited to be taken by flying saucers at the specified time, the end-of-the-world came and went. No flood and no flying saucer! Rather than believing they were foolish after all that personal and emotional investment – they decided their beliefs had actually saved the world from the flood and they became firmer in their beliefs after the failure of the prophecy. The moral: the more you invest (income, job, home, time, effort, etc.) the stronger your need to justify your position. If we invest $5.00 in a raffle ticket, we justify losing with “I’ll get them next time”. If you invest everything you have, it requires an almost unreasoning belief and unusual attitude to support and justify that investment.

    Studies tell us we are more loyal and committed to something that is difficult, uncomfortable, and even humiliating. The initiation rituals of college fraternities, Marine boot camp, and graduate school all produce loyal and committed individuals. Almost any ordeal creates a bonding experience. Every couple, no matter how mismatched, falls in love in the movies after going through a terrorist takeover, being stalked by a killer, being stranded on an island, or being involved in an alien abduction. Investment and an ordeal are ingredients for a strong bonding – even if the bonding is unhealthy. No one bonds or falls in love by being a member of the Automobile Club or a music CD club. Struggling to survive on a deserted island – you bet!

    Abusive relationships produce a great amount on unhealthy investment in both parties. In many cases we tend to remain and support the abusive relationship due to our investment in the relationship. Try telling a new Marine that since he or she has survived boot camp, they should now enroll in the National Guard! Several types of investments keep us in the bad relationship:

    Emotional Investment
    We’ve invested so many emotions, cried so much, and worried so much that we feel we must see the relationship through to the finish.

    Social Investment
    We’ve got our pride! To avoid social embarrassment and uncomfortable social situations, we remain in the relationship.

    Family Investments
    If children are present in the relationship, decisions regarding the relationship are clouded by the status and needs of the children.

    Financial Investment
    In many cases, the controlling and abusive partner has created a complex financial situation. Many victims remain in a bad relationship, waiting for a better financial situation to develop that would make their departure and detachment easier.

    Lifestyle Investment
    Many controlling/abusive partners use money or a lifestyle as an investment. Victims in this situation may not want to lose their current lifestyle.

    Intimacy Investment
    We often invest emotional and sexual intimacy. Some victims have experienced a destruction of their emotional and/or sexual self-esteem in the unhealthy relationship. The abusing partner may threaten to spread rumors or tell intimate details or secrets. A type of blackmail using intimacy is often found in these situations.

    In many cases, it’s not simply our feelings for an individual that keep us in an unhealthy relationship – it’s often the amount of investment. Relationships are complex and we often only see the tip of the iceberg in public. For this reason, the most common phrase offered by the victim in defense of their unhealthy relationship is “You just don’t understand!”

    Combining Two Unhealthy Conditions

    The combination of “Stockholm Syndrome” and “cognitive dissonance” produces a victim who firmly believes the relationship is not only acceptable, but also desperately needed for their survival. The victim feels they would mentally collapse if the relationship ended. In long-term relationships, the victims have invested everything and placed “all their eggs in one basket”. The relationship now decides their level of self-esteem, self-worth, and emotional health.

    For reasons described above, the victim feels family and friends are a threat to the relationship and eventually to their personal health and existence. The more family/friends protest the controlling and abusive nature of the relationship, the more the victim develops cognitive dissonance and becomes defensive. At this point, family and friends become victims of the abusive and controlling individual.

    Importantly, both Stockholm Syndrome and cognitive dissonance develop on an involuntary basis. The victim does not purposely invent this attitude. Both develop as an attempt to exist and survive in a threatening and controlling environment and relationship. Despite what we might think, our loved one is not in the unhealthy relationship to irritate us, embarrass us, or drive us to drink. What might have begun as a normal relationship has turned into a controlling and abusive situation. They are trying to survive. Their personality is developing the feelings and thoughts needed to survive the situation and lower their emotional and physical risks. All of us have developed attitudes and feelings that help us accept and survive situations. We have these attitudes/feelings about our jobs, our community, and other aspects of our life. As we have found throughout history, the more dysfunctional the situation, the more dysfunctional our adaptation and thoughts to survive. The victim is engaged in an attempt to survive and make a relationship work. Once they decide it doesn’t work and can’t be fixed, they will need our support as we patiently await their decision to return to a healthy and positive lifestyle.


    If you’re in a controlling and abusive relationship, you may recognize several of the characteristics described in this article by Consulting Clinical Psychologist Dr Joseph M. Carver, PhD. Beginning with a description of how bonds form between victim and abuser, the article continues with observations about cognitive dissonance and offers suggestions for friends and family of victims.

    Family and Friends of the Victim

    When a family is confronted with a loved one involved with a ‘Loser’ or controlling/abusive individual, the situation becomes emotionally painful and socially difficult for the family. (See “Are You Dating a Loser? Identifying Losers, Controllers and Abusers”.) While each situation is different, some general guidelines to consider are:

    * Your loved one, the “victim” of the Loser/Abuser, has probably been given a choice – the relationship or the family. This choice is made more difficult by the control and intimidation often present in abusive/controlling relationships. Knowing that choosing the family will result in severe personal and social consequences, the family always comes in second. Keep in mind that the victim knows in their heart the family will always love them and accept their return – whenever the return happens.

    * Remember, the more you pressure the “victim” of the Loser/Abuser, the more you prove their point. Your loved one is being told the family is trying to ruin their wonderful relationship. Pressure in the form of contacts, comments, and communications will be used as evidence against you. An invitation to a Tupperware party is met with “You see! They just want to get you by yourself so they can tell you bad things about me!” Increasing your contacts is viewed as “putting pressure” on their relationship – not being lovingly concerned.

    * Your contacts with your loved one, no matter how routine and loving, may be met with anger and resentment. This is because each contact may prompt the Loser/Abuser to attack them verbally or emotionally. Imagine getting a four-hour lecture every time your Aunt Gladys calls. In a short time, you become angry each time she calls, knowing what the contact will produce in your home. The longer Aunt Gladys talks – the longer your lecture becomes! Thus, when Aunt Gladys calls, you want to get her off the phone as quickly as possible.

    * The 1980?s song, “Hold on Loosely”, may be the key to a good family and friend approach. Holding on too tightly produces more pressure. When the victim is out of the home, it’s often best to establish predictable, scheduled contacts. Calling every Wednesday evening, just for a status report or to go over current events, is less threatening than random calls during the week. Random calls are always viewed as “checking up on us” calls. While you may encounter an answering machine, leave a polite and loving message. Importantly, don’t discuss the relationship (the controller may be listening!) unless the victim brings it up. The goal of these scheduled calls is to maintain contact, remind your loved one that you are always there to help, and to quietly remind the controller that family and loved ones are nearby and haven’t disappeared.

    * Try to maintain traditional and special contacts with your loved one – holidays, special occasions, etc. Keep your contacts short and brief, with no comments that can be used as evidence. Contacts made at “traditional” times – holidays, birthdays, anniversaries, etc. – are not as threatening to a controller/abuser. Contacts that provide information, but not questions, are also not as threatening. An example might be a simple card reading “Just a note to let you know that your brother landed a new job this week. You might see him on a Wal-Mart commercial any day now. Love, Mom and Dad”. This approach allows the victim to recognize that the family is there – waiting in the wings if needed. It also lessens the lectures/tantrums provided by the Loser as the contacts are on a traditional and expected basis. It’s also hard to be angry about brother’s new job without looking ridiculous. Also, don’t invent holidays or send a reminder that it’s Sigmund Freud’s birthday. That’s suspicious…even in my family.

    * Remember that there are many channels of communication. It’s important that we keep a channel open if at all possible. Communication channels might include phone calls, letters, cards, and e-mail. Scheduled monthly shopping trips or outings are helpful if possible. The goal is to maintain contact while your loved one is involved in the controlling/abusive relationship. Remember, the goal is contact, not pressure.

    * Don’t feel the victim’s behavior is against the family or friends. It may be a form of survival or a way of lowering stress. Victims may be very resistive, angry, and even hostile due to the complexity of their relationship with the controller/abuser. They may even curse, threaten, and accuse loved ones and friends. This hostile defensiveness is actually self-protection in the relationship – an attempt to avoid “trouble”.

    * The victim needs to know and feel they are not rejected because of their behavior. Keep in mind, they are painfully aware of their situation. They know they are being treated badly and/or controlled by their partner. Frequent reminders of this will only make them want less contact. We naturally avoid people who remind us of things or situations that are emotionally painful.

    * Victims may slightly open the door and provide information about their relationship or hint they may be considering leaving. When the door opens, don’t jump through with the Marines behind you! Listen and simply offer support such as “You know your family is behind any decision you need to make and at any time you make it.” They may be exploring what support is available but may not be ready to call in the troops just yet. Many victims use an “exit plan” that may take months or even years to complete. They may be gathering information at this point, not yet ready for an exit.

    * We can get messages to people in two ways – the pipeline and the grapevine. The pipeline is face-to-face, telling the person directly. This seldom happens in Loser situations as controllers and abusers monitor and control contacts with others. However, the grapevine is still open. When we use the grapevine, we send a message to our loved one through another person. Victims of controlling and abusive individuals are often allowed to maintain a relationship with a few people, perhaps a sibling or best friend. We can send our loved one a message through that contact person, a message that voices our understanding and support. We don’t send insults (“Bill is such a jerk!) or put-downs (“If he doesn’t get out of this relationship he’ll end up crazy!) – we send messages of love and support. We send “I hope she/he (victim) knows the family is concerned and that we love and support them.” Comments sent on the grapevine are phrased with the understanding that our loved one will hear them in that manner. Don’t talk with a grapevine contact to express anger and threaten to hire a hit man, and then try to send a message of loving support. Be careful what and how the message is provided. The grapevine contact can often get messages to the victim when we can’t. It’s another way of letting them know we’re supporting them, just waiting to help if and when needed.

    * Each situation is different. The family may need to seek counseling support in the community. A family consultation with a mental health professional or attorney may be helpful if the situation becomes legally complex or there is a significant danger of harm.

    * As relatives or friends of a victim involved with a controller or abuser, our normal reaction is to consider dramatic action. We become angry, resentful, and aggressive at times. Our mind fills with a variety of plans that often range from rescue and kidnapping to ambushing the controller/abuser with a ball bat. A rule of thumb is that any aggression toward the controller/abuser will result in additional difficulties for your loved one. Try to remain calm and await an opportunity to show your love and support when your loved one needs it.

    * In some cases, as in teenagers and young adults, the family may still provide some financial, insurance, or other support. When we receive angry responses to our phone calls, our anger and resentment tells us to cut off their support. I’ve heard “If she’s going to date that jerk, it’s not going to be in a car I’m paying for!” and “If he’s choosing that woman over his family, he can drop out of college and flip hamburgers!” Withdrawing financial support only makes your loved one more dependent upon the controller/abuser. Remember, if we’re aggressive by threatening, withdrawing support, or pressuring – we become the threatening force, not the controller/abuser. It actually moves the victim into the support of the controller. Sadly, the more of an “ordeal” they experience, the more bonding takes place, as noted with both Stockholm Syndrome and cognitive dissonance.

    * As you might imagine, the combination of Stockholm Syndrome and cognitive dissonance may also be active when our loved one is involved in cults, unusual religions, and other groups. In some situations, the abuser and controller is actually a group or organization. Victims are punished if they are viewed as disloyal to the group. While this article deals with individual relationships, the family guidelines may also be helpful in controlling-group situations.

    Final Thoughts

    You may be the victim of a controlling and abusive partner, seeking an understanding of your feelings and attitudes. You may have a son, daughter, or friend currently involved with a controlling and abusive partner, looking for ways to understand and help.

    If a loved one is involved with a Loser, a controlling and abusing partner, the long-term outcome is difficult to determine due to the many factors involved. If their relationship is in the “dating” phase, they may end the relationship on their own. If the relationship has continued for over a year, they may require support and an exit plan before ending the relationship. Marriage and children further complicate their ability to leave the situation. When the victim decides to end the unhappy relationship, it’s important that they view loved ones as supportive, loving, and understanding – not as a source of pressure, guilt, or aggression.

    This article is an attempt to understand the complex feelings and attitudes that are as puzzling to the victim as they are to family and friends. Separately, I’ve outlined recommendations for detaching from a Loser or controlling/abusive individual, but clearly, there are more victims in this situation. (See “Are You Dating a Loser? Identifying Losers, Controllers and Abusers”.) It is hoped this article is helpful to family and friends who worry, cry, and have difficulty understanding the situation of their loved one. It has been said that knowledge is power. Hopefully this knowledge will prove helpful and powerful to victims and their loved ones.

    Please consider this article as a general guideline. Some recommendations may be appropriate and helpful while some may not apply to a specific situation. In many cases, we may need additional professional help of a mental health or legal nature.


     
  • Virtual Chitchatting 1:09 PM on 2014/03/21 Permalink  

    Criminal Minds – Season 9, Episode 19: The Edge of Winter 

    ♪ Criminal Minds 9×19 ♪
    The Edge of Winter
    Original Air Date on March 19, 2014
    == sync, corrected by elderman ==
    @elder_man

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    1
    00:00:05,828 –> 00:00:08,130
    [Gasping, sobbing]

    2
    00:00:26,316 –> 00:00:28,550
    Oh, God!

    3
    00:00:28,552 –> 00:00:30,519
    Ohh!

    4
    00:00:31,788 –> 00:00:33,789
    [Vehicle approaching]

    5
    00:00:40,863 –> 00:00:42,531
    [Brakes screeching,
    horn blaring]

    6
    00:01:01,084 –> 00:01:03,352
    Morgan, voice-over:
    How’s she doing?

    7
    00:01:03,354 –> 00:01:05,155
    Woman: She’s was little
    agitated this morning,

    8
    00:01:05,156 –> 00:01:07,122
    but I gave her a sedative.

    9
    00:01:07,124 –> 00:01:09,425
    Does she know I’m coming?

    10
    00:01:09,427 –> 00:01:11,427
    Yes, but it’s been a year.

    11
    00:01:11,429 –> 00:01:13,362
    I’m sure she doesn’t want
    to go back over this.

    12
    00:01:13,364 –> 00:01:16,799
    [Beep, door buzzer]

    13
    00:01:16,801 –> 00:01:18,300
    How long will it take?

    14
    00:01:18,302 –> 00:01:21,170
    3, 4 hours, tops.

    15
    00:01:21,172 –> 00:01:22,805
    Because I have to
    prep her for trial.

    16
    00:01:22,807 –> 00:01:24,473
    I didn’t think
    profilers did that.

    17
    00:01:24,475 –> 00:01:26,408
    Profiling is only
    one-tenth of what we do.

    18
    00:01:26,410 –> 00:01:29,178
    We also assist the prosecution
    once we find the killers.

    19
    00:01:29,180 –> 00:01:30,245
    Agent Morgan. Hi.

    20
    00:01:30,247 –> 00:01:32,648
    Ellen. How are you?

    21
    00:01:32,650 –> 00:01:33,615
    Good.

    22
    00:01:33,617 –> 00:01:35,417
    Daria is really
    improving.

    23
    00:01:35,419 –> 00:01:37,052
    It’s amazing.
    If all goes well,

    24
    00:01:37,054 –> 00:01:39,588
    they say I can
    take her home after the trial.

    25
    00:01:39,590 –> 00:01:41,723
    Let’s just get through
    this first.

    26
    00:01:41,725 –> 00:01:43,959
    This way.

    27
    00:01:49,866 –> 00:01:51,333
    [Door opens]

    28
    00:01:51,335 –> 00:01:53,902
    Daria. You got
    a friend here.

    29
    00:01:53,904 –> 00:01:55,404
    Remember agent Morgan?

    30
    00:01:55,406 –> 00:01:56,972
    I’ll leave you two alone.

    31
    00:01:56,974 –> 00:01:58,440
    Thank you.

    32
    00:02:03,480 –> 00:02:04,713
    Hey.

    33
    00:02:04,715 –> 00:02:05,948
    How you doing?

    34
    00:02:05,950 –> 00:02:08,617
    How do you think?

    35
    00:02:08,619 –> 00:02:10,252
    I’m sure it’s been hard.

    36
    00:02:10,254 –> 00:02:13,589
    Look, can we just
    get this over with?

    37
    00:02:18,795 –> 00:02:21,430
    Today we’re going to talk about
    what your testimony will be.

    38
    00:02:21,432 –> 00:02:24,032
    And I’m going to tell you
    how our investigation has progressed

    39
    00:02:24,034 –> 00:02:26,635
    to prepare you for
    your cross-examination, all right?

    40
    00:02:26,637 –> 00:02:29,304
    All right, let’s talk
    about the weekend

    41
    00:02:29,306 –> 00:02:31,073
    that you escaped.

    42
    00:02:31,075 –> 00:02:33,809
    What do you remember?

    43
    00:02:33,811 –> 00:02:36,445
    [Exhales]

    44
    00:02:36,447 –> 00:02:39,314
    I remember Ben.

    45
    00:02:39,316 –> 00:02:40,449
    Ben.

    46
    00:02:40,451 –> 00:02:44,286
    When was the last time
    that you saw him?

    47
    00:02:44,288 –> 00:02:46,622
    I was over by the window

    48
    00:02:46,624 –> 00:02:48,991
    when they took Ben out.

    49
    00:02:52,629 –> 00:02:55,697
    So you knew that
    they were gonna hurt him.

    50
    00:02:55,699 –> 00:02:58,634
    Carrie and I waited
    by the door for Ben,

    51
    00:02:58,636 –> 00:03:01,670
    but when they came back,
    he wasn’t with them.

    52
    00:03:03,940 –> 00:03:07,109
    Do you know what
    happened to him?

    53
    00:03:07,111 –> 00:03:09,311
    Yes, I do.

    54
    00:03:16,219 –> 00:03:17,719
    Man: Straighten it out.
    Straighten it out.

    55
    00:03:17,721 –> 00:03:19,421
    Hold it steady.
    Relax your arms.

    56
    00:03:19,423 –> 00:03:20,856
    You’re holding on
    a little too tight.

    57
    00:03:20,858 –> 00:03:22,925
    You’re doing it.

    58
    00:03:22,927 –> 00:03:24,459
    Relax.

    59
    00:03:24,461 –> 00:03:25,928
    Enjoy the ride.

    60
    00:03:26,863 –> 00:03:28,764
    This is a lucky man’s work.

    61
    00:03:31,668 –> 00:03:33,435
    Dad, what the hell?

    62
    00:03:33,437 –> 00:03:36,238
    What? What–oh,
    stop, stop, stop.

    63
    00:03:36,240 –> 00:03:38,640
    Daria: I knew
    it would be bad.

    64
    00:03:38,642 –> 00:03:41,076
    Every time I think about it,
    I just want to kill myself.

    65
    00:03:41,078 –> 00:03:43,979
    I should have done
    something to stop them.

    66
    00:03:43,981 –> 00:03:46,411
    No, Daria. There’s nothing
    you could have done.

    67
    00:03:46,436 –> 00:03:48,251
    That was our job.

    68
    00:03:48,252 –> 00:03:51,920
    3 victims have been found
    in upstate New York

    69
    00:03:51,922 –> 00:03:55,057
    in a town called Hamilton
    over the past 10 days.

    70
    00:03:55,059 –> 00:03:58,126
    All of the bodies were discovered in
    a sort of public place,

    71
    00:03:58,128 –> 00:04:01,129
    the first on a dead-end street,
    the second in a desolate alley,

    72
    00:04:01,131 –> 00:04:04,733
    and this is the last one–
    in a field.

    73
    00:04:04,735 –> 00:04:07,236
    Dorothy, we’re not
    in Kansas anymore.

    74
    00:04:07,238 –> 00:04:10,639
    Although each victim was abducted
    from a neighboring city,

    75
    00:04:10,641 –> 00:04:12,574
    they all have something
    in common.

    76
    00:04:12,576 –> 00:04:13,675
    Blake: Yikes.

    77
    00:04:13,677 –> 00:04:16,378
    28 puncture wounds
    to the chest in groups of 4.

    78
    00:04:16,380 –> 00:04:18,046
    Looks like it was made
    by a 4-pronged hay fork

    79
    00:04:18,048 –> 00:04:19,815
    or some other kind
    of farming equipment.

    80
    00:04:19,817 –> 00:04:21,216
    Only the latest victim
    was displayed like that.

    81
    00:04:21,218 –> 00:04:22,818
    The first two were
    unceremoniously dumped.

    82
    00:04:22,820 –> 00:04:25,687
    The display method and the disposal
    suggests the unsub’s evolving.

    83
    00:04:25,689 –> 00:04:27,356
    He wanted them to be found.

    84
    00:04:27,358 –> 00:04:28,724
    Perhaps it’s some kind
    of warning.

    85
    00:04:28,726 –> 00:04:31,026
    It could be a deity symbol.
    In a Japanese book

    86
    00:04:31,028 –> 00:04:33,829
    from the year 712
    called “Kojiki,” the scarecrow is seen

    87
    00:04:33,831 –> 00:04:36,098
    as a symbol of someone
    who knew everything in the world.

    88
    00:04:36,100 –> 00:04:37,899
    I’m more concerned
    with the M.O.

    89
    00:04:37,901 –> 00:04:40,002
    Is this piqueristic
    or flat-out sadistic?

    90
    00:04:40,004 –> 00:04:43,405
    It could be a combo platter,
    with a side order of psycho.

    91
    00:04:43,407 –> 00:04:46,275
    His pace and determination mean
    he’s going to kill again soon.

    92
    00:04:46,277 –> 00:04:48,210
    Let’s go to New York.
    Wheels up in 30.

    93
    00:04:49,412 –> 00:04:51,980
    After they dumped Ben,
    how were they acting?

    94
    00:04:51,982 –> 00:04:53,649
    They were drinking.

    95
    00:04:53,651 –> 00:04:57,786
    They always drank
    after they got rid of a body.

    96
    00:04:57,788 –> 00:04:59,288
    [Men laughing]

    97
    00:04:59,290 –> 00:05:01,290
    How many bodies were there?

    98
    00:05:01,292 –> 00:05:02,291
    I don’t know.

    99
    00:05:02,293 –> 00:05:03,292
    [Laughter]

    100
    00:05:03,294 –> 00:05:04,426
    I stopped counting.

    101
    00:05:04,428 –> 00:05:07,162
    What did they do with
    you and Carrie after that?

    102
    00:05:07,164 –> 00:05:09,264
    They put us in the shed.

    103
    00:05:09,266 –> 00:05:12,234
    That’s when Carrie
    had the idea.

    104
    00:05:13,636 –> 00:05:15,537
    We gotta run.

    105
    00:05:16,572 –> 00:05:18,140
    Are you crazy?

    106
    00:05:18,142 –> 00:05:20,475
    They’re probably
    passed out by now.

    107
    00:05:25,815 –> 00:05:27,549
    No. They’re still up.

    108
    00:05:27,551 –> 00:05:29,418
    Then we wait until
    they go to bed.

    109
    00:05:29,420 –> 00:05:31,653
    Look…

    110
    00:05:32,822 –> 00:05:34,056
    I got this earlier.

    111
    00:05:34,058 –> 00:05:35,824
    Carrie…

    112
    00:05:35,826 –> 00:05:39,428
    As soon as I get the door open,
    we have got to make a run for it.

    113
    00:05:39,430 –> 00:05:40,924
    Daria, Joe is evil.

    114
    00:05:40,949 –> 00:05:42,790
    If we don’t do this now,
    they’re gonna kill us.

    115
    00:05:43,167 –> 00:05:44,933
    You know this.

    116
    00:05:44,935 –> 00:05:48,570
    Daria: We waited two hours,

    117
    00:05:48,572 –> 00:05:50,972
    until we thought
    it was safe.

    118
    00:06:10,660 –> 00:06:13,028
    They must have heard
    a noise.

    119
    00:06:13,030 –> 00:06:14,529
    That didn’t stop us,
    though.

    120
    00:06:14,531 –> 00:06:16,064
    We ran and ran.

    121
    00:06:16,066 –> 00:06:17,332
    Looky here.

    122
    00:06:17,334 –> 00:06:19,501
    We got runners.

    123
    00:06:19,503 –> 00:06:21,536
    Aah!

    124
    00:06:22,405 –> 00:06:23,572
    Daria!

    125
    00:06:23,574 –> 00:06:25,574
    Carrie!

    126
    00:06:26,743 –> 00:06:28,176
    Oh, no!

    127
    00:06:28,178 –> 00:06:30,545
    Aah!

    128
    00:06:30,547 –> 00:06:32,280
    No, don’t leave me!
    Don’t leave me!

    129
    00:06:32,282 –> 00:06:34,316
    I’m sorry!

    130
    00:06:34,318 –> 00:06:35,817
    Daria!

    131
    00:06:35,819 –> 00:06:36,785
    I’m sorry!

    132
    00:06:36,787 –> 00:06:38,286
    [Gunshot]

    133
    00:06:38,288 –> 00:06:42,491
    Ohh! Oh, Daria,
    don’t leave me!

    134
    00:06:45,485 –> 00:06:49,485
    ♪ Criminal Minds 9×19 ♪
    The Edge of Winter
    Original Air Date on March 19, 2014

    135
    00:06:49,489 –> 00:06:54,489
    == sync, corrected by elderman ==
    @elder_man

    136
    00:06:54,495 –> 00:07:02,495

    137
    00:07:22,762 –> 00:07:24,630
    Morgan: “No one
    is ever a victim,

    138
    00:07:24,744 –> 00:07:28,045
    “although your conquerors would have
    you believe in your own victimhood.

    139
    00:07:28,222 –> 00:07:29,989
    How else could they
    conquer you?”

    140
    00:07:30,260 –> 00:07:31,759
    Barbara Marciniak.

    141
    00:07:32,258 –> 00:07:35,092
    How far did you run?

    142
    00:07:35,094 –> 00:07:38,429
    I don’t know.
    I just kept going.

    143
    00:07:38,431 –> 00:07:41,232
    Then I got to the edge
    of the road.

    144
    00:07:42,768 –> 00:07:45,236
    Do you have a girlfriend?

    145
    00:07:47,139 –> 00:07:48,806
    Yes, I do.

    146
    00:07:49,875 –> 00:07:52,443
    I used to have a boyfriend.

    147
    00:07:53,612 –> 00:07:55,913
    I miss him.

    148
    00:07:55,915 –> 00:07:57,081
    Daria?

    149
    00:07:57,083 –> 00:07:58,516
    Hmm?

    150
    00:07:58,518 –> 00:08:01,285
    When you ran, weren’t you
    afraid they might find you?

    151
    00:08:01,287 –> 00:08:06,657
    Yeah. But I was hoping someone
    else would find me first.

    152
    00:08:06,659 –> 00:08:08,392
    Where were you?

    153
    00:08:08,394 –> 00:08:10,294
    We were on our way.

    154
    00:08:12,531 –> 00:08:15,266
    These 3 victims vary in age
    and were last seen

    155
    00:08:15,268 –> 00:08:17,501
    in various public locations
    on different days.

    156
    00:08:17,503 –> 00:08:19,870
    Our unsub clearly employs
    an abduction method that works

    157
    00:08:19,872 –> 00:08:21,205
    with both men and women.

    158
    00:08:21,207 –> 00:08:22,873
    The female victims had
    signs of sexual assault

    159
    00:08:22,875 –> 00:08:25,876
    while the male did not.
    That means the rapes are situational.

    160
    00:08:25,878 –> 00:08:27,645
    He also knew where
    to stab the victims

    161
    00:08:27,647 –> 00:08:29,146
    without killing them right away.

    162
    00:08:29,148 –> 00:08:30,781
    Piquerism is usually
    sexual in nature,

    163
    00:08:30,783 –> 00:08:33,284
    and it’s not often found
    in mixed gender victimology.

    164
    00:08:33,286 –> 00:08:35,252
    He’s probably a sadist who’s
    getting immense pleasure

    165
    00:08:35,254 –> 00:08:36,620
    from his victims’
    suffering.

    166
    00:08:36,622 –> 00:08:39,156
    Guys, I just found out
    that the second victim,

    167
    00:08:39,158 –> 00:08:41,358
    Chloe Reynolds,
    she’s Muslim.

    168
    00:08:41,360 –> 00:08:43,360
    The first victim, Marlene,
    is black.

    169
    00:08:43,362 –> 00:08:46,397
    Maybe the most recent
    killing is a hate crime

    170
    00:08:46,399 –> 00:08:47,731
    similar to Matthew Shepard.

    171
    00:08:47,733 –> 00:08:49,600
    Garcia, do we know Ben’s
    sexual orientation?

    172
    00:08:49,602 –> 00:08:51,535
    I’ll start digging.

    173
    00:08:51,537 –> 00:08:54,638
    So after you escaped and started running,
    what were you thinking?

    174
    00:08:54,640 –> 00:08:57,274
    I wanted to go back
    for Carrie.

    175
    00:08:57,276 –> 00:08:58,843
    I couldn’t do that.

    176
    00:08:58,845 –> 00:09:02,379
    Why not? What did you
    think was happening?

    177
    00:09:02,381 –> 00:09:04,849
    I knew she’d be punished
    for what we did.

    178
    00:09:04,851 –> 00:09:06,217
    You were gonna run?! Huh?
    Please!

    179
    00:09:06,219 –> 00:09:09,053
    Daria: He’d blame her
    for the escape.

    180
    00:09:13,225 –> 00:09:15,292
    [Door opens]

    181
    00:09:15,294 –> 00:09:18,729
    [Sobbing]

    182
    00:09:20,165 –> 00:09:22,566
    Please…

    183
    00:09:22,568 –> 00:09:25,536
    I–I told her not to.

    184
    00:09:25,538 –> 00:09:27,238
    Aah!
    No you didn’t.

    185
    00:09:27,240 –> 00:09:28,739
    This was your idea.
    No, it wasn’t.

    186
    00:09:28,741 –> 00:09:30,040
    All your idea!

    187
    00:09:30,042 –> 00:09:32,476
    Morgan: When Joe got mad,
    was he always out of control?

    188
    00:09:32,478 –> 00:09:35,512
    What did he do to you?
    I need the details, Daria.

    189
    00:09:35,514 –> 00:09:39,817
    He’d punch us so hard,
    we couldn’t see for a week.

    190
    00:09:39,819 –> 00:09:43,721
    He’d tie us to the radiator.

    191
    00:09:43,723 –> 00:09:46,924
    God, I hated that radiator.

    192
    00:09:46,926 –> 00:09:48,859
    Help me! Help me!

    193
    00:09:48,861 –> 00:09:51,428
    So you knew there was no way
    you could go back to help Carrie.

    194
    00:09:51,430 –> 00:09:52,730
    How could I?

    195
    00:09:52,732 –> 00:09:54,698
    You saw what they did to Ben.

    196
    00:09:54,700 –> 00:09:57,801
    They would have done that to me.

    197
    00:10:05,076 –> 00:10:07,745
    So this is where
    Ben was hung.

    198
    00:10:07,747 –> 00:10:09,413
    I don’t see any blood.

    199
    00:10:09,415 –> 00:10:11,015
    Crime scene’s incredibly neat.

    200
    00:10:11,017 –> 00:10:13,284
    The scarecrow looks like
    it was gently placed.

    201
    00:10:13,286 –> 00:10:15,119
    It’s quite a distance
    from the road, too.

    202
    00:10:15,121 –> 00:10:18,122
    There aren’t any tire tracks
    to suggest he drove a vehicle out here.

    203
    00:10:18,124 –> 00:10:19,790
    How much do you think
    Ben weighed?

    204
    00:10:19,792 –> 00:10:21,125
    A buck 75, maybe.

    205
    00:10:21,127 –> 00:10:23,661
    Ok, so, our unsub
    parks his vehicle,

    206
    00:10:23,663 –> 00:10:26,764
    carries a mutilated guy
    who’s practically dead weight

    207
    00:10:26,766 –> 00:10:29,767
    through a field, strings him up
    like a scarecrow,

    208
    00:10:29,769 –> 00:10:30,901
    alone, and no one
    sees anything.

    209
    00:10:30,903 –> 00:10:32,136
    I’m not buying.

    210
    00:10:32,138 –> 00:10:33,304
    You think he had help.

    211
    00:10:33,306 –> 00:10:34,672
    He couldn’t have
    done it alone.

    212
    00:10:34,674 –> 00:10:36,674
    He must’ve had a partner.

    213
    00:10:47,285 –> 00:10:50,421
    Hey there, Joe, you got
    everything you need?

    214
    00:10:50,423 –> 00:10:51,922
    Could be snow, ice.

    215
    00:10:51,924 –> 00:10:55,326
    I got ropes, chains, ammonia to clean up,
    and ice picks.

    216
    00:10:55,328 –> 00:10:57,695
    You and your ice picks.
    You sure you don’t want me to come?

    217
    00:10:57,697 –> 00:11:00,431
    You always take care
    of this stuff. I got this one.

    218
    00:11:00,433 –> 00:11:04,068
    You need me, I’ll meet you
    up there in a couple days.

    219
    00:11:11,509 –> 00:11:14,144
    You’re going on a road trip,
    Carrie.

    220
    00:11:16,948 –> 00:11:19,750
    Rossi: Were the markings
    similar on everyone?

    221
    00:11:19,752 –> 00:11:23,320
    2-millimeter holes,
    almost 1.27 centimeters apart.

    222
    00:11:23,322 –> 00:11:25,422
    There are microscopic
    differences

    223
    00:11:25,424 –> 00:11:27,658
    in the distances
    between the wounds.

    224
    00:11:27,660 –> 00:11:30,527
    This one’s
    one millimeter shorter.

    225
    00:11:34,966 –> 00:11:37,334
    This is not the work
    of a hay fork or a farming implement.

    226
    00:11:37,336 –> 00:11:39,036
    The holes are too small.

    227
    00:11:39,038 –> 00:11:40,771
    I think it’s most likely
    an ice pick.

    228
    00:11:40,773 –> 00:11:43,741
    So the killers carefully jab the ice pick
    into the skin to set the pattern.

    229
    00:11:43,743 –> 00:11:45,576
    Exactly. Then they
    replicated it on the other victims.

    230
    00:11:45,578 –> 00:11:49,313
    The unsubs would have had to
    stand over the body during the torture.

    231
    00:11:49,315 –> 00:11:51,015
    It’s actually quite masterful.

    232
    00:11:51,017 –> 00:11:53,617
    Whoever did this
    was extremely controlled.

    233
    00:11:53,619 –> 00:11:55,152
    Add that to the neatness
    of the crime scene

    234
    00:11:55,154 –> 00:11:56,653
    and I think we’re looking for
    someone with OCD.

    235
    00:11:56,655 –> 00:11:58,322
    The precision is astounding.

    236
    00:11:58,324 –> 00:11:59,823
    You guys were right.

    237
    00:11:59,825 –> 00:12:01,458
    Joe was messy.

    238
    00:12:01,460 –> 00:12:04,395
    He made his friend
    keep things neat.

    239
    00:12:04,397 –> 00:12:07,431
    Can you give me
    an example?

    240
    00:12:07,433 –> 00:12:10,434
    The table was always scrubbed.

    241
    00:12:12,237 –> 00:12:15,172
    The ice picks
    were scrubbed, too.

    242
    00:12:16,908 –> 00:12:21,011
    Every drop of blood
    was cleaned from the floor.

    243
    00:12:21,013 –> 00:12:24,081
    Every day they would tell us
    how they would kill us.

    244
    00:12:24,083 –> 00:12:25,282
    …chop his head off.

    245
    00:12:25,284 –> 00:12:28,619
    They had sick minds.

    246
    00:12:28,621 –> 00:12:30,254
    No.

    247
    00:12:30,256 –> 00:12:32,289
    We could try.

    248
    00:12:32,291 –> 00:12:36,627
    We could. Slice ‘em up,
    scatter them around town.

    249
    00:12:36,629 –> 00:12:39,430
    No.

    250
    00:12:39,432 –> 00:12:41,231
    I want to do
    something freaky.

    251
    00:12:41,233 –> 00:12:42,633
    You know?

    252
    00:12:42,635 –> 00:12:43,967
    Really make a statement.

    253
    00:12:43,969 –> 00:12:46,770
    Daria: Sick, hateful minds.

    254
    00:12:46,772 –> 00:12:50,507
    That’s probably why we originally
    thought this was a hate crime.

    255
    00:12:50,509 –> 00:12:54,745
    I just talked to Ben’s sister,
    and according to her, he wasn’t gay.

    256
    00:12:54,747 –> 00:12:57,114
    We’re not looking at another
    Matthew Shepard situation.

    257
    00:12:57,116 –> 00:12:58,182
    And the second victim’s
    parents said

    258
    00:12:58,184 –> 00:12:59,616
    that she was not
    a practicing Muslim.

    259
    00:12:59,618 –> 00:13:02,219
    Garcia, have you found any connection
    at all between the victims?

    260
    00:13:02,221 –> 00:13:05,122
    They have about as much in common
    as dinosaurs and goldfish.

    261
    00:13:05,124 –> 00:13:06,256
    The cracker kind.

    262
    00:13:06,258 –> 00:13:07,858
    Then they might be
    victims of opportunity.

    263
    00:13:07,860 –> 00:13:10,127
    Found another vic.
    She was badly abused.

    264
    00:13:10,129 –> 00:13:11,462
    Where did they find
    the body?

    265
    00:13:11,464 –> 00:13:12,863
    Oh, she’s not dead.

    266
    00:13:12,865 –> 00:13:14,765
    She got hit by a car last night.
    She’s been in the E.R.

    267
    00:13:14,767 –> 00:13:16,500
    A cop that had heard about the
    chest wounds and made the connection.

    268
    00:13:16,502 –> 00:13:18,669
    Call you back, Garcia.

    269
    00:13:25,844 –> 00:13:27,077
    BP’s 80 over 30.

    270
    00:13:27,079 –> 00:13:29,346
    Give me two large-bore
    IVs, wide open.

    271
    00:13:30,415 –> 00:13:32,416
    I’m agent Jareau.
    What is your name?

    272
    00:13:32,418 –> 00:13:34,985
    Please, help us.

    273
    00:13:34,987 –> 00:13:37,020
    Us? Are there other girls?

    274
    00:13:37,022 –> 00:13:39,289
    They’re coming after us.

    275
    00:13:39,291 –> 00:13:41,859
    Find Carrie.

    276
    00:13:41,861 –> 00:13:43,961
    Carrie. Who’s Carrie?

    277
    00:13:43,963 –> 00:13:45,963
    Who’s Carrie?
    [Monitor beeping rapidly]

    278
    00:13:45,965 –> 00:13:48,932
    We’re losing blood.
    Sorry, guys.

    279
    00:13:48,934 –> 00:13:52,769
    Give me etomidate.
    Let’s move back to surgery.

    280
    00:13:54,906 –> 00:13:56,306
    There’s another girl.

    281
    00:13:56,308 –> 00:13:56,992
    And she said “they.”

    282
    00:13:57,017 –> 00:13:59,017
    Which confirms we were
    right about a team.

    283
    00:14:00,312 –> 00:14:03,447
    With one girl escaping,
    Carrie’s probably in extreme danger.

    284
    00:14:03,449 –> 00:14:07,551
    Or the unsubs are panicking
    and they’re looking for someone else.

    285
    00:14:11,656 –> 00:14:13,524
    Joe liked bars.

    286
    00:14:13,526 –> 00:14:15,592
    That’s usually where
    he’d find girls.

    287
    00:14:15,594 –> 00:14:17,694
    Where would he find guys?

    288
    00:14:17,696 –> 00:14:18,996
    Anywhere he could.

    289
    00:14:18,998 –> 00:14:21,098
    But he had a way
    with women.

    290
    00:14:24,435 –> 00:14:26,436
    He’d charm us.

    291
    00:14:26,438 –> 00:14:28,172
    Tell us we were

    292
    00:14:28,174 –> 00:14:31,375
    smart, pretty,

    293
    00:14:31,377 –> 00:14:33,243
    funny.

    294
    00:14:33,245 –> 00:14:35,712
    Well, it was really fun
    talking to you.

    295
    00:14:37,015 –> 00:14:38,215
    Where you goin’?

    296
    00:14:38,217 –> 00:14:41,552
    Car’s in the shop.
    I’m walkin’ it.

    297
    00:14:41,554 –> 00:14:43,320
    You want a ride?

    298
    00:14:44,189 –> 00:14:45,389
    Ok.

    299
    00:14:45,391 –> 00:14:47,491
    Ok.

    300
    00:14:47,493 –> 00:14:51,695
    ♪ I’m the devil… ♪

    301
    00:14:51,697 –> 00:14:54,731
    Daria: Then when we woke up,
    we wouldn’t know what had happened.

    302
    00:15:02,674 –> 00:15:04,141
    [Whimpering]

    303
    00:15:04,143 –> 00:15:08,879
    [Muffled screams]

    304
    00:15:10,748 –> 00:15:14,017
    [Screaming]

    305
    00:15:29,386 –> 00:15:32,254
    Do you remember what happened
    the day we found you?

    306
    00:15:32,256 –> 00:15:34,924
    I remember doctors,
    nurses,

    307
    00:15:34,926 –> 00:15:37,460
    nothing else.

    308
    00:15:37,462 –> 00:15:40,095
    Our Jane Doe is stable.

    309
    00:15:40,097 –> 00:15:42,798
    She suffered severe trauma
    from the car accident

    310
    00:15:42,800 –> 00:15:44,066
    as well as the torture.

    311
    00:15:44,068 –> 00:15:45,734
    There are also signs of
    long-term sexual assault.

    312
    00:15:45,736 –> 00:15:48,137
    And wounds on her wrists
    that have healed.

    313
    00:15:48,139 –> 00:15:49,472
    So she’d been held
    for a while.

    314
    00:15:49,474 –> 00:15:52,107
    Yes. And she’s experiencing
    retrograde amnesia.

    315
    00:15:52,109 –> 00:15:53,609
    She only remembers snippets
    about her past.

    316
    00:15:53,611 –> 00:15:55,644
    Is this from the accident
    or the abuse?

    317
    00:15:55,646 –> 00:15:57,112
    Probably a combination
    of both.

    318
    00:15:57,114 –> 00:16:00,149
    Time may restore memory.
    Questions can jog it.

    319
    00:16:00,151 –> 00:16:01,684
    It’s important
    that we talk to her.

    320
    00:16:01,686 –> 00:16:02,751
    You can try.

    321
    00:16:02,753 –> 00:16:05,654
    All right.
    I’ll head back in.

    322
    00:16:05,656 –> 00:16:07,256
    Do you remember what happened

    323
    00:16:07,258 –> 00:16:09,725
    when we came in that hospital room
    to talk to you again?

    324
    00:16:09,727 –> 00:16:12,728
    Nope. I just remember
    I was upset.

    325
    00:16:12,730 –> 00:16:16,332
    He hit me again!
    Carrie!

    326
    00:16:16,334 –> 00:16:18,534
    I’m sorry. I’m sorry, ok?

    327
    00:16:18,536 –> 00:16:21,303
    I promise I’ll come back for you.
    I’m gonna send somebody!

    328
    00:16:21,305 –> 00:16:23,272
    I left you, but they’re
    gonna find you!

    329
    00:16:23,274 –> 00:16:24,573
    Carrie!

    330
    00:16:24,575 –> 00:16:27,910
    We just want to ask you
    a few questions, ok?

    331
    00:16:27,912 –> 00:16:29,111
    Aah! Don’t touch me!

    332
    00:16:29,113 –> 00:16:31,680
    We’re not here to hurt you.

    333
    00:16:31,682 –> 00:16:33,082
    It’s ok.

    334
    00:16:33,084 –> 00:16:34,350
    Look at me.
    Look at me.

    335
    00:16:34,352 –> 00:16:36,185
    [Sobbing]

    336
    00:16:36,187 –> 00:16:38,153
    You are ok.

    337
    00:16:38,155 –> 00:16:40,289
    Listen, in order for us
    to help you or Carrie,

    338
    00:16:40,291 –> 00:16:43,526
    we need to ask you
    some questions.

    339
    00:16:43,528 –> 00:16:44,827
    Do you remember your name?

    340
    00:16:44,829 –> 00:16:46,262
    Just find Carrie.

    341
    00:16:46,264 –> 00:16:47,429
    We will. We will.

    342
    00:16:47,431 –> 00:16:49,999
    But right now
    we need to help you.

    343
    00:16:50,001 –> 00:16:52,701
    You want that, don’t you?

    344
    00:17:04,114 –> 00:17:06,015
    We’ve got to get
    her picture out.

    345
    00:17:06,017 –> 00:17:09,718
    I’m just afraid no one’s going
    to recognize her, she’s so beat up.

    346
    00:17:09,720 –> 00:17:11,487
    We’ll improvise.
    I’ll call local P.D.

    347
    00:17:11,489 –> 00:17:13,289
    And get a forensic artist.

    348
    00:17:13,291 –> 00:17:15,324
    Do you think one of
    the unsubs is a woman?

    349
    00:17:15,326 –> 00:17:17,426
    She freaked out on me,
    not you.

    350
    00:17:17,428 –> 00:17:19,161
    That didn’t happen
    when she first met you.

    351
    00:17:19,163 –> 00:17:20,596
    But with improving memory,

    352
    00:17:20,598 –> 00:17:22,398
    you may have reminded her
    of Carrie.

    353
    00:17:25,068 –> 00:17:27,069
    Yeah, she did
    look like Carrie.

    354
    00:17:27,071 –> 00:17:29,905
    Same hair, same smile.

    355
    00:17:29,907 –> 00:17:32,274
    You know, they could
    have picked anyone,

    356
    00:17:32,276 –> 00:17:34,376
    but they picked me.

    357
    00:17:34,378 –> 00:17:36,946
    I was going to be
    a doctor.

    358
    00:17:36,948 –> 00:17:38,747
    Help people.

    359
    00:17:38,749 –> 00:17:42,718
    Now I got doctors
    poking at me all day.

    360
    00:17:45,722 –> 00:17:49,258
    Why did they go from dumping
    their victims to displaying them?

    361
    00:17:49,260 –> 00:17:50,759
    I don’t know.

    362
    00:17:50,761 –> 00:17:54,430
    Do you think it’s because they wanted
    the public to see their work?

    363
    00:17:54,432 –> 00:17:56,432
    Why are you asking me that?

    364
    00:17:56,434 –> 00:17:58,834
    Because of how we found
    our next victim.

    365
    00:18:00,170 –> 00:18:03,672
    She was discovered hanging
    in a rest stop bathroom.

    366
    00:18:06,676 –> 00:18:08,377
    Hotch:
    Do we know her name?

    367
    00:18:08,379 –> 00:18:11,380
    Still checking, but our unsubs
    are getting bolder.

    368
    00:18:11,382 –> 00:18:13,949
    Their disposal sites
    have gone from remote and rural

    369
    00:18:13,951 –> 00:18:16,418
    to high-traffic areas.

    370
    00:18:18,688 –> 00:18:20,889
    Same signature,
    but the puncture wounds

    371
    00:18:20,891 –> 00:18:22,291
    are bigger
    than the other ones,

    372
    00:18:22,293 –> 00:18:24,226
    and they aren’t
    the same distance apart.

    373
    00:18:24,228 –> 00:18:26,061
    I think they used
    a different ice pick.

    374
    00:18:26,063 –> 00:18:27,963
    The wounds look deeper
    and more forceful, too.

    375
    00:18:27,965 –> 00:18:29,531
    They’re continuing
    to display the bodies,

    376
    00:18:29,533 –> 00:18:32,534
    which means they want
    everyone to see their handiwork.

    377
    00:18:32,536 –> 00:18:36,672
    Yet the OCD’s not present in the
    wound patterns or at the crime scene.

    378
    00:18:36,674 –> 00:18:38,607
    Reid: Maybe they’re losing
    control and devolving.

    379
    00:18:38,609 –> 00:18:39,842
    Or they know we have Jane Doe

    380
    00:18:39,844 –> 00:18:42,111
    and now their rage
    is already out of control.

    381
    00:18:42,113 –> 00:18:44,546
    There are also indicators
    of sexual assault.

    382
    00:18:44,548 –> 00:18:46,749
    Let’s get that photo
    to Morgan and JJ at the hospital.

    383
    00:18:46,751 –> 00:18:49,685
    This could be the Carrie that
    the Jane Doe’s been going on about.

    384
    00:18:49,687 –> 00:18:52,354
    Morgan: And that’s when
    I showed you a picture of this woman.

    385
    00:18:52,356 –> 00:18:54,323
    I’ve never met this woman.

    386
    00:18:54,325 –> 00:18:55,357
    That’s not Carrie.

    387
    00:18:55,359 –> 00:18:56,925
    I know. But that’s why

    388
    00:18:56,927 –> 00:18:59,928
    we had to get our profile
    out fast.

    389
    00:19:01,097 –> 00:19:03,766
    We believe we’re looking for a pair
    of sadistic killers

    390
    00:19:03,768 –> 00:19:05,367
    who are trying to terrorize
    the community by torturing

    391
    00:19:05,369 –> 00:19:06,935
    and displaying
    their victims.

    392
    00:19:06,937 –> 00:19:09,505
    One of the partners is dominant
    and fulfilling an emotional need.

    393
    00:19:09,507 –> 00:19:12,741
    The other is submissive and displays
    obsessive-compulsive tendencies.

    394
    00:19:12,743 –> 00:19:14,610
    We believe the stabbing
    in the chest is symbolic

    395
    00:19:14,612 –> 00:19:16,545
    of unfulfilled sexual
    desire.

    396
    00:19:16,547 –> 00:19:19,648
    Their M.O. is deteriorating,
    and this is evidenced by the fact

    397
    00:19:19,650 –> 00:19:22,985
    that for the first time
    a victim successfully escaped.

    398
    00:19:22,987 –> 00:19:25,238
    Blake: So they’re improvising
    now, breaking their own rules

    399
    00:19:25,263 –> 00:19:27,157
    and becoming even more reckless.

    400
    00:19:27,158 –> 00:19:29,258
    This could cause a rift
    in the partnership,

    401
    00:19:29,260 –> 00:19:32,695
    and it may result in changes or escalation
    to the torturous behavior.

    402
    00:19:32,697 –> 00:19:34,930
    Now, we do have one
    hospitalized victim,

    403
    00:19:34,932 –> 00:19:36,298
    but her abuse
    and length of captivity,

    404
    00:19:36,300 –> 00:19:38,367
    along with the injuries
    sustained in the car accident,

    405
    00:19:38,369 –> 00:19:39,868
    have left her in
    a dissociative state.

    406
    00:19:39,870 –> 00:19:43,238
    At this point, we believe she was held
    for at least 10 months,

    407
    00:19:43,240 –> 00:19:45,607
    which is much longer
    than any of the other victims.

    408
    00:19:45,609 –> 00:19:47,643
    This means that she held
    a very special place

    409
    00:19:47,645 –> 00:19:49,511
    in the dominant unsub’s
    fantasies.

    410
    00:19:49,513 –> 00:19:51,480
    Losing her will only
    increase his anger.

    411
    00:19:51,482 –> 00:19:54,049
    That’s why he feels compelled
    to display his victims

    412
    00:19:54,051 –> 00:19:55,918
    in a more public way.

    413
    00:19:55,920 –> 00:19:58,387
    He wants others to feel
    the full force of his outrage.

    414
    00:19:58,389 –> 00:20:01,423
    Also, since another victim was found
    within the last two hours,

    415
    00:20:01,425 –> 00:20:03,325
    we believe the kills
    are accelerating.

    416
    00:20:03,327 –> 00:20:05,127
    [Indistinct shouting]

    417
    00:20:05,129 –> 00:20:07,162
    Aah!

    418
    00:20:07,164 –> 00:20:10,032
    Oh. You liked him,
    huh?

    419
    00:20:10,034 –> 00:20:11,900
    Huh?! Huh?
    Yes!

    420
    00:20:11,902 –> 00:20:13,302
    Huh?

    421
    00:20:13,304 –> 00:20:16,305
    [Whimpering]

    422
    00:20:16,307 –> 00:20:17,873
    [Groaning]

    423
    00:20:17,875 –> 00:20:19,441
    No! No!
    Watch.

    424
    00:20:19,443 –> 00:20:20,642
    Watch!
    Aah!

    425
    00:20:20,644 –> 00:20:21,844
    No, please!

    426
    00:20:21,846 –> 00:20:24,580
    Aah!
    Aah!

    427
    00:20:24,582 –> 00:20:27,349
    I could have stopped them.

    428
    00:20:27,351 –> 00:20:28,684
    I could have stopped this.

    429
    00:20:28,686 –> 00:20:30,619
    You did, Daria.

    430
    00:20:30,621 –> 00:20:31,749
    Getting your I.D.

    431
    00:20:31,774 –> 00:20:33,323
    led to a break in the case.
    Don’t you remember that?

    432
    00:20:33,324 –> 00:20:34,323
    No.

    433
    00:20:34,325 –> 00:20:35,491
    No.

    434
    00:20:35,493 –> 00:20:36,492
    Yes.

    435
    00:20:36,494 –> 00:20:37,893
    Finding out who you were

    436
    00:20:37,895 –> 00:20:39,695
    opened everything up.

    437
    00:20:42,832 –> 00:20:44,967
    This is the area where the bodies
    are being dropped.

    438
    00:20:44,969 –> 00:20:46,435
    It’s basically
    a 10-mile radius.

    439
    00:20:46,437 –> 00:20:49,238
    But the hunting zone
    extends another 20 miles.

    440
    00:20:49,240 –> 00:20:50,739
    Probably lives
    somewhere in there.

    441
    00:20:50,741 –> 00:20:51,874
    The police captain
    just called from Brooklyn.

    442
    00:20:51,876 –> 00:20:53,675
    Says she recognized
    our Jane Doe.

    443
    00:20:53,677 –> 00:20:55,110
    Her name is Daria Samsen.

    444
    00:20:55,112 –> 00:20:56,645
    They’re sending
    a relative now.

    445
    00:20:56,647 –> 00:20:57,913
    What’s their relationship?

    446
    00:20:57,915 –> 00:20:59,615
    It’s her sister. She’s
    on the next train up.

    447
    00:20:59,617 –> 00:21:01,650
    About a year ago,

    448
    00:21:01,652 –> 00:21:04,787
    Daria was a med student
    at Cornell.

    449
    00:21:04,789 –> 00:21:08,257
    She went to work one day
    and just vanished.

    450
    00:21:08,259 –> 00:21:10,058
    We looked everywhere.

    451
    00:21:10,060 –> 00:21:13,762
    Put up flyers, billboards.

    452
    00:21:13,764 –> 00:21:15,764
    I thought she was murdered.

    453
    00:21:15,766 –> 00:21:18,133
    When was the last time
    you saw her?

    454
    00:21:19,969 –> 00:21:22,137
    The day she went missing.

    455
    00:21:23,139 –> 00:21:25,641
    I dropped her off at work.

    456
    00:21:25,643 –> 00:21:28,744
    She had a part-time job
    at a diner.

    457
    00:21:28,746 –> 00:21:32,681
    She would…she would
    hook me up with coffee.

    458
    00:21:33,650 –> 00:21:37,419
    Do you remember anything
    strange about that day?

    459
    00:21:37,421 –> 00:21:40,389
    What was the weather like?

    460
    00:21:40,391 –> 00:21:42,491
    Uh…

    461
    00:21:45,461 –> 00:21:48,964
    It was cold.
    It was very cold.

    462
    00:21:48,966 –> 00:21:51,366
    When we headed to the door,
    we walked by a truck.

    463
    00:21:51,368 –> 00:21:52,968
    Blake: Was there anyone
    inside of it?

    464
    00:21:52,970 –> 00:21:55,504
    There was this guy.
    A white guy.

    465
    00:21:55,506 –> 00:21:56,872
    Blake: Did he say anything?

    466
    00:21:56,874 –> 00:21:59,441
    He just looked at Daria
    and he said…

    467
    00:21:59,443 –> 00:22:01,109
    You’re about as pretty
    as a stack of new 100s.

    468
    00:22:01,111 –> 00:22:02,311
    Reid: What did he look like?

    469
    00:22:02,313 –> 00:22:03,745
    He was built.
    Good-looking.

    470
    00:22:03,747 –> 00:22:06,081
    Probably mid-30s.

    471
    00:22:06,083 –> 00:22:07,649
    Reid: Did your sister
    say anything to him?

    472
    00:22:07,651 –> 00:22:09,084
    She smiled back at him.

    473
    00:22:09,086 –> 00:22:12,254
    He told her he was waiting
    for his mom who was in…

    474
    00:22:12,256 –> 00:22:14,356
    My mother’s in physical therapy
    across the street.

    475
    00:22:14,358 –> 00:22:16,024
    Physical therapy
    across the street.

    476
    00:22:16,026 –> 00:22:19,027
    Blake: Was there anything
    identifiable on the truck?

    477
    00:22:19,029 –> 00:22:21,530
    Bumper stickers.
    Decals.

    478
    00:22:21,532 –> 00:22:23,232
    Uh, it was–
    it was blue.

    479
    00:22:23,234 –> 00:22:25,100
    Kind of dingy.

    480
    00:22:25,102 –> 00:22:28,337
    Is that all you can see?
    Think back.

    481
    00:22:28,339 –> 00:22:30,973
    I can see part
    of his license plate.

    482
    00:22:30,975 –> 00:22:34,476
    Uh, 543L…

    483
    00:22:34,478 –> 00:22:36,979
    But I hear a dispatcher.

    484
    00:22:36,981 –> 00:22:38,313
    Reid: What is
    the dispatcher saying?

    485
    00:22:38,315 –> 00:22:40,476
    Dispatcher: We got a broken furnace
    at Ridley and West.

    486
    00:22:42,352 –> 00:22:44,419
    There was a broken furnace.

    487
    00:22:44,421 –> 00:22:46,421
    Yes.

    488
    00:22:46,423 –> 00:22:49,558
    Yes. There’s a Joe Bachner
    of Conway Electric.

    489
    00:22:49,560 –> 00:22:52,728
    Pulling up his records now.

    490
    00:22:52,730 –> 00:22:54,329
    Booyah, this is our guy.

    491
    00:22:54,331 –> 00:22:55,631
    What’s his background?

    492
    00:22:55,633 –> 00:22:57,165
    He is a member of the upright
    citizens brigade,

    493
    00:22:57,167 –> 00:22:58,634
    she says with biting sarcasm.

    494
    00:22:58,636 –> 00:23:01,103
    In and out of jail,
    for battery, 15 years ago.

    495
    00:23:01,105 –> 00:23:04,006
    Once accused of kidnapping a woman,
    but then she dropped the charges.

    496
    00:23:04,008 –> 00:23:05,841
    We were pretty sure that
    Joe was one of our guys,

    497
    00:23:05,843 –> 00:23:09,211
    but we just needed you
    to I.D. him to be sure.

    498
    00:23:18,788 –> 00:23:20,322
    Daria?

    499
    00:23:20,324 –> 00:23:21,790
    Daria.

    500
    00:23:21,792 –> 00:23:22,991
    Hmm.

    501
    00:23:22,993 –> 00:23:24,760
    Hey, it’s me.

    502
    00:23:24,762 –> 00:23:28,430
    Listen, I need to show you
    another picture.

    503
    00:23:28,432 –> 00:23:31,199
    Do you know who this is?

    504
    00:23:33,169 –> 00:23:34,736
    Daria, do you know this man?

    505
    00:23:34,738 –> 00:23:37,005
    [Moans] Get…

    506
    00:23:37,007 –> 00:23:38,674
    Get him away from me.

    507
    00:23:38,676 –> 00:23:42,277
    Get him away from me.

    508
    00:23:42,279 –> 00:23:45,380
    Daria…
    Daria, honey.

    509
    00:23:45,382 –> 00:23:47,616
    Honey, I’m here.

    510
    00:23:47,618 –> 00:23:49,384
    You I.D.ing Joe helped
    us get his address

    511
    00:23:49,386 –> 00:23:51,720
    and led us straight
    to his place.

    512
    00:23:54,490 –> 00:23:56,158
    Yeah…

    513
    00:23:56,160 –> 00:23:58,427
    But you got the story wrong.

    514
    00:23:59,495 –> 00:24:00,929
    How?

    515
    00:24:00,931 –> 00:24:03,799
    That’s exactly what you told me
    a year ago, Daria.

    516
    00:24:03,801 –> 00:24:06,234
    Yeah, but I remember
    more now.

    517
    00:24:07,437 –> 00:24:11,473
    Joe didn’t abduct me
    in front of the diner.

    518
    00:24:13,076 –> 00:24:15,444
    I got into his truck
    willingly.

    519
    00:24:17,113 –> 00:24:19,014
    What are you saying?

    520
    00:24:19,016 –> 00:24:20,882
    He seemed nice.

    521
    00:24:20,884 –> 00:24:25,420
    After work,
    Joe took me out for dinner.

    522
    00:24:25,422 –> 00:24:28,090
    The next thing I knew,
    I woke up…

    523
    00:24:28,092 –> 00:24:31,626
    in the shed
    and I was all–all tied up.

    524
    00:24:31,628 –> 00:24:35,364
    Joe used a ruse.
    He did that with everyone.

    525
    00:24:38,801 –> 00:24:42,471
    Did they all
    fall in love with him?

    526
    00:24:42,473 –> 00:24:43,739
    No?

    527
    00:24:43,741 –> 00:24:47,342
    That’s what I thought.

    528
    00:24:47,344 –> 00:24:50,245
    I liked being there.

    529
    00:24:50,247 –> 00:24:52,514
    I let him touch me

    530
    00:24:52,516 –> 00:24:56,952
    and then I wouldn’t get beat.

    531
    00:24:56,954 –> 00:24:59,021
    I kissed him.

    532
    00:24:59,023 –> 00:25:01,723
    I liked it.

    533
    00:25:07,430 –> 00:25:11,099
    It’s my fault!

    534
    00:25:11,101 –> 00:25:13,135
    This is all my fault.

    535
    00:25:13,137 –> 00:25:16,138
    [Sobbing]

    536
    00:25:17,507 –> 00:25:20,008
    [Wailing]

    537
    00:25:30,570 –> 00:25:31,770
    Daria just told me

    538
    00:25:31,772 –> 00:25:34,439
    that she got into the car
    with Joe voluntarily.

    539
    00:25:34,441 –> 00:25:36,975
    That’s all right.
    She’ll still be a sympathetic witness.

    540
    00:25:36,977 –> 00:25:38,710
    She said she fell in love
    with him, Hotch.

    541
    00:25:38,712 –> 00:25:40,278
    We’ll explain that it’s
    Stockholm syndrome,

    542
    00:25:40,280 –> 00:25:42,380
    but I need to know
    if there are any more surprises.

    543
    00:25:42,382 –> 00:25:43,815
    All right, I’m about
    to go back in there.

    544
    00:25:43,817 –> 00:25:45,550
    I just wanted to
    give her a break.

    545
    00:25:45,552 –> 00:25:48,086
    It’s critical that we get all the details
    of her testimony.

    546
    00:25:48,088 –> 00:25:49,554
    I know.

    547
    00:26:07,206 –> 00:26:09,274
    All right.

    548
    00:26:09,276 –> 00:26:11,543
    Let’s get back
    to where we were.

    549
    00:26:11,545 –> 00:26:15,313
    Once we got Joe’s I.D.,
    we headed to the house.

    550
    00:26:28,594 –> 00:26:30,161
    Blake and Reid.

    551
    00:27:07,299 –> 00:27:08,694
    We went out to that house

    552
    00:27:08,719 –> 00:27:10,537
    and we searched the place
    and it was empty.

    553
    00:27:10,837 –> 00:27:12,604
    Clear!

    554
    00:27:15,441 –> 00:27:16,841
    Clear!

    555
    00:27:16,843 –> 00:27:18,109
    Clear!

    556
    00:27:18,111 –> 00:27:19,511
    And after we dug deeper
    into Joe’s background,

    557
    00:27:19,513 –> 00:27:21,479
    we still couldn’t figure out
    who his partner was.

    558
    00:27:21,481 –> 00:27:22,547
    Nothing out back.

    559
    00:27:22,549 –> 00:27:24,582
    He’s burned papers, clothes.

    560
    00:27:24,584 –> 00:27:27,352
    The shed’s been completely
    ammonia’d down.

    561
    00:27:27,354 –> 00:27:29,688
    Checked the basement.
    Clean as a whistle.

    562
    00:27:29,690 –> 00:27:31,823
    Well, if he’s not here,
    maybe he’s with the partner.

    563
    00:27:31,825 –> 00:27:34,492
    Garcia, where else has Joe worked
    besides Conway Electric?

    564
    00:27:34,494 –> 00:27:36,428
    He’s had random construction
    jobs over the last two years.

    565
    00:27:36,430 –> 00:27:37,996
    And what do we know
    about his background?

    566
    00:27:37,998 –> 00:27:39,364
    Raised in Pennsylvania.

    567
    00:27:39,366 –> 00:27:40,899
    His parents died
    in a car accident.

    568
    00:27:40,901 –> 00:27:43,101
    Rossi: Where’d he go
    after that?

    569
    00:27:43,103 –> 00:27:45,103
    His juvie records are sealed
    with crazy glue.

    570
    00:27:45,105 –> 00:27:47,105
    But it looks like
    he was sent away

    571
    00:27:47,107 –> 00:27:48,673
    to live with his
    alcoholic nurse aunt,

    572
    00:27:48,675 –> 00:27:52,110
    who makes Mommy Dearest
    look like a Saint.

    573
    00:27:52,112 –> 00:27:54,345
    According to reports,
    she locked him in a shed,

    574
    00:27:54,347 –> 00:27:59,317
    didn’t feed him for days,
    siccing bees on him when she was mad.

    575
    00:27:59,319 –> 00:28:02,854
    Get away! [Screaming]

    576
    00:28:02,856 –> 00:28:05,757
    Please! Stop it!

    577
    00:28:05,759 –> 00:28:08,727
    That’s how social services
    found him when he got to school.

    578
    00:28:08,729 –> 00:28:11,062
    Hundreds of beestings
    on his chest.

    579
    00:28:11,064 –> 00:28:12,897
    So those torture wounds
    copied the stings.

    580
    00:28:12,899 –> 00:28:14,365
    It also explains
    the display method

    581
    00:28:14,367 –> 00:28:16,735
    of his last two victims.
    He wants to show the world the horrors

    582
    00:28:16,737 –> 00:28:18,703
    of what he was forced
    to endure as a child.

    583
    00:28:18,705 –> 00:28:20,739
    And Daria was
    a medical student.

    584
    00:28:20,741 –> 00:28:23,441
    So we were right.
    She’s a surrogate for Joe’s aunt.

    585
    00:28:23,443 –> 00:28:25,009
    Where’s the aunt now?

    586
    00:28:25,011 –> 00:28:26,811
    Uh, she died
    February 2012.

    587
    00:28:26,813 –> 00:28:28,847
    A month before
    Daria was abducted.

    588
    00:28:28,849 –> 00:28:30,815
    So the aunt’s death
    was the trigger.

    589
    00:28:30,817 –> 00:28:32,851
    Any known associates?
    We need to find the partner.

    590
    00:28:32,853 –> 00:28:36,087
    Looks like he hangs out with
    local biker dudes and former cellmates.

    591
    00:28:36,089 –> 00:28:38,223
    Compile a list. We’ll run this
    by Daria at the hospital.

    592
    00:28:38,225 –> 00:28:42,393
    Yes. Yes. Bad people
    make bad people. Bye.

    593
    00:28:42,395 –> 00:28:45,196
    Morgan: You said there was
    another man with Joe.

    594
    00:28:45,198 –> 00:28:46,664
    Do you remember that?

    595
    00:28:46,666 –> 00:28:48,066
    I’m not sure.

    596
    00:28:48,068 –> 00:28:49,534
    All right.

    597
    00:28:49,536 –> 00:28:52,437
    You were hesitant
    back then, too.

    598
    00:28:55,307 –> 00:28:57,809
    Daria, this is important.

    599
    00:28:57,811 –> 00:28:59,944
    Who else was in that shed?

    600
    00:29:07,253 –> 00:29:08,953
    [Crying]

    601
    00:29:08,955 –> 00:29:11,556
    [Door opens]

    602
    00:29:11,558 –> 00:29:14,259
    [Door closes]

    603
    00:29:14,261 –> 00:29:17,061
    No. No! No!

    604
    00:29:17,063 –> 00:29:19,898
    No, let me go!

    605
    00:29:19,900 –> 00:29:24,836
    No, please!
    Please!

    606
    00:29:30,943 –> 00:29:32,510
    Hurry up, Coby!

    607
    00:29:32,512 –> 00:29:34,078
    We don’t have all day.

    608
    00:29:34,080 –> 00:29:36,581
    Coby.

    609
    00:29:36,583 –> 00:29:38,683
    His name’s Coby.

    610
    00:29:43,689 –> 00:29:45,657
    Oh, God.

    611
    00:29:45,659 –> 00:29:46,991
    It’s ok, honey.

    612
    00:29:46,993 –> 00:29:48,426
    You’re ok.

    613
    00:29:48,428 –> 00:29:50,762
    I don’t want
    to do this anymore.

    614
    00:29:50,764 –> 00:29:52,797
    I know.
    It was Coby.

    615
    00:29:52,799 –> 00:29:55,333
    I know. Shh.

    616
    00:29:55,335 –> 00:29:58,603
    Shh…

    617
    00:29:58,605 –> 00:30:01,005
    I cross-checked the name Coby
    with the guys in the biker gang.

    618
    00:30:01,007 –> 00:30:02,373
    I’m coming up empty there.

    619
    00:30:02,375 –> 00:30:04,909
    Try men released from prison with whom
    he might have done time.

    620
    00:30:04,911 –> 00:30:06,945
    Ok…

    621
    00:30:06,947 –> 00:30:09,447
    Bada-bing bada-boom,
    the floodgates are opening.

    622
    00:30:09,449 –> 00:30:11,716
    There’s a Coby Peters.
    He was released a year before Joe.

    623
    00:30:11,718 –> 00:30:14,319
    He lives about 3 miles away.
    He’s a part-time electrician,

    624
    00:30:14,321 –> 00:30:15,687
    full-time alcoholic.

    625
    00:30:15,689 –> 00:30:17,388
    That’s our guy.
    Let’s go. Thanks, Garcia.

    626
    00:30:22,328 –> 00:30:24,028
    FBI!

    627
    00:30:37,576 –> 00:30:39,010
    Clear!

    628
    00:30:39,012 –> 00:30:40,011
    Clear!

    629
    00:30:40,013 –> 00:30:42,347
    Hotch.

    630
    00:30:42,349 –> 00:30:44,849
    Look. He took
    all his guns.

    631
    00:30:44,851 –> 00:30:46,684
    Look at this place.

    632
    00:30:48,520 –> 00:30:51,022
    [Cell phone rings]
    This guy’s the one with OCD.

    633
    00:30:51,024 –> 00:30:52,690
    Go ahead, Garcia.

    634
    00:30:52,692 –> 00:30:55,126
    Sir, I got a ping
    off Coby Peters’ credit card.

    635
    00:30:55,128 –> 00:30:57,028
    He’s around the corner
    at Mike & Sons.

    636
    00:31:01,367 –> 00:31:04,035
    [Brakes screeching]

    637
    00:31:04,037 –> 00:31:05,670
    Coby Peters, FBI!

    638
    00:31:09,742 –> 00:31:10,742
    FBI!

    639
    00:31:10,744 –> 00:31:12,577
    [Siren]

    640
    00:31:12,579 –> 00:31:14,112
    Don’t move!

    641
    00:31:31,516 –> 00:31:33,750
    Let’s talk about Coby.

    642
    00:31:33,752 –> 00:31:35,319
    Tell me about him.

    643
    00:31:35,321 –> 00:31:37,955
    He was evil.

    644
    00:31:37,957 –> 00:31:41,358
    You must have seen
    how mean Coby was.

    645
    00:31:41,360 –> 00:31:43,460
    He wasn’t what we expected.

    646
    00:31:43,462 –> 00:31:45,262
    I didn’t kill anyone.

    647
    00:31:45,264 –> 00:31:47,664
    We have 4 bodies, Coby.
    You’re part of a team.

    648
    00:31:47,666 –> 00:31:49,433
    What team?
    I’m an electrician.

    649
    00:31:49,435 –> 00:31:52,336
    Who used to be
    a medical tech.

    650
    00:31:52,338 –> 00:31:55,639
    Is that how you learned
    to torture like this?

    651
    00:31:55,641 –> 00:31:57,140
    What the hell is this?

    652
    00:31:57,142 –> 00:31:58,976
    I thought you brought me
    in here for the guns.

    653
    00:31:58,978 –> 00:32:01,445
    We don’t care about
    the guns. What about Daria?

    654
    00:32:01,447 –> 00:32:03,480
    You know her?

    655
    00:32:06,684 –> 00:32:07,784
    We’re getting warmer,
    aren’t we?

    656
    00:32:07,786 –> 00:32:08,919
    Looks familiar,
    doesn’t she?

    657
    00:32:08,921 –> 00:32:10,454
    Except you didn’t
    kill this one,

    658
    00:32:10,456 –> 00:32:11,922
    because she’s laying up
    in a hospital room

    659
    00:32:11,924 –> 00:32:13,857
    with torture wounds
    all over her body.

    660
    00:32:13,859 –> 00:32:15,158
    That’s my friend’s girl.

    661
    00:32:15,160 –> 00:32:16,093
    Who’s your friend?

    662
    00:32:16,095 –> 00:32:17,928
    Joe Bachner.
    She come around

    663
    00:32:17,930 –> 00:32:19,396
    when we were playing poker.

    664
    00:32:19,398 –> 00:32:21,298
    What happened to her?
    You tell us.

    665
    00:32:21,300 –> 00:32:22,499
    How should I know?

    666
    00:32:22,501 –> 00:32:23,967
    What’s your relationship
    with your friend?

    667
    00:32:23,969 –> 00:32:25,769
    He’s my drinking buddy, and he works
    for me from time to time.

    668
    00:32:25,771 –> 00:32:27,537
    When was the last time
    you saw him?

    669
    00:32:27,539 –> 00:32:30,607
    I went to his house to give him the keys
    to my client’s cabin.

    670
    00:32:30,609 –> 00:32:32,109
    Water heater broke.
    He said he’d fix it.

    671
    00:32:32,111 –> 00:32:33,276
    Reid: How was he acting?

    672
    00:32:33,278 –> 00:32:34,978
    Fine. He was packing up
    his car.

    673
    00:32:34,980 –> 00:32:36,113
    Did he have anyone
    with him?

    674
    00:32:36,115 –> 00:32:38,782
    Just some equipment and…

    675
    00:32:40,685 –> 00:32:42,853
    Ice picks.

    676
    00:32:44,589 –> 00:32:47,824
    Look, if Joe hurt these people,
    go talk to him.

    677
    00:32:47,826 –> 00:32:50,460
    He’s still up
    at my client’s cabin.

    678
    00:32:52,530 –> 00:32:53,764
    He seems forthcoming.

    679
    00:32:53,766 –> 00:32:56,600
    It could be the behavior
    of an innocent or a psychopath.

    680
    00:32:56,602 –> 00:32:59,469
    You know, I know his house was clean,
    but did you see his shirt and shoes?

    681
    00:32:59,471 –> 00:33:01,538
    They were messy.
    There’s no way this guy is OCD.

    682
    00:33:01,540 –> 00:33:04,908
    I find it interesting that Daria
    never asked Coby for help.

    683
    00:33:04,910 –> 00:33:06,510
    She was there
    when they played poker.

    684
    00:33:06,512 –> 00:33:08,779
    Maybe she couldn’t because she
    was still under Joe’s control.

    685
    00:33:08,781 –> 00:33:11,281
    We searched Coby’s home.
    Nothing connected to the crime.

    686
    00:33:11,283 –> 00:33:13,083
    Let’s head up
    to that cabin.

    687
    00:33:23,294 –> 00:33:25,662
    You kids ready
    to have some more fun?

    688
    00:33:25,664 –> 00:33:27,130
    Huh? Huh?
    Please don’t. No!

    689
    00:33:27,132 –> 00:33:28,331
    Aah!

    690
    00:33:28,333 –> 00:33:29,966
    Come on,
    just let us go.

    691
    00:33:30,768 –> 00:33:32,903
    Let you go.
    Let you go?!

    692
    00:33:32,905 –> 00:33:35,672
    You think I brought you all the way up
    here just to let you go?

    693
    00:33:35,674 –> 00:33:38,241
    Joe Bachner, FBI!

    694
    00:33:40,645 –> 00:33:42,813
    Uhh!

    695
    00:33:44,882 –> 00:33:47,184
    We need medics.

    696
    00:33:49,854 –> 00:33:51,655
    You can’t outrun
    a bullet, Joe!

    697
    00:33:53,991 –> 00:33:57,561
    [Siren]

    698
    00:34:02,433 –> 00:34:05,335
    Tell us where your partner is, Joe.
    Who is he?

    699
    00:34:06,537 –> 00:34:07,804
    [Laughing]

    700
    00:34:07,806 –> 00:34:09,406
    Morgan: That’s why
    I came back to the hospital

    701
    00:34:09,408 –> 00:34:12,375
    to talk to you, because we were trying
    to find out who Joe’s partner was.

    702
    00:34:12,377 –> 00:34:17,114
    [Ellen talking indistinctly]

    703
    00:34:17,116 –> 00:34:19,716
    Your sister didn’t want us
    to bother you again,

    704
    00:34:19,718 –> 00:34:21,384
    but she knew
    we were desperate.

    705
    00:34:21,386 –> 00:34:23,887
    We’re looking for a team and
    we have to find both of them.

    706
    00:34:23,889 –> 00:34:26,356
    They could have
    more girls right now.

    707
    00:34:26,358 –> 00:34:27,958
    Every minute counts.

    708
    00:34:33,531 –> 00:34:36,266
    Do you remember
    what you said?

    709
    00:34:38,970 –> 00:34:42,105
    Yeah. It’s coming back.

    710
    00:34:42,107 –> 00:34:43,306
    It was Coby.

    711
    00:34:43,308 –> 00:34:44,875
    Are you sure, Daria?

    712
    00:34:44,877 –> 00:34:46,243
    Yeah, it was him.

    713
    00:34:46,245 –> 00:34:48,612
    I need you to think back.

    714
    00:34:48,614 –> 00:34:51,214
    We were in the shed.
    He had an ice pick.

    715
    00:34:51,216 –> 00:34:53,350
    Ok. Ok. And what
    was he doing with it?

    716
    00:34:53,352 –> 00:34:58,355
    Joe and Coby were
    about to hurt Ben.

    717
    00:34:58,357 –> 00:35:00,056
    And you’re sure it was Coby?

    718
    00:35:00,058 –> 00:35:01,191
    Look at his face again.

    719
    00:35:01,193 –> 00:35:03,493
    It’s too blurry.
    I can’t see.

    720
    00:35:03,495 –> 00:35:05,662
    Keep looking, Daria.

    721
    00:35:08,099 –> 00:35:09,666
    [Screaming]

    722
    00:35:09,668 –> 00:35:12,936
    Yeah, it was Coby.
    I’m telling you.

    723
    00:35:14,071 –> 00:35:19,009
    He, uh, started
    poking holes in Ben.

    724
    00:35:26,584 –> 00:35:30,153
    He put the ice pick
    in a box.

    725
    00:35:35,293 –> 00:35:38,662
    Where did they put this box?

    726
    00:35:40,097 –> 00:35:41,798
    On a shelf.

    727
    00:35:43,134 –> 00:35:45,669
    In the house.

    728
    00:35:56,480 –> 00:35:57,547
    Blake?

    729
    00:35:57,549 –> 00:35:58,982
    Yeah, what’s up?

    730
    00:35:58,984 –> 00:36:00,417
    I think I figured it out.

    731
    00:36:00,419 –> 00:36:02,853
    Check every shelf
    in that house for a wooden box.

    732
    00:36:02,855 –> 00:36:04,054
    What’s in the box?

    733
    00:36:04,056 –> 00:36:06,690
    The answer to this case.

    734
    00:36:11,395 –> 00:36:13,730
    So I had Blake
    search that house

    735
    00:36:13,732 –> 00:36:15,899
    for that ice pick
    in a box,

    736
    00:36:15,901 –> 00:36:18,001
    and then I presented
    that box to you.

    737
    00:36:18,003 –> 00:36:20,503
    Is that coming back to you?

    738
    00:36:20,505 –> 00:36:24,007
    Yeah. Yeah.

    739
    00:36:30,781 –> 00:36:32,148
    Is that it?

    740
    00:36:33,251 –> 00:36:35,352
    Yes, it is.

    741
    00:36:35,354 –> 00:36:37,287
    We found it
    in Joe’s bedroom.

    742
    00:36:37,289 –> 00:36:40,156
    Was the ice pick
    in there?

    743
    00:36:40,158 –> 00:36:43,159
    Yes, Daria.

    744
    00:36:43,161 –> 00:36:45,996
    Along with
    some of your things.

    745
    00:36:45,998 –> 00:36:47,664
    The reason Joe
    hung on to Carrie

    746
    00:36:47,666 –> 00:36:52,168
    is because after you escaped,
    he needed another partner.

    747
    00:36:52,170 –> 00:36:53,303
    What?

    748
    00:36:53,305 –> 00:36:55,238
    What are you talking about?

    749
    00:36:58,809 –> 00:37:00,844
    Often when someone’s
    held captive,

    750
    00:37:00,846 –> 00:37:03,246
    they’re forced to do
    the unthinkable.

    751
    00:37:08,519 –> 00:37:11,221
    [Daria, indistinct]

    752
    00:37:11,223 –> 00:37:13,990
    Your prints were found
    on that ice pick, Daria.

    753
    00:37:13,992 –> 00:37:15,258
    Aah!

    754
    00:37:15,260 –> 00:37:17,427
    I wasn’t Coby who put
    the holes in those victims.

    755
    00:37:17,429 –> 00:37:18,762
    It was you.

    756
    00:37:20,164 –> 00:37:22,265
    What? You’re–you’re wrong.

    757
    00:37:22,267 –> 00:37:23,266
    No, I’m not.

    758
    00:37:23,268 –> 00:37:25,201
    Ellen, just listen.
    Agent Morgan–

    759
    00:37:25,203 –> 00:37:26,202
    these are facts.

    760
    00:37:26,204 –> 00:37:28,305
    Daria, you’re the one
    with OCD.

    761
    00:37:31,375 –> 00:37:34,277
    You’re the one
    who kept that place clean.

    762
    00:37:34,279 –> 00:37:37,414
    Joe forced you to participate.

    763
    00:37:37,416 –> 00:37:40,717
    And he made you clean up
    after his crimes.

    764
    00:37:41,953 –> 00:37:45,755
    It’s how he controlled you,
    Daria.

    765
    00:37:45,757 –> 00:37:48,925
    And to deal with the pain,
    your mind had just snapped.

    766
    00:37:48,927 –> 00:37:51,094
    It let you think
    that it was someone else

    767
    00:37:51,096 –> 00:37:52,963
    who was participating–
    his friend Coby.

    768
    00:37:52,965 –> 00:37:55,098
    It’s not true.
    It’s not true.

    769
    00:37:55,100 –> 00:37:56,533
    I’m sorry, but it is.
    No.

    770
    00:37:56,535 –> 00:37:58,468
    It is. He made you do it.

    771
    00:37:58,470 –> 00:38:00,136
    Do it now!

    772
    00:38:00,138 –> 00:38:02,772
    No.

    773
    00:38:02,774 –> 00:38:05,075
    Aah! Aah!

    774
    00:38:05,077 –> 00:38:07,744
    Do it or I’ll kill her!

    775
    00:38:07,746 –> 00:38:09,813
    Go on!

    776
    00:38:09,815 –> 00:38:12,482
    Daria, it’s not your fault.
    No!

    777
    00:38:12,484 –> 00:38:14,584
    Do you hear me?
    It’s not your fault.

    778
    00:38:14,586 –> 00:38:15,719
    You had no choice.
    No!

    779
    00:38:15,721 –> 00:38:16,820
    No!

    780
    00:38:16,822 –> 00:38:17,754
    It’s not your fault.

    781
    00:38:17,756 –> 00:38:19,589
    [Screaming]

    782
    00:38:19,591 –> 00:38:21,157
    Daria, baby…

    783
    00:38:21,159 –> 00:38:24,694
    [Screaming]

    784
    00:38:29,600 –> 00:38:31,935
    No! No!

    785
    00:38:31,937 –> 00:38:35,038
    [Screaming, shouting]

    786
    00:39:11,575 –> 00:39:13,443
    I loved him.

    787
    00:39:13,445 –> 00:39:15,945
    That’s why
    I did those things.

    788
    00:39:21,652 –> 00:39:24,921
    After a while, he didn’t even have
    to ask me to do it.

    789
    00:39:24,923 –> 00:39:27,524
    I just…I just did it.

    790
    00:39:28,893 –> 00:39:30,660
    Wait a minute.

    791
    00:39:31,896 –> 00:39:34,831
    Did you torture people
    on your own?

    792
    00:39:36,267 –> 00:39:38,668
    That’s what he wanted.

    793
    00:39:41,238 –> 00:39:43,039
    He loved me.

    794
    00:39:51,682 –> 00:39:54,751
    He kept me
    for a whole year.

    795
    00:40:01,258 –> 00:40:05,195
    The other ones he just
    had for a few weeks.

    796
    00:40:09,733 –> 00:40:13,903
    Daria, would you hurt
    someone again if Joe asked you to?

    797
    00:40:15,473 –> 00:40:18,208
    If he wanted.

    798
    00:40:19,443 –> 00:40:22,779
    He’s my boyfriend.

    799
    00:40:22,781 –> 00:40:25,982
    I loved him.

    800
    00:40:25,984 –> 00:40:28,952
    I still love him.

    801
    00:40:34,959 –> 00:40:38,061
    Excuse me, but it’s time
    for Daria to take her medicine.

    802
    00:40:38,063 –> 00:40:40,263
    Ok.

    803
    00:40:42,032 –> 00:40:43,700
    We’re done.

    804
    00:40:50,007 –> 00:40:52,375
    Daria…

    805
    00:40:52,377 –> 00:40:55,812
    I’m gonna step outside
    and speak with your sister.

    806
    00:41:03,821 –> 00:41:06,923
    How did it go?

    807
    00:41:06,925 –> 00:41:09,626
    Unfortunately, there is no way
    that the government

    808
    00:41:09,628 –> 00:41:11,261
    can call your sister
    as a witness.

    809
    00:41:11,263 –> 00:41:13,296
    Wait, what?

    810
    00:41:13,298 –> 00:41:15,965
    That was the deal.
    If she doesn’t testify,

    811
    00:41:15,967 –> 00:41:17,100
    she goes to jail.

    812
    00:41:17,102 –> 00:41:19,068
    Daria admitted to me
    that at some point

    813
    00:41:19,070 –> 00:41:20,603
    she became a willing
    participant in the murders,

    814
    00:41:20,605 –> 00:41:22,305
    and she said
    she would do it again.

    815
    00:41:22,307 –> 00:41:23,773
    I don’t believe that.

    816
    00:41:23,775 –> 00:41:25,575
    Your sister is mentally
    incapacitated,

    817
    00:41:25,577 –> 00:41:28,611
    and I am protecting her
    by not letting her take that stand.

    818
    00:41:28,613 –> 00:41:30,446
    But then they will
    keep her in here forever.

    819
    00:41:30,448 –> 00:41:32,615
    My sister is not crazy.

    820
    00:41:32,617 –> 00:41:37,220
    Ellen, I know you see flashes
    of the Daria that you remember,

    821
    00:41:37,222 –> 00:41:39,189
    the strong woman,
    the woman who escaped,

    822
    00:41:39,191 –> 00:41:41,457
    and the woman
    who wants to get better,

    823
    00:41:41,459 –> 00:41:44,294
    but your sister
    is permanently damaged

    824
    00:41:44,296 –> 00:41:47,030
    because of what
    he did to her.

    825
    00:41:47,032 –> 00:41:50,366
    This is where
    she needs to be.

    826
    00:41:50,368 –> 00:41:52,869
    I am truly sorry.

    827
    00:41:56,941 –> 00:41:59,375
    She just wanted
    to say good-bye.

    828
    00:41:59,377 –> 00:42:01,578
    It’s time
    for therapy now.

    829
    00:42:01,580 –> 00:42:03,346
    So, that’s it?

    830
    00:42:03,348 –> 00:42:05,215
    Was I helpful?

    831
    00:42:05,217 –> 00:42:08,418
    Yes, you were.

    832
    00:42:08,420 –> 00:42:11,921
    I have everything
    that I need.

    833
    00:42:13,724 –> 00:42:16,059
    You take care, Daria.

    834
    00:42:22,700 –> 00:42:27,670
    Hey. Do you think
    you’ll ever catch Joe’s partner?

    835
    00:42:40,317 –> 00:42:42,151
    I’m not sure.

    836
    00:42:42,153 –> 00:42:45,488
    But we’re still looking.

    837
    00:42:45,490 –> 00:42:48,458
    Well, good luck.

    838
    00:42:49,493 –> 00:42:51,194
    Good-bye, Daria.

    839
    00:43:10,848 –> 00:43:13,583
    Morgan: “There are times
    when the mind is dealt such a blow,

    840
    00:43:13,585 –> 00:43:15,752
    “it hides itself
    in insanity.

    841
    00:43:15,754 –> 00:43:19,289
    “There are times when
    reality is nothing but pain.

    842
    00:43:19,291 –> 00:43:24,627
    And to escape that pain,
    the mind must leave reality behind.”

    843
    00:43:24,629 –> 00:43:27,597
    Patrick Rothfuss.

    844
    00:43:27,599 –> 00:43:32,599
    == sync, corrected by elderman ==
    @elder_man


    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Piquerism

    Piquerism
    15 December 2013 at 17:01

    Piquerism or picquerism (from the French piquer – “to prick”) is sexual interest in penetrating the skin of another person, sometimes serious enough to cause death. Piquerism is a paraphilia. The most frequently targeted areas of the body are the breasts, buttocks, or groin.

    Examples

    Andrei Chikatilo
    Soviet serial killer Andrei Chikatilo was impotent and could only achieve sexual arousal through stabbing and cutting people with a knife.

    Jack the Ripper
    Dr. Robert D. Keppel and his colleagues concluded in an analysis of London’s Jack the Ripper murders of 1888 that “the injuries sustained by the victims displayed the signature characteristic of picquerism.”

    Albert Fish
    Notorious serial killer Albert Fish has been said to have engaged in piquerism upon his victims and his own body, flagellating himself constantly with a nail-studded board. After his arrest and subsequent jailing for the murder of Grace Budd, an X-Ray revealed at least 29 needles that were inserted into his groin.
    X-Ray of pelvis of Albert Fish showing over a dozen needles inserted.


    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jack_the_Ripper

    Jack the Ripper
    20 March 2014 at 18:34

    Jack the Ripper is the best-known name given to an unidentified serial killer who was active in the largely impoverished areas in and around the Whitechapel district of London in 1888. The name originated in a letter written by someone claiming to be the murderer that was widely disseminated in the media. The letter is widely believed to have been a hoax, and may have been written by a journalist in a deliberate attempt to heighten interest in the story. Within the crime case files as well as journalistic accounts the killer was known as “the Whitechapel Murderer” as well as “Leather Apron”.

    Attacks ascribed to the Ripper typically involved female prostitutes who lived and worked in the slums of London and whose throats were cut prior to abdominal mutilations. The removal of internal organs from at least three of the victims led to proposals that their killer possessed anatomical or surgical knowledge. Rumours that the murders were connected intensified in September and October 1888, and letters from a writer or writers purporting to be the murderer were received by media outlets and Scotland Yard. The “From Hell” letter, received by George Lusk of the Whitechapel Vigilance Committee, included half of a preserved human kidney, supposedly from one of the victims. Mainly because of the extraordinarily brutal character of the murders, and because of media treatment of the events, the public came increasingly to believe in a single serial killer known as “Jack the Ripper”.

    Extensive newspaper coverage bestowed widespread and enduring international notoriety on the Ripper. An investigation into a series of brutal killings in Whitechapel up to 1891 was unable to connect all the killings conclusively to the murders of 1888, but the legend of Jack the Ripper solidified. As the murders were never solved, the legends surrounding them became a combination of genuine historical research, folklore, and pseudohistory. The term “ripperology” was coined to describe the study and analysis of the Ripper cases. There are now over one hundred theories about the Ripper’s identity, and the murders have inspired multiple works of fiction.

    Background

    In the mid-19th century, Britain experienced an influx of Irish immigrants, who swelled the populations of the major cities, including the East End of London. From 1882, Jewish refugees from pogroms in Tsarist Russia and other areas of Eastern Europe emigrated into the same area. The civil parish of Whitechapel in London’s East End became increasingly overcrowded. Work and housing conditions worsened, and a significant economic underclass developed. Robbery, violence and alcohol dependency were commonplace, and the endemic poverty drove many women to prostitution. In October 1888, London’s Metropolitan Police Service estimated that there were 62 brothels and 1,200 women working as prostitutes in Whitechapel. The economic problems were accompanied by a steady rise in social tensions. Between 1886 and 1889, frequent demonstrations, such as that of 13 November 1887, led to police intervention and further public unrest. Anti-semitism, crime, nativism, racism, social disturbance, and severe deprivation fed public perceptions that Whitechapel was a notorious den of immorality. In 1888, such perceptions were strengthened when a series of vicious and grotesque murders attributed to “Jack the Ripper” received unprecedented coverage in the media.

    Murders

    The large number of attacks against women in the East End during this era adds uncertainty to how many victims were killed by the same person.[7] Eleven separate murders, stretching from 3 April 1888 to 13 February 1891, were included in a London Metropolitan Police Service investigation, and were known collectively in the police docket as the “Whitechapel murders”. Opinions vary as to whether these murders should be linked to the same culprit, but five of the eleven Whitechapel murders, known as the “canonical five”, are widely believed to be the work of the Ripper. Most experts point to deep throat slashes, abdominal and genital-area mutilation, removal of internal organs, and progressive facial mutilations as the distinctive features of Jack the Ripper’s modus operandi. The first two cases in the Whitechapel murders file, those of Emma Elizabeth Smith and Martha Tabram, are not included in the canonical five.

    Smith was robbed and sexually assaulted on Osborn Street, Whitechapel, on 3 April 1888. A blunt object was inserted into her vagina, rupturing her peritoneum. She developed peritonitis, and died the following day at London Hospital. She said that she had been attacked by two or three men, one of whom was a teenager. The attack was linked to the later murders by the press, but most authors attribute it to gang violence unrelated to the Ripper case.

    Tabram was killed on 7 August 1888; she had suffered 39 stab wounds. The savagery of the murder, the lack of obvious motive, and the closeness of the location (George Yard, Whitechapel) and date to those of the later Ripper murders led police to link them. The attack differs from the canonical murders in that Tabram was stabbed rather than slashed at the throat and abdomen, and many experts today do not connect it with the later murders because of the difference in the wound pattern.

    Canonical five

    The canonical five Ripper victims are Mary Ann Nichols, Annie Chapman, Elizabeth Stride, Catherine Eddowes and Mary Jane Kelly. Nichols’ body was discovered at about 3:40 a.m. on Friday 31 August 1888 in Buck’s Row (now Durward Street), Whitechapel. The throat was severed by two cuts, and the lower part of the abdomen was partly ripped open by a deep, jagged wound. Several other incisions on the abdomen were caused by the same knife.

    Chapman’s body was discovered at about 6 a.m. on Saturday 8 September 1888 near a doorway in the back yard of 29 Hanbury Street, Spitalfields. As in the case of Mary Ann Nichols, the throat was severed by two cuts. The abdomen was slashed entirely open, and it was later discovered that the uterus had been removed. At the inquest, one witness described seeing Chapman at about 5:30 a.m. with a dark-haired man of “shabby-genteel” appearance.

    Stride and Eddowes were killed in the early morning of Sunday 30 September 1888. Stride’s body was discovered at about 1 a.m., in Dutfield’s Yard, off Berner Street (now Henriques Street) in Whitechapel. The cause of death was one clear-cut incision which severed the main artery on the left side of the neck. Uncertainty about whether Stride’s murder should be attributed to the Ripper, or whether he was interrupted during the attack, stems from the absence of mutilations to the abdomen. Witnesses who thought they saw Stride with a man earlier that night gave differing descriptions: some said her companion was fair, others dark; some said he was shabbily dressed, others well-dressed.

    Eddowes’ body was found in Mitre Square, in the City of London, three-quarters of an hour after Stride’s. The throat was severed, and the abdomen was ripped open by a long, deep, jagged wound. The left kidney and the major part of the uterus had been removed. A local man, Joseph Lawende, had passed through the square with two friends shortly before the murder, and he described seeing a fair-haired man of shabby appearance with a woman who may have been Eddowes. His companions were unable to confirm his description. Eddowes’ and Stride’s murders were later called the “double event”. Part of Eddowes’ bloodied apron was found at the entrance to a tenement in Goulston Street, Whitechapel. Some writing on the wall above the apron piece, which became known as the Goulston Street graffito, seemed to implicate a Jew or Jews, but it was unclear whether the graffito was written by the murderer as he dropped the apron piece, or merely incidental. Police Commissioner Charles Warren feared the graffito might spark anti-semitic riots, and ordered it washed away before dawn.

    Black and white photograph of an eviscerated human body lying on a bed. The face is mutilated.
    Official police photograph of Mary Kelly’s murder scene in 13 Miller’s Court

    Kelly’s mutilated body was discovered lying on the bed in the single room where she lived at 13 Miller’s Court, off Dorset Street, Spitalfields, at 10:45 a.m. on Friday 9 November 1888. The throat had been severed down to the spine, and the abdomen almost emptied of its organs. The heart was missing.

    The canonical five murders were perpetrated at night, on or close to a weekend, and either at the end of a month or a week or so after. The mutilations became increasingly severe as the series of murders proceeded, except for that of Stride, whose attacker may have been interrupted. Nichols was not missing any organs; Chapman’s uterus was taken; Eddowes had her uterus and a kidney removed and her face mutilated; and Kelly’s body was eviscerated and her face hacked away, though only her heart was missing from the crime scene.

    Historically, the belief that these five crimes were committed by the same man derives from contemporary documents that link them together to the exclusion of others. In 1894, Sir Melville Macnaghten, Assistant Chief Constable of the Metropolitan Police Service and Head of the Criminal Investigation Department (CID), wrote a report that stated: “the Whitechapel murderer had 5 victims-& 5 victims only”. Similarly, the canonical five victims were linked together in a letter written by the police surgeon Thomas Bond to Robert Anderson, head of the London CID, on 10 November 1888. Some researchers have posited that while some of the murders were undoubtedly the work of a single killer, an unknown larger number of killers acting independently were responsible for the others. Authors Stewart P. Evans and Donald Rumbelow argue that the canonical five is a “Ripper myth” and that while three cases (Nichols, Chapman, and Eddowes) can be definitely linked, there is less certainty over Stride and Kelly, and less again over Tabram. Conversely, others suppose that the six murders between Tabram and Kelly were the work of a single killer. Dr Percy Clark, assistant to the examining pathologist George Bagster Phillips, linked only three of the murders and thought the others were perpetrated by “weak-minded individual[s] … induced to emulate the crime”. Macnaghten did not join the police force until the year after the murders, and his memorandum contains serious factual errors about possible suspects.

    Later Whitechapel murders

    Kelly is generally considered to be the Ripper’s final victim, and it is assumed that the crimes ended because of the culprit’s death, imprisonment, institutionalisation, or emigration. The Whitechapel murders file does, however, detail another four murders that happened after the canonical five: those of Rose Mylett, Alice McKenzie, the Pinchin Street torso and Frances Coles.

    Mylett was found strangled in Clarke’s Yard, High Street, Poplar on 20 December 1888. As there was no sign of a struggle, the police believed that she had accidentally choked herself while in a drunken stupor, or committed suicide.[39] Nevertheless, the inquest jury returned a verdict of murder.

    McKenzie was killed on 17 July 1889 by severance of the left carotid artery. Several minor bruises and cuts were found on the body, discovered in Castle Alley, Whitechapel. One of the examining pathologists, Thomas Bond, believed this to be a Ripper murder, though another pathologist, George Bagster Phillips, who had examined the bodies of three previous victims, disagreed.[40] Later writers are also divided between those who think that her murderer copied the Ripper’s modus operandi to deflect suspicion from himself, and those that ascribe it to the Ripper.

    “The Pinchin Street torso” was a headless and legless torso of an unidentified woman found under a railway arch in Pinchin Street, Whitechapel, on 10 September 1889. It seems probable that the murder was committed elsewhere and that parts of the dismembered body were dispersed for disposal.

    Coles was killed on 13 February 1891 under a railway arch at Swallow Gardens, Whitechapel. Her throat was cut but the body was not mutilated. James Thomas Sadler, seen earlier with her, was arrested by the police, charged with her murder and was briefly thought to be the Ripper. He was, however, discharged from court for lack of evidence on 3 March 1891.

    Other alleged victims

    In addition to the eleven Whitechapel murders, commentators have linked other attacks to the Ripper. In one case, that of “Fairy Fay”, it is unclear whether the attack was real or fabricated as a part of Ripper lore. “Fairy Fay” was a nickname given to a victim allegedly found on 26 December 1887 “after a stake had been thrust through her abdomen”, but there were no recorded murders in Whitechapel at or around Christmas 1887. “Fairy Fay” could have been created by the press through confusion of the details of the murder of Emma Elizabeth Smith with a separate non-fatal attack the previous Christmas. Most authors agree that “Fairy Fay” never existed.

    Annie Millwood was admitted to Whitechapel workhouse infirmary with stab wounds in the legs and lower abdomen on 25 February 1888. She was discharged but died from apparently natural causes aged 38 on 31 March 1888. She was later postulated as the Ripper’s first victim, but the attack cannot be linked definitely. Another supposed early victim was Ada Wilson, who reportedly survived being stabbed twice in the neck on 28 March 1888. Annie Farmer, who resided at the same lodging house as Martha Tabram, reported an attack on 21 November 1888. She had a superficial cut on her throat, but it was possibly self-inflicted.

    Drawing of three men discovering the torso of a woman
    “The Whitehall Mystery” of October 1888

    “The Whitehall Mystery” was a term coined for the discovery of a headless torso of a woman on 2 October 1888 in the basement of the new Metropolitan Police headquarters being built in Whitehall. An arm belonging to the body was previously discovered floating in the river Thames near Pimlico, and one of the legs was subsequently discovered buried near where the torso was found. The other limbs and head were never recovered and the body was never identified. The mutilations were similar to those in the Pinchin Street case, where the legs and head were severed but not the arms. The Whitehall Mystery and the Pinchin Street case may have been part of a series of murders, called the “Thames Mysteries”, committed by a single serial killer, dubbed the “Torso killer”. Whether Jack the Ripper and the “Torso killer” were the same person or separate serial killers active in the same area is debatable. As the modus operandi of the Torso killer differed from that of the Ripper, police at the time discounted any connection between the two. Elizabeth Jackson, a prostitute whose various body parts were collected from the river Thames between 2 and 25 June 1889, may have been another victim of the “Torso killer”.

    John Gill, a seven-year-old boy, was found murdered in Manningham, Bradford, on 29 December 1888. His legs had been severed, his abdomen opened, his intestines drawn out, and his heart and one ear removed. The similarities with the murder of Mary Kelly led to press speculation that the Ripper had killed the boy. The boy’s employer, milkman William Barrett, was twice arrested for the murder on circumstantial evidence but was released.[60] No-one else was ever prosecuted.

    Carrie Brown (nicknamed “Shakespeare”, reportedly for quoting Shakespeare’s sonnets) was strangled with clothing and then mutilated with a knife on 24 April 1891 in New York City. Her body was found with a large tear through her groin area and superficial cuts on her legs and back. No organs were removed from the scene, though an ovary, either purposely removed or unintentionally dislodged, was found upon the bed. At the time, the murder was compared to those in Whitechapel, though the Metropolitan Police eventually ruled out any connection.

    Investigation

    Sketch of a whiskered man in profile
    Inspector Frederick Abberline, 1888

    The surviving police files on the Whitechapel murders allow a detailed view of investigative procedure in the Victorian era. A large team of policemen conducted house-to-house inquiries throughout Whitechapel. Forensic material was collected and examined. Suspects were identified, traced and either examined more closely or eliminated from the inquiry. Police work follows the same pattern today. More than 2,000 people were interviewed, “upwards of 300″ people were investigated, and 80 people were detained.

    The investigation was initially conducted by the Metropolitan Police Whitechapel (H) Division Criminal Investigation Department (CID) headed by Detective Inspector Edmund Reid. After the murder of Nichols, Detective Inspectors Frederick Abberline, Henry Moore, and Walter Andrews were sent from Central Office at Scotland Yard to assist. After the Eddowes murder, which occurred within the City of London, the City Police under Detective Inspector James McWilliam were involved. However, overall direction of the murder enquiries was hampered by the fact that the newly appointed head of the CID, Robert Anderson, was on leave in Switzerland between 7 September and 6 October, during the time Chapman, Stride and Eddowes were killed. This prompted the Metropolitan Police Commissioner, Sir Charles Warren, to appoint Chief Inspector Donald Swanson to coordinate the enquiry from Scotland Yard.

    Drawing of a blind-folded policeman with arms outstretched in the midst of a bunch of ragamuffin ruffians
    “Blind man’s buff”: Punch cartoon by John Tenniel (22 September 1888) criticising the police’s alleged incompetence. The failure of the police to capture the killer reinforced the attitude held by radicals that the police were inept and mismanaged.

    Partly because of dissatisfaction with the police effort, a group of volunteer citizens in London’s East End called the Whitechapel Vigilance Committee patrolled the streets looking for suspicious characters, petitioned the government to raise a reward for information about the killer, and hired private detectives to question witnesses independently.

    Butchers, slaughterers, surgeons and physicians were suspected because of the manner of the mutilations. A surviving note from Major Henry Smith, Acting Commissioner of the City Police, indicates that the alibis of local butchers and slaughterers were investigated, with the result that they were eliminated from the inquiry. A report from Inspector Swanson to the Home Office confirms that 76 butchers and slaughterers were visited, and that the inquiry encompassed all their employees for the previous six months. Some contemporary figures, including Queen Victoria, thought the pattern of the murders indicated that the culprit was a butcher or cattle drover on one of the cattle boats that plied between London and mainland Europe. Whitechapel was close to the London Docks, and usually such boats docked on Thursday or Friday and departed on Saturday or Sunday. The cattle boats were examined but the dates of the murders did not coincide with a single boat’s movements and the transfer of a crewman between boats was also ruled out.

    Criminal profiling

    At the end of October, Robert Anderson asked police surgeon Thomas Bond to give his opinion on the extent of the murderer’s surgical skill and knowledge.[73] The opinion offered by Bond on the character of the “Whitechapel murderer” is the earliest surviving offender profile. Bond’s assessment was based on his own examination of the most extensively mutilated victim and the post mortem notes from the four previous canonical murders. He wrote:

    All five murders no doubt were committed by the same hand. In the first four the throats appear to have been cut from left to right, in the last case owing to the extensive mutilation it is impossible to say in what direction the fatal cut was made, but arterial blood was found on the wall in splashes close to where the woman’s head must have been lying. All the circumstances surrounding the murders lead me to form the opinion that the women must have been lying down when murdered and in every case the throat was first cut.

    Bond was strongly opposed to the idea that the murderer possessed any kind of scientific or anatomical knowledge, or even “the technical knowledge of a butcher or horse slaughterer”. In his opinion the killer must have been a man of solitary habits, subject to “periodical attacks of homicidal and erotic mania”, with the character of the mutilations possibly indicating “satyriasis”. Bond also stated that “the homicidal impulse may have developed from a revengeful or brooding condition of the mind, or that religious mania may have been the original disease but I do not think either hypothesis is likely”.

    While there is no evidence of any sexual activity with any of the victims, psychologists suppose that the penetration of the victims with a knife and “leaving them on display in sexually degrading positions with the wounds exposed” indicates that the perpetrator derived sexual pleasure from the attacks. This view is challenged by others who dismiss such hypotheses as insupportable supposition.

    Suspects

    Cartoon of a man holding a bloody knife looking contemptuously at a display of half-a-dozen supposed and dissimilar likenesses
    Speculation as to the identity of Jack the Ripper: cover of the 21 September 1889, issue of Puck magazine, by cartoonist Tom Merry

    The concentration of the killings around weekends and public holidays, and within a few streets of each other, has indicated to many that the Ripper was in regular employment and lived locally. Others have thought the killer was an educated upper-class man, possibly a doctor or an aristocrat, who ventured into Whitechapel from a more well-to-do area. Such theories draw on cultural perceptions such as fear of the medical profession, mistrust of modern science, or the exploitation of the poor by the rich. Suspects proposed years after the murders include virtually anyone remotely connected to the case by contemporary documents, as well as many famous names, who were never considered in the police investigation. As everyone alive at the time is now dead, modern authors are free to accuse anyone, “without any need for any supporting historical evidence”. Suspects named in contemporary police documents include three in Sir Melville Macnaghten’s 1894 memorandum, but the evidence against them is circumstantial at best.

    Despite the many and varied theories about the identity and profession of Jack the Ripper, authorities are not agreed upon any of them and the number of named suspects reaches over one hundred.

    Letters

    Jack the Ripper letters
    “Dear Boss” letter
    “Saucy Jacky” postcard
    “From Hell” letter
    Openshaw letter

    Over the course of the Ripper murders, the police, newspapers and others received hundreds of letters regarding the case. Some were well-intentioned offers of advice for catching the killer but the vast majority were useless.

    Hundreds of letters claimed to have been written by the killer himself, and three of these in particular are prominent: the “Dear Boss” letter, the “Saucy Jacky” postcard and the “From Hell” letter.

    The “Dear Boss” letter, dated 25 September, was postmarked 27 September 1888. It was received that day by the Central News Agency, and was forwarded to Scotland Yard on 29 September. Initially it was considered a hoax, but when Eddowes was found three days after the letter’s postmark with one ear partially cut off, the letter’s promise to “clip the ladys (sic) ears off” gained attention. However, Eddowes’ ear appears to have been nicked by the killer incidentally during his attack, and the letter writer’s threat to send the ears to the police was never carried out. The name “Jack the Ripper” was first used in this letter by the signatory and gained worldwide notoriety after its publication. Most of the letters that followed copied this letter’s tone. Some sources claim that another letter, dated 17 September 1888, was the first to use the name “Jack the Ripper”, but most experts believe this was a fake inserted into police records in the 20th century.

    Scrawled and misspelled note reading: From hell-Mr Lusk-Sir I send you half the kidne I took from one woman prasarved it for you tother piece I fried and ate it was very nise I may send you the bloody knif that took it out if you only wate a whil longer-Signed Catch me when you can Mishter Lusk
    The “From Hell” letter

    The “Saucy Jacky” postcard was postmarked 1 October 1888 and was received the same day by the Central News Agency. The handwriting was similar to the “Dear Boss” letter. It mentions that two victims were killed very close to one another: “double event this time”, which was thought to refer to the murders of Stride and Eddowes. It has been argued that the letter was mailed before the murders were publicised, making it unlikely that a crank would have such knowledge of the crime, but it was postmarked more than 24 hours after the killings took place, long after details were known by journalists and residents of the area.

    The “From Hell” letter was received by George Lusk, leader of the Whitechapel Vigilance Committee, on 16 October 1888. The handwriting and style is unlike that of the “Dear Boss” letter and “Saucy Jacky” postcard.[99] The letter came with a small box in which Lusk discovered half of a kidney, preserved in “spirits of wine” (ethanol). Eddowes’ left kidney had been removed by the killer. The writer claimed that he “fried and ate” the missing kidney half. There is disagreement over the kidney: some contend it belonged to Eddowes, while others argue it was nothing more than a macabre practical joke. The kidney was examined by Dr Thomas Openshaw of the London Hospital, who determined that it was human and from the left side, but (contrary to false newspaper reports) he could not determine its gender or age. Openshaw subsequently also received a letter signed “Jack the Ripper”.

    Scotland Yard published facsimiles of the “Dear Boss” letter and the postcard on 3 October, in the ultimately vain hope that someone would recognise the handwriting. In a letter to Godfrey Lushington, Permanent Under-Secretary of State for the Home Department, Charles Warren explained “I think the whole thing a hoax but of course we are bound to try & ascertain the writer in any case.” On 7 October 1888, George R. Sims in the Sunday newspaper Referee implied scathingly that the letter was written by a journalist “to hurl the circulation of a newspaper sky high”. Police officials later claimed to have identified a specific journalist as the author of both the “Dear Boss” letter and the postcard. The journalist was identified as Tom Bullen in a letter from Chief Inspector John Littlechild to George R. Sims dated 23 September 1913. A journalist called Fred Best reportedly confessed in 1931 that he had written the letters to “keep the business alive”.

    Media

    Ghastly murder in the East End. Dreadful mutilation of a woman. Capture: Leather Apron
    Newspaper broadsheet referring to the killer as “Leather Apron”, September 1888

    The Ripper murders mark an important watershed in the treatment of crime by journalists. While not the first serial killer, Jack the Ripper’s case was the first to create a worldwide media frenzy. Tax reforms in the 1850s had enabled the publication of inexpensive newspapers with wider circulation. These mushroomed later in the Victorian era to include mass-circulation newspapers as cheap as a halfpenny, along with popular magazines such as The Illustrated Police News, which made the Ripper the beneficiary of previously unparalleled publicity.

    After the murder of Nichols in early September, the Manchester Guardian reported that: “Whatever information may be in the possession of the police they deem it necessary to keep secret … It is believed their attention is particularly directed to … a notorious character known as ‘Leather Apron’.” Journalists were frustrated by the unwillingness of the CID to reveal details of their investigation to the public, and so resorted to writing reports of questionable veracity. Imaginative descriptions of “Leather Apron” appeared in the press, but rival journalists dismissed these as “a mythical outgrowth of the reporter’s fancy”. John Pizer, a local Jew who made footwear from leather, was known by the name “Leather Apron” and was arrested, even though the investigating inspector reported that “at present there is no evidence whatsoever against him”. He was soon released after the confirmation of his alibis.

    After the publication of the “Dear Boss” letter, “Jack the Ripper” supplanted “Leather Apron” as the name adopted by the press and public to describe the killer. The name “Jack” was already used to describe another fabled London attacker: “Spring-heeled Jack”, who supposedly leapt over walls to strike at his victims and escape as quickly as he came. The invention and adoption of a nickname for a particular killer became standard media practice with examples such as the Axeman of New Orleans, the Boston Strangler, and the Beltway Sniper. Examples derived from Jack the Ripper include the French Ripper, the Düsseldorf Ripper, the Camden Ripper, the Blackout Ripper, Jack the Stripper, the Yorkshire Ripper, and the Rostov Ripper. Sensational press reports, combined with the fact that no one was ever convicted of the murders, have confused scholarly analysis and created a legend that casts a shadow over later serial killers.

    Legacy

    A phantom brandishing a knife floats through a slum street
    The ‘Nemesis of Neglect': Jack the Ripper depicted as a phantom stalking Whitechapel, and as an embodiment of social neglect, in a Punch cartoon of 1888

    The nature of the murders and of the victims drew attention to the poor living conditions in the East End, and galvanised public opinion against the overcrowded, unsanitary slums. In the two decades after the murders, the worst of the slums were cleared and demolished, but the streets and some buildings survive and the legend of the Ripper is still promoted by guided tours of the murder sites. The Ten Bells public house in Commercial Street was frequented by at least one of the victims and was the focus of such tours for many years.

    In the immediate aftermath of the murders, and later, “Jack the Ripper became the children’s bogey man.”] Depictions were often phantasmic or monstrous. In the 1920s and 1930s, he was depicted in film dressed in everyday clothes as a man with a hidden secret preying on his unsuspecting victims; atmosphere and evil were suggested through lighting effects and shadowplay. By the 1960s, the Ripper had become “the symbol of a predatory aristocracy”, and was more often portrayed in a top hat dressed as a gentleman. The Establishment as a whole became the villain with the Ripper acting as a manifestation of upper-class exploitation. The image of the Ripper merged with or borrowed symbols from horror stories, such as Dracula’s cloak or Victor Frankenstein’s organ harvest. The fictional world of the Ripper can fuse with multiple genres, ranging from Sherlock Holmes to Japanese erotic horror.

    In addition to the contradictions and unreliability of contemporary accounts, attempts to identify the real killer are hampered by the lack of surviving forensic evidence. DNA analysis on extant letters is inconclusive; the available material has been handled many times and is too contaminated to provide meaningful results.

    Jack the Ripper features in hundreds of works of fiction and works which straddle the boundaries between fact and fiction, including the Ripper letters and a hoax Diary of Jack the Ripper. The Ripper appears in novels, short stories, poems, comic books, games, songs, plays, operas, television programmes and films. More than 100 non-fiction works deal exclusively with the Jack the Ripper murders, making it one of the most written-about true-crime subjects. The term “ripperology” was coined by Colin Wilson in the 1970s to describe the study of the case by professionals and amateurs. The periodicals Ripperana, Ripperologist and Ripper Notes publish their research.

    Unlike murderers of lesser fame, there is no waxwork figure of Jack the Ripper at Madame Tussauds’ Chamber of Horrors, in accordance with their policy of not modelling persons whose likeness is unknown. He is instead depicted as a shadow. In 2006, Jack the Ripper was selected by BBC History magazine and its readers as the worst Briton in history.


     
  • Virtual Chitchatting 9:33 AM on 2014/03/20 Permalink  

    dana coco williams money laundering 


    @cocosworld
    She tweeted: ‘Cosmo is always talkin crap about me! Paparazzi took pics while I was at dog park!
    ‘They think I’m skanky cuz I’m wearing a tank top?? So stupid.’
    The blonde took her pups out as she showed an eye-watering amount of cleavage.


    Coco was doing social media well for herself.


    why chicks love high heels


    http://www.murderpedia.org/male.M/images/morgan_joe/EmeTimeline.pdf


    https://www.skadden.com/sites/default/files/publications/Regulators_Renew_Their_Focus_on_Anti-Money_Laundering_Compliance.pdf


    https://www.skadden.com/insights/regulators-renew-their-focus-anti-money-laundering-compliance

    Regulators Renew Their Focus on Anti-Money Laundering Compliance
    Jamie L. Boucher, Sean M. Thornton, Khalil N. Maalouf
    January 16, 2014 | *Skadden’s 2014 Insights – Financial Regulation |

    A resurgence in anti-money laundering (AML) enforcement over the last few years reflects a renewed post-crisis focus on compliance with the regulatory requirements of the Bank Secrecy Act (BSA) imposed on banks (AML Compliance). With financial institutions generally on the mend in the wake of the global financial crisis, state and federal prosecutors, as well as the federal banking agencies, have redirected their attention toward AML Compliance lapses. This trend has resulted in a number of notable enforcement actions against major financial institutions leading to deferred prosecution agreements, regulatory sanctions and large fines. Fines have grown substantially during this period; internationally active banks, in particular, have incurred staggering fines up to nearly $2 billion. In addition, for such banks, AML Compliance deficiencies have been associated, from a supervisory perspective, with problems in related areas such as compliance with economic and trade sanctions administered by the Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC).

    In recent statements, regulators have signaled a greater focus on pursuing enforcement efforts. For example, in a speech to the Global Economic Policy Forum in November 2013, New York Federal Reserve President William Dudley highlighted “the apparent lack of respect for law, regulation and the public trust” evident by some large financial institutions, adding that “[t]ough enforcement and high penalties will certainly help focus management’s attention on this issue.” This tough enforcement posture, coupled with mounting pressure on Capitol Hill to criminally indict financial institutions for BSA/AML violations, sets the stage for a very active enforcement landscape in 2014.

    At the same time, there has been an increase in enforcement actions and penalties directed at the AML Compliance shortcomings of regional and smaller banks. The growth in such actions also has emerged as an obstacle for institutions contemplating or engaging in mergers and acquisitions.
    Recent Supervisory and Enforcement Actions

    Internationally Active Banks. Authorities have scrutinized large banks with global footprints for AML Compliance in connection with alleged oversight and monitoring deficiencies of their international activities. When entering into deferred prosecution agreements or cease-and-desist orders, authorities have identified a number of AML Compliance issues:

    • Not maintaining an effective AML program and system of internal controls to adequately oversee the institution’s activities.
    • Failure to conduct appropriate due diligence on foreign correspondent account holders.
    • Inadequate monitoring involving remote deposit capture/international cash letter activity in the institution’s foreign correspondent banking business.
    • Deficiencies in ensuring that suspicious activity at a foreign branch is communicated effectively to other affected branches within the institution’s network.
    • Failure to ensure that, on a risk basis, customer transactions at foreign branch locations can be effectively assessed, aggregated and monitored.
    • Conducting inadequate customer due diligence on retail and international banking customers.

    In addition to AML Compliance shortcomings, some institutions were cited for OFAC violations, reflecting a growing interconnection between OFAC and BSA/AML issues as matters of supervisory concern. To address these deficiencies, institutions have been required to take various remedial actions, including:

    • Retaining independent compliance monitors.
    • Improving information sharing systems and increasing AML staffing.
    • Linking executive bonuses to compliance performance.
    • “Clawing back” deferred compensation bonuses given to senior AML and compliance officers.
    • Ensuring compliance officer independence from the business lines.
    • Establishing board-level compliance committees.

    Of note, the United Kingdom’s Financial Conduct Authority (FCA), and its predecessor, the Financial Services Authority, coordinated closely with U.S. authorities, including federal and local prosecutors as well as federal regulators, in a recent multiparty investigation of an internationally active bank. The FCA also independently required the institution to bolster its AML compliance systems and employ an independent monitor.

    Suspicious Activity Report (SARs) Filings. Regulators have taken a closer look at the adequacy and promptness of SARs filings. Last fall, the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (OCC) and the Financial Crimes Enforcement Network (FinCEN) announced a civil money penalty against a national bank. The penalty was for the bank’s failure to file a series of SARs relating to suspicious account activity involving a fraudulent investment scheme undertaken by one of the bank’s customers. The SEC also fined the bank and filed charges against one of its former executives who was accused of enabling the scheme. In connection with this matter, Andrew J. Ceresney, co-director of the SEC’s Division of Enforcement, stated that “[f]inancial institutions are key gatekeepers in the transactions and investments they facilitate and will be held to a high standard of accountability when their officers enable fraud.” Earlier in 2013, the OCC similarly assessed a civil money penalty against another national bank for, among other alleged misconduct, the bank’s late filing of SARs involving cash transactions in which there were indications of illegal “structuring.”

    Smaller Institutions Subject to Scrutiny. Regional and smaller institutions also face greater AML Compliance scrutiny. Regulators and prosecutors have expressed concern that as larger institutions move to reduce risk in their foreign correspondent banking and bulk cash businesses, smaller banks will assume these activities despite having less developed systems of controls and infrastructure to manage the associated risks. For example, FinCEN and the OCC levied a fine on a community bank in September 2013 in conjunction with a civil forfeiture action brought by the DOJ. Regulators identified AML Compliance deficiencies in connection with the bank’s failure to conduct adequate due diligence on foreign correspondent accounts, and to detect and adequately report in a timely manner suspicious activities in the accounts of foreign money exchange houses.

    Impact on an Institution’s Growth. Federal banking agencies’ response to AML Compliance deficiencies includes enforcement actions and assessing money penalties, but also places limits on institutions’ growth via mergers and acquisitions. The Federal Reserve recently exercised such powers by suspending a bank acquisition pending the implementation of a comprehensive plan to fix deficiencies in the acquiror’s internal BSA/AML controls. As an institution expands, whether organically or through acquisitions, regulators expect compliance resources, staffing and expertise to keep pace with growth. Changes in regulatory compliance and bank examination priorities have created greater uncertainty for buyers and sellers alike for transactions that may require at least six months to complete.
    Key Takeaways From Recent Supervisory and Enforcement Actions

    A review of the publicly available actions reveals the following important takeaways:

    High-Risk Areas. Institutions should ensure adequate and effective AML Compliance programs, systems and procedures. Specifically, BSA/AML programs need to be updated to take into account higher risk areas, such as foreign correspondent banking practices and bulk cash transactions. AML information technology and transaction monitoring systems should be updated to reflect these risks.

    Compliance Infrastructure. Institutions should commit more resources to ensure strong compliance programs. Moreover, compliance staff must have the authority to fully implement a BSA compliance program consistent with the risks and the institution’s profile, and, as needed, to question account relationships and business plans.

    Independent Compliance Function. Compliance staff also should be independent from the business line and not subject to evaluation or performance determinations from the business.

    Independent Reviews. In scrutinizing the adequacy and promptness of SARs filings, enforcement actions increasingly are requiring institutions to conduct independent reviews of transaction and account activity.

    This memorandum is provided by Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom LLP and its affiliates for educational and informational purposes only and is not intended and should not be construed as legal advice. This memorandum is considered advertising under applicable state laws.
    __________________

    • This article appeared in the firm’s sixth annual edition of Insights on January 16, 2014.

    Hitha Prabhakar: Black Market Billions: How Organized Retail Crime Funds Global Terrorists

    http://ptgmedia.pearsoncmg.com/images/9780132180245/samplepages/0132180243.pdf

    Part I The Piracy Economy

    Chapter 1
    Organized Retail Crime Goes Global . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
    Why Is ORC Such a Threat? . 11
    The Promised Land: Money Talks 13
    Made in America: Homegrown Terrorism 17
    Recruiting from the Inside 19
    From Prison to Gangs to the World’s Most Notorious Terrorist Group 21
    Access to Funding Gets Creative 25
    Burrowing In: The Hezbollah Finds a Home in the U.S. and South America 27
    From America to South America: Ties Get Stronger in the Tri-Border Region . 28

    Chapter 2
    When a Deal Isn’t a Deal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
    Getting a Slice of Luxury the Cheapest Way Possible . 34
    The “Real Deal” . 36
    Dying for a Deal: The Recession Doesn’t Make Aspirations Go Away 38
    Big Takedowns Take Precedence Over Smaller Offenders 39
    Counterfeiters and ORC Move Their Operations Online 40
    eBay’s Swift Response 42
    Too Little, Too Late . 44
    Lurking in the Shadows: Stolen Gift Cards Bought Online 45
    Easy to Obtain, Easy to Sell 46
    Fake-out: Retailers Fronting as Legitimate Stores 48
    Protecting Yourself: Know the Signs of E-fencing/ORC . 51

    Chapter 3
    The Cost to the Stores . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
    The Blame Game . 54
    Insider Information: Employee Theft and ORC 54
    Human Resources Fail: Hiring the Wrong People 56
    Wholesale Scam: Terrorist-Affiliated Warehouses Sell to the Little Guy 61
    Taking a Bite Out of the Balance Sheet: Economic Downturn Fosters Cargo Theft . 64
    Coordinating Information in Real Time: LAPD and APD Case Studies . 67

    Part II Follow the Money

    Chapter 4
    The Money Trail and the Business of Cross-Border Trade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
    The Warehouse: Ground Zero for Cross-Border Trade . 80
    Profile of a Purchaser 81
    Keeping Shelves Stocked Through Cargo Theft 83
    Coveted Items: Over-the-Counter Drugs . 84
    Profile of a Cargo Thief . 86
    “Shell Stores”: A Conduit for Organized Retail Crime . 87
    Shell Stores Move Online 89
    A Hotbed of Stolen Merchandise: Flea Markets . 91
    Nabbing the Bad Guys: Classifying Organized Retail Crime as a Felony 91
    Insurance Companies: The Missing Link . 93
    The Gray Market: Another Retail Facilitator of ORC . 94
    Laws Have Been Passed, But Are They Helping? . 95

    Chapter 5
    Profile of a Booster and a Fence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
    Moving the Merchandise: The Role of a Fence . 100
    Being Convicted as a Level 1 Fence: More Like a Slap on the Wrist Than a Slap in the Face . 101
    The Level 2 Booster: Inside the Mind of a Potentially Dangerous Criminal . 104
    Other Forms of Theft from a Level 2 Booster . 106
    Level 3 Boosters and Fences: A High-Level Organization Equals High Profits . 108
    Level 3 Boosters: Frequently Lifted Merchandise 112
    Curbing Boosters and Fences: What Does and Doesn’t Work 115

    Chapter 6
    Family Ties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
    When Family Funds Support Terrorism 121
    Assad Muhammad Barakat and His “Family” 123
    Illegal Entry into the U.S. Is Not Difficult—if You Have Money . 127
    The Great Entrepreneurs: Terrorists 132
    The Trust Factor: The Basis of Any Organized Retail Crime Ring 136
    Chapter 7 Money Laundering 2.0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
    The Three Stages of Money Laundering 141
    Organized Retail Crime and Latin America . 151
    Funneling Money Through the Black Market Peso Exchange . 152
    The South American, Mexican, and African Connection 155
    Chapter 8 The Political Agenda . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159
    Homegrown Terrorism: How Retail Theft and Piracy Has Funded Terrorist Operations 160
    Rebel Kids: Extremist Ideas Financed Through International ORC . 163
    When Things Went Awry . 164
    ORC Funding by Way of Somalia: A Tale of Two Misguided Kids 165
    As Local as Down the Street . 168
    Funding Evil Under the Guise of Charitable Contributions: The Mosques . 168
    Muslim Charities: Capitalizing on Natural Disaster and Religious Empathy . 169
    Terrorist Fund-Raising Via Charities Finds Roots in the U.S. 172
    Charitable Donation Loopholes: How the IRS and Banking Systems Failed to Prevent Fraudulent ORC Funds from Financing Terrorist Groups . 173
    Charities Turn to a Cyber Audience . 175
    Why the Government Can’t Regulate Charities . 175
    Chapter 9 Strange Bedfellows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
    How Banned TVs Funded Bombings . 180
    The Business of Cigarette Smuggling . 183
    The EC Versus R.J. Reynolds Tobacco . 185
    The Role of Money Brokers and Money Launderers 186
    The History of Cigarette Smuggling . 188
    Cigarette Smuggling Funds Local Terrorism Around the World 189
    Chiquita International Brands: “Either You Pay Me, or I Am Going to Kill You.” . 192
    Dole Foods’ Involvement with the Colombian Paramilitary 195

    Part III Putting a Band-Aid on a Broken Leg

    Chapter 10
    The Failure of Preventative Measures . . . . . . . . . . .201
    Acting Locally, Thinking Globally . 202
    Types of ORC Theft Prevention That Are Supposed to Work But Don’t 204
    A Bottom-Line Breakdown of Costs . 207
    Legal Issues: Defining ORC Versus Shoplifting and Shrinkage 215
    Regulating the Resale Market . 216
    Chapter 11 Letting the Bad Guy Get Away . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .219
    Regulation Epic Fail: How Banking BSAs and AML Programs Let Terrorist Funding Slip
    Through the Cracks . 222
    Continued Failure to Regulate IFTs: The Costs to Local and Federal Governments as Well as Retailers 223
    Failure to Regulate Hawalas . 224
    IFTs Get Sophisticated: Stored Value Cards 227
    Bulk Cash Smuggling Comes in a Smaller Package . 228
    Retailers Feel the Pain of SVC Fraud 230
    Credit Card Fraud Is Even Worse 231
    RICO Defined . 234
    Why ORC Rings Still Exist: Money Laundering and the RICO Statute 235
    More Problems with RICO: It’s in the Definition . 236
    Laws That Once Protected Potential Terrorists Have Changed 239
    Defining “Material Support” and “Coordination” . 239

    Epilogue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243
    Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247
    Endnotes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271
    Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299


     
  • Virtual Chitchatting 2:09 PM on 2014/03/19 Permalink  

    there was a time for everyone 

    Can You Feel The Love Tonight
    Elton John

    There’s a calm surrender
    To the rush of day
    When the heat of the rolling world
    Can be turned away
    An enchanted moment
    And it sees me through
    It’s enough for this restless warrior
    Just to be with you

    And can you feel the love tonight?
    It is where we are
    It’s enough for this wide-eyed wanderer
    That we got this far
    And can you feel the love tonight
    How it’s laid to rest?
    It’s enough to make kings and vagabonds
    Believe the very best

    There’s a time for everyone
    If they only learn
    That the twisting kaleidoscope
    Moves us all in turn
    There’s a rhyme and reason
    To the wild outdoors
    When the heart of this star-crossed voyager
    Beats in time with yours

    It’s enough to make kings and vagabonds
    Believe the very best

    CIX Lyric Service
    Uploader:CIXLyricsRobot


    Elton John – Can You Feel The Love Tonight (High Quality) – YouTube

    28 Oct 2008 – 4 min – Uploaded by Frenky121212
    ► 3:55


    Can you feel the love tonight – Elton John (Lyrics) – YouTube

    13 Nov 2008 – 4 min – Uploaded by Ravnen95
    ► 4:00


    Lion King – Can You Feel The Love Tonight – YouTube

    16 Oct 2007 – 3 min – Uploaded by WaItDisneyWorId
    ► 3:28


    Elton John – Can You Feel the Love Tonight | Music | Disney Video

    http://video.disney.com/watch/elton-john-can-you-feel-the-love-tonight-4bb39e3bdffcca8833003b15

    23 Mar 2012 – 4 min
    ► 3:60


     
  • Virtual Chitchatting 1:10 PM on 2014/03/18 Permalink  

    Jumhur Hidayat: Sang Kutu Loncat, Korlap Demo, Mantan Napi, Penghisap Darah TKI, dan Biang Mafia Kejahatan terhadap TKI
    by S3ra Sutan Rajo Ali
    Jakarta, 2014-03-18 11:02

    Beberapa waktu yang lalu, kala penulis sedang melakukan penelitian tentang TKI, penulis terpesona dengan ketertutupan data tentang TKI oleh para punggawa yang pongah di BNP2TKI.

    Kebanyakan manusia-manusia yang direkrut berasal dari Depnakertrans, yang nota bene birokrat yang tidak tahu apa-apa tentang TKI di lapangan.

    Prosedur pendaftaran dan pemberangkatan yang ribet, njelimet, tidak konsisten membuat penulis meyakini, wah ini ladang pemerasan dan penghisapan darah TKI dan CTKI.

    Ternyata, Jumhur Hidayat, bekas anggota tim sukses SBY dan piaraan bininya SBY.

    Mampuslah kau SBY. Membusuklah engkau SBY dan seluruh keturunanmu di dunia.


    http://chirpstory.com/li/48441

    “Korelasi Jumhur ‘Mafia TKI’ HIdayat Dengan Cikeas Corp”
    by @AzanIndonesia, 24/Jan/2013 01:30:12 AM PST

    #1. Jumhur Hidayat bukan kerabat Cikeas, namun dia mendekati Ibu Ani lewat istrinya Ali Febyani Prabandari
    AzanIndonesia 23/Jan/2013 08:20:53 PM PST

    #2. Alia atau biasa dipanggil Feby ini adalah sahabat dekat Angelina Sondakh yg sama2 mantan Putri Indonesia
    AzanIndonesia 23/Jan/2013 08:21:17 PM PST

    #3. Dari pertemanan di alumni Putri Indonesia inilah, mereka bersahabat dan mulai sering diajak masuk ke Cikeas
    AzanIndonesia 23/Jan/2013 08:21:34 PM PST

    #4. Anggi, Feby dan Albertine Endah(penulis buku) adalah “Gosiper”/penggemar gosip infotainment yg selalu setia menemani Bu Ani
    AzanIndonesia 23/Jan/2013 08:22:07 PM PST

    #5. Dari loby Anggi dan Feby inilah Jumhur Hidayat ini bertahan dengan rajin kirim “bingkisan” ke Bu Ani.
    AzanIndonesia 23/Jan/2013 08:22:43 PM PST

    #6. Ada satu lagi team loby ke Cikeas, yaitu Aam Sapulete & Andi Arif. Melalui jaringan ini, Jumhur aman menjalankan kejahatannya memeras TKI
    AzanIndonesia 23/Jan/2013 08:23:37 PM PST

    #7. Selain “mengamankan” Cikeas. Jumhur jg memakai Faizol Reza dan Dita Indahsari mengamankan Muhaimin Iskandar & Dirjen Binapenta Rena Usman
    AzanIndonesia 23/Jan/2013 08:25:19 PM PST

    #8. Melalui bisikan Reza dan Dita inilah Jumhur “memainkan” kebijakan Menaker dan Dirjen Binapenta utk mendukung kejahatan Jumhur.
    AzanIndonesia 23/Jan/2013 08:25:42 PM PST

    #9. Pemilihan konsorsium Paladin sbg pemenang tender Asuransi yg bersedia memberi diskon premi asuransi tak lepas dr main mata Reza & Jumhur
    AzanIndonesia 23/Jan/2013 08:26:33 PM PST

    #10. Agung, Candra, Reza adalah kaki tangan Jumhur dalam merampok seluruh urat nadi kepentingan TKI sejak dan setelah pulang.
    AzanIndonesia 23/Jan/2013 08:26:55 PM PST

    #11. Para tangan kotor Jumhur ini dapat bekerja dengan aman dari incaran KPK, Bareskrim dan Kejaksaan krn dilindungi Dirpam BNP2TKI.
    AzanIndonesia 23/Jan/2013 08:27:09 PM PST

    #12. Peran Bambang selaku Dirpam BNP2TKI sgt strategis untuk mengamankan mereka dari pantauan para penegak hukum di Indonesia.
    AzanIndonesia 23/Jan/2013 08:27:23 PM PST

    #13. Bambang menjadi Dirpam BNP2TKI tak lepas dari kompromi Agung dan Candra krn sepakat akan mengamankan kejahatan mereka.
    AzanIndonesia 23/Jan/2013 08:27:40 PM PST

    #14. Jumhur memang real Mafia TKI berdarah dingin yg sudah 6 tahun bebas menghisap darah para TKI.
    AzanIndonesia 23/Jan/2013 08:28:05 PM PST

    #15. Jangan harap Cikeas akan marah mendengar ttg kejahatan Jumhur Hidayat, krn Feby selalu jadi anak manis dan disayang sama Bu Ani.
    AzanIndonesia 23/Jan/2013 08:28:37 PM PST

    #16. Setelah Anggi masuk penjara KPK, loby ke Bu Ani tetap jalan melalui Albertine Endah(mantan wartawan Kompas).
    AzanIndonesia 23/Jan/2013 08:28:56 PM PST

    #17. Sekian kisah tentang Kisah Mafia Perampok TKI yg dilindungi Cikeas. @TrioMacan2000
    AzanIndonesia 23/Jan/2013 08:29:34 PM PST


    http://forum.detik.com/selusin-dosa-jumhur-hidayat-kepala-bnp2tki-t270574.html

    Selusin Dosa Jumhur Hidayat – Kepala BNP2TKI
    KianSanter, 22nd June 2011, 09:09

    Jumhur Hidayat Orang Kaya Baru peliharaan Istana

    http://www.berpolitik.com/static/myposting/2008/08/myposting_14981.html

    Sewaktu Migran Justice bikin demo di depan Istana Merdeka 31 Juli, ada 1 bundel dokumen yang diedarkan. Isinya adalah dosa-dosa Jumhur Hidayat selaku ketua BNP2TKI. Menurut dokumen ini, dosa Jumhur tak hanya moral tetapi juga mencakup pelangaran BNP2TKI terhadap UU No. 39 Tahun 2004, Perpres No. 81 Taahun 2006 dan PERMENAKER No. 18 dan No. 20 Tahun 2007 maupun peraturan lainnya. agar tak capai membacanya, saya kutipkan pokok-pokoknya dalam beberapa postingan. selamat membaca:

    1. Klaim Jumhur Hidayat sebagai aktivis NGO, tak lebih hanya mendompleng kelompok Gaspermindo. Sebagai aktivis Jumhur diragukan kemampuannya menjadi seorang birokrat. Dalam hal kapasitas dan kapabilitas Jumhur dianggap tidak akan mampu menyelesaikan berbagai permasalahan Tenaga Kerja Indonesia (TKI) yang begitu komplek, baik ketika sebelum maupun setelah di luar negeri, mengingat Jumhur tidak memiliki latar belakang dan pengalaman sedikutpun tentang perbutuhan/ TKI.

    2. Di dalam Perpres 81 Tahun 2006 disebutkan bahwa Kepala Badan hanya diberikan fasilitas setingkat Eselon I a, hanya setingkat Dirjen. Dalam kenyataan Kepala BNP2TKI justru merasa sebagai kepala lembaga pemerintah non departemen super body dan setingkat Menteri, bahkan melebihi seorang Menteri, paling tidak dalam hal protoler, dimana Jumhur menggunakan 7-8 orang pengawal 2 ajudan, 3 sekretaris pribadi, 10 staff khusus. Padahal yang diamanatkan UU No. 39 Tahun 2004 maupun Perpres No. 81 Tahun 2006 adalah mengangkat 5 orang tenaga profesional. Hal ini membuktikan bila Jumhur tidak memahami sama sekali tentang birokrasi. Jumhur bahkan memaksa Kepala Biro Keuangan BNP2TKI untuk membayar sewa kontrak rumah (rumah dinas?) sebesar 250 Juta pertahun, hal yan belum pernah terjadi dala sejarah pemberian fasilitas kepada pejabat Esekon Ia.

    hijau_hijau, 22nd June 2011, 09:24
    Kalau nggak salah dulu pernah aktif di salah satu Parpol,
    Partai Daulat Rakyat bersama dengan Mantan Menkop Adi Sasono.

    ESENZA, 22nd June 2011, 10:10
    Partai busuk dengan orang2 busuk, memang paling suka berkumpul di pemerintahan busuk….dengan pemimpin busuk….klop dah!


    http://sosok.kompasiana.com/2011/10/31/sekilas-mohammad-jumhur-hidayat-408480.html

    Sekilas Mohammad Jumhur Hidayat
    REP | 01 November 2011 | 00:00

    Moh Jumhur Hidayat Mantan Aktivis Pergerakan Mahasiswa ITB Sekarang Kepala BNP2TKI
    (Disarikan dari Manuskrip Biografi Mohammad Jumhur Hidayat, “Tetaplah Menjadi Rajawali”)

    MOHAMMAD Jumhur Hidayat lahir di Bandung, Jawa Barat pada Minggu 18 Februari 1968, sebagai anak ketiga dari empat bersaudara pasangan Mohammad Sobari Sumartadinata (almarhum) dan Ati Amiyati. Dua kakaknya, Endah Sulastiana dan Mohammad Imam Afandi, sedangkan adiknya bernama Mohammad Agung Anugerah. Pria yang sehari-hari gemar berbatik serta hobi bermain musik ini, menikah dalam usia 39 tahun dengan mempersunting runner up “Puteri Indonesia 2001″, Alia Febyani Prabandari. Perbedaan usia Jumhur dengan isterinya terpaut 12 tahun. Alia lahir di Jakarta pada Rabu 13 Februari 1980.

    Dari pernikahannya Jumhur dikaruniai dua orang anak yang masih tergolong kecil, masing-masing Ahmad Moqtav Hidayat menjelang usia 3 tahun (lahir 16 Desember 2007), dan Naeva Hilya Athahira yang kini baru sepuluh bulan (lahir 3 Desember 2010). Jumhur menikah di Jakarta pada 19 Januari 2007, sepekan setelah diangkat menjadi Kepala Badan Nasional Penempatan dan Perlindungan Tenaga Kerja Indonesia (BNP2TKI) oleh Presiden Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono melalui Kepres No 02/2007 tertanggal 11 Januari 2007.

    Masa kecil Jumhur dilalui di lingkungan perumahan perusahaan perbankan nasional kawasan Palbatu, Tebet, Jakarta Selatan. Semasa hidup, ayahnya seorang pejabat di Bapindo (Bank Pembangunan Indonesia). Namun Jumhur lebih senang bermain dengan anak-anak ‘kampung’ di luar kompleks perumahannya, berikut kesukaannya bermain catur di pos ronda milik warga yang berbeda dari tempat tinggalnya.

    “Kulit saya menjadi hitam sekali dan bau karena sering bermain-main di got dengan teman sebaya luar kompleks. Sangat berbeda dengan kakak sendiri atau orang kompleks yang bersih dan wangi,” katanya tentang masa kecilnya. Ia juga dikenal dikenal sebagai anak pemberani, penuh perhatian pada orang lain, sekaligus dididik secara sederhana yang tetap melekat dalam kesederhaan hidupnya hingga saat ini.

    Mengomentari sosok Jumhur yang penuh nilai-nilai kepedulian sosial dan bersikap sederhana, seorang sahabatnya, Mochammad Fadjroel Rachman berkomentar, “Jumhur Hidayat merupakan pribadi yang menarik. Ia berangkat dengan latarbelakang sosial berkecukupan, pintar dan berprestasi, tapi justru hidupnya banyak sekali membantu orang lain,” ujarnya. “Tak ada secuil pun pakaian mahal pada diri Jumhur yang selalu berbatik itu,” tambah Fadjroel.

    Boleh jadi kesederhanaan begitu mengakar dalam jiwa Jumhur. Saat celana atau bajunya robek ia juga spontan menjahitnya sendiri. Memang, ke mana pun Jumhur pergi, kopernya tak pernah luput dari peralatan alat jahit seumpamabenang dan jarum, sehingga sewaktu-waktu dapat digunakan untuk menjahit (menyulam) pakaiannya jika kedapatan robek. Kesederhaan lain pada dirinya menyangkut soal makanan. Jumhur terbiasa menyantap indomie rebus, cireng (aci digoreng), atau bakso saat sedang berada di kantor.

    Jumhur mengenyam pendidikan dasar di SD Negeri Menteng 02 Pagi Jakarta Pusat pada 1974-1980. Lalu melanjutkan ke SMP Negeri 1 Cikini, Jakarta Pusat sampai naik kelas dua, kemudian pindah ke SMP Negeri 1 Denpasar, Bali, mengikuti penugasan ayahnya ke daerah. Pada 1983 ia masuk di SMA Negeri 1 Denpasar, Bali, sebelum pindah lagi ke SMA 3 Bandung di kelas dua.

    Aktivis Mahasiswa ke Penjara

    Selepas dari SMA 3 Bandung, Jumhur masuk Institut Teknologi Bandung (ITB) dan mengambil jurusan Teknik Fisika pada 1986. Sejak tercatat mahasiswa tingkat pertama di ITB, Jumhur sudah telah berkali-kali ambil bagian dalam aksi unjuk rasa mahasiswa di kampus maupun aksi lain bersama mahasiswa di kota Bandung, utamanya terkait pembelaan hak-hak petani ataupun menentang penggusuran tanah rakyat seperti dalam kasus tanah Badega, Kacapiring, Cimacan, dan Kedung Ombo yang isunya menonjol pada 1988.

    Akibat berkali-kali menyelenggarakan aksi turun ke jalan, Jumhur merasa dirinya acap menjadi target aparat keamanan. Jumhur pertama kali dijadikan target penangkapan (tepatnya oleh aparat intelijen Badan Koordinasi Stabilitas Nasional Daerah/Bakorstanasda Jawa Barat) saat ia dan kawan-kawan mengadakan pergelaran musik menyambut tahun baru 1988, menghadirkan kalangan penyanyi rakyat yang diadakan di Lapangan Basket ITB, diikuti massa sekitar 10 ribu orang terdiri mahasiswa berbagai kampus di Bandung dan masyarakat luas.

    Pada acara bertajuk “The Blue Night” itu, Jumhur menjadi pembawa acara namun kerap menggelorakan seruan-seruan perlawanan terhadap rezim Orde Baru. Selepas acara itu, beberapa hari lamanya Jumhur dan pihak penyelenggara dari ITB dicari aparat berwenang. Tapi Jumhur bersama lainnya urung ditangkap pada waktu itu.

    Penangkapan terhadap Jumhur terjadi dalam momentum peristiwa 5 Agustus 1989, yang juga melibatkan kawan-kawannya di antaranya Mochammad Fadjroel Rachman, Arnold Purba, Supriyanto alias Enin, Amarsyah, dan Bambang Sugiyanto Lasijanto.

    Salah satu alasan mengapa ia ditangkap setelah menyelenggarakan aksi mahasiswa menentang kedatangan Menteri Dalam Negeri Rudini pada hari Sabtu pukul 13.00 WIB tanggal 5 Agustus 1989 di depan kampus ITB, karena memang telah berkali-kali melakukan aksi unjuk rasa. “Aparat keamanan mendapat momentum untuk menangkap saya. Jadi, saya lalui saja karena sudah menduga hal itu,” paparnya. Tentu saja, peristiwa 5 Agustus 1989 yang membuatnya dijebloskan ke penjara merupakan pemicu utama atas penangkapannya.

    Pada sisi lain, kasus pemecatan dirinya dan lima orang rekannya sesama mahasiswa ITB-dalam peristiwa 5 Agustus 1989-telah menjadi sejarah baru dalam pergerakan mahasiswa melawan penguasa, yang sebelumnya tidak pernah terjadi. “Pemecatan saya dan kawan-kawan sebagai mahasiswa ITB itu sangat menyakitkan karena tidak fair,” tandas Jumhur, yang duduk di tahun ketiga saat dirinya dipecat. Mengenai penangkapan atau pemenjaraan yang dilaluinya tidak lah ia sesali sama sekali. Semua itu ia terima sebagai risiko perjuangan menegakkan kebenaran dan keadilan.

    Jumhur bersama rekan-rekan aktivis mahasiswa ITB pada hari Sabtu 5 Agustus 1989 menolak kehadiran Menteri Dalam Negeri Jenderal (Purn) Rudini di kampus Ganesha ITB untuk memberikan kuliah perdana pada kegiatan Penataran Pedoman Penghayatan dan Pengamalan Pancasila (P-4) mahasiswa baru ITB.

    Saat itu, sejumlah mahasiswa menghadang Mendagri di depan Kampus ITB, karena dianggap bertanggungjawab membawahi pemerintah daerah yang berkolusi dengan pengusaha dalam menggusur tanah-tanah milik rakyat. Jumhur yang berperan komandan aksi lapangan berpidato mendramatisasi situasi dan memerintahkan pembakaran ban kepada para demonstran, selain berbagai poster berisi protes pada pemerintahan Orde Baru yang juga diusung mahasiswa hinga dengan sendirinya menambah aksi semakin panas.

    Tuntutan agar Orde Baru dibubarkan salah satunya disimbolkan dengan penolakan kedatangan Rudini ke kampus ITB, teriakan kecaman dengan menuntut Soeharto turun, Orba dibubarkan, termasuk menolak indoktrinasi P-4 ke dalam lembaga pendidikan seperti ITB.

    Namun, aksi yang bermula di Jalan Tamansari dan Jalan Ganesha depan Kampus ITB itu serta merta menjadi tidak terkendali setelah aparat keamanan bersenjata lengkap menghadapinya secara represif. Aparat tidak sekadar membubarkan paksa dengan pentungan, tetapi menempatkan panser berikut ratusan polisi tambahan, sehingga membuat kemarahan mahasiswa peserta aksi. Dampak aksi pun melebar ke berbagai lokasi di sekitar kampus ITB maupun kampus lain di kota Bandung, yang menjadikan aksi 5 Agustus 1989 mendapat dukungan dari berbagai kampus.

    Akibat peristiwa “Sabtu Kelabu” itu, 11 mahasiswa ITB ditangkap aparat TNI dari Badan Koordinasi Pemantapan Stabilitas Nasional Daerah (Bakorstanasda) Jawa Barat dan dijebloskan di penjara militer Jalan Sumatra 37 Bandung selama hampir setahun tanpa pengacara dan tidak bisa dijenguk keluarga. Puluhan mahasiswa ITB lainnya dikenai skorsing 1-2 semester.

    Salah satu hal menarik yang perlu digambarkan secara khusus di sini adalah proses penangkapan terhadap Jumhur pada hari Senin 7 Agustus 1989 sekitar pukul 14.00 WIB di rumahnya di Jalan Babakan Jeruk I Nomor 6 Bandung.

    “Anda lebih setia pada orangtua Jumhur atau setiap pada negara. Kalau setia pada negara, tangkap Jumhur Hidayat!” kata Jumhur menceritakan perintah Panglima Kodam III/Siliwangi selaku Ketua Bakorstanasda Mayjen TNI Arie Sudewo kepada Letkol Inf Syamsiar.

    Syamsiar yang juga paman Jumhur atau adik ipar ibunya, langsung menyatakan “siappp…!” menjalankan perintah. Syamsiar saat itu menjabat Wakil Asisten Intelijen Kodam III/Siliwangi.

    Dalam situasi rumah yang sepi, karena kedua orangtua Jumhur sedang berada di Jakarta, Syamsiar mendatangi Jumhur yang sedang berada di kamar. “E, mang, kumaha damang,” kata Jumhur mencoba menyapa sambil bangun dari tidurnya. Syamsiar sempat mengajak bicara keponakannya.

    Tak disangka, beberapa menit kemudian sejumlah prajurit TNI anak buah Syamsiar masuk ke kamar dalam kondisi siaga untuk membawa Jumhur ke tahanan militer di kantor Bakorstanasda Jawa Barat Jalan Sumatera 37 Bandung.

    Jumhur pun langsung diinterogasi oleh sejumlah aparat keamanan berwajah garang. Jumhur sempat dipukul di bagian leher belakang oleh petugas. Interogasinya penuh dengan ancaman yang berlangsung secara keras dan mencekam. “Saya sempat disodori surat pernyataan untuk bersedia tidak bertemu lagi dengan orangtua bila terjadi apa-apa. Saya tidak mau menandatangani. Semakin saya diancam semakin keras sikap saya untuk melawan ketika itu,” tegas Jumhur.

    Jumhur tetap menyatakan aksinya merupakan spontanitas tetapi aparat tidak mempercayai. Aparat juga memberitahu bahwa rekannya, Arnold Purba alias Ucok, telah ditangkap pada hari itu pula sekitar pukul 17.00 WIB. Hingga pada Senin malam, Jumhur sempat diperlihatkan dengan Ucok sebentar, sebelum diinterogasi lagi secara maraton sampai keesokan harinya. Selanjutnya, interogasi berlangsung berkali-kali, diikuti penangkapan kawan-kawannya yang menjadi ‘pelaku’ utama peristiwa 5 Agustus 1989.

    Sebelas mahasiswa yang ditangkap aparat dan dipecat dari ITB adalah Mohammad Jumhur Hidayat, Mochammad Fadjroel Rachman, Supriyanto alias Enin, Amarsyah, Arnold Purba, Bambang SLN, Lendo Novo, A.Sobur, Wijaya Santosa, Adi SR, dan Dwito Hermanadi.

    Hampir setahun setelah peristiwa 5 Agustus 1989 itu, lima orang di antara mereka dibebaskan yakni Lendo Novo, Wijaya Santosa, A. Sobur, Adi SR, dan Dwito Hermanadi. Sementara Jumhur, Fadjroel, Enin, Arnold, Bambang, dan Amarsyah diadili dan dijatuhkan hukuman tiga tahun penjara potong masa tahanan. Selama persidangan, keenam aktivis mahasiswa ITB itu juga menjalani tahanan di Rumah Tahanan Kebonwaru, Bandung.

    Jumhur mulai diadili di Pengadilan Negeri Bandung pada hari Rabu 29 November 1989. Ia orang pertama yang diadili. Pada Kamis 8 Februari 1990, majelis hakim Pengadilan Negeri Bandung memvonis Jumhur Hidayat, Amarsyah, dan Bambang masing-masing tiga tahun penjara dipotong masa tahanan sementara.

    Majelis hakim menolak pledoi Jumhur yang diberi judul “Menggugat Rezim Anti-Demokrasi”. “Dalam pledoi yang tebal itu, saya bersama pengacara menyampaikan apa yang ada di kepala saat itu. Nggak ada lagi yang disensor,” kata Jumhur.

    Vonis terhadap Jumhur, Amarsyah, dan Bambang lebih tinggi dari tuntutan jaksa penuntut umum yang hanya menuntut hukuman atas para terdakwa itu dua tahun tiga bulan. Ketua majelis hakim Soegianto dalam amar putusan bagi Jumhur antara lain menyatakan, hal yang memberatkan terdakwa adalah tidak menunjukkan penyesalan dan perbuatannya bisa membahayakan stabilitas nasional. Sedangkan hal yang meringankan terdakwa belum pernah dihukum, masih muda, serta berlaku sopan dalam persidangan.

    Pada Kamis 15 Februari 1989, Mochamad Fadjroel Rachman dijatuhi hukuman penjara tiga tahun oleh majelis hakim yang diketuai Eko Wardoyo, SH di Pengadilan Negeri Bandung. Arnold Purba juga dijatuhi hukum tiga tahun. Pada Senin 19 Februari 1990, giliran Supriyanto alias Enin divonis hukuman penjara tiga tahun dikurangi masa penahanan.

    Mereka mengajukan banding tetapi ternyata Pengadilan Tinggi Bandung pada persidangan majelis hakim yang terpisah, Sabtu 14 April 1990 dan hari Sabtu 21 April 1990 masing-masing diketuai Moenarso, SH dan L Rukmini, SH dalam putusan banding menguatkan vonis Pengadilan Negeri Bandung. Dengan putusan itu, Jumhur, Arnold, Fadjroel, Enin, dan Amarsyah tetap divonis tiga tahun sedangkan Bambang dihukum tiga tahun tiga bulan. Kasasi yang diajukan ke Mahkamah Agung oleh para mahasiswa itu juga menguatkan putusan pengadilan sebelumnya.

    Dinusakambangkan

    Jumat malam, 7 September 1990 tepat pukul 23.00 Wib saat langit kota Bandung beranjak gelap, sebuah mobil truk tahanan diberangkatkan dari penjara Kebonwaru, tanpa diberitahu tujuan yang jelas. Hanya ada pengawalan polisi bersenjata laras panjang, seorang supir, dan keenam terpidana mahasiswa ITB yaitu Mohammad Jumhur Hidayat, Arnold Purba alias Ucok bin Japhet Purba, Supriyanto alias Enin alias Cian Ning, Mochammad Fadjroel Rachman bin A Hisaini Suriansyah, Amarsyah, dan Bambang Sugianto Lasijanto bin Notodarmoto. Tak ada secuil barang ataupun pakaian lain yang dibawa, kecuali sebatas yang ada di badan keenam mahasiswa ITB pelaku peristiwa 5 Agustus 1989 itu.

    Sejak berangkat, suasana hati keenam mahasiswa ‘naas’ itu berkecamuk tidak menentu. Segalanya serba galau, dihantui rasa takut teramat berat. Entah mau dikirim ke mana malam-malam yang mulai sunyi dan dingin itu. Bisa saja, pikir mereka dalam kekalutan, hidupnya akan segera berakhir di ujung laras senapan dengan mayat dibuang ke tengah hutan.

    Sebelum berangkat, Jumhur memimpin doa untuk keselamatan nasib dan atas kebenaran yang mereka perjuangkan. “Kita sudah memahami bagaimana cara kerja kapitalisme dengan kekuasaan otoriter. Malam ini adalah risiko perjuangan karena kita melawan itu semua. Jadi, ini adalah risiko perjuangan. Mari kita berdoa ke hadapan Tuhan Yang Maha Esa agar diberi keselamatan untuk sebuah keyakinan yang kita perjuangkan,” kata Jumhur mengenang.

    Dalam perjalanan, Bambang Sugianto Lasijanto mengetahui dari balik mobil tersebut bahwa mereka melewati wilayah Nagrek, Garut, karenanya Jumhur dan kawan-kawan berkesimpulan akan dibawa ke penjara Nusakambangan. Keenam terpidana korban kesewenang-wenangan rezim Ore Baru itu terdiam dan keadaan di dalam mobil semakin senyap, kecuali senapan yang siap dikokang kepada mereka. Jumhur tak henti-henti bertanya dalam hati, mengapa harus dibawa ke Nusakambangan, tempat yang sebenarnya tidak pantas untuk dia dan kawan-kawan.

    Tapi pertanyaan itu seperti tak ada artinya sama sekali, hinggap sebentar dan terus-menerus mendatangi pikirannya, kemudian pergi ditelan angin serta kengerian malam di perjalanan. Dia pun menelan keheranannya secara getir.

    Selang beberapa saat ketika malam semakin pekat, para terpidana kembali dibuat terkejut. Mobil tahanan mendadak berhenti di tepi jalan pinggiran hutan, yang lokasinya diperkirakan perbatasan Jawa Barat-Jawa Tengah. Masing-masing mereka berusaha melongok ke luar jendela mobil yang dipatri jeruji besi itu, untuk mencari tahu mengapa mobil tiba-tiba dihentikan sang supir.

    “Jangan-jangan kami akan ditembak mati oleh petugas,” begitu perasaan terburuk yang bergulat di hati Jumhur dan kelima kawannya. Betapa tidak, pikir Jumhur, hegemoni rezim Orde Baru yang represif kala itu memungkinkan berbuat apa saja. Alasan bisa direkayasa seolah-olah para terpidana berusaha kabur dan petugas terpaksa “melumpuhkan”-istilah halus untuk menembak mati di tengah hutan.

    Dan dengan tangan terus terborgol erat mereka berusaha menenangkan diri walaupun kegelisahan semakin memuncak. Jumhur kembali menegaskan kepada rekan-rekannya bahwa sebagai aktivis pergerakan harus menerima risiko terburuk apa pun.

    Namun tak berapa lama, perasaan buruk di benak mereka menjadi sirna. Dari Bambang, mereka akhirnya mengetahui truk sempat berhenti karena sopirnya ‘kebelet’ buang air kecil. Jumhur sempat tersenyum dibalut perasaannya yang pahit.

    Mobil lalu melanjutkan perjalanan sampai di Lembaga Pemasyarakatan Nusakambangan, persisnya Sabtu selepas shubuh. Dalam perjalanan pun ternyata tak terjadi apa-apa. Mereka merasa lega bebas dari ketakutan yang melekat hingga ke pembuluh darah itu. Dan selama perjalanan Jumhur sempat diberi makan sekadarnya dalam posisi tangan tetap terborgol. Ia pun melakukan shalat di mobil tahanan itu dengan tangan terborgol.

    Di Nusakambangan, yang dikenal sebagai “hotel prodeo” dengan pengamanan paling maksimum (Super Maximum Security) di tanah air, para terpidana aktivis mahasiswa ITB satu-persatu dimasukkan ke sel yang berbeda. Setelah itu rasa was-was yang baru mulai menghinggapi pikiran mereka karena berbagai kemungkinan terburuk di penjara Nusakambangan bisa terjadi sewaktu-waktu, seperti pembunuhan oleh narapidana lain yang umumnya terdiri para penjahat kelas kakap, padahal sisa hukuman yang harus mereka jalani masih cukup lama.

    Hal itu pula yang membuat hati Jumhur berang tidak karuan. Tempat ini, ujarnya dalam hati, sangat tidak pantas bagi mereka dan hanya penguasa ‘keterlaluan’ saja membiarkan aktivis mahasiswa dijebloskan ke Nusakambangan.

    Toh, uniknya, sejumlah aparat keamanan yang mengawal mereka ternyata ikut sedih, tak tega menyaksikan penusakambangan keenam mahasiswa yang tidak patut itu. Tapi, kesedihan itu tak ada artinya setelah para petugas meninggalkan mereka.

    Jumhur menempati sel penjara Permisan yang paling ujung sekaligus terpencil, menjorok persis ke seberang lautan Samudera Indonesia yang mahaganas. Ia satu blok dengan Amarsyah meski di sel terpisah. Jumhur mendekam sendiri dalam sel yang bau apek berukuran sekitar 4X6 meter persegi, dirangka tembok tinggi yang amat kokoh dan dibatasi oleh dua pintu pagar yang dikunci rantai besar. Jumhur tidur beralaskan semen pekat kemudian untuk keperluan mandi atau buang air. Jumhur harus melewati jeruji pagar pertama yang terkunci itu, karena letaknya di kamar sebelah. Sementara Fajroel, Enin, Bambang, serta Arnold Purba (Ucok) menempati sel penjara Kembang Kuning dan sel penjara Besi, yang kurang lebih sama keadaannya.

    Selama beberapa hari di Nusakambangan, Jumhur menghabiskan waktu dengan membaca buku Biografi Inggit Garnasih, “Kuantar Kau Ke Gerbang” karya Ramadhan KH yang dia pinjam dari sesama penghuni Nusakambangan, Bambang Isti Nugroho.

    “Di malam hari, saya membaca buku itu dengan penerangan lampu sumbu yang saya pegang dengan tangan kiri dan saya dekatkan di bagian belakang kepala, sementara tangan kanan memegang buku yang saya baca,” kata Jumhur.

    Pernah suatu saat Jumhur ditanya oleh seorang tahanan residivis Nusakambangan, “Berapa lama kamu kena hukuman.” Jumhur menjawab tiga tahun. “Kalau cuma segitu, sih jemuran aja belum kering,” timpal sang penanya. Kontan Jumhur dibuat kaget. Tapi itulah, agaknya, suasana kehidupan penjara di Pulau Nusakambangan, yang hanya berlaku untuk mereka dengan kasus berat serta hukuman yang juga berat.

    Pikiran Jumhur tetap kacau-balau. Ia kembali meradang dan mengumpat bahwa penusakambangan dirinya bersama kawan-kawan sarat dengan penistaan kemanusiaan, selain di luar batas kepatutan untuk tahanan ‘politik’ yang dialami mahasiswa. Jumhur menilai cara penusakambangan itu merupakan perbuatan tidak punya hati serta hanya pantas dilakukan oleh orang yang tak punya kehormatan alias tidak beradab. Segudang pertanyaan apa sesungguhnya yang mendasari hingga mereka dipaksakan ke Nusakambangan, terus menggelayut dalam pikiran Jumhur tanpa mengetahui sedikit pun jawabannya sampai saat ini.

    Penempatan Jumhur cs ke LP Nusakambangan juga merupakan sejarah baru dari serangkaian keganasan rezim Orde Baru yang berusaha menghanguskan gerakan mahasiswa. Perlakuan terhadap mereka yang disamakan dengan penjahat kelas kakap seperti residivis dan pembunuh sadis seolah pesan kepada kaum aktivis mahasiswa di Indonesia untuk tidak melawan pemerintah, sehingga bisa “dinusakambangkan” sebagaimana enam mahasiswa Institut Teknologi Bandung yang telah dipecat dari almamaternya itu.

    Jumhur sendiri berusaha keras menyesuaikan dengan kondisi itu meskipun merasakan pemindahan mereka ke LP Nusakambangan terlalu berlebihan. Namun keberadaan mereka di LP Nusakambangan hanya berlangsung beberapa hari, tepatnya tiga malam empat hari. “Selama di Nusakambangan, tak ada yang bisa saya lakukan kecuali meringkuk di sel tahanan sambil membaca atau hanya merenungi ketidakpatutan penusakambangan saya dan kawan-kawan,” kata Jumhur seraya menghela napas.

    Semasa di Nusakambangan, Jumhur merasa mendapat hikmah yang unik. Suatu malam di dalam sel penjara yang bertembok tinggi dengan kunci grendel besi sebesar lingkaran jari dan hanya diberi lampu listrik berdaya 10 watt dan tergantung tinggi di langit-langit hingga pukul 22.00 WIB, untuk selanjutnya hingga pagi gelap gulita, ia mendengar suara tokek berkali-kali.

    Jumhur yang merasa takut luar biasa dengan bunyi tokek tidak bisa berbuat apa-apa, dan dengan sekuat tenaga berusaha menguasai dirinya mengatasi rasa takut yang amat kepalang. Tapi, setelah beberapa malam tidur di balik jeruji besi yang sempit serta kerap mendengar suara tokek, nyatanya binatang melata itu tak juga mau menggigitnya. Bahkan, menghampiri saja tidak. Ia menjadi sadar tokek memang tak pernah mengigit manusia. Sejak peristiwa itu, Jumhur tak lagi merasa takut pada binatang tokek.

    Dari Nusakambangan ke Sukamiskin

    Pada Selasa malam 11 September 1990, Jumhur cs sudah berada kembali di Bandung tetapi tidak dimasukkan ke Rumah Tahanan Kebonwaru, melainkan ke LP Sukamiskin untuk menjalani masa hukuman sampai akhir Februari 1992.

    Meskipun sangat dibatasi tembok dan jeruji besi pemisah dengan alam luar, penjara ternyata tak mematikan kreativitas Jumhur cs. Jumhur banyak menulis. Sejumlah tulisannya bahkan disiarkan oleh sebuah suratkabar di Bandung walau harus memakai nama samaran.

    Berbagai tulisan Jumhur bahkan dibukukan dengan judul “Surat-surat dari Penjara” dan “Pikiran-pikiran dari Penjara” yang belum diterbitkan. Selama di penjara, Jumhur juga menulis berbagai puisi berjudul “Nurani”, “Untuk Aki Aleh”, “Surat untuk Ibu”, “Kepada Orang-Orang Bebas”, “Persaudaraan”, “Dekaplah Aku”, “Senyum Sang Penjaga”, “Khayalan Kebebasan”, dan “Sebuah Interogasi”.

    Jumhur juga rupanya sering menulis berbagai artikel yang disiarkan di berbagai suratkabar seperti Pikiran Rakyat, Sinar Harapan, dan Harian Terbit. “Tentu saja dengan memakai nama samaran di antaranya AA Basya, dan lain-lain,” katanya.

    Honor tulisan tersebut ia pakai untuk makan sate bersama rekan-rekan di penjara. “Ada petugas yang dimintai tolong untuk membelikan sate. Honor satu tulisan di koran Pikiran Rakyat ketika itu Rp 60 ribu, sehingga bisa membeli banyak sekali sate,” ujar Jumhur, tersenyum.

    Lantaran cukup sering menulis artikel di suratkabar, isi dan gaya penulisannya yang cenderung berbau sosialis dan membela kepentingan rakyat tertindas, lagi-lagi aktivitas Jumhur tercium aparat keamanan. Redaktur Pelaksana Pikiran Rakyat Muhammad Ridlo Eisy, misalnya, sempat ditanyai aparat keamanan tentang siapa penulis artikel tersebut. Sejak itu artikel Jumhur dari penjara tak pernah muncul di suratkabar.

    Selama mendekam di LP Sukamiskin pula, Jumhur dan kelima aktivis mahasiswa ITB sempat mendirikan grup band “Orziza” yang dikomandaninya. Kegiatan lain Jumhur di LP Sukamiskan adalah memceri ceramah kepada para narapidana lain yang kemudian dihentikan oleh petugas LP.

    Keluar dari Penjara

    Pada 25 Februari 1992, Jumhur cs menghirup udara bebas dari Lembaga Pemasyarakatan Sukamiskin. Untuk beberapa lama Jumhur tak beraktivitas “tetap” sampai akhirnya diajak Adi Sasono aktif di CIDES (Center for Information and Development Studies) pada awal 1993, sebuah lembaga pusat kajian pembangunan yang dibidani tokoh-tokoh Ikatan Cendekiawan Muslim se-Indonesia (ICMI). Jumhur dipercaya menggerakkan CIDES sebagai direktur eksekutifnya dengan Adi Sasono sebagai Ketua Dewan Direktur CIDES. Dan saat di CIDES Jumhur kembali kuliah di Teknik Fisika Universitas Nasional (Unas) Jakarta serta menamatkannya pada 1996. Jumhur berada di CIDES sejak 1993-1999.

    Sebagai direktur pelaksana CIDES, Jumhur berupaya menjadikan lembaga itu bukan hanya eksklusif ‘milik’ ICMI, melainkan dengan mengembangkan terobosan kepada agenda lintas agama, aliran politik, maupun dimensi penguatan hak-hak rakyat (pro rakyat) sehingga CIDES bisa diterima khalayak luas. Keberhasilan CIDES yang dipimpinnya juga ditandai dengan melaksanakan berbagai kegiatan pemberdayaan masyarakat kecil, sebagai bagian upaya menjalankan konsep ekonomi kerakyatan.

    Hal ini tak lepas dari prinsip Jumhur bahwa CIDES harus menjadi jembatan masyarakat dan pemerintah. Artinya, CIDES berdiri di antara keduanya sehingga lembaga itu tampil lebih jernih dalam melihat persoalan yang berkembang di masyarakat. Juga bisa untuk mengkritisi kebijakan pemerintah.

    Pada akhirnya, Jumhur diakui telah menjadikan CIDES sebagai lembaga kajian kebijakan publik yang kokoh. Berbagai kegiatan kajian mengenai kebijakan publik dilakukan baik pada tingkat lokal, nasional, dan internasional, termasuk penelitian serta penerbitan yang cukup intens dan beragam.

    Jumhur juga tak ingin seperti katak dalam tempurung. Di sela-sela waktu penuhnya menggerakkan CIDES, ia meluaskan kiprah dalam menyebarkan pemahaman demokrasi tidak hanya di dalam negeri, tetapi juga di pentas internasional, seperti menjadi pembicara tunggal yang memberikan gambaran ekonomi-politik Indonesia di hadapan para top eksekutif bisnis internasional yang memimpin regional office Asia Tenggara. Tema yang diusung pada acara itu adalah Guarding the Reform Agenda to Build Indonesia Anew. Penyelengaranya IDDS Singapura (International Defense and Strategic Studies), Singapura, Desember 1998.

    Kemudian Jumhur menjadi pembicara tunggal memaparkan proses perubahan politik saat reformasi dan masa depan ekonomi-politik Indonesia kepada para top eksekutif perusahaan Amerika Serikat yang beroperasi di Indonesia seperti Freeport, Mobil Oil, Unocal 76 dan lain-lain. Acara ini diselenggarakan oleh The United States-Indonesia Society, Washington DC, Februari 1999.

    Jumhur pun tak segan mengikuti kursus dan pelatihan, di antaranya To Win the Party Through Democratic Principles yang dihadiri oleh sekitar delapan negara ASEAN (Associations Southeast Asian Nations) di Manila, September 1996. Penyelenggaranya Friedrich Naumann Stiftung. Kemudian, Strategy for Development Alternatives yang dihadiri oleh 5 Negara ASEAN di Kuala Lumpur, Juni 1992. Pelatihan ini diselenggarakan oleh SEAFDA (Southeast Asian Forum for Development Alternatives).

    Selain itu menghadiri beberapa Regional Meeting, yakni Pertemuan Serantau antara Indonesia, Malaysia, dan Singapura yang diadakan The Mastery of Science and Technology in The Context of Human Resources Development, Kuala Lumpur, 1996. Selanjutnya, Bilateral Conference on Enhancing Indonesia-Australia Relations, Jakarta, November 1996. Bilateral Conference on Indonesia-South Africa: New Beginnings and Future Relations, Capetown, South-africa, April 1996.

    Belum lagi keikutsertaanya pada International Conference on Methodological Problems in The Study of Religions, Montreal Canada, Februari 1997, dan Regional Conference on Comparisons of Election System: Problems and Prospects yang dihadiri enam negara ASEAN di Bandung, Juli 1998. Juga, International Conference on The Future of Asia’s Cities yang dihadiri beberapa negara ASEAN dan India) di Jakarta, Desember 1996.

    Aktivitas Jumhur tak pelak mendapat perhatian negeri Paman Sam. Pemerintah Amerika Serikat mengundangnya selama sebulan pada 1999 untuk memperdalam pengetahuan tentang Amerika Serikat terutama sistem ketatanegaraannya. Selanjutnya, Pemerintah Hongkong juga mengundangnya seminggu pada 1998 untuk memperdalam pengetahuan mengenai Hongkong setelah bergabung dengan Republik Rakyat China.

    Di lain sisi, Jumhur pernah berjuang sebagai politisi dengan menjabat Sekretaris Jenderal/Pejabat Ketua Umum Partai Daulat Rakyat (PDR) untuk Pemilihan Umum 1999 dan Sekjen Partai Sarikat Indonesia (PSI) untuk Pemilu 2004. Satu pengalaman yang sangat menarik ketika mengurusi PDR yang tak berhasil merebut suara maksimal dalam Pemilu 1999, Jumhur menjadi orang terakhir yang mempertahankan PDR hingga akhir hayat partai itu (tidak boleh ikut Pemilu 2004 karena tidak melampaui electoral threshold pada Pemilu 1999, dan PDR tidak membentuk partai baru) dengan mengontrak kantor kecil sederhana di kawasan Lapangan Roos, Tebet, Jakarta Selatan.

    Kemudian ia menjadi Sekjen Partai Sarikat Indonesia (PSI) menjelang Pemilu 2004, dan Koordinator Nasional Koalisi Kerakyatan pendukung SBY-JK menjelang Pilpres (Pemilu Presiden) 2004, serta Koordinator Nasional Koalisi Kerakyatan II pendukung SBY-Boediono menjelang Pilpres 2009.

    Menggeluti Dunia Buruh

    Aktivitas Jumhur dalam dunia perburuhan dimulai dengan mendirikan Yayasan Kesejahteraan Pekerja Indonesia (YKPI) dan Gabungan Serikat Pekerja Merdeka Indonesia (Gaspermindo) sekaligus menjadi ketua umumnya hingga kini. YKPI utamanya bergerak dalam bidang pemberdayaan buruh/pekerja. Di antaranya memberikan pelatihan kepada para buruh/pekerja serta membentuk serikat pekerja tingkat perusahaan di masa Orde Baru, yaitu suatu serikat pekerja yang tidak berafiliasi dengan Serikat Pekerja Seluruh Indonesia (SPSI).

    Jumhur juga pernah menjadi Ketua Bidang Buruh dan Ketenagakerjaan ICMI Pusat, serta Anggota Dewan Pakar ICMI. Selanjutnya, Jumhur menjabat sebagai Ketua Dewan Pembina Gapersi (Gabungan Persatuan Supir Indonesia). Organisasi ini merupakan ormas sektoral yang khusus memperdayakan para supir, seperti supir taksi, mikrolet, angkutan kota, metromini, bus dan sebagainya.

    Kegiatan yang dilakukan Gapersi di antaranya mengurangi pungutan-pungutan liar, pelatihan etika berkendaraan dan sebagainya. Gapersi juga memiliki perwakilan di daerah tingkat propinsi dan kabupaten/kota.

    Aktivitasnya yang bersinggungan dengan sektor informal terus meningkat ketika menjabat sebagai Ketua Dewan Penasehat APGKI (Asosiasi Pedagang Grosir Keliling Indonesia). Organisasi ini merupakan ormas sektoral tingkat nasional yang memiliki perwakilan di propinsi dan kabupaten/kota yang khusus memberdayakan para pedagang grosir keliling. Pedagang grosir keliling adalah mereka yang menghubungkan antara pedagang besar grosir (pusat grosir) dengan warung-warung atau toko-toko yang tersebar di lingkungan masyarakat.

    Pedagang grosir keliling membeli barang kepada pusat grosir dan menjualnya kembali kepada sekitar 10 sampai 15 warung atau toko di masyarakat. APGKI di antaranya memberikan pelatihan dan membantu penyaluran permodalan.

    Tak jauh berbeda, Jumhur juga menjadi anggota Dewan Penasehat APKLI (Asosiasi Pedagang Kaki Lima Indonesia). Organisasi ini juga merupakan ormas sektoral tingkat nasional yang khusus menangani pedagang kaki lima. Di antara upaya pemberdayaan pedagang kaki lima oleh APKLI adalah pelatihan manajemen, penyaluran permodalan, pengadaan ruang usaha dan memberikan masukan kepada pemda-pemda setempat perihal tata ruang yang layak bagi kehidupan. APKLI memiliki perwakilan di tingkat propinsi dan kabupaten/kota di Indonesia.

    Sementara keberadaaan Gaspermindo yang dipimpinnya terus mengawal upaya peningkatan posisi tawar pekerja, tak heran bila organisasi ini menjadi salah satu motor Aliansi Buruh Menggugat (ABM) yang sempat menggelar aksi unjuk rasa buruh menentang penjajahan bentuk baru dan menuntut Pemerintah membuat standar upah nasional, di depan Istana Negara. Aksi yang digelar sejak pukul 13.00 WIB pada 1 Mei 2006 itu-dalam rangka memperingati Mayday-diikuti kumpulan massa sebagian besar organisasi buruh yang tergabung di bawah ABM seperti KASBI (Kongres Aliansi Serikat Buruh Indonesia), Gaspermindo, SPOI (Serikat Pekerja Metal Otomotif Indonesia), SBTPI (Serikat Buruh Transportasi Pelabuhan Indonesia), dan FNPBI (Front Nasional Perjuangan Buruh Indonesia), dan lain-lain.

    Para pengunjuk rasa yang sebagian besar menggunakan kaus ABM berwarna merah itu memulai aksi di Bunderan Hotel Indonesia sebelum kemudian berjalan beriringan menuju Istana Negara sambil melakukan orasi memprotes sejumlah kebijakan pemerintah.

    Program nasional pemerintah yang selama ini ditandai dengan ketergantungan pada utang luar negeri sehingga menghasilkan kebijakan-kebijakan seperti pencabutan subsidi listrik, BBM (Bahan Bakar Minyak), air dan politik upah murah dinilai ABM merupakan suatu cara untuk kemakmuran pemodal bukan rakyat.

    Karena itu politik upah murah disebut sebagai dagangan pemerintah nasional dari masa Orde Baru untuk menarik investasi asing masuk ke Indonesia, seakan-akan buruh Indonesia akan dengan rela hati menerima berapa pun upah yang diberikan asalkan bekerja.

    Komponen upah layak nasional menurut ABM berarti penentuan upah buruh tidak lagi sekedar membuat buruh hidup dan kembali bekerja layaknya seperti mesin, tetapi upah nasional harus dapat memanusiakan kaum buruh. ABM menilai akar pemiskinan kaum buruh dan seluruh rakyat Indonesia saat ini adalah akibat sistem ekonomi yang dijalankan oleh pemerintah nasional tidak berpihak kepada kaum buruh.

    Oleh karena itu ABM meminta kaum buruh dan seluruh rakyat Indonesia berjuang secara bersama-sama guna terbentuknya pemerintahan nasional, yang berani melakukan penghapusan utang luar negeri dan nasionalisasi terhadap sumber daya alam serta aset-aset vital Indonesia.

    Sehubungan dengan pemilihan presiden 8 Juli 2009, Jumhur terus memperjuangkan posisi tawar buruh di hadapan para calon presiden. Karenanya, Gaspermindo dan berbagai organisasi buruh menginginkan ada kontrak politik dengan calon presiden 2009-2014 untuk memastikan bahwa pemerintahan mendatang membela kepentingan buruh. Jangan sampai terulang seperti Pemilu 2004 tidak ada kontrak politik dengan calon presiden sehingga nasib buruh kurang diperhatikan.

    Jumhur dan pimpinan dari sekitar lebih 20 serikat pekerja dan organisasi buruh, pada 20 April 2009 di Jakarta, menyampaikan pernyataan sikap atas pelaksanaan Pemilu 2009. Dia menegaskan pemerintahan mendatang harus ramah terhadap gerakan perburuhan dan menyerap berbagai ide dan kepentingan buruh Indonesia. Jumhur mencontohkan kebijakan outsourcing tenaga kerja asing di Indonesia harus dibatasi.

    Agar tidak terjadi gelombang pemutusan hubungan kerja (PHK) terhadap buruh, katanya, maka pemerintah perlu menambah besaran stimulus fiskal, lebih menggencarkan PNPM (Program Nasional Pemberdayaan Masyarakat) Mandiri, dan mendorong penempatan Tenaga Kerja Indonesia sektor formal. Sektor-sektor PNPM juga lebih dimasifkan agar cepat orang bekerja.

    Fenomena yang mengerikan sudah terjadi, yakni pengangguran bertambah banyak akibat krisis global. Maka pemerintahan mendatang harus dapat menanggulangi permasalahan itu. Jumhur mengimbau pemerintah juga segera menciptakan lapangan kerja dan mengembangkan usaha kecil dan menengah untuk mengurangi pengangguran.

    Selain Gaspermindo yang menyampaikan pernyataan sikap, ikut pula Konfederasi Serikat Buruh Sejahtera Indonesia (KSBSI), Gabungan Serikat Buruh Islam Indonesia (Gasbiindo), Serikat Buruh Aspirasi Perjuangan Indonesia (SB-API), Serikat Buruh Migran Indonesia (SBMI), dan Federasi Serikat Pekerja Nasional Indonesia (FSPNI).

    Keberpihakan Jumhur pada masalah perburuhan dilandasi oleh kerisauannya bahwa nasib buruh dari rezim ke rezim tidak bertambah baik. Bahkan, semakin kemari nasib buruh semakin terpuruk. Pemerintah terkesan tidak berkutik bila menghadapi tekanan pengusaha dan ancaman hengkangnya investor asing bila pemerintah membela perbaikan nasib pekerja.

    Bukan tidak mungkin, bila pemerintahan hasil Pemilu 2009 tidak berpihak pada buruh, kondisi perburuhan nasional berada di tubir jurang. Menghadapi hal tersebut, Jumhur menyadari semua elemen perburuhan perlu kerja keras, bersatu padu memperjuangkan nasib buruh ke arah yang lebih baik. Bagaimanapun juga, buruh adalah aset nasional, bagian anak bangsa yang mesti diperhatikan kesejahteraannya. Jumhur meminta pengusaha jangan menganggap buruh sebagai sekrup dari mesin produksi, habis manis sepah dibuang.

    Politik perburuhan yang tidak pro-buruh, menurut Jumhur, berkaitan dengan menggejalanya demokrasi liberal yang merambah ke semua sektor, seperti politik, ekonomi, sosial, dan sebagainya. Padahal sejak awal pembentukan Indonesia sebagai negara moderen, tidaklah pernah ada keinginan menerapkan pemikiran demokrasi yang liberal. Terlebih lagi, rasa penderitaan yang dialami bangsa Indonesia selama ratusan tahun adalah akibat berkembangnya paham liberalisme di Eropa dan Amerika Serikat.

    Demokrasi liberal yang tidak lain adalah demokrasinya kaum borjuasi telah memisahkan secara nyata antara kehidupan politik, ekonomi dan aspek-aspek sosial lainnya, sehingga dengan menerapkan demokrasi liberal itu, telah terbukti membawa malapetaka pada sebagian besar masyarakatnya. Demikianlah keadaan yang terjadi di Eropa pada masa-masa awal pertumbuhan demokrasinya.

    Demokrasi liberal ini adalah suatu demokrasi yang bersendikan paham individualisme, yaitu paham yang mengutamakan kepentingan pribadi dalam cara bermasyarakatnya. Karena itu, kaum nasionalis kerakyatan haruslah meninggalkan jauh-jauh sistem demokrasi liberal ini.

    Sebaliknya, yang harus kita bangun adalah suatu sistem demokrasi yang dengan seluas-luasnya memberikan dorongan penuh kepada rakyat untuk dapat mengembangkan kegiatan ekonomi dan berbagai kegiatan sosial lainnya di samping kegiatan politik.

    Menurut Jumhur, sistem demokrasi yang harus kita terapkan adalah demokrasi dalam bidang politik, demokrasi dalam bidang ekonomi serta demokrasi dalam bidang-bidang sosial lainnya secara sekaligus, tanpa dipisah-pisahkan. Sistem demokrasi inilah yang kita sebut dengan demokrasi sosial. Dengan penerapan sistem ini, maka kesejahteraan rakyat akan mengiringi kebebasan politik. Bukan sebaliknya, kebebasan politik meninggalkan kesejahteraan rakyat jauh di belakang seperti sekarang ini.

    Penerapan demokrasi sosial dalam bidang ekonomi yaitu dengan cara meningkatkan peran pemerintah sehingga lebih efektif dalam mengatur alokasi sumberdaya ekonomi. Terlebih lagi, keadaan ekonomi bangsa kita saat ini sangat timpang, baik itu ketimpangan yang bersifat regional, sektoral, desa-kota dan kaya-miskin. Kaum nasionalis-kerakyatan harus berkeyakinan bahwa tidak pernah ada dalam sejarah eknomi bangsa-bangsa di dunia, pemberdayaan rakyat dapat terjadi hanya dengan menyandarkan pada mekanisme pasar bebas semata. Bahkan sebaliknya yang terjadi adalah berupa krisis yang bersifat periodik yang pada akhirnya juga mengundang intervensi pemerintah.

    Apabila dalam demokrasi liberal kehidupannya bersendikan paham individualisme, maka dalam demokrasi sosial bersendikan paham kolektivisme atau kebersamaan. Paham kolektivisme yang pernah dikemukakan Bung Hatta ini, sesungguhnya merupakan paham dasar dari masyarakat Indonesia.

    Karena itulah, paham kolektivisme harus juga mewarnai semua bidang kehidupan dan haruslah menganggap bahwa seluruh masyarakat Indonesia bagaikan satu tubuh. Apabila ada bagian-bagian tubuh tertentu sakit, maka kita harus berlomba-lomba menyembuhkannya. Apabila ada bagian-bagian tubuh tertentu tertinggal jauh di belakang, maka kita harus mendorongnya maju.

    Setiap ketertinggalan yang dirasakan masyarakat kita harus pula dirasakan sebagai ketertinggalan kita semua. Karena itu, kemajuan, kemandirian, dan kemartabatan harus dirasakan serentak oleh seluruh rakyat. Tidak dibenarkan, kata Jumhur, dalam paham kolektivisme kemajuan hanya dirasakan oleh segelintir orang, sementara sebagian besar yang lainnya hidup dalam keterbelakangan. Kata Jumhur, buruh harus dianggap sebagai bagian utuh dari tubuh bangsa ini.

    Memimpin BNP2TKI

    Pasang surut kehidupan Jumhur dan rekam jejaknya membuat dia dipercaya pemerintah memimpin sebuah Badan Nasional Penempatan dan Perlindungan Tenaga Kerja Indonesia (BNP2TKI), sebuah lembaga pemerintah nonkementerian yang dibentuk berdasarkan Peraturan Presiden Nomor 81 Tahun 2006 tertanggal 8 September 2006. Keberadaan BNP2TKI itu merupakan amanat dari Undang-Undang Nomor 39 Tahun 2004 tentang Penempatan dan Perlindungan Tenaga Kerja Indonesia di Luar Negeri.

    Tugas barunya itu amat menarik dalam kehidupan pribadinya. Hari Kamis 12 Januari 2007 Menteri Tenaga Kerja dan Transmigrasi Erman Suparno mengumumkan nama Moh Jumhur Hidayat sebagai Kepala BNP2TKI, tanggal 19 Januari 2007 atau seminggu kemudian, Jumhur menikah dengan Alia Febyani Prabandari, dan selang berikutnya, pada hari Senin 22 Januari 2007 Jumhur dilantik menjadi Kepala BNP2TKI oleh Erman Suparno berdasarkan Keputusan Presiden Nomor 2 Tahun 2007 tertanggal 11 Januari 2007 yang menunjuk Moh Jumhur Hidayat sebagai Kepala BNP2TKI. ***

    Fera Nuraini http://www.kompasiana.com/fera_nuraini, 1 August 2013 13:29:07
    Kapan masa jabatan Jumhur berakhir? atau mau seumur hidup di BNP2TKI ni
    Banyak yang sudah eneg sama tingkahnya, terutama soal KTKLN
    Kapan ke HK? Ke lapangan gitu lo, diskusi sama kawan2. Kebiasaan kalau ke HK kucing2an takut didemo


    http://chirpstory.com/li/47674

    “Loket-Loket Yang Sering Mempermasalahkan Keberangkatan TKI”
    by @InfoBuruhMigran, 20/Jan/2013 10:17:30 PM PST

    #Untuk itu kami akan twit beberapa hal yg perlu dipersiapkan TKI untuk mencegah penolakan keberangkatan karena KTKLN #SaveTKI
    infoburuhmigran 17/Jan/2013 05:42:22 AM PST

    #1. Pastikan kelengkapan dokumen pokok untuk keberangkatan anda, antara lain: paspor, tiket, visa atau workpermit atau work pass #SaveTKI
    infoburuhmigran 17/Jan/2013 05:42:23 AM PST

    #2. Siapkan alat komunikasi u/ menghubungi pihak yg bs dimintai bantuan (help desk) seperti Serikat Buruh Migran, Lembaga Bantuan Hukum, dll
    infoburuhmigran 17/Jan/2013 05:47:33 AM PST

    #3. Persiapkan diri menghadapi 3 loket layanan yang berkemungkinan menjadi titik pencegahan TKI tnp KTKLN, antara lain:
    infoburuhmigran 17/Jan/2013 05:47:34 AM PST

    #4. (a) Loket Maskapai: Saat check in di loket u/ memperoleh boarding pass. Maskapai yg sering melakukan pencegahan adalah Air Asia.
    infoburuhmigran 17/Jan/2013 05:47:35 AM PST

    #5. (b) Loket BNP2TKI/BP3TKI: TKI yg akan kembali ke luar negeri biasanya akan didata pemilikan KTKLN. Jika punya, maka KTKLN akan divalidasi
    infoburuhmigran 17/Jan/2013 05:51:59 AM PST

    #6. (b) .. jika TIDAK, maka biasanya petugas akan menolak keberangkatan Anda; atau berdalih meminta Anda mengurus KTKLN terlebih dahulu.
    infoburuhmigran 17/Jan/2013 05:51:59 AM PST

    #7. (c) Loket Imigrasi: Loket Imigrasi merupakan loket pemeriksaan untuk dokumen-dokumen kelayakan milik TKI yg akan berangkat ke luar negeri
    infoburuhmigran 17/Jan/2013 05:52:00 AM PST

    #8. (c) Sesuai UU Keimigrasian No. 6 tahun 2011 dokumen wajib hanya PASPOR. mk pencegahan hny bs dilakukan Imigrasi pada TKI jika …
    infoburuhmigran 17/Jan/2013 05:57:03 AM PST

    #9. (c) TKI tdk memiliki PASPOR atau ia masuk Daftar Pencegahan (CEKAL) sehingga tdk boleh bepergian ke LN.
    infoburuhmigran 17/Jan/2013 05:57:03 AM PST

    #10. Jk ada yg menghalangi atau akan mencegah keberangkatan (petugas Maskapai, BNP2TKI / BP3TKI, Imigrasi), sampaikan hal berikut pd ybs:
    infoburuhmigran 17/Jan/2013 05:57:04 AM PST

    #11. Dengan tenang dan berani, katakan secara tegas kepada Petugas bahwa Anda memang tidak mau membuat KTKLN.
    infoburuhmigran 17/Jan/2013 06:05:29 AM PST

    #12. Apabila petugas menolak, mintalah surat penolakan resmi yg menyebut identitas lengkap Anda, dasar hukum penolakan, TTD dan cap instansi
    infoburuhmigran 17/Jan/2013 06:05:29 AM PST

    #13. Biasanya, apabila anda berani menolak , maka si petugas loket akan memanggil atasannya untuk menghadapi anda.
    infoburuhmigran 17/Jan/2013 06:05:34 AM PST

    #14. Atau sebaliknya anda-lah yang dapat meminta agar dapat bertemu atasannya (sesuai UU Pelayanan Publik).
    infoburuhmigran 17/Jan/2013 06:05:38 AM PST

    #15. Tanyakan dan catat siapa nama dan posisi atau jabatan petugas yang menolak keberangkatan atau mempermasalahkan KTKLN Anda.
    infoburuhmigran 17/Jan/2013 06:05:39 AM PST

    #16. Maksimalkan peralatan sederhana yang anda miliki seperti HP, untuk merekam perbincangan, mengambil gambar, atau video
    infoburuhmigran 17/Jan/2013 06:05:39 AM PST

    #17.Tegaskan argumen berikut: “Maskapai penerbangan, petugas BNP2TKI / BP3TKI, Pejabat Imigrasi bukanlah pejabat yg memiliki kewenangan hukum
    infoburuhmigran 17/Jan/2013 06:12:40 AM PST

    #18. u/ mencegah / membatalkan keberangkatan TKI, sebagaimana diatur dlm Pasal 91 ayat 2 huruf f UU Keimigrasian No.6/2011 ttg Keimigrasian”
    infoburuhmigran 17/Jan/2013 06:12:40 AM PST

    #19. Apabila petugas tetap memaksa atau bahkan membentak anda, segera hubungi help desk atau pihak-pihak yang bisa dimintai bantuan
    infoburuhmigran 17/Jan/2013 06:12:41 AM PST


    http://chirpstory.com/li/48098

    MODUS PUNGLI & KORUPSI MAFIA BNP2TKI – BAG. 1
    By @TrioMacan2000, 22/Jan/2013 05:38:34 PM PST

    1. Eng ing eeng..mari kita bahas korupsi yang terjadi di lingkungan BNP2TKI atau Badan Nasional Penempatan dan Perlindungan TKI
    TrioMacan2000 22/Jan/2013 03:25:59 PM PST

    2. BNP2TKI didirikan berdasarkan UU No. 39 tahun 2004 tentang Penempatan dan Perlindungan TKI di Luar Negeri. Kepalanya Jumhur Hidayat
    TrioMacan2000 22/Jan/2013 03:28:15 PM PST

    3. BNP2TKI berdiri sejak 2006, Jumhur menjabat Ka BNP2TKI sejak awal pendiriannya dan sampai sekarang belum juga diganti
    TrioMacan2000 22/Jan/2013 03:30:13 PM PST

    4. Tahun 2010, Jumhur sempat mau dipecat SBY karena dinilai gagal total sbg Ka BNP2TKI. Tp batal dilakukan SBY. Jumhur demo dan lobi cikeas
    TrioMacan2000 22/Jan/2013 03:31:57 PM PST

    5. Sbg mantan aktivis mahasiswa dan buruh, jumhur hidayat sempat kerahkan Demo ke Istana / SBY sekitar awal 2010 ketika tahu dia mau dipecat
    TrioMacan2000 22/Jan/2013 03:33:51 PM PST

    6. Memalui ancaman demo & lobi ke Cikeas, Jumhur batal di PHK SBY. Seorang Kepala Rumah Tangga Kepresidenan disebut2 bantu Jumhur ke Bu Ani
    TrioMacan2000 22/Jan/2013 03:36:19 PM PST

    7. Selama jabat sbg Ka BNP2TKI prestasi Jumhur biasa2 saja bahkan lebih banyak perilaku koruptifnya terrutama melalui keluarga dan teman2nya
    TrioMacan2000 22/Jan/2013 03:38:14 PM PST

    8. Keluarga dan teman Jumhur yg paling menonjol berkorupsi ria di BNP2TKI adalah Agung adik kandung Jumhur dan Chandra. Mereka panen raya
    TrioMacan2000 22/Jan/2013 03:39:40 PM PST

    9. Hasil korupsi Agung & Jumhur tsb diduga dicuci (money laundering) melalui berbagai usaha diantaranya show room jual beli mobil di Bandung
    TrioMacan2000 22/Jan/2013 03:41:41 PM PST

    10. Jumhur yg dulu aktivis mahasiwa dan buruh. Yang pernah bersumpah akan menebas kepala para mafia TKI skrg malah ikut jadi mafia TKI
    TrioMacan2000 22/Jan/2013 03:43:03 PM PST

    11. Sebagai Ka BNP2TKI Jumhur Hidayat sebenarnya pernah mau ditangkap mabes polri terkait dgn perilaku korupsi dan pemerasan thdp para TKI
    TrioMacan2000 22/Jan/2013 03:44:12 PM PST

    12. SBY yg malu dan marah besar karena diprotes secara langsung dlm acara dialognya dgn para TKI di Kuala Lumpur, minta polri utk bertindak
    TrioMacan2000 22/Jan/2013 03:46:09 PM PST

    13. Saat itu juga SBY perintahkan Kapolri dan Menko Polhukam utk bertindak tegas. Tim Khusus langsung dibentuk. Jumhur diincar polisi
    TrioMacan2000 22/Jan/2013 03:47:02 PM PST

    14. Tim khusus utk basmi korupsi, pemerasan dan suap Mabes Polri dikepalai Brigjen Bachtiar H Tambunan yg saat itu adalah Dir I Bareskrim
    TrioMacan2000 22/Jan/2013 03:48:59 PM PST

    15. Bachtiar Tambunan segera selidiki praktek mafia TKI. Mulai dari pemalsuan usia dan indentitas calon TKI, korupsi asuransi TKI, penipuan
    TrioMacan2000 22/Jan/2013 03:50:57 PM PST

    16. Sampai pada praktek pemerasan TKI yg mau berangkat dan baru kembali ke tanah air. Banyak ahli dan saksi dipanggil mabes polri
    TrioMacan2000 22/Jan/2013 03:51:46 PM PST

    17. Bukti2 praktek mafia TKI yg dilakukan Ka BNP2TKI Jumhur Hidayat cs, penguasa PJTKI ( skrg PPTKIS ), oknum ditjen imigrasi, …
    TrioMacan2000 22/Jan/2013 03:54:25 PM PST

    18. ..prshan asuransi dan broker asuransi, sejumlah anggta DPR komisi IX, para calo TKI dll sdh terkumpul cukup. Tinggal tangkap saja
    TrioMacan2000 22/Jan/2013 03:55:24 PM PST

    19. Namun entah kenapa penangkapan para mafia TKI dan upaya menyeret ke pengadilan oleh Bareskrim Polri itu batal dilaksanakan
    TrioMacan2000 22/Jan/2013 03:56:42 PM PST

    20. Ada 2 dugaan utama knp para Mafia TKI utamanya Jumhur tdk jadi ditangkap : 1. Dilarang cikeas karena setoran besar 2. Ada hub saudara
    TrioMacan2000 22/Jan/2013 03:59:00 PM PST

    21. Pengakuan tdk sengaja Bachtiar Tambunan kpd kami mengatakan bhw dia kaget ketika tahu bhw Jumhur Hidayat itu ternyata masih saudaranya
    TrioMacan2000 22/Jan/2013 04:00:25 PM PST

    22. Disamping itu, menurut Direktur I bareskrim tsb, tidak ada kerugian negara secara langsung yg disebabkan oleh mafia2 TKI tsb
    TrioMacan2000 22/Jan/2013 04:02:29 PM PST

    23. Semua uang yg dinikmati oleh para mafia TKI disebutkan berasal dari kutipan ( suap / pemerasan) para TKI. Bukan uang APBN. Bukan korupsi
    TrioMacan2000 22/Jan/2013 04:04:23 PM PST

    24. Termasuk komisi2 asuransi yg besarnya lebih dari 50% dari premi Rp. 400 ribu per TKI tsb. Uang preminya berasal dari TKI.
    TrioMacan2000 22/Jan/2013 04:06:00 PM PST

    25. Bgmn modus para mafia itu terutama BNP2TKI melakukan pemerasan dan pengutipan2 uang dari para TKI? Apakah ada yg termasuk delik korupsi?
    TrioMacan2000 22/Jan/2013 04:07:39 PM PST

    26. Mari kita bahas satu per satu modus mafia TKI di BNP2TKI ini. Pertama : pungutan 5 – 11 juta per TKI skema G to G yg berkedok Program
    TrioMacan2000 22/Jan/2013 04:10:09 PM PST

    27. Pemerasan yg berkedok Program Bantuan Kelulusan bagi para calon TKI dijadikan dasar/ alasan memungut uang 5-11 juta dari para TKI
    TrioMacan2000 22/Jan/2013 04:11:35 PM PST

    28. Program ini adalah program tak resmi alias liar. Siapa yg menjalankannya ? AGUNG ( adik jumhur ) dan Chandra ( teman karib jumhur)
    TrioMacan2000 22/Jan/2013 04:12:42 PM PST

    29. Knp program bantuan kelulusan ini banyak diikuti oleh para TKI utamanya utk penempatan skema G to G ke Korea ? Karena diback up BNP2TKI
    TrioMacan2000 22/Jan/2013 04:14:48 PM PST

    30. Agung dan Chandra rajin road show ke daerah2 perkenalkan program ini selalu didampingi pejabat2 BNP2TKI terutama Direktur Penempatan
    TrioMacan2000 22/Jan/2013 04:16:51 PM PST

    31. Akibatnya banyak lembaga2 swasta penempatan atau sponsor TKI G to G yg terpaksa mengirim TKI2nya ikut program ini. Bayar 5-11 juta /TKI
    TrioMacan2000 22/Jan/2013 04:19:04 PM PST

    32. Berapa banyak pungli atau pemerasan atau suap yg dikumpulkan Jumhur, Agung dan Chandra cs dgn modus program abal2 ini? Mari kita hitung
    TrioMacan2000 22/Jan/2013 04:20:36 PM PST

    33. Kuota TKI skema G to G ke Korea saja tiap tahun rata2 9000 orang. Tahun ini mungkin lebih 11 ribu. Yg ikut program abal2 ini sekitar 60%
    TrioMacan2000 22/Jan/2013 04:23:06 PM PST

    34. Asumsikan saja yg ikut program bantuan kelulusan abal2 ini rata2 6000 orang. Kalikan saja dgn misalkan 8 juta per TKI : 48 M / thn !
    TrioMacan2000 22/Jan/2013 04:25:59 PM PST

    35. Uang sekitar 48 M atau bulatkan saja 50 M per tahun dinikmati Jumhur, Agung, Chandra dan pejabat2 BNP2TKI dgn modus program abal2 itu
    TrioMacan2000 22/Jan/2013 04:27:25 PM PST

    36. Kenapa Program Bantuan Kelulusan tsb disebut abal2 alias hanya modus utk peras TKI ? Mari kita bongkar tuntas …
    TrioMacan2000 22/Jan/2013 04:28:44 PM PST

    37. Para TKI yg mau ikut penempatan TKI ke Korea dgn skema G to G harus terlebih dahulu dinyatakan lulus ujian tertulis bahasa korea dll
    TrioMacan2000 22/Jan/2013 04:30:58 PM PST

    38. Semua para calon TKI itu dibantu oleh lembaga2 swasta dlm menghadapi ujian tertulis yg diselenggarakan oleh pihak Korea tsb
    TrioMacan2000 22/Jan/2013 04:32:11 PM PST

    39. Namanya saja ujian. Pasti ada TKI yg gagal alias tidak lulus ujian meski sdh dididik / tutorial oleh lembaga sponsornya.
    TrioMacan2000 22/Jan/2013 04:34:23 PM PST

    40. Yang menentukan Materi ujian dan kelulusan adalah Pihak Korea. BNP2TKI hny sbg koordinator / fasilitator. Lalu bgmn Dgn program tadi?
    TrioMacan2000 22/Jan/2013 04:36:03 PM PST

    41. Program Bantuan Kelulusan ini hny berupa pembekalan singkat kpd calon peserta ujian (1-2 hari) terutama terkait dgn cara menerima SMS
    TrioMacan2000 22/Jan/2013 04:38:07 PM PST

    42. SMS apakah itu? Itu adalah SMS BOCORAN JAWABAN yg dikirim agung dan chandra cs kepada para peserta ujian ! Kolusi berbuat kecurangan !
    TrioMacan2000 22/Jan/2013 04:39:53 PM PST

    43. Program Bantuan Kelulusan itu sebenarnya adalah modus lakukan kecurangan agar lulus ujian. Bocoran jawaban di SMS ke peserta ujian
    TrioMacan2000 22/Jan/2013 04:42:26 PM PST

    44. Bgmn caranya? Ketika ikuti ujian tertulis yg berbentuk pilihan berganda, peserta akan mendapatkan kiriman SMS ke HP mereka
    TrioMacan2000 22/Jan/2013 04:44:25 PM PST

    45. Sampai 2012, pengawas ujian yg langsung dari pihak Korea, jumlahnya sangat terbatas. Puluhan ruangan ujian hanya diawasi bbrp pengawas
    TrioMacan2000 22/Jan/2013 04:45:58 PM PST

    46. Akibatnya seorang pengawas ujian harus awasi 6-8 kelas sekaligus. Sering keluar masuk tinggalkan kelas utk monitoring
    TrioMacan2000 22/Jan/2013 04:47:56 PM PST

    47. Saat pengawas meninggalkan ruangan ujian itulah SMS kiriman tadi dilihat peserta ujian dan lalu ngebut lihat SMS jawaban. Salin cepat2
    TrioMacan2000 22/Jan/2013 04:50:18 PM PST

    48. Pengawas ujian memang meminta para peserta ujian utk kumpulkan Hand Phone ke meja di depan pengawas. Tapi itu mudah diakali
    TrioMacan2000 22/Jan/2013 04:51:17 PM PST

    49. Pada saat dikumpulkan dlm program bantuan kelulusan tadi, peserta sdh dipesan utl bawa 2 HP. 1 dikumpulkan, 1 tidak. Pengawas dibohongi
    TrioMacan2000 22/Jan/2013 04:52:51 PM PST

    50. Namun akhirnya, kecurangan dgn modus kirim SMS itu ketahuan juga oleh pihak korea. Ada yg lupa silent kan HP dan jg jawabanya seragam
    TrioMacan2000 22/Jan/2013 04:54:14 PM PST

    51. Akibatnya? Pihak Korea marah besar. Penguman kelulusan dari Korea ditunda. Indonesia disuspend alias tdk diberi kuota sementara
    TrioMacan2000 22/Jan/2013 04:55:07 PM PST

    52. Tindakan amoral yg dilakukan oleh Agung dan chandra cs ini sangat memalukan bangsa. Jadi bahan ejekan pemerintah Korea. TKI jg dirugikan
    TrioMacan2000 22/Jan/2013 04:56:46 PM PST

    53. Jumhur sibuk minta maaf sama pemerintah Korea atas kecurangan tsb. Akhirnya dimaafkan juga oleh Korea. Tapi sebagian dikembalikan
    TrioMacan2000 22/Jan/2013 04:58:50 PM PST

    54. Pemerintah Korea kembalikan sekitar 3000 nama yg semula telah dinyatakan lulus tapi dianulir Korea karen ketahuan curang.
    TrioMacan2000 22/Jan/2013 04:59:30 PM PST

    55. Namun, pemberian maaf dari Korea itu kembali disalahgunakan Jumhur, Chandra dan Agung. Mereka merekayasa daftar nama 3000 org TKI itu
    TrioMacan2000 22/Jan/2013 05:01:08 PM PST

    56. Dgn motif tdk mau kembalikan uang 5-11 juta per TKI yg sdh dipungut mereka tadi, nama 3000 TKI td seolah2 sdh disortir kembali jadi 2100
    TrioMacan2000 22/Jan/2013 05:02:44 PM PST

    57. BNP2TKI mengirimkan kembali 2100 nama TKI yg dinyatakan BNP2TKI clean dari kasus kecurangan. Pihak Korea tidak terima bgtu saja. Selidik
    TrioMacan2000 22/Jan/2013 05:04:09 PM PST

    58. Ternyata 2100 nama2 TKI itu bukan hasil sortir objektif BNP2TKI. Semuanya rekayasa. Mereka itu adalah yg ikut program bantuan & bayar
    TrioMacan2000 22/Jan/2013 05:05:56 PM PST

    59. Pihak Korea marah besar lagi. BNP2TKI dinilai berbohong dan berbuat curang. Korea tdk mau terima yg 2100 ini. Tunda. Jumhur kelabakan
    TrioMacan2000 22/Jan/2013 05:06:52 PM PST

    60. Yg paling sial dan rugi bukan 2100 TKI tadi, tapi 900 TKI yg namanya dicoret Jumhur. Mereka langsung DIBLACKLIST oleh Korea selama 2 thn
    TrioMacan2000 22/Jan/2013 05:09:00 PM PST

    61. Nasib 900 TKI yg dicoret Jumhur td utk jd kambing hitam ke Korea, seperti sdh jatuh malah tertimpa tangga dan dilindas kereta. Kasihan
    TrioMacan2000 22/Jan/2013 05:10:29 PM PST

    62. Sementara Jumhur, Agung, Chandra, pejabat2 BNP2TKI menikmati pungutan sekitar 50 M per thn itu dari para calon TKI. Masya Allah. Biadab
    TrioMacan2000 22/Jan/2013 05:11:56 PM PST

    63. Syukurnya ( ciri khas kita), pihak Korea tdk mau lagi dikadalin oleh BNP2TKI. Tahun ini mereka kirim pengawas banyak. 1 kelas 1 pengawas
    TrioMacan2000 22/Jan/2013 05:14:03 PM PST

    64. Jumhur, Agung, Chandra cs tdk lagi bs berkutik utk curangi pelaksanaan ujian dan berhenti pungut 5-11 juta dari TKI dlm program bantuan
    TrioMacan2000 22/Jan/2013 05:15:25 PM PST

    65. Apakah upaya korupsi, suap dan pemerasan thdp TKI berhenti ? Ooh NO WAY !! Program bantuan kelulusan dibubarkan, asosiasi baru dibentuk
    TrioMacan2000 22/Jan/2013 05:16:25 PM PST

    66. Asosiasi lembaga sponsor sbg ganti modus Program Bantuan Kelulusan ini di ketuai oleh Chandra dan sekjen Agung. Maju tak gentar !!
    TrioMacan2000 22/Jan/2013 05:17:55 PM PST

    67. Apakah Modus cari uang haram jumhur cs ini hanya pada program bantuan? Oh nehi..nehi..nehi…banyak lagi modus2 suap dan pemerasannya
    TrioMacan2000 22/Jan/2013 05:18:50 PM PST

    68. Modus lain itu adalah : pungutan atau suap utk mengurus pengiriman data TKI atau dikenal dgn mana SENDING. tarif ? Rata2 7 juta per TKI
    TrioMacan2000 22/Jan/2013 05:19:44 PM PST

    69. Jika per TKI dipungut ilegal utk bantuan SENDING sebesar 7 juta, total suap/pungutan/pemerasan utk G t G Kore saja = 70 M per tahun !
    TrioMacan2000 22/Jan/2013 05:21:22 PM PST

    70. Adalagi modusnya? Ada donk. Kalau ga ada ga jumhur namanya. BNP2TKI juga minta kick back ke kampus2 yg ruanganya dipakai utk ujian
    TrioMacan2000 22/Jan/2013 05:22:12 PM PST

    71. Biaya ujian per TKI skema G t G adalah USD 25 per TKI. Bagian utk Korea USD 19 dan utk sewa ruang kampus USD 6 / TKI
    TrioMacan2000 22/Jan/2013 05:23:18 PM PST

    72. Dari USD 6 dollar utk sewa ruang ujian, pejabat BNP2TKI minta kickback / fee sebesar USD 1-2 / TKI dari pihak kampus. Berapa nilainya?
    TrioMacan2000 22/Jan/2013 05:26:26 PM PST

    73. Setiap tahun peserta ujian penempatan TKI G to G ke Korea 25.000 – 30.000 orang. Pernah mencapai 42.000. Kalikan saja dgn USD 1 atau 2
    TrioMacan2000 22/Jan/2013 05:27:39 PM PST

    74. Ada modus korupsi yg lain yg lebih besar dan kasar? Banyak. Antara lain : PUNGUTAN BIAYA TAMBAHAN TIKET diluar deposit yg 5.3 juta itu
    TrioMacan2000 22/Jan/2013 05:29:23 PM PST

    75. Dgn asumsi jumlah kuota TKI Korea rata 10.000 org, kalikan saja pungutan tambahan biaya tiket yg 3 jutaan itu = Rp. 30.000.000.000 !
    TrioMacan2000 22/Jan/2013 05:30:59 PM PST

    76. Bgmn detail modus suap utk SENDING dan TAMBAHAN BIAYA TIKET? Bgmn modus2 lainnya. Nanti kita bongkar semu dlm kultwit selanjutnya
    TrioMacan2000 22/Jan/2013 05:31:56 PM PST

    77. Semoga @Presiden_RI @PresidenSBY @setkabgoid @mabespolri @KPK_RI @Kejgung_RI dan semua pihak terkait sgra bertindak tegas. Tangkap !
    TrioMacan2000 22/Jan/2013 05:33:07 PM PST

    78. Bgm modus jumhur ketika mau dipecat mengancam SBY dgn menyebarkan SMS2 palsu seolah2 yg caci maki dan ancam SBY? Nanti jg dibahas
    TrioMacan2000 22/Jan/2013 05:35:12 PM PST

    79. Kami akan bahas tuntas semua modus2 korupsi, suap, pemerasan dsj yg dilakukan oleh Pejabat2 BNP2TKI sampai mereka masuk penjara
    TrioMacan2000 22/Jan/2013 05:36:16 PM PST

    80. Sementara cukup sekian. Mari teruskan perjuangan membasmi kebatilan dan mencerahkan fikiran rakyat. Terima kasih. MERDEKA !!
    TrioMacan2000 22/Jan/2013 05:36:53 PM PST

    Juga nanti kami bahas sikap Dubes RI untuk Korea yg enggan layani masalah2 TKI di Korea. Mereka lbh suka layani mahasiswa dan org2 kaya
    TrioMacan2000 22/Jan/2013 05:57:41 PM PST

    teringat saat bertamu ke kantor jumhur 3 bln setelah dilantik jadi Ka BNP2TKI. Dia lg stress saat itu krna belum ada setor suap ke cikeas
    TrioMacan2000 22/Jan/2013 06:12:40 PM PST

    deputi dan direktur di BNP2TKI juga dari Polri..aman deh kalau jumhur korupsi dan setor juga @AHKurnia
    TrioMacan2000 22/Jan/2013 09:05:49 PM PST

    Agung adik Jumhur buat showroom motor besar di Jakarta. Namnya Victory Motor Cycles dikelola oleh PT Arya Motor Indonesia
    TrioMacan2000 22/Jan/2013 09:14:05 PM PST

    Nih BUKTI INVESTASI AGUNG ADIK JUMHUR YANG DIDUGA MONEY LOUNDERING >>

    http://t.co/lHQlW51H

    TrioMacan2000 22/Jan/2013 09:15:53 PM PST

    Nih lg BUKTI AGUNG DIDUGA CUCI UANG KORUPSI JUMHUR >>

    http://t.co/HnEoiP79

    Duit Jumhur dicuci di showroom tersebut
    TrioMacan2000 22/Jan/2013 09:17:01 PM PST

    Info bhw PPATK dan KPK incar Agung bocor ke Jumhur dan dia diperintahkan Jumhur untuk membubarkan Victory Motor Cycles
    TrioMacan2000 22/Jan/2013 09:18:06 PM PST

    Jumhur sering dapat bocoran PPATK dan KPK karena stafnya ada yg mantan penyidik KPK. Korupsi ratusan M per tahun , amaaan hehe
    TrioMacan2000 22/Jan/2013 09:29:12 PM PST

    BIadab ! @Leholic: TKI kudu bayar 500 ribu lebih can klo mw keluar dari terminal 2D tanpa harus ke terminal 4 alias tmpt penampungan TKI.”
    TrioMacan2000 22/Jan/2013 09:55:51 PM PST

    “@thanonaria: mrk ngekor kita waktu turun sampe imigrasi, kita tanya knp, mrk bilang takut diperas dan dikerjain, akhirnya kita temani
    TrioMacan2000 22/Jan/2013 09:58:26 PM PST

    yang sedang kita bahas bukan perlakuan majikan TKI tapi perikaku korup, suap dan mafia si Jumhur, agung, candra, hadi, haposan cs @dwiksx
    TrioMacan2000 22/Jan/2013 10:01:07 PM PST

    Kesempatan apa om sama si dencik? Sdh 6 thn dia korup disana “@BnidicTambajong: Om berilah kesempatan pada mas @jumhurhidayat :)”
    TrioMacan2000 22/Jan/2013 10:03:46 PM PST

    Kami terima laporan ttg suap dan korupsi jumhur, chandra, agung, hadi dll di BNP2TKI @BnidicTambajong: Om ada apa dengan mas @jumhurhidayat
    TrioMacan2000 22/Jan/2013 10:04:51 PM PST

    Oh..silahkan saja om ..monggo “@BnidicTambajong: Om maksud saya berilah kesempatan mas @jumhurhidayat mengklarifikasinya,tks”
    TrioMacan2000 22/Jan/2013 10:08:00 PM PST

    Barusan ada telp ke admin TM2000. Dia heran kok sbg teman TM2000 tetap bongkar korupsi Jumhur, Chandra, Agung, Hadi cs di BNP2TKI. EGP !
    TrioMacan2000 22/Jan/2013 10:20:43 PM PST

    masuk info lagi, ka BNP2TKI @jumhurhidayat diduga cuci uang via usaha show room jual beli mobil di Tebet. Namanya D & D Mobil @KPK_RI
    TrioMacan2000 22/Jan/2013 10:34:51 PM PST


    http://chirpstory.com/li/48204

    MODUS PUNGLI & KORUPSI MAFIA BNP2TKI – BAG. 2
    By @TrioMacan2000, 23/Jan/2013 01:16:44 AM PST

    1. Eng ing eeng..kita bahas lagi korupsi, suap, pemerasan pejabat2 BNP2TKI, M Agung (adik Jumhur Hidayat Kepala BNP2TKI) dan Chandra cs
    TrioMacan2000 22/Jan/2013 11:58:10 PM PST

    2. Kita sblmnya sdh bongkar habis MODUS SUAP dan KORUPSI melalui Program Bantuan Kelulusan yang liar dan abal2 itu. Suap 5-11 juta per TKI
    TrioMacan2000 22/Jan/2013 11:59:07 PM PST

    3. Total uang suap yg diperoleh dari Modus Program Bantuan Kelulusan (PBK) itu sekitar Rp. 50 milyar per tahun. PBK sdh dihentikan
    TrioMacan2000 23/Jan/2013 12:00:05 AM PST

    4. PBK dihentikan karena ketahuan berbuat curang membantu kelulusan peserta ujian TKI G to G oleh pihak Korea. Kuota TKI sempat disuspend
    TrioMacan2000 23/Jan/2013 12:00:33 AM PST

    5. Modus suap dan korupsi lainnya yang sangat besar di BNP2TKI ada pada tahapan SENDING DATA calon TKI (CTKI) ke pihak Korea
    TrioMacan2000 23/Jan/2013 12:02:38 AM PST

    6. Setiap CTKI yang sdh lulus tes tertulis, wajib mengirimkan kelengkapan data2 pribadinya ke BNP2TKI utk diteruskan ke Pihak Korea
    TrioMacan2000 23/Jan/2013 12:03:24 AM PST

    7. SOP yang berlaku di BNP2TKI seharusnya CTKI itu cukup mengirimkan kelengkapan data by pos dgn alamat tujuan PO BOX BNP2TKI yg resmi
    TrioMacan2000 23/Jan/2013 12:04:37 AM PST

    8. Dengan SOP baku BNP2TKI itu para CTKI tujuan Korea TIDAK DIPUNGUT UANG sepeser pun. Namun bagaimana prakteknya di lapangan ?
    TrioMacan2000 23/Jan/2013 12:05:19 AM PST

    9. Prakteknya di lapangan, jk CTKI kirimkan kelengkapan data pribadi by Pos dgn tujuan PO BOX resmi milik BNP2TKI, data CTKI tdk diteruskan
    TrioMacan2000 23/Jan/2013 12:07:06 AM PST

    10. BNP2TKI selalu mencari2 alasan utk tidak mengirimkan data CTKI ke Korea. Ada saja alasannya jika ditanya atau ditampilkan dlm website

    TrioMacan2000 23/Jan/2013 12:07:50 AM PST

    11. Alasan yg digunakan BNP2TKI utk tidak kirimkan (sending) data CTKI itu diantaranya : dokumen kurang lengkap, dok salah, kabur, dst
    TrioMacan2000 23/Jan/2013 12:08:07 AM PST

    12. Tanpa pengiriman / sending data CTKI oleh @BNP2TKI_ ke Korea, para CTKI itu tidak akan pernah dipanggil. Nunggu sampe botak atau kiamat
    TrioMacan2000 23/Jan/2013 12:09:00 AM PST

    13. Semakin cepat data CTKI dikirim BNP2TKI ke Korea semakin cepat pula pihak Korea memanggil para CTKI itu untuk segera diberangkatkan
    TrioMacan2000 23/Jan/2013 12:10:40 AM PST

    14. Coba anda buka website resmi BNP2TKI tentang pengumuman nama2 CTKI yg sdh kirim data kelengkapan tapi tidak diteruskan oleh BNP2TKI
    TrioMacan2000 23/Jan/2013 12:11:38 AM PST

    15. Pasti dijumpai ratusan atau ribuan nama yg dicantumkan dalam website tsb tapi diberi catatan alasan tidak bisa dikirim ( pending)
    TrioMacan2000 23/Jan/2013 12:12:39 AM PST

    16. Nama2 CTKI tujuan Korea skema G to G yg dipending pengiriman datanya ke Korea itu, adalah para CTKI yg tidak berikan suap ke BNP2TKI
    TrioMacan2000 23/Jan/2013 12:13:40 AM PST

    17. Para Lembaga / sponsor TKI semua sdh mengerti “permainan kotor haram jadah” ini. Mereka harus bayar suap rata2 7-10 juta per kepala
    TrioMacan2000 23/Jan/2013 12:14:45 AM PST

    18. Lembaga2 atau sponsor TKI tujuan Korea ini terpaksa harus suap BNP2TKI agar data2 TKI dikirimkan segera oleh BNP2TKI ke pihak Korea
    TrioMacan2000 23/Jan/2013 12:16:03 AM PST

    19. Karena praktek suap ini sdh berlangsung lama, para lembaga/sponsor TKI Korea sdh perhitungkan biaya suap ini didepan. Pungut dari CTKI
    TrioMacan2000 23/Jan/2013 12:16:55 AM PST

    20. Rata2 CTKI tujuan Korea dgn skema G to G, harus menyiapkan uang 30-40 juta agar bisa lolos diberangkatkan dan jadi TKI di Korea sana
    TrioMacan2000 23/Jan/2013 12:17:51 AM PST

    21. Untuk pengurusan SENDING DATA yang 7 juta sd 10 juta per TKI itu biasanya dibayar per kelompok dan dimuka. Transaksinya di hotel2. CASH
    TrioMacan2000 23/Jan/2013 12:18:51 AM PST

    22. Kuota TKI RI ke Korea skema G to G tahun 2012 saja 9.900 orang. Tahun 2012 ada kenaikan jadi 11.000 TKI. Kita asumsikan saja 10.000 TKI
    TrioMacan2000 23/Jan/2013 12:22:23 AM PST

    23. Kuota TKI RI ke Korea skema G to G tahun 2012 saja 9.900 orang. Tahun 2012 ada kenaikan jadi 11.000 TKI. Kita asumsikan saja 10.000 TKI
    TrioMacan2000 23/Jan/2013 12:23:05 AM PST

    24. Dengan asumsi 10.000 TKI tujuan Korea setiap tahun, maka uang suap minimal yg diraup Jumhur cs ini = Rp. 70 – 100 Milyar. Sedaaaap hehe
    TrioMacan2000 23/Jan/2013 12:24:32 AM PST

    24. Dengan asumsi 10.000 TKI tujuan Korea setiap tahun, maka uang suap minimal yg diraup Jumhur cs ini = Rp. 70 – 100 Milyar. Sedaaaap hehe
    TrioMacan2000 23/Jan/2013 12:24:32 AM PST

    25. Tentu saja uang suap terkait SENDING DATA yg 70 – 100 Milyar per tahun ini tidak dimakan jumhur sendiri. Bagi kemana2. Spya aman hehe
    TrioMacan2000 23/Jan/2013 12:26:37 AM PST

    26. Tentu saja bagian terbesar tetap milik Jumhur selaku Ka BNP2TKI. Sisanya ke DPR (kom IX), menakertrans @muhaiminIskand, cikeas, dll
    TrioMacan2000 23/Jan/2013 12:28:09 AM PST

    27. PPATK sdh mengendus distribusi uang haram hasil suap ini meski dlm jumlah yg kecil karena sebagian besar modusnya adalah TUNAI. CASH !
    TrioMacan2000 23/Jan/2013 12:29:05 AM PST

    28. Bahkan informan kami kemaren menyampaikan bhw ada juga aliran dana ke partai tertentu. KPK sdh incar Jumhur, agung, chandra, hadi cs ini
    TrioMacan2000 23/Jan/2013 12:30:32 AM PST

    29. Masalahnya KPK skrg lagi lumpuh. KPK sulit lakukan tangkap tangan transaksi suap karena kewenangan penyadapan KPK di kebiri DPR
    TrioMacan2000 23/Jan/2013 12:31:17 AM PST

    30. KPK sulit tangkap tangan transaksi suap pejabat BNP2TKI, jg lainnya karena kewenangan penyadapannya dilumpuhkan DPR setahun terakhir ini
    TrioMacan2000 23/Jan/2013 12:46:33 AM PST

    31. Polri bagaimana? Sulit juga diharapkan karena sebagian pejabat BNP2TKI adalah petinggi/ perwira2 Polri. Masak jeruk makan jeruk ? Hehe
    TrioMacan2000 23/Jan/2013 12:47:26 AM PST

    32. Satu2nya harapan adalah operasi penangkapan transaksi suap oleh Kejagung RI. Tapi mungkinkah mau? Kejagung kita sdg dikuasai mafia hukum
    TrioMacan2000 23/Jan/2013 12:48:54 AM PST

    33. Bagaimana dgn fungsi kontrol DPR. Apakah lumpuh juga karena semua anggta komisi IX diduga sdh terima setoran BNP2TKI? @irganchmahfiz
    TrioMacan2000 23/Jan/2013 12:50:09 AM PST

    34. Tapi sudahlah, lupakan aparat/instansi penegak hukum kita ataupun DPR. Semoga masih ada orang yg punya nyali utk basmi korupsi BNP2TKI
    TrioMacan2000 23/Jan/2013 12:51:17 AM PST

    35. Transaksi suap pada prosea SENDING DATA oleh BNP2TKI ini sdh jadi rahasia umum di kalangan lembaga/ sponsor TKI Korea
    TrioMacan2000 23/Jan/2013 12:52:22 AM PST

    36. Masih ada lagi korupsi, suap atau pungutan liar yg jumlahnya besar di BNP2TKI ini. Antara lain : pungli uang tambahan tiket pesawat
    TrioMacan2000 23/Jan/2013 12:53:16 AM PST

    37. Setelah lulus tes, data disending, panggilan Korea tiba, BNP2TKI panggil semua CTKI yg diundang. Mereka diinapkan di mess penampungan
    TrioMacan2000 23/Jan/2013 12:56:39 AM PST

    38. Mereka diinapkan sekitar seminggu utk persiapan berangkat. Disuruh medical check up, bayar 475.000, asuransi pre penempatan 400.000 ..
    TrioMacan2000 23/Jan/2013 12:57:50 AM PST

    39. Disamping itu CTKI jg dipungut 350.000 utk uang seragam dan foto kenang2an. Ttg biaya medical, asuransi, seragam, foto nanti kita bahas
    TrioMacan2000 23/Jan/2013 01:00:02 AM PST

    40. Kita bahas dulu tentang pungli uang “tambahan kekurangan tiket pesawat ke Korea” yang besarnya 3 -3.5 juta per orang, dibayar tunai
    TrioMacan2000 23/Jan/2013 01:01:32 AM PST

    41. Ketika pihak Korea sdh mengirimkan nama2 CTKI yg diundang, BNP2TKI minta CTKI deposit uang tiket sebesar Rp. 5.3 juta / orang
    TrioMacan2000 23/Jan/2013 01:03:15 AM PST

    42. Sesuai ketentuan BNP2TKI, uang deposit tiket pesawat Garuda itu akan dikembalikan jika berlebih dan ditambah jika ternyata kurang.
    TrioMacan2000 23/Jan/2013 01:04:23 AM PST

    43. Jika dibandingkan dgn tiket pesawat Garuda Jakarta – Seoul yg rata2 Rp. 3.5 – 4.5 juta one way itu, uang deposite harusnya berlebih
    TrioMacan2000 23/Jan/2013 01:06:34 AM PST

    44. Tapi kenyataaanya, sehari atau dua hari sebelum berangkat, oknum2 BNP2TKI selalu minta tambahan atas “kekurangan biaya tiket”
    TrioMacan2000 23/Jan/2013 01:07:41 AM PST

    45. PUNGLI dgn dalih kekurangan biaya tiket pesawat ini sekitar 3 – 3.5 juta per orang. Tanpa kwitansi tanda terima. Cash n carry
    TrioMacan2000 23/Jan/2013 01:09:34 AM PST

    46. Berapa puluh milyar uang haram yg diraup oleh oknum2 bejat BNP2TKI ini? Kalikan saja 10.000 TKI Korea setiap tahunnya = 30-35 MILYAR !
    TrioMacan2000 23/Jan/2013 01:10:46 AM PST

    47. Kenapa KPK, Polri, Kejagung tdk mau tangkap bejator2 BNP2TKI ini? Punglinya terang2an di Ciracas sana. Datang, tangkap, penjarakan !
    TrioMacan2000 23/Jan/2013 01:12:01 AM PST

    48. Kita sudahi dulu sementara. Nanti kita sambung lagi bahas modus2 korupsi di BNP2TKI, modus cuci uang jumhur, agung dan chandra…
    TrioMacan2000 23/Jan/2013 01:13:11 AM PST

    49. ..modus pengerukan keuntungan yg tak wajar di semua money changer rekanan BNP2TKI, akal2an dan pemerasan di medical check up dll
    TrioMacan2000 23/Jan/2013 01:14:29 AM PST

    50. Sekian dulu part 2 korupsi & praktek mafia BNP2TKI. Terima kasih. Semoga bermanfaat. MERDEKA !!!
    TrioMacan2000 23/Jan/2013 01:15:17 AM PST


    http://chirpstory.com/li/48352

    MODUS PUNGLI & KORUPSI MAFIA BNP2TKI – BAG. 3
    By @TrioMacan2000, 23/Jan/2013 04:34:54 PM PST

    1. Eng ing eeng..kita lanjutkan korupsi, pemerasan, pungli yg dilakukan oleh BNP2TKI thdp para calon TKI indonesia yg sdh sangat kronis
    TrioMacan2000 23/Jan/2013 03:34:16 PM PST

    2. Kita sdh bahas tuntas bgmn adik kandung Jumhur, Muhammad Agung dan teman karib Jumhur Chandra memeras habis CTKI Korea dgn modus PBK
    TrioMacan2000 23/Jan/2013 03:35:27 PM PST

    3. PBK itu adalah Program Bantuan Kelulusan yg tak resmi alias liar dari BNP2TKI yg bantu CTKI agar lulus dgn lakukan kecurangan dlm ujian
    TrioMacan2000 23/Jan/2013 03:36:49 PM PST

    4. Setiap tahun, rata2 6000 CTKI ikut PBK ini dan dipungut uang 5-11 juta per TKI atau 30 – 66 Milyar uang haram yg diraup Jumhur cs tsb
    TrioMacan2000 23/Jan/2013 03:38:27 PM PST

    5. Kita tahu siapa M. Agung adik kandung jumhur yg jadi Mafia TKI di BNP2TKI. Tapi siapakan Chandra itu? Yg juga jadi Mafia besar TKI?
    TrioMacan2000 23/Jan/2013 03:43:16 PM PST

    ERVIANTO RADIX CHANDRA

    http://twitpic.com/show/large/bxpji4

    6. Chandra adalah mantan aktivis mahasiswa. Pernah jabat ketua front aksi mahasiswa UI. Dia sangat dekat dgn Ka BNP2TKI jumhur hidayat
    TrioMacan2000 23/Jan/2013 03:44:24 PM PST

    7. Kedekatan Chandra dgn Jumhur awalnya karena sama2 sbg aktivis Mahasiswa. Ketika Jumhur jadi Ka BNP2TKI, chandra ikut cawe2 disana
    TrioMacan2000 23/Jan/2013 03:45:48 PM PST

    8. Beberapa sumber menyebutkan bhw hubungan Chandra dgn Jumhur semakin kental karena Chandra adalah salah satu mesin uang jumhur di BNP2TKi
    TrioMacan2000 23/Jan/2013 03:46:49 PM PST

    9. Bahkan ada yg infokan bhw chandra pegang rahasia hitam jumhur selain korupsi dan pencucian uang yaitu diduga suka supply cewek ke jumhur
    TrioMacan2000 23/Jan/2013 03:48:09 PM PST

    10. Chandra bersama Agung yg menjadi pelaku utama praktek mafia di BNP2TKI diduga telah hasilkan sekitar 60 milyar dari pemerasannya pd TKI
    TrioMacan2000 23/Jan/2013 03:49:20 PM PST

    11. Sementara jumhur bersama adik kandungnya Agung disebut2 sdh berhasil kumpulkan uang haram sekitar 300 milyar selama di BNP2TKI
    TrioMacan2000 23/Jan/2013 03:50:43 PM PST

    12. Uang haram hasil keringat darah TKI itu dicuci melalui berbagai usaha yg tersebar di Bandung dan Jakarta diantaranya dikelola oleh Hadi
    TrioMacan2000 23/Jan/2013 03:51:42 PM PST

    13. Kembali ke korupsi/pungli/pemerasan CTKI oleh BNP2TKI. Selain modus PBK dan SENDING DATA CTKI yg hasilkan lebh 100 M per tahun…
    TrioMacan2000 23/Jan/2013 03:53:13 PM PST

    14. ..modus pemerasan dan pungli “tambahan kekurangan uang Tiket Pesawat” juga sangat besar. Semua CTKI Korea dipungut 3 jutaan per orang
    TrioMacan2000 23/Jan/2013 03:54:23 PM PST

    15. Pungutan 3-3,5 juta uang tambahan tiket pesawat ke Korea itu diserahkan tanpa ada kwitansi tanda terima utk CTKI
    TrioMacan2000 23/Jan/2013 03:55:17 PM PST

    16. Padahal para CTKI tujuan Korea itu sdh bayar di depan / deposit 5.3 juta per orang jauh2 hari sebelumnya.
    TrioMacan2000 23/Jan/2013 03:56:28 PM PST

    17. Berapakah sebenarnya harga tiket one way atau sekali jalan ke Seoul Korea itu? Silahkan cari di internet atau sales office Garuda Ind
    TrioMacan2000 23/Jan/2013 03:57:49 PM PST

    18. Data di internet dan sales office Garuda Indonesia, Harga tiket Jakarta – Seoul PP antara USD 599 sd USD 850 atau 5.5 sd 8 juta PP
    TrioMacan2000 23/Jan/2013 03:59:41 PM PST

    19. Harga 5.5 sd 8 juta Pulang Pergi. Sekali lagi untuk Pulang Pergi. Bukan one way atau sekali jalan ! Berapa harga one way tiketnya?
    TrioMacan2000 23/Jan/2013 04:01:10 PM PST

    20. Tiket one way Jakarta – seoul mulai dari 3.5 juta sampai paling mahal 6 juta. Kenapa TKI malah dipungut 5.3 juta plus 3 jutaan?
    TrioMacan2000 23/Jan/2013 04:02:46 PM PST

    21. Semua TKI Korea harus membayar harga tiket Jakarta Seoul 8.3 – 9 juta per orang. Atau ada selisih kelebihan sekitar 5 juta per orang !
    TrioMacan2000 23/Jan/2013 04:04:29 PM PST

    22. BPK dan KPK harus selidiki berapa sebenarnya yg dibayarkan BNP2TKI ke Garuda Indonesia. Supaya tahu siapa yg korupsi disini
    TrioMacan2000 23/Jan/2013 04:05:23 PM PST

    23. Knp bisa harga tiket one way TKI itu lebih mahal bahkan dibandingkan dgn harga tiket Pulang Pergi ? Garuda Indonesia turut bermain?
    TrioMacan2000 23/Jan/2013 04:06:36 PM PST

    24. CTKI Korea yg memesan tiket jauh2 hari sebelum keberangkatan via BNP2TKI tentu seharusnya mendapatkan harga tiket yg lebih murah
    TrioMacan2000 23/Jan/2013 04:08:04 PM PST

    24. Apalagi BNP2TKI pasti sdh ada kerjasama dgn GIA utk pengangkutan penumpang yg jumlahnya rata2 10.000 orang TKI per tahun itu
    TrioMacan2000 23/Jan/2013 04:09:01 PM PST

    25. Apalagi BNP2TKI pasti sdh ada kerjasama dgn GIA utk pengangkutan penumpang yg jumlahnya rata2 10.000 orang TKI per tahun itu
    TrioMacan2000 23/Jan/2013 04:09:28 PM PST

    26. Sebab itu sangat tidak masuk akal dan penipuan namanya jika TKI Korea mesti bayar harga tiket one way seharga 2 kali lipat harga normal
    TrioMacan2000 23/Jan/2013 04:10:13 PM PST

    27. Apalagi deposite yang 5.3 juta itu tdk pernah dikembalikan selisih kelebihannya. Plus tambahan yg 3 jutaan tdk pernah ada kwitansinya
    TrioMacan2000 23/Jan/2013 04:11:22 PM PST

    28. Berapa uang haram dari darah dan keringan TKI yg diraup alias dirampok oleh Jumhur Hidayat cs ini. Asumsikan saja 4 juta per orang
    TrioMacan2000 23/Jan/2013 04:12:14 PM PST

    29. Dengan kelebihan bayar 4 juta per orang, maka diperoleh angka 40 Milyar uang kelebihan harga tiket yg dimakan Jumhur cs setiap tahun
    TrioMacan2000 23/Jan/2013 04:13:35 PM PST

    30. Jumhur hidayat sdh jadi kepala BNP2TKI sejak 2006 atau sdh 6 tahun. Wajar jika disebut banyak orang dia sdh kumpulkan kekayaan > 300 M
    TrioMacan2000 23/Jan/2013 04:14:39 PM PST

    31. Dari modus PBK jumhur cs sdh kumpulkan lebih 70 M per tahun, dari Sending Data CTKI jg 70 M per tahun, dari Tiket Pesawat 40 M per tahun
    TrioMacan2000 23/Jan/2013 04:16:13 PM PST

    32. Uang haram berasal dari darah keringat CTKI Korea saja jumhur sdh kumpulkan lebih 180 milyar per tahun. Kalikan saja selama 6 tahun
    TrioMacan2000 23/Jan/2013 04:17:42 PM PST

    33. Uang Haram 180 M dikalikn selama 6 tahun sama dengan 1.08 Trliun !! Sungguh luar biasa besar. Hanya dari penempatan CTKI Korea saja !!
    TrioMacan2000 23/Jan/2013 04:19:06 PM PST

    34. Dengan korupsi /pungli liar total sekitar 1 triliun itu wajar2 saja Jumhur terus bertahan jadi Ka BNP2TKI. Suap pasti mengalir kemana2
    TrioMacan2000 23/Jan/2013 04:20:51 PM PST

    35. Dengan uang haram 1 triliun itu wajar juga Jumhur mulai kampanyekan dirinya sbg salah satu Capres 2014. Mulai iklan dimana2
    TrioMacan2000 23/Jan/2013 04:21:48 PM PST

    36. Kemana saja suap Jumhur mengalir? DPR, Polri, Kejagung, Cikeas, BPK, istana, menakertrans dll..apakah mereka terima setoran suap jumhur?
    TrioMacan2000 23/Jan/2013 04:23:06 PM PST

    37. Apakah hanya itu saja, PBK, SENDING dan TIKET yg jadi modus korupsi/suap/pungli Jumhur cs? Tidak. Ada lagi yg namanya medical & asuransi
    TrioMacan2000 23/Jan/2013 04:25:43 PM PST

    38. Ada lagi modus korupsi BNP2TKI dgn modus pemaksaan penukaran uang di money changer dgn selisih rata2 500 point. Nanti kita bahas semua
    TrioMacan2000 23/Jan/2013 04:26:44 PM PST

    39. Sesuai tradisi kami, pembahasan tuntas korupsi seorang pejabat akan kami lakukan terus, setiap hari sampai ybs dipecat atau jadi TSK
    TrioMacan2000 23/Jan/2013 04:27:56 PM PST

    40. Atau minimalnya jika pihak2 terkait : polri, kejagung, KPK dan BPK sdh mengusut kasus korupsi yg kami ungkap. Kita tunggu saja
    TrioMacan2000 23/Jan/2013 04:29:02 PM PST

    41. Cukup sekian dulu pembahasan tentang korupsi Jumhur cs di BNP2TKI. Nanti kita lanjutkan ttg korupsi di Medical, asuransi & money changer
    TrioMacan2000 23/Jan/2013 04:29:58 PM PST

    42. Terima kasih atas perhatiannya, semoga bermanfaat. Selamat berhari libur. MERDEKA !!
    TrioMacan2000 23/Jan/2013 04:30:47 PM PST

    Info bhw PPATK dan KPK incar Agung bocor ke Jumhur dan dia diperintahkan Jumhur untuk membubarkan Victory Motor Cycles & showroom2 mobilnya
    TrioMacan2000 23/Jan/2013 06:23:54 PM PST

    Mau tahu wajah Chandra mantan aktivis UI yg skrg jadi Mafia Pemeras TKI ..nih yg gundul dan t shirt putih http://t.co/k53khmE1

    TrioMacan2000 23/Jan/2013 07:41:02 PM PST

    Mari kita rakyat semua cari yg namanya chandra atau agung yg jd mafia TKI. Ketemu gebukin saja. Sdh sengsarakan puluhan ribu TKI
    TrioMacan2000 23/Jan/2013 10:15:39 PM PST

    Kalau mahasiswa memang dapat diandalkan, besok atau minggu depan, demo di depan kantor BNP2TKI. Seret jumhur yg korup itu. Gantung
    TrioMacan2000 23/Jan/2013 10:16:35 PM PST

    Daripada BEM UI atau BEM2 lain tak jelas juntrungannya, mending demo dan seret jumhur yg sdh palak puluhan ribu TKI. Gantung sampe mati
    TrioMacan2000 23/Jan/2013 10:17:33 PM PST

    @TrioMacan2000 Can, ga cuma agung n Chandra, coba liat jg DirPamnya si Bambang, msh euforia dengan bintang satu d pundaknya, main2 sama Dita
    AzanIndonesia 23/Jan/2013 12:17:25 AM PST

    @TrioMacan2000 CTKI ke Korea bisa merogoh kocek sampe 60jt lho. Variatif tarifnya, kalau ada kenalan ya ada diskonnya juga.
    AzanIndonesia 23/Jan/2013 12:18:44 AM PST

    @TrioMacan2000 Can, coba dishare juga soal Dirpam Bambang. Dia maen sama Dita IS. Dita beberapa waktu lalu abis beli rumah 600jt lho. duh!
    AzanIndonesia 23/Jan/2013 02:04:27 AM PST

    @TrioMacan2000 Belum lagi soal money changer (MC) buat para TKI. Ngeri abizzz, selisihnya bisa lebih dari Rp. 500/ US$ dibanding MC umumnya
    AzanIndonesia 23/Jan/2013 02:06:31 AM PST

    @TrioMacan2000 BNP2TKI memaksa TKI yg kembali tdk lwt Selapajang akan diminta membayar 700rb/org. Semua diatur oleh PJTKI & unit Pam BNP2TKI
    AzanIndonesia 23/Jan/2013 05:36:29 AM PST

    @TrioMacan2000 TKI lewat terminal 2, untuk jeratan paksa pakai jasa travel, Money Changer yg selisihnya s.d 500 poin diatur Dirpam BNP2TKI
    AzanIndonesia 23/Jan/2013 05:38:34 AM PST

    @TrioMacan2000 Selain makan TKI Korea, Agung dan Candra mengkoordinir Money Changer Terminal Selapajang dengan setoran minimal 5M/tahun.
    AzanIndonesia 23/Jan/2013 05:40:01 AM PST

    @TrioMacan2000 Utk mengamankan kejahatannya, Jumhur psg DI sebagai staf khusus Menaker utk mengatur Muhaimin & Rena Usman (Dirjen Binapenta)
    AzanIndonesia 23/Jan/2013 05:42:15 AM PST

    @TrioMacan2000 Selain mata2, Dita adalah gula2 Jumhur yg dipakai sejak jaman sewaktu sama2 jadi aktivis buruh.
    AzanIndonesia 23/Jan/2013 05:43:32 AM PST

    DI disusupkan lwt FaizolReza yg seolah2 kader PRD, namun tdk loyal samaReza&Muhaimin. Krn gaji+servis rutin/bulan dr Jumhur @TrioMacan2000
    AzanIndonesia 23/Jan/2013 06:01:01 AM PST

    @TrioMacan2000 Muhaimin tdk berkutik menghadapi Jumhur Hidayat krn dikepung aktivis PRD, Faizol Reza, Dita Indasari, Iwan DL, Daniel, Alfi
    AzanIndonesia 23/Jan/2013 06:08:39 AM PST

    Kader2 PRD inilah yg mengatur kebijakan yg dibutuhkan@jumhur hidyat, juga fee proyek dan asuransi. @TrioMacan2000
    AzanIndonesia 23/Jan/2013 06:09:27 AM PST

    Brigjen Pol. Bambang Purwanto, sebelumnya dia Kepala Bidang Hukum Polda Metro Jaya, pangkatnya waktu itu msh Kombes @irwanka @TrioMacan2000
    AzanIndonesia 23/Jan/2013 07:18:32 PM PST


    http://chirpstory.com/li/48542

    MODUS PUNGLI & KORUPSI MAFIA BNP2TKI – BAG. 4
    By @TrioMacan2000, 24/Jan/2013 05:24:09 PM PST

    1. Eng ing eeeng..mari kita kuliti lagi modus2 korupsi/suap/pemerasan jumhur, agung, chandra, haposan, asep wahyu dan hadi cs di @BNP2TKI_
    TrioMacan2000 24/Jan/2013 03:53:20 PM PST

    2. BNP2TKI dibentuk berdasarkan UU No. 39/2004 yg tujuan utamanya adalah : MENEMPATKAN dan MELINDUNGI TKI. Bukan sebaliknya : MEMERAS TKI
    TrioMacan2000 24/Jan/2013 03:54:45 PM PST

    3. UU ttg BNP2TKI jelas menyebutkan : BNP2TKI bertugas:
    melakukan penempatan atas dasar perjanjian secara tertulis antara Pemerintah …
    TrioMacan2000 24/Jan/2013 03:57:17 PM PST

    4. …dgn Pemerintah negara Pengguna TKI atau Pengguna berbadan hukum di negara tujuan penempatan sebagaimana dimaksud dalam Pasal 11 ayat (1)
    TrioMacan2000 24/Jan/2013 03:57:45 PM PST

    5. BNP2TKI WAJIB memberikan pelayanan, mengkoordinasikan, dan melakukan pengawasan mengenai:
    dokumen, pembekalan akhir pemberangkatan ..
    TrioMacan2000 24/Jan/2013 03:59:46 PM PST

    6. …penyelesaian masalah; sumber-sumber pembiayaan; pemberangkatan sampai pemulangan; peningkatan kualitas calon TKI …
    TrioMacan2000 24/Jan/2013 04:01:03 PM PST

    7. …penyajian informasi; kualitas penempatan TKI; dan peningkatan kesejahteraan TKI dan keluarganya. Inilah TUGAS dan KEWAJIBAN BNP2TKI
    TrioMacan2000 24/Jan/2013 04:02:04 PM PST

    8. Penempatan dan perlindungan calon TKI/TKI berasaskan keterpaduan, persamaan hak, demokrasi, keadilan sosial, kesetaraan dan …
    TrioMacan2000 24/Jan/2013 04:03:35 PM PST

    9. … dan keadilan gender, anti diskriminasi, serta anti perdagangan manusia. Semua ini ada tertuang dalam UU ttg BNP2TKI. Faktanya ??
    TrioMacan2000 24/Jan/2013 04:04:28 PM PST

    10. Faktanya BNP2TKI bukanlah menjadi Badan Penempatan dan Perlindungan TKI. Tapi jadi Badan Pemeras dan Penghisap Darah TKI.
    TrioMacan2000 24/Jan/2013 04:06:32 PM PST

    11. Kami sdh bahas bgmn buasnya Jumhur, si Agung Anugerah, sohibnya si Chandra, stafnya si Haposan, hadi & asep ( anak buah & teman agung)
    TrioMacan2000 24/Jan/2013 04:08:26 PM PST

    12. Kebuasan, keserakahan dan kezaliman BNP2TKI lebih mengerikan dibandingkan PPTKIS ( d/h PJTKI). Semua tahapannya ada PUNGLI & PEMERASAN
    TrioMacan2000 24/Jan/2013 04:09:52 PM PST

    13. BNP2TKI tak ubahnya menjadi sebuah PPTKI yg dijalankan oleh NEGARA. PUNGLI dan PEMERASAN yg dilakukan PENYELENGGARA NEGARA. Biadab !
    TrioMacan2000 24/Jan/2013 04:11:32 PM PST

    14. BNP2TKI sejak didirikan 2006 ternyata hanya jadi Badan Pemeras. Tidak ada satupun fungsi dan tugasnya ditunaikan dgn sebaik2nya
    TrioMacan2000 24/Jan/2013 04:12:41 PM PST

    15. Jumhur Hidayat telah menyulap BNP2TKI menjadi mesin uang pengumpul kekayaan dirinya, keluarganya, teman2nya dan anak2 buahnya. BIADAB !
    TrioMacan2000 24/Jan/2013 04:13:43 PM PST

    16. Tak heran banyak TKI yg mengeluh dan menjerit atas pemerasan yg dilakukan @jumhurhidayat cs ini. Sampai akhirnya mengadu pada kami
    TrioMacan2000 24/Jan/2013 04:14:51 PM PST

    17. Para korban kekejaman jumhur hidayat sdh bosan mengadu kemana2. Polri, KPK, Media massa, LSM dst..tidak juga berhasil tangkap jumhur ini
    TrioMacan2000 24/Jan/2013 04:16:03 PM PST

    18. Presiden SBY sendiri pernah dilaporkan secara langsung tentang ulah dan sepak terjang jumhur hidayat dan BNP2TKI, tapi SBY tak kuasa jg
    TrioMacan2000 24/Jan/2013 04:16:52 PM PST

    19. Ketika SBY mau pecat Jumhur Hidayat sbg Kepala BNP2TKI, jumhur langsung kumpulkan teman2 para aktivis yg selama ini dia piara
    TrioMacan2000 24/Jan/2013 04:17:47 PM PST

    20. Pada awal 2010 saat Jumhur mau dipecat SBY, dia perintahkan teman2nya utk buat isu kerusuhan dan kekacauan. Broadcast & SMS kemana2
    TrioMacan2000 24/Jan/2013 04:19:22 PM PST

    21. Broadcast dan SMS gelap mengenai informasi bakal terjadi kerusuhan dan kekacauan kemana2 ini dikirim oleh puluhan teman jumhur ke SBY
    TrioMacan2000 24/Jan/2013 04:20:17 PM PST

    22. Selain dikirim ke SBY, Broadcast/ SMS palsu ini juga diperintahkan jumhur utk dikirim ke menko polkam, ka BIN, Kapolri, panglima TNI dll
    TrioMacan2000 24/Jan/2013 04:21:24 PM PST

    23. Singkatnya, jumhur banjiri para petinggi negeri ini dgn informasi palsu mengenai adanya gerakan kerusuhan & demo besar yg bakal terjadi
    TrioMacan2000 24/Jan/2013 04:22:39 PM PST

    24. Hasil atau dampaknya luar biasa. SBY ketakutan. Sibuk rapat utk mengantisipasi/ mengatasi isu kerusuhan yg sebenarnya diciptakan jumhur
    TrioMacan2000 24/Jan/2013 04:23:47 PM PST

    25. Ditengah2 isu kerusuhan yg direkayasa jumhur melalui teman2 jaringan aktivisnya itu, jumhur muncul jadi PAHLAWAN di hadapan SBY
    TrioMacan2000 24/Jan/2013 04:24:44 PM PST

    26. Jumhur berlagak sbg hero, minta diberi kesempatan oleh SBY utk meredam isu kerusuhan yg telah beredar luas itu. Dia beri garansi pd SBY
    TrioMacan2000 24/Jan/2013 04:26:39 PM PST

    27. SBY setuju dan beri kesempatan pada jumhur utk atasi isu gerakan massa dan kerusuhan tsb. Jumhur langsung perintahkan teman2nya STOP
    TrioMacan2000 24/Jan/2013 04:27:43 PM PST

    28. Hanya dlm tempo singkat, jumhur seolah2 berhasil meredam isu kerusuhan tsb. Sms/ Broadcast ttg kerusuhan berhenti dan hilang sama sekali
    TrioMacan2000 24/Jan/2013 04:28:48 PM PST

    29. SBY senang, jumhur dapat pujian. SBY belum sadar saat itu bhw dia diperdaya jumhur. Bu Ani pun senang : Jumhur itu “Baik” katanya
    TrioMacan2000 24/Jan/2013 04:30:22 PM PST

    30. Predikat “anak baik” yg diberikan oleh Bu Ani SBY serta kelegaan SBY atas pembatalan kerusuhan itu dijadikan modal berharga oleh Jumhur
    TrioMacan2000 24/Jan/2013 04:31:52 PM PST

    31. Rencana pemecatan Jumhur sbg Ka BNP2TKI pun berhenti. Meski sebenarnya Dipo Alam dan Sudi Silalahi tahu bhw semua ini ulah jumhur
    TrioMacan2000 24/Jan/2013 04:32:56 PM PST

    32. Tetapi kedua pejabat tinggi istana ini tidak bisa berkutik dibuat jumhur. Apalagi istri jumhur, alia, dekat dgn Bu Ani dan selalu setor
    TrioMacan2000 24/Jan/2013 04:33:56 PM PST

    33. “Perlindungan” yang diberikan bu ani kepada Jumhur, membuat jumhur hidayat bertahan sbg Ka BNP2KI dan semakin menggila memeras TKI
    TrioMacan2000 24/Jan/2013 04:35:28 PM PST

    34. Melalui tangan Haposan Saragih ( direktur penempatan), agung (adiknya), Chandra (temannya), asep dan hadi, Jumhur mengumpulkan pundi2
    TrioMacan2000 24/Jan/2013 04:36:42 PM PST

    35. Jumhur cs ini berhasil kumpulkan uang haram 180 milyar per tahun hanya dari pemerasan yg mereka lakukan terhadap CTKI Korea
    TrioMacan2000 24/Jan/2013 04:37:54 PM PST

    36. Program Bantuan Kelulusan ( PBK) yg abal2 itu hasilkan 70 M per tahun, SENDING DATA raih 70 M per tahun, TICKETING pungli 40 M per tahun
    TrioMacan2000 24/Jan/2013 04:39:06 PM PST

    37. Ada lagi sumber uang haram jumhur yaitu tahapan Medical Check Up. Semua peserta CTKI Korea diarahkan pd 4 lab klinik. Dikutip 475 ribu
    TrioMacan2000 24/Jan/2013 04:40:44 PM PST

    38. Modus PUNGLI BNP2TKI pada Medical Check up ini adalah : tidak semua peserta yg sdh lulus tes tertulis, diumumkan lulus MC nya
    TrioMacan2000 24/Jan/2013 04:42:18 PM PST

    39. Hanya 5-10 % saja peserta yg diumumkan lulus atau Fit. Sisanya tidak diumumkan alias dicantumkan PENDING dan TIDAK LULUS / UNFIT
    TrioMacan2000 24/Jan/2013 04:43:27 PM PST

    40. Tentu saja CTKI Korea yg dicantumkan PENDING dan UNFIT ini menjadi gelisah. Terbayang kegagalan berangkat jadi TKI di Korea
    TrioMacan2000 24/Jan/2013 04:44:57 PM PST

    41. CTKI atau sponsornya berusaha utk mencari solusi bagi CTKI yg PENDING dan UNFIT ini. Disinilah terjadi PUNGLI oleh BNPTKI & Lab Klinik
    TrioMacan2000 24/Jan/2013 04:46:17 PM PST

    42. Untuk CTKI yg MC nya dinyatakan PENDING, dapat diluluskan dgn bayar pungli 1 juta per orang. Yg tdk LULUS / FIT dipungli 2 juta/ orang
    TrioMacan2000 24/Jan/2013 04:47:54 PM PST

    43. Kita asumsikan saja rata2 utk Pungli tahapan MC ini sebesar 1.5 juta / orang. Ada sekitar 80% dari total CTKI Korea setiap tahunnya
    TrioMacan2000 24/Jan/2013 04:49:11 PM PST

    44. Dari sekitar 10.000 CTKI Korea, 80% nya di PUNGLI rata 1.5 juta per orang atau 8000 x 1.5 juta = 12 milyar per tahun diperas Jumhur cs
    TrioMacan2000 24/Jan/2013 04:50:44 PM PST

    45. Padahal nantinya di Korea para CTKI itu akan kembali di medical check up. Medical check up ala BNP2TKI ini adalah modus pungli ke 4
    TrioMacan2000 24/Jan/2013 04:51:53 PM PST

    46. Sesuai laporan pengaduan para CTKI korban pemerasan dan pungli oleh jumhur cs / BNP2TKI kepada kami, pungli2 sangat memberatkan mrka
    TrioMacan2000 24/Jan/2013 04:53:10 PM PST

    47. Pungli pada PBK 70 M, SENDING DATA 70 M, TICKETING 40 M dan MC 12 M per tahun. Total PUNGLI 192 MILYAR per tahun. Bravo Jumhur !!
    TrioMacan2000 24/Jan/2013 04:54:39 PM PST

    48. Karena hasil pungli dan pemerasan ini sangat besar. Pada thn 2009 jumhur berani koar2 bhw dia siap dampingi SBY sbg Cawapres : SBY – MJH
    TrioMacan2000 24/Jan/2013 04:55:44 PM PST

    49. Kepada teman2 dekatnya dia sering sesumbar : Nanti pada pilpres 2009, bukan lagi SBY – MJK ( Kalla) tapi diganti dgn SBY – MJH (jumhur)
    TrioMacan2000 24/Jan/2013 04:57:00 PM PST

    50. Sesumbar thn 2009 itu sekarang dia ulangi dgn menyatakan siap utk jadi CAPRES 2014. Wajar sih dia merasa mampu. Dia sdh punya 1 Triliun
    TrioMacan2000 24/Jan/2013 04:57:59 PM PST

    51. Selama 6 tahun Jumhur sdh berhasil hisap darah dan keringat TKI melalui pemerasan2 yg dilakukannya. 192 M x 6 thn = 1.152 Triliun
    TrioMacan2000 24/Jan/2013 04:59:58 PM PST

    52. Uang 1.152 triliun yg dikumpulkan jumhur dari darah TKI Korea itu blm menggambarkan total korupsi dan pemerasannya. Itu masih Korea saja
    TrioMacan2000 24/Jan/2013 05:02:04 PM PST

    53. Nanti kita akan bahas lagi sumber2 uang haram jumhur dari modus2 pemerasan dan korupsi lainnya. Kita buka semuanya sampai dia dipenjara
    TrioMacan2000 24/Jan/2013 05:02:51 PM PST

    54. Kenapa DPR, KPK, Polri dan Kejagung tdk usut korupsi dan pemerasan oleh Jmhur cs ini? Mari kita bahas sedikit….
    TrioMacan2000 24/Jan/2013 05:03:50 PM PST

    55. Kita coret DPR karena pasti Jumhur suap dan setor ke DPR terutama komisi IX. @irganchmahfiz @poempida @MA_DPR
    TrioMacan2000 24/Jan/2013 05:05:01 PM PST

    56. Menakertrans @muhaiminiskand juga jangan kita harapkan. Selain takut sama jaringan aktivis jumhur jg dapat setoran suap. Bermasalah lagi
    TrioMacan2000 24/Jan/2013 05:06:17 PM PST

    57. Polr juga sulit diharapkan. Kenapa? Krna banyak staf jumhur yg merupakan perwira tinggi Polri. Bahkan ada agta Polri yg eks penyidik KPK
    TrioMacan2000 24/Jan/2013 05:07:14 PM PST

    58. Kejagung bgmn? Sulit juga. Mereka lagi sibuk pertarungan internal. Jaksa agung lagi dikeroyok para mafia hukum yg bercokol di kejagung
    TrioMacan2000 24/Jan/2013 05:08:16 PM PST

    59. Bgmn dgn KPK? Nah disini masalahnya. KPK kita ini banci kaleng. Plus mereka nilai bhw Jumhur cs TIDAK KORUPSI. Krna bukan uang negara
    TrioMacan2000 24/Jan/2013 05:09:02 PM PST

    60. KPK beranggapan uang yg dikumpulkan jumhur dari hasil pemerasan thdp TKI BUKANLAH UANG NEGARA dan negara tdk dirugikan sesen pun
    TrioMacan2000 24/Jan/2013 05:10:20 PM PST

    61. Bgmn dgn Suap atau Gratifikasi yg diterima jumhur dan para staf serta adiknya Agung dan temannya Chandra itu? KPK harus tangkap tangan
    TrioMacan2000 24/Jan/2013 05:11:06 PM PST

    62. Utk operasi tangkap tangan, KPK perlu lakukan operasi penyadapan. Masalahnya selama setahun ini KPK dilarang lakukan penyadapan oleh DPR
    TrioMacan2000 24/Jan/2013 05:11:52 PM PST

    63. Akhirnya CTKI korban2 kebuasan Jumhur cs ini frustasi. Mereka lapor ke kami. Kami janji akan bongkar dan angkat kasus ini sampai tuntas
    TrioMacan2000 24/Jan/2013 05:13:04 PM PST

    64. Semua informasi yg kami angkat di TL berasal dari kesaksian para CTKI korban pemerasan jumhur cs. Tdk ada sayu pun yg keliru. No Fitnah
    TrioMacan2000 24/Jan/2013 05:14:02 PM PST

    65. Ketika hukum negara tidak berjalan, maka kita hny gantungkan harapan pada hukum Tuhan dan Hukum Rakyat. Mari berdoa, demo, seret jumhur
    TrioMacan2000 24/Jan/2013 05:15:08 PM PST

    66. Bgmn kisah selanjutnya dari duka nestapa CTKI dan hura2 jumhur cs ini nanti kita lanjutkan dlm kultwit2 babak berikutnya.
    TrioMacan2000 24/Jan/2013 05:17:35 PM PST

    67. Banyak jalan utk hentikan pemerasan CTKI ini. Banyak cara utk kembalikan jumhur cs ke penjara (lagi). Kita sedang mengukir sejarah
    TrioMacan2000 24/Jan/2013 05:18:43 PM PST

    68. RALAT : ada info yg masuk utk minta diralat sbb : asep wahyu bukan pelaku / bagian dari Mafia BNP2TKI. Asep malah korban pemerasan juga
    TrioMacan2000 24/Jan/2013 05:21:01 PM PST

    69. Kepada saudaraku Jumhur Hidayat. Hentikanlah pungli dan pemerasan itu. Juga fitnah2 utk bela dirimu. Siapkan uang pengganti pd para TKI
    TrioMacan2000 24/Jan/2013 05:21:55 PM PST

    70. Cukup sekian dulu. Semoga bermanfaat. Mari basmi kebatilan dan kejahatan. MERDEKAAA !
    TrioMacan2000 24/Jan/2013 05:22:27 PM PST

    Pejabat korup setiap kali dibongkar korupsinya selalu teriak fitnah, fitnah ! Mbok sesekali ngaku gitu kenapa hehehe
    TrioMacan2000 24/Jan/2013 05:39:26 PM PST

    Jumhur jg dpt setoran dari bank pemerintah rekanan bnp2tki, bank yg di pakai para tki utk mentransfer uang gaji dsb. Nanti juga kami bongkar
    TrioMacan2000 24/Jan/2013 06:42:23 PM PST

    Mohon maaf atas kesilafan kami @asep868: Om , mohon dsampaikan salam & terimakasih saya kpd sang peralat. Cara Allah SWT menolong memang
    TrioMacan2000 24/Jan/2013 06:42:32 PM PST

    Nanti akan kita lanjutkan lagi modus korupsi berikutnya dari @jumhurhidayat @bnp2tki_ dan modus2 pencucian uang haramnya
    TrioMacan2000 24/Jan/2013 06:47:53 PM PST

    Anggota DPR komisi IX @poempida dan @irganchmahfiz mengaku tdk ada terima suap sesen pun dari @jumhurhidayat. Bgmn dgn @rieke_diah dkk ?
    TrioMacan2000 24/Jan/2013 06:49:47 PM PST

    Rata2 CTKI Korea habiskan 30-50 juta utk bisa jadi TKI ke Korea. Ada 10.000 kuota/ tahun = 300 – 500 M duit TKI diembat @jumhurhidayat cs
    TrioMacan2000 24/Jan/2013 06:51:50 PM PST

    Sudah saatnya seluruh biaya CTKI digratiskan shgga tdk ada kesempatan pungli. Wajar mereka ditanggung APBN krna TKI adalah Pahlawan Devisa
    TrioMacan2000 24/Jan/2013 06:57:48 PM PST

    Alumni ITB buat Posko Bantuan Banjir, eh Jumhur cs malah buat Posko untuk Peras dan Pungli TKI. Weleh3x hehe
    TrioMacan2000 24/Jan/2013 07:01:26 PM PST

    Dulu Chandra itu musuhan sama Agung adiknya jumhur, trus Chandra jebak Agung dgn oper TKI bermasalah yg minta dibantu dgn imbalan uang
    TrioMacan2000 24/Jan/2013 07:43:30 PM PST

    Ketika transaksi penyerahan uang suap ke agung, polisi tangkap Agung. Lalu Chandra yg “bereskan” kasusnya. Sejak itu Chandra & Agung jd cs
    TrioMacan2000 24/Jan/2013 07:44:29 PM PST

    wajah Chandra mantan aktivis UI yg skrg jadi Mafia Pemeras TKI ..nih yg gundul sebelah kiri http://t.co/k53khmE1″
    TrioMacan2000 24/Jan/2013 09:52:44 PM PST


    http://chirpstory.com/li/50627

    MODUS PUNGLI & KORUPSI MAFIA BNP2TKI – BAG. 5
    By @TrioMacan2000, 02/Feb/2013 04:31:56 PM PST

    Para TKI korea yg pulang ingin brgkt lagi atau calling visa diperas Juli (stafnya Agung adik jumhur) 10- juta di luar tiket n visa @KPK_RI
    TrioMacan2000 02/Feb/2013 07:17:39 AM PST

    Ctki korea yg mau ikut tes di kumpulin di puslatpur TNI dan PUSDIKZENI di cimahi bandung.. 2010, 2011,2012 ± 5000org ctki tiap thn ikut
    TrioMacan2000 02/Feb/2013 07:25:07 AM PST

    Agung itu dulunya sales astra isuzu bersama juniornya juli aryanto.. Skrg yg narik duit ke tki langsung si juli di ciracas merangkap calo
    TrioMacan2000 02/Feb/2013 07:25:25 AM PST

    cimahi susah masuknya karena di jaga aggta TNI punglinya di kordinir oleh muhamad djajuli anak buah agung semua BLK setor ke dia via BCA
    TrioMacan2000 02/Feb/2013 07:25:55 AM PST

    Hrd korea skrg ingin tki yg prnh krj d korea karena tki yg baru ga bsa bhs korea efek dr program agung..
    TrioMacan2000 02/Feb/2013 07:26:27 AM PST

    1. Eng ing eng..kembali kita kultwitkan ttg modus PEMERASAN terhadap TKI KOREA yg dilakukan oleh antek2 @jumhurhidayat Kepala BNP2TKI
    TrioMacan2000 02/Feb/2013 03:19:44 PM PST

    2. Kultwit ini berdasarkan informasi tambahan yg diberikan oleh para TKI yg saat ini berada di Korea Selatan
    TrioMacan2000 02/Feb/2013 03:20:39 PM PST

    3. Kami berterima kasih atas masukan2 dan informasi2 yang terus mengalir mengenai penyimpangan2 yg dilakukan @jumhurhidayat cs
    TrioMacan2000 02/Feb/2013 03:22:31 PM PST

    4. Semoga dgn semakin lengkapnya informasi ttg modus korupsi dan pemerasan jumhur cs ini, semakin cepat dia dipecat dan diproses hukum
    TrioMacan2000 02/Feb/2013 03:23:35 PM PST

    5. Juga agar nasib TKI Korea dan TKI2 lainnya bisa semakin baik serta tdk lagi menjadi objek pemerasan dan perlakuan sewenang2 oleh siapapun
    TrioMacan2000 02/Feb/2013 03:24:44 PM PST

    6. M. Agung Anugerah dulunya sales astra isuzu bersama juniornya JULI ARYANTO dan HADI skrg yg peras uang TKI secara langsung di Ciracas
    TrioMacan2000 02/Feb/2013 03:26:55 PM PST

    7. Para CTKI Korea yg mau ikut tes di kumpulin di PUSLATPUR TNI dan PUSDIKZENI di Cimahi, Bandung, Jawa Barat
    TrioMacan2000 02/Feb/2013 03:28:14 PM PST

    8. Jumlah CTKI Korea yg dikumpulkan di PUSLATPUR TNI dan PUSDIKZENI di Cimahi itu sekitar 5000 orang setiap tahunnya
    TrioMacan2000 02/Feb/2013 03:29:51 PM PST

    9. Para CTKI Korea yang berjumlah 5000 orang yg dikumpulkan di PUSLATPUR TNI di Cimahi itu dipungut uang 10-15 juta per orang
    TrioMacan2000 02/Feb/2013 03:31:37 PM PST

    10. Pungutan 10 – 15 juta per TKI korea itu diluar biaya Tiket dan Visa
    TrioMacan2000 02/Feb/2013 03:32:30 PM PST

    11. Uang Pungli itu dikoordinir oleh MUHAMAD DJAJULI anak buah M. AGUNG ANUGERAH, adik kandung M. JUMHUR HIDAYAT Ka BNP2TKI
    TrioMacan2000 02/Feb/2013 03:34:31 PM PST

    12. Semua BLK setor ke M. DJAJULI via Rekenking Bank BCA
    TrioMacan2000 02/Feb/2013 03:35:34 PM PST

    13. Silahkan hitung sendiri berapa uang pungli hasil pemerasan yg dilakukan M. Djajuli anak buah agung dan M. Jumhur hidayat itu
    TrioMacan2000 02/Feb/2013 03:38:38 PM PST

    14. Setiap tahun minimal 5000 TKI x 15 juta = 75.000.000.000 (tujuh puluh lima milyar) uang haram pungli yg disetor ke M. Djajuli
    TrioMacan2000 02/Feb/2013 03:40:49 PM PST

    15. Itu belum termasuk uang pungli dari hasil pemerasan anak buah Agung lainnya seperti oknum yang dipanggil dengan sebutan : ABANG JOGYA
    TrioMacan2000 02/Feb/2013 03:44:12 PM PST

    16. ABANG JOGJA ini adalah salah satu koordinator TKI Korea
    TrioMacan2000 02/Feb/2013 03:45:25 PM PST

    17. ABANG JOGJA ini biasanya setor tunai uang hasil pungli TKI itu kepada Agung dan Hadi di Cafe Progo, Bandung. @KPK_RI @Mabespolri
    TrioMacan2000 02/Feb/2013 03:47:21 PM PST

    18. Sementara itu JULI ARYANTO anak buah Agung yang lain beroperasi di Ciracas. Dia juga bertindak sekaligus sebagai Calo CTKI
    TrioMacan2000 02/Feb/2013 03:49:56 PM PST

    19. M. Djajuli, Juli Aryanto dan Abang Jogja ini semua menyetor ke Agung dan Hadi. Tangan Jumhur seolah2 bersih dari tindak pidana ini
    TrioMacan2000 02/Feb/2013 03:51:20 PM PST

    20. Mohon kepada @PPATK @KPK_RI @MabesPolri @dr_tjiptaning @Presiden_RI dll utk usut uang haram di rek BCA cab Bandung milik pemeras2 tsb
    TrioMacan2000 02/Feb/2013 03:53:02 PM PST

    21. Para HRD Korea sekarang ini sebenarnya lebih suka menerima atau memanggil para eks TKI Korea drpd TKI baru
    TrioMacan2000 02/Feb/2013 03:54:45 PM PST

    22. Disamping para eks TKI itu sdh berpengalaman juga karena mereka sdh mahir berbahasa Korea
    TrioMacan2000 02/Feb/2013 03:55:19 PM PST

    23. HRD Korea saat ini trauma dgn TKI Korea baru yg akibat dari program abal2 Agung, banyak yg tiba di Korea tp tak bisa berbahasa Korea
    TrioMacan2000 02/Feb/2013 03:56:28 PM PST

    24. Para HRD Korea itu ingin memanggil langsung eks TKI Korea yg sdh kembali ke Indonesia krna habis Kontrak Kerjanya
    TrioMacan2000 02/Feb/2013 03:57:06 PM PST

    25. Tapi @bnp2tki dan Jumhur menolak permintaan HRD2 Korea tsb dengan berbagai alasan
    TrioMacan2000 02/Feb/2013 03:58:02 PM PST

    26. Para eks TKI Korea yg sdh kembali ke Indonesia juga ingin bisa langsung berangkat ke Korea tanpa melalui BNP2TKI yg selalu peras mereka
    TrioMacan2000 02/Feb/2013 03:58:47 PM PST

    27. Tanpa bantuan BNP2TKI, eks TKI Korea ini sebenarnya bisa berangkat sendiri krna sdh tahu seluk beluk keberangkatan ke Korea
    TrioMacan2000 02/Feb/2013 03:59:50 PM PST

    28. Tetapi BNP2TKI dan Jumhur melarang keinginan para eks TKI Korea tsb dengan mengancam eks TKI dan menyebutkan bhw mereka sbg TKI ILEGAL
    TrioMacan2000 02/Feb/2013 04:01:32 PM PST

    29. Padahal itu hny alasan atau dalih dari BNP2TKI / Jumhur saja agar antek2nya : Agung, Hadi, M. Djajuli, Juli Aryanto dll bisa peras TKI
    TrioMacan2000 02/Feb/2013 04:03:12 PM PST

    30. Nah, kita bayangkan saja. Para eks TKI Korea yg sdh berpengalaman saja masih diperas dan dipungli oleh Agung cs ini
    TrioMacan2000 02/Feb/2013 04:04:12 PM PST

    31. Bgmn dengan CTKI yg masih baru ? CTKI yg mau pertama kali berangkat kerja ke Korea? Habislah mereka semua ! 30-60 juta melayang …
    TrioMacan2000 02/Feb/2013 04:05:13 PM PST

    32. Mau sampai kapan TKI kita terus diperas dan dipungli oleh antek2 ka BNP2TKI ?
    TrioMacan2000 02/Feb/2013 04:05:54 PM PST

    33. Kepala BNP2TKI M. Jumhur Hidayat yang seharusnya berada di barisan terdepan dlm melindungi TKI eh malah jadi Panglima Pemerasan thdp TKI
    TrioMacan2000 02/Feb/2013 04:06:50 PM PST

    34. Mau sampai kapan @Presiden_RI @Presiden SBY , ketua DPR @MA_DPR berdiam diri membiarkan TKI kita diperas oleh Jumhur cs ?
    TrioMacan2000 02/Feb/2013 04:08:42 PM PST

    35. Mau sampai kapan Aparat @mabespolri @KPK_RI membiarkan suap, korupsi dan pencucian uang hasil pemerasan thdp para TKI ini ?
    TrioMacan2000 02/Feb/2013 04:10:58 PM PST

    36. Mau sampai kapan kita semua, termasuk yg mengaku tokoh dan pemimpin, membiarkan TKI diperas terus oleh BNP2TKI dan Jumhur cs ini ?
    TrioMacan2000 02/Feb/2013 04:12:38 PM PST

    37. Negara Indonesia tercinta ini penuh dengan penindasan bukan karena ulah segelintir penjahat, tapi krna mayoritas orang baik tdk peduli
    TrioMacan2000 02/Feb/2013 04:14:35 PM PST

    38. Kita tunggu tindakan nyata dari @PresidenBY @MA_DPR @dr_tjiptaning @KPK_RI @mabespolri @muhaiminiskand dll dalam menbela nasib TKI
    TrioMacan2000 02/Feb/2013 04:16:28 PM PST

    39. Apakah sebutan Pahlawan Devisa itu hanya di mulut mereka saja? Hanya slogan konsumsi politik ? Atau mereka memang mau peduli
    TrioMacan2000 02/Feb/2013 04:17:33 PM PST

    40. Sekian dan terima kasih. Mari terus berjuang , jangan pernah letih membela nasib TKI kita. MERDEKA !
    TrioMacan2000 02/Feb/2013 04:18:35 PM PST

    Kuncilah lidahmu kecuali utk 4 hal : menjelaskan yg hak, menumbangkan yg bathil, mensyukuri nikmat, menyampaikan hikmah kebijaksanaan.
    TrioMacan2000 02/Feb/2013 04:22:55 PM PST

    memang bnp2tki penuh mafia.saya juga pernah mendengar sendiri percakapan kepala lpk yang d tagih setoran oleh orang bnp2tki.pada waktu itu kata kepala lpk saya baru ada 500 jt .trs berapakah setoranya ke mafia bnp2tki 500 jt masih kurang?
    Reply k_gol88 05/Apr/2013 01:35:44 PM PDT


    http://nasional.sindonews.com/read/2013/08/06/12/769843/pengamat-jumhur-hidayat-modal-nekat-doang

    Pengamat: Jumhur Hidayat modal nekat doang
    Rico Afrido, Rabu, 7 Agustus 2013 – 05:06 WIB

    Sindonews.com – Kepala Badan Penempatan dan Perlindungan Tenaga Kerja Indonesia (BNP2TKI) Moh Jumhur Hidayat dinilai tak bermodalkan apa-apa untuk maju sebagai calon Presiden (Capres) di Pemilu 2014. Bahkan, Jumhur dinilai terlalu nekat.

    “Jumhur cuma modal nekat doang,” ujar Pengamat Politik dari Universitas Indonesia, Boni Hargens kepada Sindonews, Selasa (6/8/2013) malam.

    Boni pun mengaku enggan memberikan komentar lebih jauh terkait keinginan Jumhur untuk menjadi peserta konvensi penjaringan calon presiden (Capres) Partai Demokrat.

    “Sudahlah, enggak usah diseriusin. Enggak usah saya komentar lagi ya. Saya enggak tertarik dan enggak merasa penting komentari Jumhur,”cetusnya.

    “Lebih pas kita bahas, Hary Tanoesoedibjo dipasangkan dengan Jokowi kalau Partai Hanura tidak meraih di atas 10 persen pileg. Jokowi-HT. Nah, aku pengamat dan peramal. Dulu aku ramal Jokowi dengan Ahok, jadi lho,” pungkasnya.

    Seperti diberitakan Sindonews sebelumnya, Kepala Badan Penempatan dan Perlindungan Tenaga Kerja Indonesia (BNP2TKI) Moh Jumhur Hidayat mengaku siap mengikut konvensi penjaringan calon Presiden (Capres) Partai Demokrat nantinya.

    “Saya Moh Jumhur Hidayat menyatakan siap untuk mengikuti konvensi Partai Demokrat bila memang peluang menjadi peserta konvensi itu terbuka untuk saya,”ujar Kepala Badan Penempatan dan Perlindungan Tenaga Kerja Indonesia (BNP2TKI) Moh Jumhur Hidayat saat konferensi pers di Hotel Bidakara, Pancoran, Jakarta Selatan, Selasa (6/8/2013).

    Dia menambahkan bahwa beberapa bulan terakhir ini, ruang politik media telah dipenuhi dengan apa yang disebut konvensi Partai Demokrat. Mengenai hal itu, kata dia, berbagai spekulasi bermunculan diantaranya tentang bagaimana tata cara mengikuti konvensi, apakah diundang atau diadakah pendaftaran terbuka serta siapa-siapa saja yang akan menjadi peserta konvensi.

    Lebih lanjut dia mengatakan, adanya harapan-harapan baru yang muncul serta adanya kecurigaan-kecurigaan yang dimunculkan semakin menambah ramainya ruang pemberitaan politik ditanah air.

    “Ternyata, spekulasi itupun akhirnya menimpa diri saya, karena berbagai kalangan dibeberapa wilayah tanah air telah secara bersungguh-sungguh mendorong saya untuk ikut dalam konvensi itu,”imbuhnya.

    (kri)


    http://www.merdeka.com/peristiwa/gabung-pdip-kepala-bnp2tki-jumhur-hidayat-dicopot-sby.html

    Gabung PDIP, Kepala BNP2TKI Jumhur Hidayat dicopot SBY
    Reporter : Laurencius Simanjuntak | Senin, 17 Maret 2014 15:06

    Mohammad Jumhur hidayat. ©2013 Merdeka.com/M. Luthfi Rahman

    Merdeka.com – Tak lama setelah mendeklarasikan bergabung ke Partai Demokrasi Indonesia Perjuangan (PDIP), Kepala Badan Nasional Penempatan dan Perlindungan Tenaga Kerja Indonesia (BNP2TKI) Moh Jumhur Hidayat diberhentikan dari jabatannya. Pemberhentian Jumhur dilakukan Presiden Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono (SBY) pada 11 Maret 2014 setelah menandatangani Keputusan Presiden Nomor 39/M Tahun 2014.

    Namun, Sekretaris Kabinet (Seskab) Dipo Alam beralasan, salah satu pertimbangan presiden dalam memberhentikan bekas anggota tim suksesnya itu adalah dalam rangka penyegaran organisasi. Sebagai pengganti Jumhur, Presiden menugaskan Gatot Abdulah Mansyur, mantan Dubes RI di Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    Jumhur Hidayat sudah menjabat sebagai Kepala BNP2TKI selama lebih dari 7 (tujuh) tahun, yaitu diangkat sebagai Kepala BNP2TKI berdasarkan Keputusan Presiden Nomor 2/M Tahun 2007 tanggal 11 Januari 2007. Selain itu, Menteri Tenaga Kerja dan Transmigrasi (Menakertrans) sudah meminta penggantian ini sejak beberapa bulan lalu, kata Seskab Dipo Alam lewat situs resmi Setkab, Senin (17/3).

    Sebagaimana diketahui, Kepala BNP2TKI merupakan jabatan struktural eselon I yang dalam Undang-Undang Nomor 5 Tahun 2014 tentang Aparatur Sipil Negara (ASN) disebutkan jabatan eselon I adalah Jabatan Pimpinan Tinggi. Dalam Pasal 117 ayat (1) Undang-Undang Nomor 5 Tahun 2014 antara lain diatur bahwa jabatan Pimpinan Tinggi hanya dapat diduduki paling lama 5 (lima) tahun. Oleh karena itu, pejabat eselon I yang sudah lebih dari 5 tahun menduduki jabatan yang sama harus dimutasikan ke jabatan lain atau diberhentikan.

    Menurut Seskab, Surat Keputusan Presiden tentang pemberhentian tersebut mulai berlaku sejak ditetapkan, yaitu tanggal 11 Maret 2014. Dengan demikian, jabatan Kepala BNP2TKI harus segera diserahterimakan kepada pejabat baru yang menggantikannya, yaitu Gatot Abdulah Mansyur.

    Mengenai pengangkatan Gatot Abdulah Mansyur sebagai Kepala BNP2TKI itu, menurut Dipo, dilakukan dengan mempertimbangkan pengalaman yang bersangkutan selama bertugas sebagai Duta Besar RI di Riyadh, dan Konsul Jendral RI di Jeddah, serta Direktur Timur Tengah Kementerian Luar Negeri.

    Pengalaman selama bertugas di Timur Tengah dan Kementerian Luar Negeri tersebut diharapkan dapat bermanfaat dalam menangani berbagai masalah TKI, tuturnya.

    Dipo juga mengemukakan, pejabat baru Kepala BNP2TKI itu diharapkan mampu mengembangkan potensi dan peluang penempatan TKI dan perlindungan TKI di wilayah lain, seperti Hongkong dan Korea Selatan.
    [ren]


    http://bisniskeuangan.kompas.com/read/2014/03/17/1611437/Presiden.Berhentikan.Kepala.BNP2TKI.Jumhur.Hidayat

    Presiden Berhentikan Kepala BNP2TKI Jumhur Hidayat
    Senin, 17 Maret 2014 | 16:11 WIB

    Kepala Badan Nasional Penempatan dan Perlindungan TKI (BNP2TKI) Jumhur Hidayat. (Kompas.com/SABRINA ASRIL)

    JAKARTA, KOMPAS.com – Presiden Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono memberhentikan Jumhur Hidayat dari jabatannya sebagai Kepala Badan Nasional Penempatan dan Perlindungan Tenaga Kerja Indonesia (BNP2TKI) mulai Senin (17/3/2014) ini.

    Sebagai pengganti Jumhur Hidayat, Presiden SBY menugaskan Gatot Abdulah Mansyur, mantan Dubes RI di Riyadh, Arab Saudi.

    Mengutip situs Sekretariat Kabinet, Sekretaris Kabinet Dipo Alam menjelaskan bahwa salah satu pertimbangan memberhentikan Jumhur Hidayat adalah penyegaran organisasi.

    “Jumhur Hidayat sudah menjabat sebagai Kepala BNP2TKI selama lebih dari tujuh tahun. Selain itu, Menteri Tenaga Kerja dan Transmigrasi (Menakertrans) sudah meminta penggantian ini sejak beberapa bulan lalu,” katanya, Senin.

    Dalam penjelasannya, Dipo Alam menyebutkan bahwa kepala BNP2TKI merupakan jabatan struktural eselon I. Dalam Undang-Undang Nomor 5 Tahun 2014 tentang Aparatur Sipil Negara (ASN), jabatan eselon I disebut sebagai jabatan pimpinan tinggi.

    Selain itu, diatur juga bahwa jabatan pimpinan tinggi hanya dapat diduduki paling lama lima tahun. Oleh karena itu, pejabat eselon I yang sudah melampaui batas waktu tersebut harus dimutasikan ke jabatan lain atau diberhentikan.

    Menurut Dipo Alam, Gatot Abdulah Mansyur dipilih sebagai pengganti Jumhur antara lain karena punya pengalaman di wilayah yang menjadi tujuan TKI, yaitu Timur Tengah.

    Sementara itu, Jumhur beberapa waktu lalu diberitakan merapat ke PDI-P. Namun, Setkab tidak menjelaskan bahwa penghentian tersebut karena Jumhur telah masuk ke partai politik.
    Ikuti perkembangan berita ini dalam topik:

    Editor : Bambang Priyo Jatmiko


    http://m.ceritamu.com/info/pejabat-politisi/mohammad-jumhur-hidayat/biografi

    Mohammad Jumhur Hidayat

    Nama Jumhur kembali diberitakan sejumlah media, apa yang menjadi penyebab Kepala Badan Nasional Penempatan dan Perlindungan TKI (BNP2TKI) itu menjadi bahan pembicaraan insan pewarta, mungkin ada lagi kasus TKI yang meninggal di Arab Saudi? Ataaau jangan-jangan ia terlibat kasus mafia anggaran?!

    Oooh tidak, rupanya nama Mohammad Jumhur Hidayat terkait dengan akan diselenggarakannya konvensi Partai Demokrat untuk mencari anak bangsa yang ingin menjadi calon orang nomor satu di Republik ini, dan dikabarkan putra petinggi Bapindo ini berencana akan mendaftarkan diri untuk mengikuti bursa setahun yang akan datang, yakni pen-CAPRES di 2014 nanti, melalui jalur konvensi partai mercy biru itu.

    Denci, aktivis mahasiswa yang pernah masuk Lembaga Pemasyaraktan ( LP ) Nusa Kambangan dan Sukamiskin di era Orde Baru ini mendapat dukungan dari Persatuan Keluarga Buruh Migran Indonesia (PKBMI) Indramayu, Karang Taruna Tunas Muda serta Tokoh masyarakat Indramayu dan Pantura untuk maju mengikuti ‘Demokrat Idol’ yang akan diselenggarakan bulan Agustus mendatang. Konvensi seperti ini bukan barang baru bagi terobosan demokrasi, hanya mengadopsi dari Amerika Serikat yang sudah menjalankan cara seperti ini 181 tahun silam, sebagai metode pengintrograsian dan konfirmasi bagi calon presiden yang akan diusung partai tersebut.

    Kembali lagi ke sosok Jumhur , dialah orang pertama dan diterima oleh DPD Partai Demokrat Jawa Barat, membuat kita ingin mencari tahu info tentang sipemilik nama Denic, seorang aktifis demonstran yang dipenjarakan di era Soeharto. Sekilas gambaran tentang Denci, si anak komplek yang hobi bermain catur dengan ‘anak kampung’ ini.

    45 tahun yang lalu tepatnya , bibi dan tangis bahagia menghiasi sepasang suami-istri, Mohammad Sobari Sumartadinat – Ati Amiyati ini karena telah lahir putra ketiga mereka yang diberi nama Mohammad Jumhur Hidayat, adik dari Endah Sulastiana serta Mohammad Imam Afandi, Jumhur bukan-lah anak bungsu, ia masih memiliki seorang adik bernama Mohammad Agung Anugerah. Masa kecil Jumhur dilalui di lingkungan perumahan perusahaan perbankan nasional kawasan Palbatu, Tebet, Jakarta Selatan. Semasa hidup, ayahnya seorang pejabat di Bapindo (Bank Pembangunan Indonesia).

    Jenjang akademiknya di mulai dari SD Negeri Menteng 02 Pagi Jakarta Pusat pada 1974-1980. Lalu melanjutkan ke SMP Negeri 1 Cikini, Jakarta Pusat, namun di SMP ini Jumhur tidak sampai tamat dan kemudian pindah ke SMP Negeri 1 Denpasar, Bali, dikarenakan ia harus mengikuti penugasan ayahnya ke daerah. Pada 1983 ia masuk di SMA Negeri 1 Denpasar, Bali, sebelum pindah lagi ke SMA 3 Bandung di kelas dua.

    Beranjak dewasa ia pun melanjutkan kuliah di Institut Teknologi Bandung, dan di kampus inilah Denci, begitu nama pangggilannya mengalami cobaan begitu berat, terlebih ia anak seorang pejabat Bapindo yang notabenya hidup dengan kemudahaan fasilitas milik kedua orang tua. Ia harus merasakan dinginnya kamar tahanan Nusakambangan, lantaran berkali-kali ambil bagian dalam aksi unjuk rasa mahasiswa di kampus maupun aksi lain bersama mahasiswa di kota Bandung, utamanya ia menentang penggusuran tanah rakyat seperti dalam kasus tanah Badega, Kacapiring, Cimacan, dan Kedung Ombo yang isunya menonjol pada 1988, namun dalam aksi ini dia aman dan tidak bermasalah dengan rezim Soeharto.

    5 Agustus 1989, bersama Mochammad Fadjroel Rachman, Arnold Purba, Supriyanto alias Enin, Amarsyah, dan Bambang Sugiyanto Lasijanto dalam demontrasi penolakan kedatangan Menteri Dalam Negeri saat itu bernama Rudin. Dan bagi aparat sendiri, inilah saat yang tepat menangkap Rudhin si aktifis mahasiswa itu. Akhirnya ia pun harus dipenjarakan, lantaran orasi-nya yang menyudutkan ketidak adilan orde baru hingga akhirnya ia amankan beserta 5 rekan mahasiswa lainnya.

    Tiga tahun lamanya ia harus menanggung konsekwensi menjadi orang yang bersebrangan dengan kebijakan, keputusan dan sikap orde baru yang tidak boleh orang lain mengkritisi dan angkat bicara, resikonya? Nyawa akan hilang itu resiko terburuk, biasanya mereka mengalibikan si tersangka melarikan diri, hingga akhirnya harus dilumpuhkan dengan peluru pantas. Namun Jumruh masih tergolong orang beruntung karena tidak dihilangkan nyawanya melainkan hanya dijadikan tahanan politik, 11 mahasiswa ikut tertangkap dan dipenjarakan dan tidak seorang pun diperbolehkan membesuk.

    11 September 1990 Jumhur dipindahkan dari Nusakambangan ke Sukamiskin, selama dua tahun ia mengisi hari-hariny di dalam penjara untuk menulis berbagai artikel sosial sambil menunggu rencana pembebasannya tahun 1992 nanti. Tulisannya ia kirim ke berbagai media, namun pihak media akhirnya disuruh untuk menghentikan penerbitan artikel pemilik nama yang disamarkan. 25 Februari 1992, akhirnya Jumhur menghirup udara bebas.


     
  • Virtual Chitchatting 12:38 PM on 2014/03/18 Permalink  

    Dita Indah Sari sebagai kuda troya, pembisik (penyesat), penyuap (Menakertras) Muhaimin Iskandar untuk kepentingan Jumhur Hidayat
    by S3ra Sutan Rajo Ali
    Jakarta, 2014-03-18 PM 12:38

    Anak buahnya provokator dan penggalang massa Budiman Sudjatmiko di Partai Rakyat Demokratik.
    Klop banget. Para penggalang massa berkumpul.


    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dita_Indah_Sari

    Dita Indah Sari

    Dita Indah Sari (born 30 December 1972 in Medan, North Sumatra) is an Indonesian trade union and socialist activist. As a human rights campaigner during the Suharto regime, she was sentenced to 5 years imprisonment in 1996 on the charge of sedition. During her imprisonment, she was named a prisoner of conscience by Amnesty International.

    After her release in 1999 she was elected Chairperson by the Congress of the National Front for Indonesian Workers Struggle (FNPBI). She was awarded the 2001 Ramon Magsaysay Award for Emergent Leadership. In 2002 she refused a $50,000 human rights award from Reebok as a form of protest for what she considers is the company’s poor record on the issue of workers rights. Politically she is the leader of the PRD, a socialist party within the broader Papernas alliance.


    http://news.detik.com/read/2011/02/16/172728/1572300/608/dita-indah-sari-susut-3-kg-setelah-jadi-jubir-menaker

    Dita Indah Sari Susut 3 Kg Setelah Jadi Jubir Menaker
    Nurvita Indarini – detikNews, Rabu, 16/02/2011 17:27 WIB

    Jakarta – Dita Indah Sari dan buruh adalah dua hal yang tak terpisahkan. Namun tiga bulan terakhir ini, dia memilih masuk ke lingkungan birokrasi. Dan selama 3 bulan itu, bobotnya susut 3 kg. Duh!

    Sejak akhir 2010 lalu, Dita dipercaya sebagai staf ahli sekaligus juga juru bicara Menakertras Muhaimin Iskandar. Merapat ke lingkaran pembuat kebijakan membuat kegiatannya superpadat.

    “Saya sudah turun 3 kg ini, Mbak. 3 Bulan turun 3 kg,” cetus Dita sambil tertawa saat berbincang dengan detikcom, Rabu (16/2/2011).

    Meski demikian, dia mengaku sangat menikmati pekerjaannya. Pekerjaan yang menumpuk buatnya adalah tantangan. Dia senang bisa berkontribusi ide dan tenaga di lingkaran pengambil keputusan Kemenakertrans.

    “Saya biasanya pulang pukul 20.00 WIB atau 21.00 WIB. Kadang kalau Sabtu atau Minggu ke luar kota karena ada pekerjaan. Ini semua bagian dari tantangan,” imbuh ibu dari Tito Karno ini.

    Kendati sibuk dengan aktivitasnya, namun Dita tidak mau meninggalkan ritual pagi bersama putra kesayangannya. Setiap pagi, Dita hampir tidak pernah absen memandikan, menyuapi dan mengantar putranya ke sekolah.

    “Kalau harus datang pagi-pagi sekali ke kantor karena ada meeting, misalnya, saya kalau bisa tidak melewatkan ‘ritual’ itu,” lanjut Dita.

    Perempuan kelahiran Medan 38 tahun yang lalu itu menuturkan awal mula dirinya bergabung dalam lingkaran birokrasi. Beberapa bulan lalu, dia ditawari oleh Muhaimin Iskandar untuk bergabung di Kemenakertrans. Setelah berpikir-pikir, akhirnya Dita setuju untuk bergabung.

    “Selama ini saya selalu di luar sistem, selalu oposisi. Tapi saya juga berpikir bagaimana saya bisa berkontribusi pemikiran yang lebih efektif. Cak Imin sendiri orangnya terbuka pada ide baru dan ingin melakukan terobosan yang signifikan atas suatu masalah, jadi saya bersedia,” tuturnya.

    Dita mengaku tidak memiliki kedekatan dengan Muhaimin sebelumnya. Hanya saja mereka sama-sama pengagum Gus Dur. Atas dasar itu dan karakter Muhaimin, Dita menerima tantangan yang disodorkan kepadanya.

    “Ada yang mendukung saya, tapi ada juga yang mengeluhkan keputusan saya. Yang mendukung mengatakan, sayang kalau pengalaman yang saya punya tidak dimanfaatkan. Sedangkan yang tidak mendukung menyayangkan saya bergabung dengan pemerintah yang dinilai banyak melakukan kesalahan,” beber jebolan Fakultas Hukum Universitas Indonesia ini.

    Banyak orang yang khawatir Dita akan terseret dalam sistem sehingga mengubah sosoknya bukan lagi Dita yang dulu, bukan lagi Dita yang pro buruh. Namun Dita menegaskan, tidak ada yang berubah dari dirinya. 18 Tahun menjadi aktivis buruh bukanlah waktu yang singkat. Selama itu karakternya ditempa dengan berbagai peristiwa yang dialaminya.

    Dita pernah ditangkap saat sedang memimpin aksi di Tandes, Surabaya, pada Juli 1996. Dita dan teman-temannya kemudian dijatuhi hukuman delapan tahun penjara lantaran Pusat Perjuangan Buruh Indonesia (PPBI), organisasi tempat Dita bernaung, dianggap sebagai organisasi terlarang.

    “18-20 Tahun itu bukan waktu sebentar untuk membentuk karakter saya. Sejak 20 tahun saya jadi aktivis, dan itu bukan waktu singkat,” kisahnya.

    Apa yang dialami Dita selama menjadi aktivis seolah menjadi pintu gerbang yang luar biasa kokoh sehingga pengaruh baru tidak bisa begitu saja masuk. Dita percaya diri kalau dirinya tidak akan mengkhianati apa yang telah dijalaninya.

    “Kalau ada yang skeptis ya lihat saja. Saya percaya diri cukup punya pengalaman, dan akan saya buktikan,” tambah perempuan yang pernah menjadi Ketum Partai Persatuan Oposisi Rakyat (popor) ini.

    Dita bersyukur, dengan kegiatannya sekarang, dia masih punya banyak teman dan bahkan jaringannya bertambah. Terkadang teman-teman saat dia masih aktivis dulu datang padanya dan meminta bantuan. Misalnya saja, ada temannya dari serikat buruh yang ingin mengadukan kasus, maka Dita bisa ikut membantu memfasilitasi.

    “Saya jarang ketemuan dengan teman-teman (aktivis). Paling komunikasi SMS, Facebook, atau e-mail. Kadang mereka ke sini, karena mau mengadukan kasus jadi kadang sekalian saja bertukar kabar,” tutur perempuan yang hobi bermain piano ini.


    http://ibrahimisa.blogspot.com/2012/05/zely-ariane-tentang-dita-indah-sari-dan.html

    Zely Ariane Tentang: DITA INDAH SARI DAN MARSINAH
    by Ibrahim isa, Tuesday, May 8, 2012, at 1:44 AM

    Kolom IBRAHIM ISA
    Selasa, 08 Mei 2012
    ——————————

    Zely Ariane Tentang: DITA INDAH SARI DAN MARSINAH

    Pagi ini kubaca sebuah sajak di Facebook, buah pena kawan baikku – ZELY ARIANE.
    Kubaca dan kubaca lagi. Tersentuh hatiku, tergugah fikiranku. Zely Ariane menderetkan dua orang tokoh perempuan. DITA INDAH SARI dan MARSINAH. Yang pertama, Dita Indah Sari, masih ada di tengah-tengah masyarakat kita. Yang seorang lagi, Marsinah, sudah tiada. Kemudian Zely menuliskan kesannya mengenai dua tokoh perempuan Indonesia itu, lalu menarik pelajaran.

    Dita Sari adalah pendiri dan mantan pemimpin PRD. Partai politik Kiri, Partai Demokratik Indonesia, adalah satu-satunya parpol yang terdiri dari kaum muda terpelajar dan yang berani menantang diktator Orba Jendral Suharto, di kala Orba masih berjaya. Dita Sari menjadi terkenal karena ia menolak “Award” sebesar US$ 50.000 dari perusahaan raksasa Reebok. Dita Sari menolak “Award” dari Reebok karena berbau ‘suapan’. Dita berjuang untuk hak-hak demokrasi bagi buruh dan rakyat Indonesia. Ia juga pernah pemimpin serikatuburh, kemudian jadi pemimpin politik. Dita diganjar Orba, hukuman penjara 8 tahun. Belum 8 tahun Suharto jatuh. Naik Habibi. Dita Sari bebas penjara. Amnesty Internasional memaklumkan Dita sebagai “prisoner of conscience”.

    • * *

    Suatu ketika aku berkunjung ke kantor Amnesty Inernational Belanda di Amsterdam. Terpampang di dinding ruangan tamu, foto Dita Indah Sari sebesar gajah. Aku bangga seorang aktivis pejuang perempuan Indonesia, dimaklumkan sebagai tokoh pejuang hak-hak manusia. Dan fotonya dipasang di gedung Amnesy International Belanda di Keizersgracht, Amsterdam.

    Pada kesempatan lain kujumpai dan diskusi dengan Dita Indah Sari dalam TEMU EROPA di Jerman tidak lama setelah jatuhnya Suharto. Ketika itu tokoh Dita Indah Sari, bagiku adalah seorang tokoh perempuan aktivis dan pejuang kaum buruh, pejuang demokrasi dan hak-hakmanusia. Ia teladan yang mempesonakan. Begitu gigih dan konsisten, berani dan optimis. Kawan-kawan yang hadir dalam TEMU EROPAH semuanya mengagumi dan menghormati Dita Indah Sari.

    • * *

    Setelah Reformasi dan Orba tiada, tetapi banyak petinggi-petinggi Orba yang masih berkuasa di banyak bidang, pandangan Dita Sari mengenai situasi politik tanah air mengalami perubahan.

    Zely Ariane mencatat perubahan itu dalam sajaknya:

    Pada suatu masa
    Dita berkata:
    pengusaha, tentara, Orba, bisa jadi kawan kelas pekerja
    Karenanya ia dukung Wiranto yang jenderal tentara
    Yusuf Kalla yang lumayan raksasa pengusaha
    untuk jadi pemimpin negara kita

    Kini Dita jadi juru bicara
    Menteri Tenaga Kerja
    untuk membantu pekerja percaya niat baik pengusaha

    Sehingga Dita yang pandai bicara
    mulai dlupakan massa

    • * *

    Yang satu lagi adalah tokoh pahlawan buruh. Pahlawan kataku, karena memang MARSINAH adalah pahlawan pejuang sesama kaum buruh. Ia tetap konsisten sampai ia meninggal di tangan kekuasaan aparat. Di bawah ini pelukisan Zely Ariane mengenai MARSINAH, dalam sajaknya:

    Ada seorang perempuan bernama Dita
    Suara Marsinah kalah lantang dibanding Ia
    Pemimpin aksi massa pekerja
    hingga dipenjara Orba

    Bila Marsinah tak bisa sekolah hukum karena biaya
    Dita tinggalkan fakultas hukum demi menggalang aksi massa
    Marsinah bukan pimpinan serikat pekerja
    Sementara Dita bintangnya politik kelas pekerja

    Dita dijemput tentara Orba
    Marsinah mendatangi Kodim dan pengusaha
    Marsinah tiada
    Dita masih ada
    dan Marsinah yang mati tak bersuara
    diingat dalam sanubari dan benak kita

    • * *

    Kita belajar dari sikap Zely terhadap dua tokoh perempuan Indonesia tsb. Sayang, Marsinah sudah tiada.Tapi akan selalu dikenang dan dihormati. Aktivis-aktivis buruh muda pasti akan turun temurun terinspirasi oleh tokoh pejuang buruh Marsinah.

    Tentang Dita Sari?
    Zely sudah mengucapan selamat tinggal kepada Dita Indah Sari.

    • * *

    Di bawah ini selengkapnya sajak Zely Ariane:

    Marsinah dan Dita
    Zely, Ariane, 08 Mei 2012

    Ada seorang perempuan bernama Dita
    Suara Marsinah kalah lantang dibanding Ia
    Pemimpin aksi massa pekerja
    hingga dipenjara Orba

    Bila Marsinah tak bisa sekolah hukum karena biaya
    Dita tinggalkan fakultas hukum demi menggalang aksi massa
    Marsinah bukan pimpinan serikat pekerja
    Sementara Dita bintangnya politik kelas pekerja

    Dita dijemput tentara Orba
    Marsinah mendatangi Kodim dan pengusaha
    Marsinah tiada
    Dita masih ada

    Pada suatu masa
    Dita berkata:
    pengusaha, tentara, Orba, bisa jadi kawan kelas pekerja
    Karenanya ia dukung Wiranto yang jenderal tentara
    Yusuf Kalla yang lumayan raksasa pengusaha
    untuk jadi pemimpin negara kita

    Kini Dita jadi juru bicara
    Menteri Tenaga Kerja
    untuk membantu pekerja percaya niat baik pengusaha

    Sehingga Dita yang pandai bicara
    mulai dlupakan massa
    dan Marsinah yang mati tak bersuara
    diingat dalam sanubari dan benak kita

    Selamat tinggal Dita
    Selamat datang Marsinah-Marsinah muda.

    *Zely Ariane, tebet, 080512, 12:55

    • * *

    http://www.dw.de/pengagum-lenin-di-rezim/a-16820864

    Pengagum Lenin di Rezim

    Lima belas tahun bergulat dengan politik, mendorong seorang tokoh buruh revolusioner masuk ke dalam kekuasaan. Bagi dia, ini adalah bagian dari doktrin Lenin tentang dua taktik perjuangan.

    Pada suatu masa, Dita Indah Sari dikenal sebagai tokoh revolusioner yang hapal luar kepala berbagai momen revolusi Bolshevik, sambil dengan fasih mengutip Lenin di sana sini.

    Mengorganisir buruh-Membaca Lenin-Turun ke jalan: adalah metode perlawanan klandestin yang dijalani para aktivis kiri termasuk Dita. Sebuah pilihan yang sempat mengantar ia masuk penjara orde baru. Tahun 2001, Dita diganjar Ramon Magsaysay Award, semacam hadiah nobel untuk para aktivis kemanusiaan Asia.

    Lima belas tahun, Dita bereksperimen dengan demokrasi. Membangun partai kiri, gagal. Mengawinkan kelompok kiri dengan partai gurem Islam, hasilnya karam. Belakangan Dita masuk ke Kantor Kementerian Tenaga Kerja dan Transmigrasi. Ia menjadi juru bicara Menteri.

    “Jangan dikira doktrin Lenin tidak fleksibel. Lenin sangat percaya dua taktik: taktik perjuangan di luar dan di dalam. Jangan dikira orang kiri itu hanya strict di luar pemerintahan…” kata Dita kepada Deutsche Welle tentang alasannya bergabung ke dalam rezim. Dalam wawancara ini, Dita sering menggunakan kami atau kita sebagai kata ganti saya.

    DW: Seorang Marxist, yang berada di rejim SBY yang sering dituding neolib, apakah tidak merasa itu sebagai kontradiksi?

    Dita Indah Sari: Pertama, semua kalangan kiri di dunia tujuannya adalah merebut kekuasaan. Kita melihat contoh seperti Hugo Chavez (bekas penguasa Venezuela-red) yang sebelum menjadi presiden juga berkarir di birokrasi militer, juga Lula da Silva (bekas presiden Brazil-red). Nah artinya berada dalam kekuasaan bagi seorang marxist itu adalah bagian dari perjuangan untuk menambah pengaruh, memperkuat jaringan, juga menempa diri kita sendiri.

    DW: Anda masih kiri?

    Dita Indah Sari: Masih… itu tak hilang. Di negara sosialis, korupsi dan kehancuran integritas adalah isu yang menggerogoti sistem yang sebetulnya baik. Integritas itu harus diuji dalam lapangan yang kongkrit. Kita baru bisa bilang bahwa kita bersih jika berada di tempat yang tidak bersih tapi tetap bersih. Kita bisa bilang kita berintegritas kalau kita berada di tempat yang sangat pragmatis tapi sedikit banyak menjaga integritas, tidak hanyut. Jadi ujian bagi integritas adalah lapangan yang konkrit, bukan lapangan angan-angan.

    DW: Anda terakhir baca Lenin kapan?

    Dita Indah Sari: Ya allah…hahaha… terakhir waktu Chavez meninggal aku baca lagi buku-bukunya dan dia mengutip Lenin di beberapa tulisannya. Kalau Lenin sudah tidak ingat lagi kapan terakhir baca… Dulu (era PRD-red) Marx dan Lenin nggak pernah lepas. Itu terus yang dibaca, karena itu proses ideologisasi. Itu indoktrinasi, dibedah dan bukunya disatbilo,”

    DW: Anda masih melihat kebenaran dalam doktrin Lenin?

    Dita Indah Sari: Benar. Jangan dikira doktrin Lenin itu tidak mengandung fleksibilitas. Lenin sangat percaya dua taktik: taktik perjuangan di luar dan di dalam, kapan harus maju kapan harus mundur, kapan harus mendukung parlemen, kapan harus ikut pemilu, kapan jangan ikut pemilu. Lihat momentum kapan harus bikin tentara, kapan harus perang dengan masyarakat sipil, itu step-step perjuangannya.

    Dita Indah Sari, tokoh PRD yang sempat divonis delapan tahun penjara oleh orde baru karena menggerakkan buruh di Surabaya. Tahun 2001 menerima Ramon Magsaysay Award. Kini menjadi juru bicara Menteri Tenaga Kerja, dan sekaligus pengurus di Partai Kebangkitan Bangsa.

    * Tanggal 21.05.2013
    * Penulis Andy Budiman
    * Editor Rizki Nugraha


     
  • Virtual Chitchatting 10:41 AM on 2014/03/18 Permalink  

    PP No.11/2014 menjadikan OJK sangat mudah disuap dalam rangka mengamankan tindakan kriminil di industri keuangan dan perbankan Indonesia (extreme moral hazard)
    by S3ra Sutan Rajo Ali
    Jakarta, 2014-03-18 10:41

    PP No.11/2014 tentang Pembenaran Pungutan Liar oleh OJK

    peraturan-pemerintah-nomor-11-tahun-2014-tentang-pungutan-oleh-otoritas-jasa-keuangan.pdf

    http://ojk.go.id/dl.php?i=2663

    OJK tidak ada bedanya dengan BNP2TKI.
    Menetapkan pungutan di sana sini. Kalau mau nyetor di atas nilai nominal, dijamin nilai rapor keuangannya pasti sehat.

    Beginilah mental para birokrat yang korup di Departemen Keuangan dan Bank Indonesia.
    Mereka kemudian mengeluarkan Peraturan Pemerintah sebagai alat justification, pembenar untuk melakukan pungli terhadap seluruh perusahaan keuangan yang beroperasi di Indonesia.

    OJK di Inggris aja dibubarin karena tidak efektif.
    Indonesia tidak mau belajar, karena OJK merupakan wahana untuk memperkaya para birokrat di Departemen Keuangan, khususnya, dan di Bank Indonesia, pada umumnya.

    Mari kita lihat beberapa tahun lagi.
    Emang ada Gubernur Bank Indonesia yang tidak dipenjara?


    http://market.bisnis.com/read/20140224/192/205632/mulai-1-maret-ojk-kutip-pungutan-sesuai-pp-112014

    Mulai 1 Maret, OJK Kutip Pungutan Sesuai PP 11/2014
    Vega Aulia Pradipta – Senin, 24 Februari 2014, 16:33 WIB

    Bisnis.com, JAKARTA-Otoritas Jasa Keuangan (OJK) mulai 1 Maret mendatang memungut sejumlah uang kepada perusahan yang bergerak di sektor jasa keuangan sesuai dengan PP No.11 Tahun 2014 tentang Pungutan oleh OJK.

    Dalam aturan yang diundangkan di Jakarta, 12 Februari 2014 itu, perusahaan di sektor jasa keuangan wajib membayar sejumlah uang yang dipungut OJK.

    Perusahaan itu termasuk yang bergerak di sektor perbankan, pasar modal, perasuransian, dana pensiun, lembaga pembiayaan, dan lembaga jasa keuangan lainnya.

    Jenis pungutannya ada dua. Pertama adalah biaya perizinan, persetujuan, pendaftaran, pengesahan, dan penelaahan atas rencana aksi korporasi.

    Kedua, biaya tahunan dalam rangka pengaturan, pengawasan, pemeriksaan, dan penelitian. Pungutan OJK ini akan digunakan untuk membiayai kegiatan operasional, administratif, pengadaan aset, serta kegiatan pendukung lainnya.

    Nurhaida, Kepala Eksekutif Pengawas Pasar Modal OJK mengatakan PP tersebut berlaku mulai 1 Maret 2014.

    “Untuk emiten ada dua, ada iuran tahunan per outstanding nilai emisi dan kedua, kalau ada corporate action misalnya dia lakukan right issue, take over, itu ada lagi fee-nya di luar fee tahunan,” ujarnya ketika ditemui di Gedung Bank Indonesia, Senin (24/2/2014).

    Menurut Nurhaida, pungutan oleh OJK ini tidak akan memberatkan industri jasa keuangan. Dia meyakini ini untuk kebaikan pasar ke depan.

    “Tujuannya jangan dilihat dari sisi memberatkan. Setiap aksi korporasi kan ada hal yang harus dilakukan atau secara teknis ada yang dilakukan kajian oleh OJK. Nah pungutan itu untuk menutupi biaya operasional OJK. Kemudian untuk kebaikan market ke depan,” jelasnya.

    Editor : Ismail Fahmi


    http://www.antaranews.com/berita/420747/pp-112014-ubah-fungsi-ojk

    PP 11/2014 ubah fungsi OJK
    Zul Sikumbang, Senin, 24 Februari 2014 18:08 WIB

    Jakarta (ANTARA News) – Anggota DPR Arif Budimanta melempar kritik dengan mengatakan bahwa PP No. 11/2014 Tentang Pungutan oleh Otoritas Jasa Keuangan telah mengubah OJK menjadi institusi pemungut Penerimaan Negara Bukan Pajak (PNBP).

    Padahal, dalam UU No.21 Tahun 2011 disebutkan bahwa OJK dibentuk dengan tujuan mengatur dan mengawasi serta memberikan perlindungan bagi nasabah jasa keuangan di Indonesia.

    “Harusnya OJK dapat membuktikan kinerja dulu mengingat sejak dua tahun ini belum ada yang menggembirakan dari kinerja OJK,” kata anggota Komisi XI DPR RI itu di Gedung DPR RI di Jakarta, Senin.

    Terkait substansi, Peraturan Pemerintah (PP) tersebut berpotensi tidak membuat OJK mandiri dan independen, pengenaan dan kewajiban pungutan ini dibuat dengan klasifisikasi tertentu, pada akhirnya akan menjadi beban bagi industri dengan meningkatnya biaya operasional, yang selanjutnya akan dibebankan kepada konsumen.

    Menurut dia, PP ini berpotensi menimbulkan ekonomi biaya tinggi terhadap sektor jasa keuangan dan akan memandekkan pertumbuhan jasa keuangan. UU OJK sudah mengamanatkan bahwa OJK dibentuk dengan tujuan untuk mewujudakn sistem keuangan yang tumbuh secara keberlanjutan dan stabil,” kata dia.

    “Saya sudah membaca detil PP ini, dan jika diberlakukan, maka akan menimbulkan potensi suap, menjadi beban nasabah dan berpotensi mematikan industrik keuangan kecil,” katanya.

    Sebagai contoh, ujar Arif, lembaga keuangan mikro harus membayar perizinan sebesar Rp50 juta sementara perputaran uang di lembaga keuangan mikro tersebut hanya Rp100 juta pertahun ditambah lagi harus membayar paling sedikit Rp10 juta untuk biaya pengawasan dan pemeriksaan (lampiran 3 PP NO 11 Tahun 2014).

    “Pembiayaan OJK ini sebenarnya dapat dilakukan dari berbagi sumber seperti APBN, LPS dan BI seperti yang pernah diterapkan oleh FSA Inggris. Sehingga kredibilitas dan reputasi OJK dapat dipertahankan dengan baik,” kata Arif.

    Editor: Suryanto


    http://www.waspada.co.id/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=318883:ojk-diminta-perjelas-parameter-iuran-perbankan&catid=18:bisnis&Itemid=95

    OJK diminta perjelas parameter iuran perbankan
    Thursday, 13 March 2014 10:45

    JAKARTA – Pelaku pasar modal Indonesia meminta kepada Otoritas Jasa Keuangan untuk memperjelas parameter pungutan yang akan dibebankan kepada industri.

    “PP-nya sudah ada tetapi petunjuk teknisnya belum ada. Kita setuju pungutan oleh OJK tetapi parameternya belum detil, jangan sampai ada dua kali pungutan,” kata Direktur Kresna Securities, Octavianus Budiyanto.

    Ia mengatakan bahwa dalam Peraturan Pemerintah No.11/2014 tentang Pungutan oleh OJK di antaranya disebutkan bahwa emiten, perusahaan sekuritas, manajer investasi dan perusahaan yang berkaitan dengan industri pasar modal dikenakan pungutan yang masing-masing memiliki besaran yang berbeda.

    “Nah, kami (Kresna Securities) dikenakan berdasarkan pendapatan. Padahal di bawah kami ada anak usaha yang bergerak di bisang asset management yang juga dikenakan pungutan berdasarkan dana kelolaan,” kata dia.

    Dengan demikian, menurut dia, pihaknya akan terkena pungutan dua kali, karena laporan keuangan anak usaha akan terkonsolidasi.

    “Jadi harus diperjelas, dengan begitu diharapkan pelaku industri tidak akan merasa keberatan pada saat dikenakan pungutan,” kata dia.

    Apalagi, lanjut dia, pada saat ini industri pasar modal Indonesia masih dihadapkan pada berbagai tantangan dari eksternal maupun domestik.

    Direktur AAA Securities Anita Wijanto mengatakan bahwa pungutan yang dikenakan OJK berpotensi mengganggu kinerja bisnis perusahaan efek.

    Menurut dia, ada baiknya pungutan OJK tersebut dikenakan satu pintu sehingga industri tidak dikenakan pungutan ganda.

    Menanggapi hal itu, Kepala Departemen Pasar Modal IIA OJK Fahri Hilmi mengatakan bahwa OJK sedang menyusun peraturan dan surat edaran sebagai petunjuk teknis dari Peraturan Pemerintah No.11/2014.

    “Apa yang menjadi pertanyaan industri akan dijelaskan,” kata dia.
    (dat06/antara)


    http://bisniskeuangan.kompas.com/read/2014/03/14/0855158/Bankir.Protes.Iuran.OJK.Masuk.Kas.Negara

    Bankir Protes Iuran OJK Masuk Kas Negara
    Jumat, 14 Maret 2014 | 08:55 WIB

    JAKARTA, KOMPAS.com – Langkah Otoritas Jasa Keuangan (OJK) memungut iuran dari industri keuangan terus menuai protes. Kali ini, kalangan industri menolak ketentuan perihal kelebihan iuran yang masuk ke kas negara.

    Mengutip Peraturan Pemerintah (PP) No. 11/2014 tentang Pungutan Industri Keuangan oleh OJK, BAB III Pasal 3 ayat 3 berbunyi : Dalam hal pungutan yang diterima OJK pada tahun berjalan sebagaimana dimaksud pada ayat (2) melebihi kebutuhan OJK untuk tahun anggaran berikutnya, kelebihan tersebut disetorkan ke Kas Negara.

    Sebagai gambaran, pagu anggaran negara bagi OJK tahun 2014 adalah Rp 2,4 triliun. Sementara, potensi iuran yang bisa dikantongi OJK sepanjang tahun 2014 adalah 0,03 persen dari total aset industri keuangan mencapai Rp 9.744,83 triliun atau sebesar Rp 2,92 triliun.

    Itu artinya, ada kelebihan dana Rp 500 miliar yang bakal masuk kas negara. Catatan saja, iuran digunakan untuk operasional OJK di berikutnya. Misal, pembayaran tahun 2014 untuk operasional OJK di tahun 2015 mendatang. Jahja Setiaatmadja, Presiden Direktur Bank Central Asia (BCA) menyarankan, kelebihan dana iuran OJK dipakai untuk anggaran tahun berikutnya.

    “Sebaiknya untuk investasi infrastruktur industri keuangan,” ujar Parwati Surjaudaja, Presiden Direktur Bank OCBC NISP seperti dikutip KONTAN, Rabu (12/3/2014).

    Satu suara

    Bankir Tanah Air serius mencermati ketentuan kelebihan dana iuran OJK. Buktinya, para bankir satu suara lewat Perhimpunan Bank Umum Nasional (Perbanas). “Karena peraturan pemerintah, kami pelaku hanya mengikuti aturan. Tapi nanti secara industri ada satu pendapat, sedang dikumpulkan di Perbanas,” ujar Herwidayatmo, Pelaksana Tugas (Plt) Direktur Utama Bank Permata.

    Sigit Pramono, Ketua Umum Perbanas, mengatakan, perlu ada perubahan Undang-Undang (UU) Otoritas Jasa Keuangan (OJK). Menurut dia, revisi kebijakan pungutan OJK menjadi salah satu poin penting. Rekomendasi Perbanas : kelebihan dana iuran dipakai untuk anggaran tahun berikutnya atau rasio pungutan dikurangi. “Ini untuk efisiensi lembaga keuangan juga,” kata Sigit, kepada KONTAN.

    Alasan Perbanas, kelebihan dana iuran OJK dikhawatiran menimbulkan moral hazard, andai diparkir di kas negara. Kendati bankir satu suara memprotes ketentuan tersebut, pelaku industri bersikap pasrah. “Kami selaku industri akan menjalankan hal tersebut, meskipun memberatkan,” tambah Sigit.

    Namun, PP No. 11/2014 Bab Pasal 4 menyatakan, pungutan OJK dari industri bisa dihapuskan. Syaratnya, total iuran yang sudah terkumpul telah melebihi pagu anggaran yang diminta OJK kepada Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat (DPR).

    “Karena OJK tidak bermaksud mengambil untung dari publik. Jadi secukupnya saja,” ujar Retno Ici, Direktur Pengaturan Pasar Modal OJK. Yang pasti, ketentuan PP No. 11/2014 membingungkan karena Peraturan OJK belum kunjung terbit. (Dea Chadiza Syafina, Nina Dwiantika, Issa Almawadi, Dessy Rosalina)
    Ikuti perkembangan berita ini dalam topik:

    Editor : Erlangga Djumena


    http://finansial.bisnis.com/read/20140317/90/211307/ini-daftar-lengkap-tarif-pungutan-ojk

    Ini Daftar Lengkap Tarif Pungutan OJK
    Sukirno – Senin, 17 Maret 2014, 12:17 WIB

    Bisnis.com, JAKARTA – Dalam Peraturan Pemerintah nomor 11 Tahun 2014, tentang pungutan oleh Otoritas Jasa Keuangan (OJK) setiap perusahaan jasa keuangan harus menyetor duit kepada OJK yang besarannya telah diatur.

    Pasar modal, perbankan, Industri Keuangan Non Bank (IKNB) seperti asuransi dan perusahaan pembiayaan ditarik pungutan OJK dengan besaran yang berbeda-beda.

    Berikut daftar pungutan OJK berdasarkan PP nomor 11 Tahun 2014 yang berlaku sejak 1 Maret 2014:

    Jenis dan Besaran Pungutan OJK dikelompokkan dalam tiga jenis:
    1. Biaya perizinan, persetujuan, pendaftaran, dan pengesahan,
    2. Biaya penelaahan rencana aksi korporasi,
    3. Biaya tahunan dalam rangka pengaturan, pengawasan, pemeriksaan, dan penelitian.

    Pungutan yang terkait dengan Pengajuan Perizinan, Persetujuan, Pendaftaran, dan Pengesahan
    1. Bursa Efek, Lembaga Kliring, dan Penjaminan, Lembaga Penyimpanan dan Penyelesaian, Penyelenggara Perdagangan Surat Utang Negara di Luar Bursa Efek, Bank Umum, Asuransi Jiwa, Asuransi Umum, Reasuransi, dan Manajer Investasi.Besaran pungutan per perusahaan Rp100 juta.

    2. Perusahaan Pemeringkat Efek, Penjaminan Emisi Efek, BPR, BPRS, Perusahaan Pembiayaan, dan Modal Ventura serta Lembaga Jasa Keuangan Lainnya. Besaran pungutan per perusahaan Rp50 juta.

    3. Perantara Pedagang Efek yang mengadministrasikan Rekening Efek Nasabah. Besaran pungutan per perusahaan Rp30 juta.

    4. Perantara Pedagang Efek yang tidak mengadministrasikan Rekening Efek Nasabah, Penasihat Investasi, Biro Administrasi Efek, dan Lembaga Penilai Harga Efek. Besaran pungutan per perusahaan Rp5 juta.

    5. Persetujuan untuk Pihak Penerbit Daftar Efek Syariah, Bank Kustodian; Lembaga Penunjang Perbankan yaitu Lembaga Pemeringkat. Besaran pungutan per perusahaan Rp5 juta.

    6. Perizinan Lembaga Penunjang IKNB yaitu Perusahaan Pialang Asuransi, Perusahaan Pialang Reasuransi, Perusahaan Penilai Kerugian Asuransi, Perusahaan Konsultan Aktuaria, dan Perusahaan Agen Asuransi. Besaran pungutan per perusahaan Rp5 juta.

    7. Pendaftaran untuk Wali Amanat. Besaran pungutan per perusahaan Rp5 juta.

    8. Pendaftaran untuk Agen Penjual Efek Reksa Dana. Besaran pungutan per perusahaan Rp30 juta.

    9. Pengesahan untuk Dana Pensiun Lembaga Keuangan dan Dana Pensiun Pemberi Kerja. Besaran pungutan per lembaga Rp50 juta.

    Biaya Perizinan dan pendaftaran orang perseorangan :
    10. Peizinan untuk Wakil Manajer Investasi dan Penasehat Investasi. Besaran pungutan per orang Rp1 juta.

    11. Perizinan untuk Wakil Penjamin Emisi Efek, Wakil Perantara Pedagang Efek, dan Wakil Agen Penjual Agen Reksa Dana. Besaran pungutan per orang Rp500.000.

    12. Perizinan untuk Profesi Penunjang. Besaran pungutan per orang Rp5 juta.

    Biaya Pendaftaran :
    13. Pernyataan pendaftaran dalam rangka Penawaran Umum:
    Efek bersifat ekuitas, efek bersifat utang, dalam rangka penambahan modal dengan Hak Memesan Efek Terlebih Dahulu (Penawaran Umum Terbatas/Rights Issue), untuk penambahan modal Tanpa Hak Memesan Efek Terlebih Dahulu, Efek yang dapat dikonversi menjadi saham dan oleh pemegang saham. Besaran pungutan diambil 0,05% dari nilai emisi, maksimal Rp750 juta.

    14. Sukuk. Besaran pungutan diambil 0,05% dari nilai emisi dan maksimal Rp150 juta.

    15. Pernyataan Pendaftaran Perusahaan Publik. Besaran pungutan per pernyataan pendaftaran Rp10 juta.

    16. Pernyataan Pendaftaran untuk Penawaran Tender Sukarela. Besaran pungutan per penawaran Rp25 juta.

    Biaya Penelaah Rencana Aksi Korporasi :
    1. Penambahan Modal Tanpa Hak Memesan Efek Terlebih Dahulu tanpa Melalui Penawaran Umum tidak untuk memperbaiki posisi keuangan. Besaran pungutan sebesar 0,025% dari nilai emisi, maksimal Rp500 juta.

    2. Penggabungan atau Peleburan Perusahaan Terbuka. Besaran pungutan sebesar 0,05% dari aset proforma penggabungan/peleburan, maksimal Rp250 juta.

    3. Perubahan Perusahaan Terbuka menjadi Perusahaan Tertutup secara Sukarela (voluntary going private). Besaran pungutan per perubahan Rp1 miliar.

    4. Pengambilalihan Perusahaan Terbuka. Besaran pungutan per pengambilalihan Rp25 juta.

    Biaya Tahunan dalam Rangka Pengaturan, Pengawasan, Pemeriksaan, dan Penelitian :
    1. Bursa Efek, Lembaga Kliring, dan Penjaminan, Lembaga Penyimpanan dan Penyelesaian, Penyelenggara Perdagangan Surat Utang Negara di Luar Bursa Efek Besaran pungutan sebesar 15% dari pendapatan usaha.

    2. Bank Umum, Bank Perkreditan Rakyat, Bank Pembiayaan Syariah, Asuransi Jiwa, Asuransi Umum, Reasuransi, Dana Pensiun Lembaga Keuangan, Dana Pensiun Pemberi Kerja, Perusahaan Pembiayaan, Perusahaan Modal Ventura dan Lembaga Jasa keuangan Lainnya. Besaran pungutan sebesar 0,045% (minimal Rp10 juta) dari aset.

    3. Manajer Investasi. Besaran pungutan sebesar 0,045% (minimal Rp10 juta) dari dana kelolaan.

    4. Penasihat Investasi. Besaran pungutan sebesar 1,2% (minimal Rp10 juta) dari pendapatan imbalan jasa nasihat investasi.

    5. Agen Penjual Efek Reksa Dana. Besaran pungutan sebesar 1,2% (minimal Rp10 juta) dari pendapatan fee keagenan.

    6. Penjamin Emisi Efek dan Perantara Pedagang Efek. Besaran pungutan sebesar 1,2% (minimal Rp10 juta) dari pendapatan usaha.

    7. Emiten. Besaran pungutan sebesar 0,03% dari nilai emisi/outstanding (minimal Rp15 juta dan maksimal Rp150 juta)

    8. Perusahaan Publik. Besaran pungutan per perusahaan sebesar Rp15 juta.

    9. Perusahaan Pemeringkat Efek. Besaran pungutan per pendapatan usaha sebesar 1,2% minimal Rp5 juta.

    10. Lembaga Penunjang, Lembaga penunjang perbankan yakni lembaga pemeringkat, lembaga penunjang pasar modal yaitu Biro Administrasi Efek, Bank Kustodian, dan Wali Amanat, Lembaga Penunjang INKB yaitu Perusahaan Pialang Asuransi, Perusahaan Pialang Reasuransi, Perusahaan Agen Asuransi, dan Lembaga Penilai Harga Efek. Besaran pungutan per pendapatan usaha sebesar 1,2% minimal Rp5 juta.

    11. Kantor Akuntan Publik, Kantor Jasa Penilai Publik, kantor konsultan hukum, kantor notaris, dan perusahaan konsultan Aktuaria. Besaran pungutan sebesar 1,2% dari nilai kontrak dari kegiatan SJK.

    12. Profesi, Profesi penunjang perbankan yaitu akuntan dan penilai, profesi penunjang pasar modal yaitu akuntan, konsultan hukum, penilai dan notaris. Besaran pungutan per orang sebesar Rp5 juta.

    Editor : Nurbaiti


    http://finansial.bisnis.com/read/20140317/90/211395/penerimaan-ojk-dari-pungutan-ke-perbankan-rp167-triliun

    Penerimaan OJK dari Pungutan ke Perbankan Rp1,67 Triliun
    Vega Aulia Pradipta – Senin, 17 Maret 2014, 15:42 WIB

    Bisnis.com, JAKARTA-Otoritas Jasa Keuangan (OJK) memperkirakan total perolehan penerimaan dari pungutan tahun ini sesuai dengan PP No. 11/2014 tentang Pungutan oleh OJK mencapai Rp1,67 triliun.

    Lucky F.A. Hadibrata, Deputi Komisioner Manajemen Strategis I OJK, mengatakan kebutuhan OJK tahun depan akan lebih tinggi dari kebutuhan tahun ini yang sebesar Rp2,4 triliun.

    “Pak Muliaman menargetkan dari APBN bisa turun Rp1 triliun untuk tahun depan, sehingga sumber penerimaan yang dari pungutan itu dinaikkan. Pada 2015, kami perkirakan Rp1,67 triliun berasal dari pungutan,” ujarnya dalam diskusi publik yang diselenggarakan oleh OJK Watch, Senin (17/3/2014).

    Menurut Lucky, anggaran untuk OJK pada 2013 sebesar Rp1,7 triliun yang seluruhnya berasal dari APBN. Kemudian pada 2014, anggaran naik menjadi Rp2,4 triliun yang juga masih diambil seluruhnya dari APBN.

    “Tahun ini anggarannya naik karena tugas OJK bertambah jadi mengawasi perbankan. Tahun depan bertambah lagi, kami juga mengawasi Lembaga Keuangan Mikro,” ujarnya.

    OJK juga berencana melakukan pengawasan terintegrasi berbasis grup. Di sisi lain, OJK masih akan terus menambah jumlah pegawai, sehingga memerlukan gedung baru. “Kami tidak akan bisa beli gedung, dari mana uangnya? Kapan kami punya gedung sendiri?,” ujarnya.

    Menurut Lucky, di luar negeri sebenarnya industri perbankan juga dikenakan pungutan oleh bank sentral. Dia menegaskan khusus untuk sektor perbankan, pungutan OJK ini akan memberikan manfaat untuk kesehatan bank itu sendiri ke depan.

    Editor : Hery Lazuardi


     
  • Virtual Chitchatting 3:43 PM on 2014/03/17 Permalink  

    In Indonesia, Polytron will flood the smartphone market with smartphones embedded with Firefox Operating Sytem
    by S3ra Sutan Rajo Ali
    Jakarta, 2014-03-17 PM 03:43

    Firefox OS (project name: Boot to Gecko, also known as B2G) is a Linux-based open-source operating system for smartphones and tablet computers and is set to be used on smart TVs. It is being developed by Mozilla, the non-profit organization best known for the Firefox web browser.

    Firefox OS is designed to provide a “complete” community-based alternative system for mobile devices, using open standards and approaches such as HTML5 applications, JavaScript, a robust privilege model, open web APIs to communicate directly with cellphone hardware, and application marketplace. As such, it competes with proprietary systems such as Apple’s iOS, Google’s Android and Microsoft’s Windows Phone, as well as other open source systems such as Jolla’s Sailfish OS and Ubuntu Touch.

    Firefox OS was publicly demonstrated in February 2012, on Android-compatible smartphones, and again in 2013 running on Raspberry Pi. In January 2013, at CES 2013, ZTE confirmed they would be shipping a smartphone with Firefox OS, and on July 2, 2013, Telefónica launched the first commercial Firefox OS based phone, ZTE Open, in Spain which was quickly followed by GeeksPhone’s Peak+.


    http://reviews.cnet.com/8301-13970_7-57619338-78/with-firefox-os-mozilla-begins-the-$25-smartphone-push/

    With Firefox OS, Mozilla begins the $25 smartphone push
    by Stephen Shankland
    February 23, 2014 7:47 AM PST

    (Credit: Stephen Shankland/CNET)

    Mozilla has new partnerships to carry its browser-based OS to high-growth, low-cost markets like Indonesia where iOS and Android are vulnerable. Also: more power at the same price from Alcatel and ZTE, the first LTE Firefox OS phone, and a 7-inch tablet.

    A Mozilla reference phone, built with Spreadtrum’s processor, that ultimately will hit the market as a $25 device for customers who don’t have the funds for higher-end phones.

    BARCELONA — Mozilla doubled down on its bet that low-end smartphones will give Firefox OS a place in the crowded mobile market, announcing partnerships Sunday that will bring $25 smartphones to the large number of people who can’t afford high-end models like Apple’s iPhone 5S and Samsung’s Galaxy S5 that cost hundreds of dollars.

    At the Mobile World Congress here, Mozilla announced a deal with Chinese chip designer Spreadtrum Communications that will mean Firefox OS smartphones will arrive in extremely cost-sensitive markets like India and Indonesia where people often buy phones from a bin in a store.

    “We’re working with them to break through the $50 barrier, which is hard,” Mozilla Chief Technology Officer Brendan Eich told CNET. “This is going to be for a set of [sales] channels in Asia that do not involve operators,” the carriers that in other parts of the world dominate distribution.

    One company that plans to make and promote the phones is Indonesia-based Polytron. And Indonesian carriers Telkomsel and Indosat plan to sell the devices. Hands-on testing shows the cheap Firefox OS phones to be workable. “This is a price point currently out of the reach of Google and even the lowest-cost Android handset vendors. It pushes Firefox OS into feature-phone territory, potentially signaling the beginning of the end for the category,” said Ovum analyst Nick Dillon in a statement.

    The phones may seem small, underpowered, and short on features to people used to modern Android and iOS phones. But Mitchell Baker, chair of the Mozilla Foundation, said at a press conference here that the devices have to be judged by a different, lower-end standard.

    “Imagine the phone in your pocket is a feature phone. Imagine, when you go buy one of these devices, that every euro is precious to you,” Baker said. Looking at “the richness and power we’re able to offer to this market, you’ll be astonished. Then imagine where we can go from there.”

    Mozilla has found a small niche in the mobile OS market by pursuing its low-end strategy, with the first phones debuting in countries such as Hungary, Venezuela, Colombia, Brazil, and Greece. Mozilla, a non-profit organization, hopes to use the browser-based operating system to lower the barriers that today keep people locked into ecosystems linking hardware, OS, app store, services, content, and apps.

    Mozilla also expanded partnerships with the Firefox OS allies it announced last year at the same show, Alcatel and ZTE. They debuted upgraded models that move to dual-core processors and add larger-screen options, bringing a little more processing horsepower to Firefox OS without raising the price.

    One of those Alcatel phones, the One Touch Fire S, pushes Firefox OS to new heights a quad-core processor and support for faster new 4G LTE networks. And Alcatel also showed off an early version of a planned new tablet, the One Touch Fire 7.

    Alcatel plans to sell its One Touch Fire 7, a tablet with Firefox OS.
    (Credit: CNET)

    Also at Mozilla’s event, a new partner, Huawei, showed off its first Firefox OS phone. The Y300 comes with a 4-inch 800×480 screen, dual-core processor, 512MB RAM, a 5-megapixel rear-facing camera, a 0.3-megapixel front-facing camera, and Firefox OS 1.1. It’s not clear yet when that model will go on sale.

    LG Electronics introduced a Firefox OS later phone last year, the Fireweb, and didn’t have any updates. Sony last year said it planned a Firefox OS phone for 2014, but it didn’t have any on display.

    Firefox OS takes on challenges

    Today, Apple’s iOS and Google’s Android dominate the market for smartphones and tablets. Challengers like Microsoft’s Windows Phone, Ubuntu Touch, WebOS, BlackBerry OS, and Samsung’s Tizen have struggled to push these aside: it’s hard to compete against an incumbent that’s got millions of users, hundreds of thousands of apps, and few signs of the complacency that can open a door for challengers.

    Firefox OS won’t have an easy time of it. There’s not as much money to be squeezed from low-end markets, so developers aren’t as likely to pursue it as avidly. The Spreadtrum chipset will support only 2.5G Edge mobile networks that, while common in poorer parts of the world, are too slow for a lot of modern apps. And Google is pushing toward lower-end phones, with Android 4.4 memory-saving techniques that fit KitKat into phones with 512MB of RAM.

    At the same time, though, Firefox is pushing, too. It uses the same ZRAM memory compression technique to halve its memory requirement to 128MB of memory, Eich said.

    Getting down to $25 phones means Firefox OS will provide an alternative for people who’d otherwise buy a feature phone — a model with a few built-in apps but not much more.

    So Firefox has a chance there. But in the long run, to succeed, Firefox OS will need to push up-market, and it’s not clear how Mozilla will succeed there with much stronger competition.

    Huawei takes the Firefox OS plunge with the Y300 (pictures)

    http://reviews.cnet.com/2300-13970_7-10019635.html

    Dual-core Firefox OS phones

    Phone makers are helping to push Firefox OS toward higher-end models. The first-generation Firefox OS phones like the Alcatel One Touch Fire had single-core Qualcomm processors.

    Now that’s changing with a host of new models that should arrive at the same low prices. Arriving at the show are two ZTE phones and four Alcatel phones:

    The ZTE Open C has a 4-inch, 800×480 display, a dual-core 1.2GHz Qualcomm Snapdragon 200 processor, 3G networking; 1,400mAh battery, 512MB RAM, 2GB flash storage, and 3-megapixel camera. The Spanish carrier Telefonica will sell it in Venezuela and Uruguay in the second quarter of 2014, ZTE said.

    The ZTE Open II has a 3.5-inch 480×320 display, dual-core 1.2GHz Qualcomm Snapdragon processor, 3G networking; 1,150mAh battery, 256MB RAM, 2GB flash storage, and 2-megapixel camera. Telefonica will sell this model in six countries

    The Alcatel One Touch Fire S, the company’s highest-end model, has 4G LTE networking, a 4.5-inch 960×540 IPS screen, a quad-core 1.2GHz processor, an 8-megapixel rear-facing camera and 2-megapixel front-facing camera, and support for near-field communications (NFC).

    The Alcatel One Touch Fire E is a step down. It’s also got a4.5-inch 960×540 screen, but not with in-plane switching, and its 1.2GHz processor is only a dual-core model. Its rear-facing camera has a 5MP resolution but its front-facing camera is only 0.3MP.

    The Alcatel One Touch Fire C is the clear successor to 2013’s model. Its 3.5-inch 480×320 screen is the same size, but it now is accompanied by a dual-core 1.2GHz processor. Its camera is pretty low-end, just a 0.3-megapixel model.

    Tablets and more

    Alcatel is also the first to push a Firefox OS tablet, the One Touch Fire 7, into the market. Electronics companies Foxconn and Via have worked on reference designs, but Alcatel is aimmig the Fire 7 at the mass market.

    It’s got a 7-inch 960×540 display, dual-core 1.2GHz processor, 0.3-megapixel front and rear cameras, a 9.9mm thickness, and 285g weight. With those specs, it looks like Alcatel plans reproduce the low-budget Firefox OS phone strategy but this time with tablets.

    Firefox OS is a smartphone operating system so far aimed at lower-end phones in cost-sensitive markets.
    (Credit: Telefonica Brazil screenshot by Stephen Shankland/CNET)

    Mozilla itself will be selling phones, too: a reference design called the for hardware and software partners called the Firefox OS Flame.

    It’s got a Qualcomm 1.2GHz dual-core Snapdragon processor, a 4.5-inch 854×480 screen, a 5MP rear-facing camera and 2MP front-facing camera, 3G networking, 8GB of flash storage, NFC, a 1,800mAh battery. Unusually, it’s got RAM that can be adjusted between 256MB and 1GB so developers can test different configurations.

    Mozilla’s main focus is on smartphones, but it’s encouraging others to help push Firefox OS into tablets. Via’s 7-inch Vixen 7 and Foxconn’s 10-inch InFocus are available to developers who are interested in the area.

    The Firefox OS ecosystem is clearly maturing. It’s nowhere near the scale of Android or iOS, but the first-stage partnerships announced a year ago are deepening and broadening.


    MrFill Feb 24, 2014
    Wow, those are 5 year old phone specs, no wonder they’re keeping the price down…
    Considering Android went 1920×1080 a year ago & 1280×720 3 years ago, and iPhone went 960×640 3 years ago & 1136×640 18 months ago, having a phone at 800×480 is just comical, especially at a 4″ screen!
    Yes, it’ll keep the cost down & battery life up, but people are asking more and more from their smart phones, so going to YEARS old specs is basically saying “you can have an entry level phone, and nothing more”
    The tablet size at 7″ 960×540 is worse than the Galaxy Tab 7 (first edition) which is nearly 3 years old
    If they had done this 3 years ago it might have been a contender, but it’s “too little, too late”, unless you want REALLY cheap hardware, and no apps – BB10 apps are scarce & WP8 apps are rare, so how do Mozilla expect to impact the market when a year after BB10 and 18 months after WP8, and running on 3+ year old hardware?

    eebrah Feb 24, 2014
    @MrFill This phones will probably NEVER be released in the US and most first world markets, you need not worry what it will do to impact your network, not soon anyway.
    For the rest of the world [ The majority, actually ] that does not consider $200 an “entry level” price for a phone, a $25-50 option is a good thing to have, especially as a first time phone or smartphone.
    FirefoxOS has apps, any suitably configured [ offline cache manifest ] webpage can be considered an app on such a platform.
    If this platform allows for cheaper smart-phones that people who could not afford smart-phones before can then purchase, it will have more than won, It will have done a good thing

    MrFill Feb 24, 2014
    @eebrah
    Actually I consider $50 an “entry level phone”, and even the likes of the Galaxy Fame cost under this amount SIM free, not to mention that Huawei make quite a few low spec phones at similar prices
    If they can’t afford $50 for a smartphone, what are they doing with a smartphone in the first place???

    eebrah Feb 26, 2014
    @MrFill Thank you educating me about the smart-phone situation in my part of the world, and of informing me of the rules and guidelines of smart-phone use and ownership, I was not aware that not being able ( or willing ) to spare an extra $25 made me unworthy of using a smart-phone. Good to know.
    That being said, that entry level smart-phone you speak of? It is not made available in my part of the world, not at that price anyway, I guess they figure just as well as you that people in the third world have no need for cheap, affordable communication.
    My question, does there being an even cheaper, more affordable and better suited to 3rd world conditions phones existence threaten your use and enjoyment of your devices?
    I would also love to see this Huawei phones that you claim is available at similar [ $25 ] prices.
    P.S. Smart-phones provide cheaper communication vis-a-vie voice and text and they enable a richer form of communication with photos, media clips and a social network. That is why people want smart-phones…. they also provide pretty kick-ass media-players, navigation devices, educational tools and opportunities at making a living than dumb phones, but then again, people who would rather spend $25 than $50 on phones should not have such, right?

    MrFill Feb 26, 2014
    @eebrah
    I guess all of these charities who provide re-conditioned smart phones to the 3rd world countries are just ripping everyone off then, because I personally have supplied several phones to them which are only 1 generation old, and thus higher spec than the ones in this article – they told me that they sell them in the countries for well under $25 equivalent, so if you want a phone for that cheap, try not looking at new and look at a reconditioned, unless your standards are higher than that, wanting a full spec phone for virtually nothing
    If it provides a better experience, then like those of us in the first world, we do this magical thing called “saving up” for items which are out of our financial reach immediately – for my current phone I saved up several months, putting aside many things for myself and my family, just so that I can get the device I wanted – I could have got a cheaper and less functional device immediately, but I wanted something better – maybe, because you’re on a site like this, you expect more, and seeing this new tech you demand it NOW and for virtually nothing, while those of us who want the newest tech have to put money aside to try to get something new
    It’s good to know that you are incapable of searching the Internet, because the Huawei Ascend Y300 is available in many places for well under $50, and is a very similar spec to those in the list above, but maybe that’s beyond your abilities to find, but that might be why you need a “smart” phone, to make something on you smart :-P

    eebrah Feb 26, 2014
    @MrFill Wow, way to go dude, assuming that people cannot save because they cannot afford what you can, how about you look up the average income for a resident of a random 3rd world country and what proportion $50 is of that income and compare it to the cost of whatever device it is you saved up for vs how much you make then come back and tell me that getting $25 for a phone does not require saving up. You sir are an ass.
    I have searched the internet and no, I have not come across an unlocked, off contract Huawei [ or other ] phone for $50 that does not require exorbitant shipping.
    Please be adviced that cheap phone in the US/EU/UK is of not cheap to someone on the other world if it costs the same or more to ship it there.
    So you donate your old devices? whop-dee-doo, I fail to see how that means that getting a new $25 dollar phone is a bad thing compared to an old one for the same price?
    It boggles the mind how someone can be opposed to people getting access to affordable technology and especially so when the alternatives they propose cost a minimum of twice as much and are not easily accesible. Maybe their being a $25 FirefoxOS smart-phone will suddenly make the devices you use self-destruct?


    http://www.phonearena.com/news/Mozilla-signs-a-deal-to-make-the-worlds-cheapest-smartphone-25-Firefox-OS-device-with-3.5-screen-and-HTML5-apps_id52963

    Mozilla signs a deal to make the world’s cheapest smartphone: $25 Firefox OS device with 3.5″ screen and HTML5 apps
    by Victor H., 23 Feb 2014, 09:38

    Smartphones have gotten cheaper and faster, but it’s still hard to find many smartphones under $100, and there are almost none under $50. Mozilla, the company behind the popular browser and the Firefox OS, wants to right that wrong and has signed a partnership to make the world’s cheapest smartphone, a $25 Firefox OS smartphone.

    The $25 smartphone is expected to feature up to a 3.5-inch touchscreen with a resolution of 320 x 480 pixels (by the way, this is the exact size and resolution that the iPhone 3GS had), integrated Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, FM Radio and a camera function. It will also support a traditional phone and browser apps that come with Firefox OS, and will have access to an ecosystem of web and HTML5 apps. The reference design also includes a basic, 2-megapixel rear camera. The plan is for this to be a much more feature-packed offering than dirt-cheap feature phones that are traditionally sold at similar prices.

    In order to make all this possible, Mozilla signed a deal with Chinese fabless chip maker Spreadtrum to use its just-unveiled SC8621 silicon. The chip is well integrated to optimize for cost as much as possible, and this kind of $25 smartphones are what it aims for.

    Mozilla and Spreadtrum have also done the work on integrating Firefox OS with SC6821 and SC7710 WCDMA smartphone chipsets, and will soon complete a turnkey reference design for the SC7715, a chip with integrated connectivity.

    Right now, Firefox OS is on three devices offered on four carriers and covering 15 markets. In 2014, Mozilla hopes to further expand into Latin America and Deutsche Telekom will offer its Firefox OS phones in new European markets.

    source: Sacbee, Re/code

    http://www.sacbee.com/2014/02/23/6182484/spreadtrum-and-mozilla-take-aim.html

    http://recode.net/2014/02/23/mozilla-says-new-chip-paves-way-for-25-smartphone/


     
  • Virtual Chitchatting 3:47 PM on 2014/03/15 Permalink  

    The idiot Indonesian spin doctors: who were they, who are they, who could they be? 

    Who really are the idiot Indonesian spin doctors right now?
    by S3ra Sutan Rajo Ali
    Jakarta, 15:47 2014-03-15

    Let’s see what and why the people call them as the spin doctor. What I know, in the past, spin doctors is a band, singing “Two Princess”.

    In brief, the spin doctor is the master in astroturfing & media manipulation. In public relations term, they are called to practice astroturfing. The result is to wag the dog. the questions will be:
    1. does the tail wag the dog?, or
    2. does the dog wag its tail?

    similar questions are:
    which one walk first, the head of the tail?

    if you happen to be the tail, please be advised and be ready to be eliminated by the dog. just like what happened to Dustin Hoffman in the movie in 1997, “Wag the Dog”.


    http://www.urbandictionary.com/define.php?term=spin+doctor

    spin doctor

    by David June 01, 2005
    A person who works in public relations, usually for a political party who spins news stories round for the benefit of that party.
    The pound may have lost %20 of its value against the $ but lets report this as a great help in making our exports cheaper.

    by gemixman June 01, 2005
    Someone who twists facts for political purposes.
    The spin doctor made sure that the governer won the election.

    by Justcauz June 01, 2005
    A person that will take a bad situation and word it so it dos not sound so bad, can even switch blame to someone/something else.
    The President’s spin doctors have been getting them out of major trubble for generations.

    by CaffeineHead June 03, 2005
    Someone involved in the media, almost always a major outlet, who attempts to “spin” events and predictions in a certain light in order to further their agenda.
    Dude, that PETA spin doctor used Schaivo to support a McDonald’s boycott.

    by Super Genius June 01, 2005
    An operative who uses his platform to influence the perception of a person, organization, or event. Like a damage-control PR person. Most often this is in the political context, usually conservative, with the spin doctor masquerading as a journalist or “expert in the field” to lend credibility to what’s actually just a PR line cooked up by the right-wing.
    After “Deep Throat” finally revealed himself as W. Mark Felt in May, 2005, a parade of spin doctors, old Nixon cronies and convicted Watergate felons appeared in the media, trying to tarnish Felt in any way they could, to distract from and lessen in the public’s mind the enormity of the crimes they’d committed 30 years ago.

    by Bungalow Bill July 01, 2004
    1) somebody who works in or for the media who ensures that the public understands things from a certain perspective.
    2) a radio station DJ, or MC at a club or event.

    1) we think that the spin doctors at the local TV station helped the mayor win the election.
    2) the club boom anniversary party spin doctor was awesome!

    by Lawrence H. June 03, 2005
    1. Informal title for the member of an organization specifically responsible for presenting information with a particular slant or point of view, and for recovering an organizations image after a public relations catastrophe.
    2. Slang for a disc jokey, especially of vinyl records and mixing.
    The House Speakers Spin Doctors really cleaned up the intern scandal with that dropped contact lense story!

    by nac June 01, 2005
    Communication professional that crafts messages on behalf of an organization or individual to persuade an audience
    The administration’s spin doctors have managed to convince the American public that Social Security is in trouble now.

    by Light Joker April 09, 2007
    someone who is employed to make sure a story works to their employers advantage
    Those spin doctors are ruining the media.

    by gdog26 February 11, 2006
    A political analyst, pundit, or anyone else who makes their living by “spinning” something to make the other party look bad and their party look good. Some even resort to all
    Al Franken, Michael Moore, Cindy Sheehan, Ann Coulter, Jesse Jackson, Noam Chomsky are all examples of spin doctors.

    by Seb Flyte June 01, 2005
    Someone who manages the media for a politician or political party, to the extent of manipulating policy and behaviour for the sake of image.
    The role was typefied (some might say invented) by Tony Blair’s ‘Director of Communications and Strategy’ Alastair Campbell. Spin doctors have been the death of modern politics.

    by bieseraj@yahoo.com October 07, 2008
    1. Radio DJ or MC.
    2. Someone who gives multiple points of view.
    3. MD specialized in sprains and fractures
    4. Disk smoother, with a lamanated belt and sands the disk.

    1. “That spin doctor totally had last night’s crowd jumpin!”
    2. “I loved the Cubs until that spin doctor down the street told me all sorts of neat things about the Sox.”
    3. “My brother f*cked up his leg on the steps, luckily my friend’s a spin doctor.”
    4. “You messed up the CD I lent you! Go buy yourself a spin doctor, fix it and bring it back, asshole.”

    by REAL AMERICAN June 01, 2005
    bushfuck and/or his official liar.
    “Mission accomplished”.
    One of the scumbag’s greatest lies among many.

    by pozcircuitboy September 15, 2004
    Drug dealer, particularly speed.
    I’m going to see the spin doctor.


    the practices of astroturfing & media manipulation

    Contexts
    * Bias
    * Crowd psychology
    * Deception
    * Dumbing down
    * False balance
    * Half-truths
    * Machiavellianism
    * Media
    * Obfuscation
    * Persuasion
    * Psychological manipulation

    Activism
    * Alternative media
    * Boycott
    * Civil disobedience
    * Culture jamming
    * Demonstrations
    * Guerrilla communication
    * Hacktivism
    * Internet
    * Media
    * Occupations
    * Petitions
    * Protests
    * Youth

    Advertising
    * Billboards
    * False
    * Infomercials
    * Mobiles
    * Modeling
    * Radio
    * Regulation
    * Sex
    * Slogans
    * Testimonials
    * TV

    Censorship – Regulation
    * Books
    * Broadcast law
    * Burying of scholars
    * Cover-ups
    * Corporate
    * Euphemism
    * Films
    * Historical revisionism
    * Internet
    * Political
    * Religious
    * Self

    Hoaxing
    * April Fools’
    * Fakelore
    * Fictitious entries
    * Forgery
    * List
    * Literary
    * Racial
    * Urban legend
    * Virus

    Marketing
    * Branding
    * Loyalty
    * Product
    * Product placement
    * Publicity
    * Research
    * Word of mouth

    News media
    * Agenda-setting
    * Broadcasting
    * Circus
    * Cycle
    * False balance
    * Infotainment
    * Managing
    * Narcotizing dysfunction
    * Pseudo-event
    * Scrum
    * Sensationalism
    * Tabloid journalism

    Political campaigning
    * Advertising
    * Astroturfing
    * Attack ad
    * Canvassing
    * Character assassination
    * Charm offensive
    * Election promises
    * Lawn signs
    * Manifestos
    * Name recognition
    * Negative
    * Push polling
    * Smear campaign
    * Wedge issue

    Propaganda
    * Bandwagon
    * Crowd manipulation
    * Disinformation
    * Fear mongering
    * Framing
    * Indoctrination
    * Loaded language
    * National mythology
    * Techniques

    Psychological warfare
    * Airborne leaflets
    * False flag
    * Fifth column
    * Information (IT)
    * Lawfare
    * Political
    * Public diplomacy
    * Sedition
    * Subversion

    Public relations
    * Cult of personality
    * Doublespeak
    * Non-apology apology
    * Reputation management
    * Slogans
    * Sound bites
    * Spin
    * Transfer
    * Understatement
    * Weasel words

    Sales
    * Cold calling
    * Door-to-door
    * Phone
    * Pricing
    * Product demonstrations
    * Promotional merchandise
    * Promotion


    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spin_Doctors
    spin doctors
    8 March 2014 at 23:36.

    Spin Doctors – Two Princes – YouTube

    25 Oct 2009 – 4 min – Uploaded by SpinDoctorsVEVO
    4:20


    Spin Doctors – Little Miss Can’t Be Wrong – YouTube

    25 Oct 2009 – 4 min – Uploaded by SpinDoctorsVEVO
    3:52


    Spin Doctors is an American alternative rock band formed in New York City, best known for their early 1990s hits, “Two Princes”, and “Little Miss Can’t Be Wrong”, which peaked on the Billboard Hot 100 chart at No. 7 and No. 17 respectively.

    The current members are Chris Barron (vocals), Eric Schenkman (guitar and vocals), Aaron Comess (drums and percussion), and Mark White (bass guitar).


    Genres Alternative rock, funk rock, power pop, jam rock, blues rock
    Years active 1988-1999, 2001-present
    Labels Sony, Uptown
    Website http://www.spindoctors.com
    Members Eric Schenkman, Chris Barron, Aaron Comess, Mark White
    Past members Anthony Krizan, Eran Tabib, Ivan Neville, Carl Carter


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    Spin Doctors – 7 Albums
    magnet:?xt=urn:btih:cc2446d9783363f7f73fe713fb6a1b89d6fd6df0&dn=spin+doctors+7+albums&tr=http%3A%2F%2Ftracker.openbittorrent.com%2Fannounce&tr=udp%3A%2F%2Fopen.demonii.com%3A1337

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    419.34 MB, 83 files, 5 years (Sep 25, 2008), 34 seeders, 17 leechers

    Spin Doctors – 7 Albums (Size: 419.34 MB)
    Homebelly Groove – Live
    01 – What Time is it–Off My Line.mp3 11.33 MB
    02 – Freeway of the Plains-Lady Kerosene.mp3 10.01 MB
    03 – Yo Baby.mp3 5.39 MB
    04 – Little Miss Can’t be Wrong.mp3 4.35 MB
    05 – Shinbone Alley.mp3 7.56 MB
    06 – Refrigerator Car.mp3 5.84 MB
    07 – Sweet Widow.mp3 10.69 MB
    08 – Stepped on a Crack.mp3 4.82 MB
    09 – Yo Mamas a Pajama.mp3 3.8 MB
    10 – Rosetta Stone.mp3 7.47 MB
    Nice Talking To Me
    01-spin_doctors-nice_talking_to_me_-_www.torrentazos.com.mp3 6.61 MB
    02-spin_doctors-sugar_-_www.torrentazos.com.mp3 7.23 MB
    03-spin_doctors-margarita_-_www.torrentazos.com.mp3 5.19 MB
    04-spin_doctors-happily_ever_after_-_www.torrentazos.com.mp3 5.07 MB
    05-spin_doctors-id_like_to_love_you_(but_i_think_you_might_be_crazy)_-_www.torrentazos.com.mp3 9.46 MB
    06-spin_doctors-cant_kick_the_habit_-_www.torrentazos.com.mp3 13.26 MB
    07-spin_doctors-my_problem_now_-_www.torrentazos.com.mp3 5.58 MB
    08-spin_doctors-genuine_-_www.torrentazos.com.mp3 9.79 MB
    09-spin_doctors-tonight_you_could_steal_me_away_-_www.torrentazos.com.mp3 7.59 MB
    10-spin_doctors-safety_pin_-_www.torrentazos.com.mp3 7.26 MB
    11-spin_doctors-cant_kick_the_habit_(radio_edit)_-_www.torrentazos.com.mp3 7.04 MB
    spin.jpg 3.64 KB
    Outline and Online
    01 – Two Princes.mp3 4.28 MB
    02 – Shibone Alley.mp3 6.6 MB
    03 – Big Fat Funky Booty.mp3 5.95 MB
    04 – Refrigerator Car.mp3 4.73 MB
    05 – Jimmy Olsen’s Blues.mp3 3.93 MB
    06 – More Then She Knows.mp3 1.98 MB
    07 – Little Miss Can’t Be Wrong.mp3 3.98 MB
    08 – What Time Is It.mp3 6.7 MB
    09 – How Could You Want Him.mp3 5.77 MB
    Pocket Full Of Kryptonite
    01 – Jimmy Olsen’s Blues.mp3 4.28 MB
    02 – What Time Is It-.mp3 4.46 MB
    03 – Little Miss Can’t Be Wrong.mp3 3.61 MB
    04 – Forty Or Fifty.mp3 4.05 MB
    05 – Refrigerator Car.mp3 4.39 MB
    06 – More Than She Knows.mp3 2.04 MB
    07 – Two Princes.mp3 3.96 MB
    08 – Off My Line.mp3 3.68 MB
    09 – How Could You Want Him (When You Know You Could Have Me-).mp3 4.6 MB
    10 – Shinbone Alley – Hard To Exist.mp3 11.67 MB
    11 – Yo Mamas A Pajama.mp3 3.74 MB
    12 – Sweet Widow.mp3 10.68 MB
    13 – Stepped On A Crack.mp3 3.73 MB
    Turn it upside down
    01 – Big Fat Funky Booty.mp3 3.92 MB
    02 – You Let Your Heart Go Too Fast.mp3 3.52 MB
    03 – Cleopatra’s Cat.mp3 3.76 MB
    04 – Hungry Hamed’s.mp3 4.78 MB
    05 – Biscuit Head.mp3 3.98 MB
    06 – Indifference.mp3 4.05 MB
    07 – Bags Of Dirt.mp3 4.42 MB
    08 – Mary Jane.mp3 3.41 MB
    09 – More Than Meets The Ear.mp3 3.61 MB
    10 – Laraby’s Gang.mp3 3.37 MB
    11 – At This Hour.mp3 3.59 MB
    12 – Someday All This Will Be Road.mp3 4.33 MB
    13 – Beasts In The Woods.mp3 4.22 MB
    You’ve Got to Believe in Something
    01 – You’ve got to believe in something.mp3 3.72 MB
    02 – House.mp3 3.58 MB
    03 – Dogs on a doe.mp3 4.78 MB
    04 – I can’t believe you’re still with her.mp3 3.44 MB
    05 – She used to be mine.mp3 3.32 MB
    06 – She’s not you.mp3 4.71 MB
    07 – To make me blue.mp3 3.27 MB
    08 – ‘Bout a train.mp3 4.99 MB
    09 – Where angels fear to tread.mp3 3.72 MB
    10 – If wishes were horses.mp3 4.13 MB
    11 – Sister Sisyphus.mp3 3.78 MB
    12 – That’s The Way I Like It (Hidden).mp3 7.34 MB
    01 – Here Comes The Bride.mp3 2.97 MB
    02 – Vampires In The Sun.mp3 2.73 MB
    03 – Waiting For The Blow.mp3 3.01 MB
    04 – The Man.mp3 3.54 MB
    05 – Gone Mad.mp3 3.98 MB
    06 – Wow.mp3 3.9 MB
    07 – Siren Dress.mp3 3 MB
    08 – Gorilla Boy.mp3 2.95 MB
    09 – Key To The Kingdom.mp3 3.76 MB
    10 – Fisherman’s Delight.mp3 3.87 MB
    11 – The Bigger I Laugh, The Harder I Cry.mp3 3.17 MB
    12 – Dodging Assassins.mp3 2.94 MB
    13 – Diamond.mp3 3.49 MB
    14 – Tomorrow Can Pay The Rent.mp3 10.12 MB


    http://kickass.to/spin-doctors-just-go-ahead-now-a-retrospective-t1106387.html

    SPIN DOCTOR S – Just Go Ahead Now – A Retrospective
    magnet:?xt=urn:btih:34371099decd8e63b8eeca683852440de6a9c1a5&dn=spin+doctors+just+go+ahead+now+a+retrospective&tr=http%3A%2F%2Ftracker.openbittorrent.com%2Fannounce&tr=udp%3A%2F%2Fopen.demonii.com%3A1337

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    100.73 MB, 18 files, 6 years (Mar 5, 2008), 10 seeders, 1 leechers

    SPIN DOCTORS – Just Go Ahead Now – A Retrospective (Size: 100.73 MB)
    Just Go Ahead Now – A Retrospective
    01-Jimmy Olsen’s Blues.mp3 6.34 MB
    02-Little Miss Can’t Be Wrong.mp3 5.47 MB
    03-What Time Is It_.mp3 6.93 MB
    04-How Could You Want Him (When You Know You Can Have Me).mp3 7.02 MB
    05-Two Princes.mp3 6.3 MB
    06-Cleopatra’s Cat.mp3 5.39 MB
    07-You Let Your Heart Go Too Fast.mp3 5.13 MB
    08-Indifference.mp3 5.4 MB
    09-Big Fat Funky Booty.mp3 5.68 MB
    10-Hungry Hamed’s.mp3 6.91 MB
    11-House.mp3 5.66 MB
    12-I Can’t Believe You’re Still with Her.mp3 5.4 MB
    13-If Wishes Were Horses.mp3 5.85 MB
    14-She Used to Be Mine.mp3 4.93 MB
    15-Miss America.mp3 4.91 MB
    16-You’ve Got to Believe in Something.mp3 5.58 MB
    17-Refrigerator Car [Live].mp3 7.79 MB
    c o v e r.jpg 48.55 KB

    SPIN DOCTORS — Just Go Ahead Now: A Retrospective ( Greatest Hits )
    01 Jimmy Olsen’s Blues (4:39)
    02 Little Miss Can’t Be Wrong (3:54)
    03 What Time Is It? (4:50)
    04 How Could You Want Him (When You Know You Can Have Me) (5:00)
    05 Two Princes (4:17)
    06 Cleopatra’s Cat (4:06)
    07 You Let Your Heart Go Too Fast (3:50)
    08 Indifference (4:23)
    09 Big Fat Funky Booty (4:16)
    10 Hungry Hamed’s (5:13)
    11 House (3:54)
    12 I Can’t Believe You’re Still with Her (3:45)
    13 If Wishes Were Horses (4:30)
    14 She Used to Be Mine (3:35)
    15 Miss America (3:34)
    16 You’ve Got to Believe in Something (4:02)
    17 Refrigerator Car [Live] (5:35)


    http://kickass.to/spin-doctors-if-the-river-was-whiskey-2013-nltoppers-t7227458.html

    Spin Doctor s-If The River Was Whiskey (2013) NLToppers
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    100.98 MB, 21 files, 11 months (Mar 22, 2013), 39 seeders, 11 leechers

    Spin Doctors-If The River Was Whiskey (2013) NLToppers (Size: 100.98 MB)
    01 Some Other Man Instead.mp3 10.53 MB
    02 If The River Was Whiskey.mp3 7.53 MB
    03 Sweetest Portion.mp3 9.25 MB
    04 Traction Blues.mp3 8.49 MB
    05 Scotch And Water Blues.mp3 12.08 MB
    06 About A Train.mp3 14.31 MB
    07 The Drop.mp3 10.7 MB
    08 Ben’s Looking Out The Window Blues.mp3 7.24 MB
    09 So Bad.mp3 13.61 MB
    10 What My Love.mp3 5.82 MB
    inside.jpg 421.32 KB
    outside.jpg 411.46 KB
    cd tekst.txt 459 bytes
    Het NLtoppers Team..pdf 353.33 KB
    lime.txt 50 bytes
    NLtoppers.txt 696 bytes
    NLtopperszoektVertalersenReleasers.jpg 145.97 KB
    NLtopperszoektVertalersReleasers.jpg 42.18 KB
    ore sabre.jpg 54.91 KB
    Wij zijn op zoek naar jou!.txt 927 bytes
    wiskey.jpg 33.65 KB


    wag the dog

    the questions are:
    1. does the tail wag the dog?, or
    2. does the dog wag its tail?

    similar questions are:
    which one walk first, the head of the tail?


    http://www.urbandictionary.com/define.php?term=wag+the+dog

    wag the dog

    by Anomie March 18, 2006
    When something of secondary importance improperly takes on the role of something of primary importance. The expression pre-dates the movie by the same name, and was NOT coined by said movie.
    Concentrate on the dog wagging his tail, not on that the tail might wag the dog.

    by Crack-boy November 04, 2007
    To cause a desired result by means other than the obvious or rational method. Imagine you want a dog to wag it’s tail. You should make the dog happy, and the tail will wag. If you can’t or won’t make the dog happy, you can get the tail to wag by “wagging the dog”.
    When the college saw that black students were failing Calculus at a disproportionately high rate to their enrollment, they decided to wag the dog by making the tests less difficult.

    by seanonyms August 20, 2013
    to cause a persuasive movement in any large body of influence, i.e., a mass of people, through means by which a lesser influence is utilized.
    From the phrase, ‘It’s the tail that wags the dog.’ This can be seen when a dog begins to wag it’s tail, and it’s body then follows.
    in partisan politics, an unpopular party will wag the dog using a variety of provocative political manoeverings and machinations to undermine the public favour from the popular party, out of which a momentum can be borne.

    by PeaTearGriffin October 29, 2005
    To start a war or military operation to divert negative politcal attention away from yourself. Based on the movie of the same name, where the President fabricates a fake war to take political pressure away from a scandal.
    When Cater ordered Operation Eagle Claw he was playing wag the dog, because he was a very unpopular and weak President and wanted to seem like he handled it strongly.
    It is suggested that Clinton wagged the dog by helping NATO bomb Kosovo at the same time as the Lewinski scandal. This theory came about because the film had just been released.

    by wankadankadoo September 13, 2013
    What you do when your reality sucks
    A: Hey let’s go to a movie tonight
    B: I’m feeling Meh. I think I’ll just stay home and wag the dog instead
    A: But you do that every night. There’s no hope for you. Why do I even bother?


    http://www.usingenglish.com/reference/idioms/wag+the+dog.html

    Idiom: Wag the dog
    by: Joel de la Cruz

    To ‘wag the dog’ means to purposely divert attention from what would otherwise be of greater importance, to something else of lesser significance. By doing so, the lesser-significant event is catapulted into the limelight, drowning proper attention to what was originally the more important issue.


    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wag_the_Dog

    Wag the Dog (1997)
    14 March 2014 19:22

    Wag the Dog is a 1997 black comedy film produced and directed by Barry Levinson. The screenplay by Hilary Henkin and David Mamet was loosely adapted from Larry Beinhart’s novel American Hero. The film stars Dustin Hoffman and Robert De Niro, with Anne Heche, Denis Leary, and William H. Macy in supporting roles.

    Just days before a presidential election, a Washington, D.C. spin doctor (De Niro) distracts the electorate from a sex scandal by hiring a Hollywood film producer (Hoffman) to construct a fake war with Albania.

    The film was released just prior to the Lewinsky scandal and the subsequent bombing of the Al-Shifa pharmaceutical factory in Sudan by the Clinton Administration.


    Directed by Barry Levinson
    Produced by Barry Levinson & Robert De Niro
    Screenplay by Hilary Henkin & David Mamet
    Based on American Hero (novel) by Larry Beinhart
    Starring Dustin Hoffman, Robert De Niro
    Music by Mark Knopfler
    Cinematography Robert Richardson
    Editing by Stu Linder
    Distributed by New Line Cinema
    Release dates December 17, 1997 (1997-12-17) (US)
    Running time 97 minutes
    Country United States
    Language English
    Budget $15 million[1]
    Box office $64,256,513



    Plot

    The President of the United States is caught making advances on an underage “Firefly Girl” less than two weeks before Election Day. Conrad Brean (De Niro), a top-notch spin doctor, is brought in to take the public’s attention away from the scandal. He decides to construct a fake war with Albania, hoping the media will concentrate on this instead. In order to come up with his “war,” he contacts Hollywood producer Stanley Motss (Hoffman), who brings in a series of specialists to construct a theme song, build up interest, and fake film footage of an orphan in Albania.

    The plan’s setbacks, including an error in seizing a criminally insane Army prison convict (Harrelson) to be a “hero” who was “shot down behind enemy lines,” do not disturb Motss, who repeatedly claims “this is nothing” while comparing the situation to past movie-making catastrophes he averted.

    In the end, with the president re-elected, everything seems fine until Motss finds out that the media are crediting the president’s win to a tired campaign slogan of “Don’t change horses in mid-stream” rather than Motss’s hard work. Motss announces that he only did this for “the credit” and will call the media to “set them straight,” despite Brean’s warning that he is “playing with his life.” Motss refuses to back down, so Brean reluctantly has him killed and makes it look as if he had a heart attack. A news report about a violent incident in Albania is shown, but it is ambiguous whether this is a true event or simply a continuation of the fictional war.


    Cast

    * Dustin Hoffman as Stanley Motss
    * Robert De Niro as Conrad Brean
    * Anne Heche as Winifred Ames
    * Denis Leary as Fad King
    * Willie Nelson as Johnny Dean
    * Andrea Martin as Liz Butsky
    * Kirsten Dunst as Tracy Lime
    * William H. Macy as CIA Agent Charles Young
    * John Michael Higgins as John Levy
    * Suzie Plakson as Grace
    * Woody Harrelson as Sgt. William “the Old Shoe” Schumann
    * Michael Belson as the President
    * Suzanne Cryer as Amy Cain
    * Jason Cottle as A.D.
    * David Koechner as the director
    * Craig T. Nelson as Senator John Neal (uncredited)


    Motss and Evans

    Hoffman’s character is said to have been based directly upon famed producer Robert Evans. Similarities have been noted between the character and Evans’ work habits, mannerisms, quirks, clothing style, hairstyle, and large, square-framed eyeglasses; in fact, the real Evans is said to have joked, “I’m magnificent in this film.” Hoffman has never discussed any inspiration Evans may have provided for the role, and claims on the commentary track for the film’s DVD release that much of Motss’ characterization was based on Hoffman’s father, Harry Hoffman, a former prop manager for Columbia Pictures.

    Writing credits

    The award of writing credits on the film became controversial at the time, due to objections by Barry Levinson. After Levinson became attached as director, David Mamet was hired to rewrite Hilary Henkin’s screenplay, which was loosely adapted from Larry Beinhart’s novel American Hero.

    Given the close relationship between Levinson and Mamet, New Line Cinema asked that Mamet be given sole credit for the screenplay. However, the Writers Guild of America intervened on Henkin’s behalf to assure that Henkin received first-position shared screenplay credit, finding that-as the original screenwriter-Henkin had created the screenplay’s structure as well as much of the screen story and dialogue.

    Levinson thereafter threatened to (but did not) quit the Guild, claiming that Mamet had written all of the dialogue as well as creating the characters of Motss and Schumann, and had originated most of the scenes set in Hollywood and all of the scenes set in Nashville. Levinson attributed the numerous similarities between Henkin’s original version and the eventual shooting script to Henkin and Mamet working from the same novel, but the WGA disagreed in its credit arbitration ruling.


    Awards and honors

    The film was nominated for two Academy Awards: Dustin Hoffman for the Academy Award for Best Actor, and Hilary Henkin and David Mamet for Best Adapted Screenplay. The film was also entered into the 48th Berlin International Film Festival, where it won the Silver Bear – Special Jury Prize.


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    Movie: Wag the Dog
    IMDB link: 0120885 http://anonym.to/?http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0120885/
    Detected quality: DVDRip
    IMDB rating: 7.1 (39,794 votes)
    Genres: Drama, Comedy
    Release date: 17 December 1997
    Language: English

    Cast:
    Robert De Niro, Anne Heche, Dustin Hoffman, Kirsten Dunst, Woody Harrelson, William H. Macy, James Belushi, Denis Leary, Giselle Fernandez, Jay Leno and others

    Wag The Dog 1997 DVDRip XviD AR (Size: 700.63 MB)
    Wag.The.Dog.1997.DVDRip.XviD.AR-ENG.srt 137.4 KB
    Wag.The.Dog.1997.DVDRip.XviD.AR-ESP.srt 130.1 KB
    Wag.The.Dog.1997.DVDRip.XviD.AR-PT-BR.srt 134.73 KB
    Wag.The.Dog.1997.DVDRip.XviD.AR.avi 700.23 MB


     
  • Virtual Chitchatting 3:24 PM on 2014/03/15 Permalink  

    I was the tiger she wanted to tame 

    Caribbean Queen
    Billy Ocean

    She dashed by me in painted on jeans
    And all heads turned ’cause she was the dream
    In the blink of an eye I knew her number and her name yeah
    Ah she said I was the tiger she wanted to tame

    CHORUS
    Caribbean queen
    Now we’re sharing the same dream
    And our hearts they beat as one
    No more love on the run

    I lose my cool when she steps in the room
    And I get so excited just from her perfume
    Electric eyes that you can’t ignore
    And passion burns you like never before

    I was in search of a good time
    Just running my game
    Love was the furthest
    Furthest from my mind

    REPEAT CHORUS THREE TIMES

    CIX Lyric Service
    Uploader:CIXLyricsRobot


    Caribbean Queen (No More Love On The Run) – YouTube

    18 Jan 2013 – 4 min – Uploaded by BillyOceanVEVO
    ► 3:41


    Billy Ocean – Caribbean Queen – YouTube

    23 Nov 2012 – 4 min – Uploaded by Fafner Norman
    ► 4:07


     
  • Virtual Chitchatting 7:16 AM on 2014/03/14 Permalink  

    I Don`t Want To 

    Toni Braxton – I Don’t Want To – YouTube

    25 Oct 2009 – 4 min – Uploaded by ToniBraxtonVEVO
    ► 4:18


    I Don`t Want To
    Toni Braxton

    I really don’t feel like talking on the phone
    And I really don’t feel like company at home
    Lately I don’t want to do the things I used to do
    Baby since I lost you

    And I don’t want to sing another love song babe
    I don’t want to hum another melody
    I dont’ want to live my life without you babe yeah
    It’s driving me crazy (crazy)

    I really don’t feel like smiling anymore
    And I haven’t had the peace to sleep at all
    Ever since you went away, baby my whole life has changed
    I don’t want to love and I don’t want to live

    And I don’t want to sing another love song babe
    I don’t want to hum another melody
    I dont’ want to live my life without you babe yeah
    It’s driving me crazy (crazy)

    I don’t wanna laugh, I don’t wanna play
    I don’t wanna talk, I don’t have nothing to say
    I don’t want to tour, forget the show how can I go on
    Now that you’re gone

    And I don’t want to sing another love song babe
    I don’t want to hum another melody
    I dont’ want to live my life without you babe yeah
    It’s driving me crazy (crazy)

    CIX Lyric Service
    Uploader:CIXLyricsRobot

     
  • Virtual Chitchatting 9:23 AM on 2014/03/08 Permalink  

    How to recharge and ‘turn on’ your Nokia Lumia 920 embedded with Windows Phone 8
    by Sando Sasako
    Jakarta, 2014-03-08 09:23:38

    It is not to say Lumia 920 is in bed with Windows Phone 8. ;p

    How to conserve the energy/power of your Lumia 920:
    1. Disable NFC. Navigate to System->Settings->Tap+Send and there we finally see it described as “NFC Sharing.” Simply turn this feature off and you will have disabled NFC on your 920.

    2. Set Nokia Drive app to turn-off or run in the background. turn off this app’s ability to run in the background by going into Settings, swipe over to the Applications option, then select “background tasks.” Here you can “block” this app’s ability to run in the background.

    3. Set HERE City Lens app to turn-off or run in the background.


    If your Lumia 920 won’t charge, start up, and boot up, then make a booty call. ;p
    Here are the stepping stones to solve your irritating and annoying problem provided by Microsoft in Lumia 920:

    1. Make sure that you recharge your Lumia 920 from the charger (the mains), not from your PC, or it will take even longer. The charger itself should be equipped with a chip that can read Windows operating system within your smartphone. Common chargers, even old and late Nokia original chargers, take longers to recharge Lumia 920. For some time, I had been using Windows Mobile 5 embedded in iPaq 6818, a Hewlett-Packard smartphone. Lots of apps, useful ones. That was fun. Until it broke.

    2. Make sure that the phone is being charged (with murders ;P). Force a device reset by holding the power and volume down buttons, until it vibrates.

    3. Make sure that the phone is being charged (with murders ;P). Force the phone to reset by holding volume down, power, camera buttons, until the phone vibrates.

    4. Make sure that the phone is being charged (with murders ;P). Force the phone to reset by holding volume down, power, camera buttons, until the phone vibrates. Then release the power button but keep the volume and camera keys pressed down for another 5 seconds.

    5. Download and install Nokia Softvware Updater v4.1.0 to solve this annoying problem. 104 MB. http://nds2.fds-fire.nokia.com/fds_fire/1310/0909/7297834135/NokiaSoftwareUpdaterForRetail_4.1.0.exe

    6. Make sure the phone is being charged with a low powered USB port (laptop port with the battery installed and running with main electricals). Run Nokia Softvware Updater v4.1.0 on on 7, 8 (and should be with 8.1). Many drivers get installed during the setup of Nokia Software Updater, make sure you don’t stop them from doing so. The following screen pops up, and click on My device doesn’t boot up

    When the “waiting for device connection” screen comes up, press and hold both the “power” button and the “volume down” button until the phone vibrates and your pc detects a new hardware, the installer will take over and will prompt you to install a hefty 1.2gb worth of firmware, after which it’ll flash the firmware and you’ll get your Lumia back to life.

    7. Update your fimware AT YOUR OWN RISK.

    8. Use an original USB cable, if you’re flashing, use the motherboard’s USB port and not the port embedded in the case, DO NOT use an extension cord too. The actual flashing process is not related to the firmware download so don’t be afraid if your phone got disconnected then, but once your phone reboot please for god’s sake do not remove it or touch it until its done. If all of the above didn’t work just change the PC you’re using to do this.

    http://mynokiablog.com/2013/10/11/how-to-easily-fix-the-lumia-reset-spinning-cogs-at-home/


    http://www.wafflesatnoon.com/2012/11/16/solved-nokia-lumia-920-battery-problems/

    Solved: Nokia Lumia 920 Battery Problems
    waffles, November 16, 2012

    I have thoroughly enjoyed my Nokia Lumia 920 since picking it up the day it was released. The first few days I used it so much that I didn’t think much when the battery died quickly. I chalked it up to over-use on my part. But after nearly a week and reduced usage, I started to realize that the battery was dying far too quickly, forcing me to charge it three times a day. I was surprised to find out that the solution to this problem took seconds to implement.

    The first sign of battery issues came the second night I had my 920. I set up my alarms for the next morning, but they didn’t go off. Why? The phone had died overnight. I thought that was odd since obviously I hadn’t been using the phone while I slept. The next sign I saw was that my Lumia 920 was getting very warm – far warmer than any phone I had owned previously – and while doing rather mundane tasks such as taking pictures. It would get warm on one half of the phone, between the camera lens and the edge of the phone. After doing some digging, I’ve found that there are two culprits which have been identified as the reason for the Lumia 920?s battery issues, both of which you can turn off without losing any functionality.

    Fix #1: Disable NFC
    Near Field Communication (NFC) is a relatively new technology in which cell phones can exchange information by tapping them together or placing them in close proximity. It’s not a feature I have ever used, nor has anyone I’ve asked about it. This particular feature in the Lumia 920 is a likely culprit for constant battery drain. Several forums and articles written prior to this one have also stated this. The problem I had with those forums was that I kept reading about people turning off NFC, but no one said how they did it – and it took me a while to figure out where to find it.

    How to turn off NFC on a Nokia Lumia 920
    You won’t find an “NFC” option on the 920. This feature is called “tap+send” in the system settings. So navigate to System->Settings->Tap+Send and there we finally see it described as “NFC Sharing.” Simply turn this feature off and you will have disabled NFC on your 920.

    Fix #2: Nokia Drive
    Another culprit in the extensive battery drainage for the Lumia 920 has been identified as the “Nokia Drive+ Beta” running in the background. Nokia Drive is the offline GPS system, which is a great feature, but certainly not something most users will run extensively. You can turn off this app’s ability to run in the background by going into Settings, swipe over to the Applications option, then select “background tasks.” Here you can “block” this app’s ability to run in the background.

    If you perform the two steps above, I’m confident that your Lumia 920?s battery will last significantly longer than before. I have seen a vast increase in battery life since implementing the NFC and Drive fixes.

    Have you found other issues or solutions for the Lumia 920?s battery life? Share your experiences in the comments below.

    11/24/2012 Update:
    There have been a couple of isolated events where my battery seemed to drain quickly and the handset became warm, even after implementing the steps above. In those cases, I restarted the phone and the issue appears to be resolved. I am assuming something was running in the background, such as a web browser.

    12/21/2012 Update
    There was an update to the Nokia Drive app this week. They claimed that one of the changes was “Battery Saver” which would prevent the app from running in the background. This setting defaults to “ON.”

    1/30/2013 Update
    It has been reported by some that the battery life for the Lumia 920 will increase after about 10 charging cycles. After nearly 3 months of use, I can confirm that the 920 has quite acceptable battery life. It could be due to the fixes above or going through many cycle charges.

    7/29/2013 Update
    A recent update to “HERE City Lens” appears to have created a battery-draining issue again. After updating the app, it was no longer blocked from background tasks. Follow Fix #2 above and block this app from running in the background to prevent it from draining your battery.


    Tony Harris // November 29, 2012 at 10:43 am //
    I really liked the Lumia 920 but the random battery drain (I tried disabling NFC, Bluetooth, Location, Nokia Drive, background tasks, etc. etc.) but came to the conclusion that the OS itself is letting something max the CPU because even going into airplane mode I would see fast battery drain. The only thing that helped, for awhile, was rebooting the phone. In addition, this phone has major issues interfacing with car Bluetooth systems – especially for audio and it completely froze several times while connected to 2 different car audio/phone systems. I solved my battery and glitch issues by returning the 920 in exchange for an iPhone 5 and I did give it the “college try” because I really liked the Windows GUI, active tiles, and the 920 itself.


    http://discussions.nokia.com/t5/Nokia-Lumia/Nokia-Lumia-920-won-t-turn-on/td-p/1766538

    Nokia Lumia 920 won’t turn on
    EnviroGuy, 21-02-2013 12:34

    Last night I put my phone into airplane mode and then plugged it in to charge, something do each evening before heading to bed.

    A few minutes after I did that I went to check the time on the phone and I noticed it wasn’t turned on. I ended up leaving it to charge all night hoping the alarm clock would wake the phone in the morning.

    The next day the phone still won’t start, It does nothing when I hold down the power button. I’ve also tried holding Volume Down + Power button, the phone is unresponsive.

    In the past I would just unplug the battery and plug it back in to resolve this issue. However, since this is a 920 I am unable to do so.

    Advice please?

    Thanks!


    farby, 21-02-2013 12:38
    Press Power + Volume(down) + Camera keys until the phone vibrates Then release the power button but keep the volume and camera keys pressed down for another 5 seconds.
    See if this works …

    jajai, 11-03-2013 19:57
    hi guys,,im having this issue like every day.but now,i think i’ve figured out the main culprit. i’ve uninstalled all “HERE” apps including here drive, here city lens and here maps.and now this problem yet to happen again (this is 3rd day of my experiment and my phone wont need any soft reset yet)

    hfjghdghfhkf, 20-03-2013 16:51
    My Nokia LM 920 when battery empty. than i chaging but won’t turn on, i try to hard reset but still won’t turn on, it’s spend time about 40 minutes or 1 hour it’s turn on by it’s self. i wonder why ? if my battery empty i have to waiting for 40 minute? i just bought my phone for a few month, how should i do?
    Thank you
    Chanpheng

    farby, 21-03-2013 5:21
    Empty means till it dies down.. keep on charge once it reaches 5-7% balance level ..If you don’t then the phone will shut down and depending upon the length of time between the phone switching OFF and it being again connected to charger it will take that much longer time to reach sufficient power to turn on and work.
    If you immediately connect the charger when the phone switches OFF due to drained battery it will not take 40 minutes but just about 4-5 minutes ..

    musica, 19-04-2013 11:59
    Have you charged your phone again? You should leave it charging for a minimum of 1 hour or 2 hours on the wireless charger.
    You can also try to hold the power and down volume key for 10 seconds. The phone should vibrate and start up. If this wouldn’t help, try to remove the SIM card and then try the reset again.
    You can try to perform again the other resets you’ve done before too. Give them a shot or two. Make sure that you are doing it right.
    If above would fail, the best thing to do is to bring it to a Nokia Care Point for inspection: http://www.nokia.com/global/support/locations/

    qiangchen, 06-06-2013 6:26
    This happened to me twice in the last few weeks. Held down the power + volumn down buttons for about 20 seconds woke up the Lumia 920 both times. I normally turn off bluetooth but turned it on the use ‘Tap and Send’ to transfer photos to another Lumia. Both times when I did that, the phone stopped responding a few minutes after the transfer. Other than that, the phone is great. Will stop using ‘Tap and Send’ again until this issue is resolved.

    farby, 04-07-2013 16:16
    if the Lumia 920 keeps going off by itself.
    Try with another New SIM. If the SIM is worn out or badly cut (from regular SIM to Micro SIM) this may happen …

    areid, 08-07-2013 17:11
    Hello!
    Yesterday I reset my lumia 920, I have done this once before without any problems, however this time it has decided to not charge up properly or turn on.
    The screen shows 2 cogs turning, which is does endlessly, I left it for a few hours to see if it would eventually work, however the phone was getting too heated so I unplugged it from the charger.
    Alternatively I tried the LOW VOLUME + POWER + CAMERA – this only resulted in a false sense of hope, the nokia screen appeared, then a white line briefly showed for half a second at the bottom of the screen, then the low battery symbol appeared.
    I did reset the phone on low battery and it has been an exceptionally hot day, I left it in the car which may have heated it up… however the phone had time to cool down before I tried any of this.
    What can I do to fix it? I refuse to accept it being broken – my previous phones survived water damage, cracked screens etc… I love this phone too much to let it go…. and it is ridiculously expensive to buy again… NOOOOO.
    HELP x

    MoiFou, 10-07-2013 8:09
    This “won’t turn on” thing just happened to me. My phone is 2 days old. It’s my second Nokia Lumia 920. The first one wouldn’t charge, but thought it was charging even when it wasn’t plugged in. But I digress.
    My battery life was fine when my phone wouldn’t turn on. The screen did freeze immediately before refusing to turn on.
    Out of curiosity, did any of you try to sync with your PC using the “Windows Phone app for PC” while your phone was refusing to turn on? I did, and my computer sensed that my phone was plugged in and working, but complained that I needed to unlock it. Of course, without the display turning on, I couldn’t unlock it.
    I wonder if what’s happening is NOT that the phone won’t turn on, but that the display won’t start. If any of you get the problem again, I’d be curious to know if your PC thinks the phone is working.
    Thanks for the soft reset tip!

    surtr9, 13-07-2013 5:37
    OP @EnviroGuy @Mike621 @qiangchen @MoiFou Yup, absolutely the same problem. Lumia920.

    • problem occurs during overnight charge: I wake up to find that the screen won’t turn on and won’t respond to buttons.
    • computer senses it normally when it’s plugged in (suggest a screen thing)
    • the soft reset (POWER + VOL DOWN extended press) works
    • it doesn’t occur when I’m using the laptop to charge it using the always-on USB port, but it DOES occur when I’ve used either of my two Nokia approved USB chargers.
    • I don’t know if this is related: lately the antenna has been going funny and the signal just drops out for no clear reason, whereas before it had the strongest signal out of all of my friends’ handsets.

    I might have to go about deleting apps and seeing if that helps… not keen on deleting the Maps app as I use it quite a bit. Might also change my screen settings.

    surtr9, 14-07-2013 4:51
    Hi guys,

    • the volume button was also going crazy – refusing to let me increase the volume and just automatically decreasing it to zero. I don’t think it was dust (because I used the vacuum cleaner and brushes to gently suck any particles out). Think this was maybe related to the problem.
    • but now it’s FIXED. I went on an app deletion rampage, including Here Transit, Authenticator and a whole bunch of apps I don’t use. Then soft reset – got a bit worried because it rebooted, then immediately rebooted again, but has been normal since then. Let me know if you are really attached to any apps and I can tell you if I still have them.

    HT


    http://answers.microsoft.com/en-us/winphone/forum/wp8-wpstart/fully-drained-battery-on-lumia-920-unable-to-boot/f00874cd-9d46-468e-bb93-441611b80ca3

    Fully Drained Battery on Lumia 920 – Unable to Boot Up
    Lumia 920 User, April 2, 2013

    I just bought a Lumia 920 about a week ago. When the battery was fully drained and shutdown on it’s own, it won’t boot up even when connected to a charger. It will only boot up when a soft reset is done (hold volume + power). On another occasion (also after battery fully drained off and it shut itself down), i waited for almost 2 hour for it to charge before it finally boot up on it’s own without soft reset.
    Have anyone have had this issue or is this just the normal behavior of Lumia 920?

    I already send the phone to Nokia Care and they changed the battery, but I am still seeing the same issue.

    When you shut down the phone manually (with battery left) and plug it into a charger, it will boot up normally. Any feedback will be appreciated.

    MandyShaw, April 2, 2013
    This is, frustratingly, absolutely normal behaviour for all Windows Phones (it is the feature of the OS that winds me up the most – I just can’t see why it has to be like this, no other smartphone I’ve ever had involved a delay after you plugged it in).
    Make sure that under such circumstances you charge from the mains, not from your PC, or it will take even longer. I’ve known it take up to an hour.
    Leaving it to rest for a while after it powers itself off does reduce the time it takes to wake up.
    As Phil says,just leave the ‘phone alone until it switches itself on – it doesn’t help to fiddle with it.
    I find the free Battery Tile app very useful.
    Nokia Lumia 920, EE UK, & HTC 8X, AT&T: 8.0.10211.204
    Samsung Omnia 7, T-Mobile UK: 7.10.7740.16

    AshishThomas, June 2, 2013
    Hi I am having EXACTLY the same issue and am not sure whether it is a windows so issue or a Nokia issue. The jerks at Nokia customer care half the time don’t understand the problem and their standard response is come over and we will change the battery for you. There doesn’t seem to be a fix for this either. I guess next time I just won’t recommend letting the battery drain out. I have been waiting now for 4 hrs and no progress.

    Lumia 920 User, June 3, 2013
    Hi
    I understand exactly your frustration. Don’t waste time sending your phone to Nokia Care, I sent mine and they changed the battery without even knowing what’s wrong with the device, and I am still having the same issue today. So, it seems that it is an OS issue from Microsoft. In the process of replacing the battery, they scratched my lcd screen, and tried to return it to me. I lodge a complaint, and then finally replaced it.
    I have learn to live with it (the boot up issue), but it just baffles you why they can’t behave like any other phone, boot up when plugged into a charger. It makes you wonder how Microsoft would ever win in their fight against Android / IOS with all this issue unresolved, not to mentioned Microsoft unresponsiveness to consumer complaints.
    WP8 has another major flaw. It has a bug that misreport the presence of a SD card (when it doesn’t even have one like the Lumia 920). Worse of all, it also doesn’t support sd card encryption for devices that has sd card. Therefore, WP8 phone will fail to sync with enterprise email which would require sd card encryption as part of BYOD mobile security policy. I know I am off topic, but the more you get to know WP8, the more you realize jumping to WP8 is a wrong choice, at least for me.
    And if anyone from Microsoft is reading this, please tell Steve Ballmer this…WP8 sucks!!!

    It was not Steve Ballmer, but Steve Lamer

    Delboy_Scottie, July 9, 2013
    Have just hit this forum with my ‘dead’ Nokia 720. Spent 2 hours testing Drive+ Beta without using car charger CR-200 because I am not sure I want to spend any more money if it fails my usability or confidence tests. I turned it off when I arrived back home then 30 mins later, guess what, it won’t turn on! So on the charger and after 1 hour it has still not ‘fired’ up. Now what sort of ‘bunch of clowns’ designed this software & hardware combination? OS won’t allow boot up with ‘flat’ battery even when on charger & hardware designed with NON-replaceable battery! If Microsoft and Nokia are trying to drive themselves or the other party into liquidation then they will succeed as a result of this spectacularly juvenile incompetence. Media profiles of both Nokia and Microsoft repeatedly inform us that they recruit vast quantities of the world cleverest university graduates. Just a shame they fail to employ any with any ‘common sense’ !!!!!

    Lumia 920 User, July 10, 2013
    Hello, i hope by now after charging it for a few hours, you are able to boot up. This is indeed silly, both from Microsoft and Nokia. I am more inclined to say this is Microsoft issue more than Nokia. Imagine an emergency situation, where you you finally able to find a source to charge up your phone, and guess what, it ain’t happening until 2 hours later before you can use it.
    I can’t offer much advice other than get as much charger as you can (car, living room, bedroom) and etc. Trust me, you need to keep them constantly plugged in for power. My Lumia 920 is sucking its power dry within few hours of use. I have tried every tricks there is to save battery (disable background task running on apps, turn off wifi/bluetooth, go with 2G and etc..), none have had the effect i wished for. If you are able to return it, pls do so. Not worth the frustration using it. I can’t, and i am stuck with a lemon. My fault, for believing in Microsoft.
    Microsoft, if you are seeing this…serve you right after 8 months of WP8 release, you get 3.2% of market share. Your effort, or lack of it, will surely bring your OS to the graveyard sooner. You think you got Blackberry beaten for the 3rd spot? Think again. There won’t be a # 3 once Android/IOS eat up all the cake.
    Not sure what Stephen Elop was smoking when he signed the deal with Microsoft, but i guess Steve Ballmer gave him something strong.

    MansoorD, August 23, 2013
    Not sure if everyone is still having this problem or not, but you can force the phone back on when you plug it into the charger with a dead batter by holding volume down, power, camera until the phone vibrates.

    melagustin, September 4, 2013
    YES IT’S TRUE WP8 SUCKS. I AM HAVING THE SAME ISSUE WITH THIS **** BATTERY. GOT MINE ON EBAY UNLOCKED MADE IN VIETNAM AND NOKIA WON’T EVEN COVER THE WARRANTY. WORST IS THEY HAVE DEFINED THAT ITS THEIR PRODUCT CUZ THEY WERE ABLE TO FIND THE IMEI NUMBER ON THEIR RECORD. SINCE I TRAVEL A LOT COMING BACK AND FORTH TO ASIA NOKIA USA WON’T DO ANY HELP WITH MY LUMIA 920. NOKIA USA TOLD ME TO SEND IT NOKIA VIETNAM. WHAT AN **** COMPANY. SO IT MEANS ONLY THAT WHEN YOU ARE IN ANOTHER COUNTRY AND HAVE AN ISSUE WITH YOUR WP8 YOU ARE STOCK AND CAN’T GET ANY HELP. FINALLY, I JUZ DUMP THIS EXPENSIVE UNLOCKED NOKIA LUMIA 920 AND HAVE MY GRAND KID PLAY WITH IT AND I ENDED UP USING AGAIN MY IPHONE 4 WHICH ATT HAVE IT UNLOCKED AND I CAN USE IT ANYWHERE IN ASIA. IPHONE IS THE MOST RELIABLE OF ALL CELLULAR PHONE THAT I HAVE USED AND ALSO THEIR AFTER SALES SERVICE IS EXCELLENT. NOW MY FAMILY ENDED UP BUYING ONLY APPLE PRODUCTS. ALL OF US HAVE APPLE PRODUCT NOW. MY ADVISE TO ALL USER OF WP8 RETURN IT AND GET OUT OF THAT **** PHONE WHILE YOU CAN.

    HKai, September 7, 2013
    It is a joke Microsoft acquired Nokia Phone division. can’t wait for this division to be history. Used nokia for the past 15 years, and now we are all ios and android. Poor customer service from Nokia. VERY POOR

    Roman Hnatiuk, January 14, 2014
    Same here. Last time it took about an hour before 920 turned on from empty battery.
    Gosh, I hope those fu$#%rs, who “invented” this design, will once be in the situation when they will desperately need their phone, but it will take them an hour to get it on!
    Also, all Microsoft’s and Nokia’s executives shall use Windows Phones that are fully discharged in the morning, and then they need to charge them for an hour with wall-socket chargers (with a fuc$#ng 70cm long cable!!!) before they can be turned on!
    Well, dreams… dreams…
    PS It seems that 1520 boots immediately once plugged in. I think MS should just call back all 920s and either fix them or just replace with something better (car manufacturers would be forced to do it in similar circumstances).


    http://www.ask.com/answers/433021221/my-phone-won-t-charge

    My phone won’t charge.
    DylanForte, 6 months ago

    It is a Nokia Lumia 920.
    It won’t even be recognized as a device when I plug it into my laptop.
    It does not respond to buttons being pushed.
    It does not show the “it needs to be charged” picture of a battery and a the plug.
    Help?

    CarolMuMuu, 6 months ago
    Change your charging device, for instance, from wall socket t USB cable and charge via the computer. If this does not help, change the cables you have been using and use completely different ones to charge. Let it charge for a while before turning it on. Otherwise, consult the customer care for further assistance.

    Quester2011, 6 months ago | Last edited at 11:17AM on 9/27/2013
    Sounds like either the port or cord is bad. Try a different cord, then try a different port on the laptop. If it’s still not charging, the Nokia’s charging port is probably bad, and you should turn it in on warranty.

    Cowgirl2011, 6 months ago
    take it to where ever you got it from and tell them.


    http://winsource.com/forum/nokia-lumia-920/7567-how-i-fix-my-lumia920-battery-not-charge.html

    How I fix my Lumia920 battery not charge
    persona3, 09-11-2013, 04:31 AM #1

    I just got a Nokia Lumia 920 from a friend. It worked quite fine at first. But I wanted to remove everything off of the phone.

    So I did a factory reset on the phone. When I did it got stuck on the spinning wheels screen. So I did a soft reset on the phone, and it didn’t boot up. It keeps showing the battery with a low charge.

    And it won’t stay on if I don’t have it plugged in. I’ve let it charge overnight. Still no charge. I don’t think it is a dead battery…

    Then I try to plug it in and turned it on, and waited for it to reach the charging screen. Then, while it was still plugged in, I forced a device reset by holding the power and volume down buttons. The device successfully booted up, and indicated a proper charge reflecting the amount of time it had previously been plugged in.

    Fortunately, this reset does not mess with any apps or settings, so it was no hassle after this. Still, it’s unfortunate that the device has this problem in the first place. I’m not knowledgeable enough to know if it has to do with the wireless charging or the NFC like some others are saying though. All I know is my phone appears to be working fine now.

    One thing to note is it recently updated to 8.0.10211.204, Firmware 1232.5951.1249.1018 – Used the mains charger for 40 minutes pre implementing this “fix”. The device runs hot most of the time but came back gracefully. Typical Windows OS – REBOOT to resolve


    Duper, 11-05-2013, 03:50 PM #3
    Yep, I’ve had this problem twice but I have had my phone for about 10 months. A couple days ago I woke up and the phone wasn’t fully charged (even though I sleep with it on the charging pillow), since then I have been charging it and it never charges above 29%. I just read your post and did a soft reset and it booted back up at 90+%. Now, I am pretty sure this is how I fixed it the first time I had this problem over 6 months ago. Anyway, a minor issue once every 6 months is better than my battery being dead at 3pm everyday (like my iPhone 4s). I love this phone. I’ve had it for 10 months and it only gets better. Thanks for your post.


    http://forum.xda-developers.com/showthread.php?t=2454521

    Lumia 920 AT&T stuck on the gears spinning. Won’t boot
    deepal720, 22nd September 2013, 07:35 PM

    Hello everyone,
    I Just bought the AT&T Lumia 920 on ebay the battery was dead so I plug in charge for a while then I turn it on but it won’t boot and screen shows the two gears spinning. please help

    TheInterframe, 8th October 2013, 11:06 PM
    Leave it for a few hours and let it do it’s thing. If that doesn’t work then hold the Volume + button and the POWER button together, the phone should reboot, and gears should vanish. If none of these work, go to Nokia support and explain your problem, they wont bite
    REMEMBER I’M NOT RESPONSIBLE FOR ANY DAMAGE TO YOUR DEVICE OR DATA

    N!ghtgold , 10th October 2013, 05:47 AM
    press and hold both on the volume down button and power key for about 10 seconds.
    The phone should then reboot. When the nokia logo appears press the below sequence
    Volume up
    Volume down
    Power key
    Volume down
    Make sure that you try this while the phone is charged.
    When I did this… the gears continued to spin for about 5 minutes, but then the phone restarted and made it back to the “Welcome to your phone” screen. Success!

    greggerca, 11th October 2013, 05:29 PM
    This actually happened to me yesterday after AT&T released the GDR2 firmware update.
    The gears spun for about 2 hours before I finally did the Volume Down + Power reboot.
    Unfortunately, it didn’t ever recover – or so I thought.
    Giving it about 5-6 minutes after each reboot (and trying to Volume Up, Volume Down, Power, Volume Down sequence during reboot several times), about 2 more hours later, it suddenly started booting.
    However, I am now in an indeterminate Firmware state…
    I “have Amber” and some mess of Firmware. But I’m missing many major features of GDR2 (like the FM Radio, Glance works, but no Double Tap to Wake, no Data Sense).
    Nokia Pro Camera won’t work – says I need “to check for updates on my phone”…
    Anyhow, I’m now going to figure out if I can flatten the phone and get a successful flash if I can back up some of the personal data in it first.
    Yay for working phone!
    Weird for the firmware state it’s in…

    dxdy, 13th October 2013, 03:50 PM
    new Nokia Softvware Updater v4.1.0 is easy way to solve this problem

    http://mynokiablog.com/2013/10/11/how-to-easily-fix-the-lumia-reset-spinning-cogs-at-home/

    I spent half my money on computers, smartphones, alcohol and girls… The other half I wasted. (modern version of W.C. Fields quote)


    http://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20131010162731AAFxRsw

    Nokia Lumia 920 won’t turn on?
    Nomi, 5 months ago, last updated 1 week ago

    Hello
    So i got new lumia 920 & it won’t even turn on, when i plug in mobile for charging it just vibrate for a second. that’s it! i don’t get any response except 1 mini vibration from my lumia 920.

    Btw i did every thing that can fix this problem for example: soft reset, hard reset etc
    i don’t always ask questions in yahoo but when i do it’s impossible to answer.

    please help! & thanks for reading.

    Francis G, 5 months ago
    Do you know how many answers I wrote to this ALL rejected by “Legal”
    What is worse is there is a lot of laughter coming from that department.
    OK 1st thing 1st NOKIA phones occasionally if the % gets too low will CHARGE but the phone won’t register the charge (ie 4 hours is enough time for the 920 to be FULLY charged****
    You are NOT doing a soft reset if I had nits and was picking at them
    A SOFT RESET [SR] is a battery pull you physically remove the battery for the phone for say two minutes return it and turn the phone on
    That is the ONLY SR that works and if battery charge % is too low, 98.7654321% success
    The too low % is whatever it is
    As the 920 does NOT have a user replaceable battery you have to go to the Nokia centre for them to do it, and when done your phone may actually register a FULL charge
    You can go a year without it happening then that fluke it happens, a reason why many always buy phones with a replaceable battery
    If you charge at say 30% it never happens
    RE “i don’t always ask questions in yahoo but when i do it’s impossible to answer.”
    NO I guess you will be happy when your phone is fixed but next time give me material I can work with!
    Source: phone GSM

    ?, 1 week ago
    Press the 3 buttons the buttons in a sequence of 30 seconds bearing the camera button will be the last.The phone will switch itself on.


    http://www.mynokiablog.com/2013/10/11/how-to-easily-fix-the-lumia-reset-spinning-cogs-at-home/

    How to fix the Lumia reset spinning cogs at home
    Moody Caplan | October 11, 2013

    Nokia’s Lumia line is still plagued with the worst bug ever, if you ever want to reset your phone, NEVER and I mean never use the reset button in the setting.

    Mainly because If you do reset it chances are you’ll spend the next day or so waiting on a spinning cogs animation that may or may not reset your phone successfully.

    While in old days we could just flash the phone with Nokia Care Suite, now as Nokia closed its servers to our peeping eyes, our only option became to take the phone to Nokia Care Center!

    I’m glad to report that Nokia updated its “Nokia Software Updater for Retail to version 4.1.0? which added an option so direly missed: “My device does not boot up.” those of you Nokia veterans this basically dead phone flashing, this NSU is basically idiot proof.

    The process goes as follows, install the NSU for retail 4.1.0 or update it if you already have it. 104MB

    http://nds2.fds-fire.nokia.com/fds_fire/1310/0909/7297834135/NokiaSoftwareUpdaterForRetail_4.1.0.exe

    This only works on Windows 7 & 8.
    Run NSU and this screen pops up, click on My device doesn’t boot up

    Make sure your phone is charged; using a low powered USB port(PC/laptop port)
    (DO NOT USE WIRELESS CHARGING or the wall charger as both will heat up the phone to dangerous degrees as the spinning cogs already heat up the phone)

    Now that you have a fully charged phone stuck on animated cogs, Connect the phone and click continue
    (I know they say disconnect it, its okay connect it anyways)

    When the “waiting for device connection” screen comes up, press and hold both the “power” button and the “volume down” button until the phone vibrates and your pc detects a new hardware, the installer will take over and will prompt you to install a hefty 1.2gb worth of firmware, after which it’ll flash the firmware and you’ll get your Lumia back to life.

    Warning: This “MAY” void your warranty, the logic behind the voided warranty is up for debate; if your device loses connection during flashing like in case of a faulty cable, electricity outage or any other trouble you’ll brick your phone and thus Nokia can’t be held responsible for this.
    SO TRY AT YOUR OWN RISK.

    It didn’t work?

    Use an original USB cable, if you’re flashing via a desktop PC (which I don’t recommend) use the motherboard’s USB port and not the port embedded in the case, DO NOT use an extension cord too.
    Many drivers get installed during the setup of Nokia Software Updater, make sure you don’t stop them from doing so.
    The actual flashing process is not related to the firmware download so don’t be afraid if your phone got disconnected then, but once your phone reboot please for god’s sake do not remove it or touch it until its done.
    If all of the above didn’t work just change the PC you’re using to do this. Thanks for reading and I’m glad to answer any questions down bellow, but I have no idea when your updates come out so please leave that out of the comments

    ran, March 4, 2014 at 12:14 pm
    My phone took 2 days and when i was about to re-install its firmware, it suddenly started !!


     
  • Virtual Chitchatting 3:16 PM on 2014/03/04 Permalink  

    everything’s so different without you 

    Everything’s So Different Without You
    sung by Billy Ocean
    written by Billy Ocean, Robert S. Kelly

    I said my heart would never break
    I coulda tried to meet you halfway
    But now and then we make mistakes
    Oh, I shoulda tried to change your mind
    Beggin you to stay

    I did all the right things to hurt you
    And I stood by watchin while you hurt inside
    Oh, I shoulda seen it in your eyes
    But I didn’t realize

    Thought that I could take losin you, but I just can’t make it
    I know that I could win, but being alone just wont do
    Being on my own
    Everythings so different without you

    I made you think you were wrong
    I led you to believe in the lie
    While I was weak, you were strong
    Oh, but now you’ll see the change in me
    Wont you let me try

    I hope that you reading my letter
    That Im cryin out to you in every line
    Tell me how could I have been so blind
    Now I need you all the time

    Thought that I could take losin you, but I just can’t make it
    I know that I could win, but being alone just wont do
    Being on my own
    Everythings so different without you

    Thought that I could take the road by myself
    Now I know that I need you and no one else
    Thought that I could take losin you, but I just can’t make it
    I know that I could win, but being alone just wont do
    Being on my own
    Everythings so different, oh…oh…ooh…mmm…

    No, no, no, no, no
    It just wont do
    Being on my own
    Everythings so different without you
    I said my heart would never break


    Billy Ocean – Everything’s So Different Without You.flv – YouTube

    4 Mar 2010 – 4 min – Uploaded by buds70
    ► 4:22


    Everything’s So Different Without You.wmv – YouTube

    3 Apr 2011 – 4 min – Uploaded by jeweeroa
    ► 4:21


    Billy Ocean – Everything’s So Different Without You – YouTube

    29 Oct 2012 – 4 min – Uploaded by slowjam2u
    ► 4:23


    Billy Ocean – Everything’s So Different Without You – YouTube

    17 Jan 2012 – 5 min – Uploaded by MonsterlyInLove2
    ► 4:35

     
  • Virtual Chitchatting 10:23 AM on 2014/03/03 Permalink  

    kalau cicak besar (ular) makan buaya 

    ular vs buaya


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    http://www.brisbanetimes.com.au/queensland/snake-eats-crocodile-after-epic-fight-in-queensland-20140303-33xz8.html

    Snake eats crocodile after epic fight in Queensland
    March 3, 2014

    http://media.brisbanetimes.com.au/featured/snake-swallows-crocodile-near-mt-isa-5223894.html

    Snake swallows crocodile near Mt Isa
    Alyce Rosenthal describes watching a water python strangle and then slowly eat a crocodile at Lake Moondarra in north western Queensland, Australia.

    An enormous water python has devoured a metre-long fresh water crocodile following an epic duel that shocked onlookers at Lake Moondarra, near Mount Isa, on Sunday.

    And that’s not uncommon, according to University of Queensland snake expert Bryan Fry.

    Mount Isa mother Tiffany Corlis captured the contest on camera, taking a series of shots that documented the huge snake’s assault on the croc.

    Snake eats crocodile
    A snake battles to eat a crocodile at Lake Moondarra in Mt Isa. Photo: Marvin Muller

    She was near the lake having breakfast when canoeists, who witnessed the battle playing out, alerted her to the struggle between the snake and crocodile.

    By the time Ms Corlis started watching, the snake had already coiled its body around the crocodile and was beginning to strangle it.

    ‘‘[The crocodile] was fighting at the start, so it was trying to keep its head out of water and survive,’’ she told ABC North West Queensland Radio on Monday.

    ‘‘But as the morning sort of progressed, you could tell that both of them were getting a little weaker.

    ‘‘Finally, the croc sort of gave in and the snake had uncoiled for a little while and had a brief break and then actually started to consume the crocodile.’’

    Elly Bradfield https://twitter.com/AGirlNamedElly
    @AGirlNamedElly
    Listener Tiffany Corlis sent us this photo of a croc and snake doing battle at Lake Moondarra in #MountIsa
    3:56 AM – 3 Mar 2014

    Snake expert Associate Professor Bryan Fry, from the University of Queensland’s School of Biological Science, said while water pythons usually targeted smaller animals and rodents, small fresh water crocodiles were easy prey.

    ‘‘Crocs are more dangerous to catch but easier to sneak up on,’’ he said.

    ‘‘Up in Kakadu, for example, they feed heavily on small rodents but that’s not to say they won’t take the crocs as well.

    ‘‘The problem is they are risking being injured or killed, so they have to be judicious.’’

    Associate Professor Fry said for a water python to successfully overpower and then devour a small crocodile, a lot more time was required than for smaller animals, which left the pythons vulnerable to attack.

    Another witness Alyce Rosenthal said the battle probably lasted about five hours. By the time she arrived, the two combatants were at the point of exhaustion.

    ‘‘They were just pretty much laying there, waiting to die I would assume,’’ she told Fairfax Media on Monday.

    ‘‘It’s not something that you see every day.

    ‘‘I’m almost tempted to go for a drive and see if he’s still laying there.

    Associate Professor Fry said the feast would keep the reptile satisfied for about a month.

    ‘‘The longer it takes to swallow, the longer it is without a means of defending itself,’’ he said

    ‘‘Now it might go and find a hollow in the mud and tuck itself away for a while.’’

    Ms Corlis said it was amazing to witness.

    ‘‘It was just unbelievable,” she said.

    ‘‘We were sort of thinking that the snake had bitten off a little more than it could chew.

    ‘‘But it did. It actually ate the crocodile.

    ‘‘The aftermath showed the overstuffed snake lying still, where presumably it stayed for some time as it digested its dinner.

    ‘‘When you actually looked at the snake, you could actually see the crocodile’s ridges, legs and everything inside its belly.’’

    For many people, the picture of the monster reptile at the popular Mount Isa swimming hole may lead them to question the long held belief taking a dip in the Top End’s fresh water was safe.

    ‘‘You can go to places up in Kakadu that are legendary spots for these type of snakes, there can be as many as 40 of them in one water hole,’’ Associate Professor Fry said.

    Kim Stephens with Kristian Silva and AAP


    http://www.brisbanetimes.com.au/photogallery/queensland/snake-eats-crocodile-20140303-33yso.html?aggregate=


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  • Virtual Chitchatting 9:51 PM on 2014/02/28 Permalink  

    Finally, Microsoft has the gut to retire its most successful (windows) operating system 

    Windows (windows@email.microsoft.com)
    Fri, 28 Feb 2014 21:51:23 -0800

    wxp is retiring

    Windows XP is Retiring
    After 12 years of support, technical assistance for Windows XP will end on April 8, 2014. The end of Windows XP support will help us focus resources on delivering you the best, most current PC experience.

    What this means for Windows XP users
    The end of support means we will no longer deliver software updates. These updates help keep your PC secure and working reliably. Without them, your PC may become a target for harmful viruses, spyware and other malicious software—causing loss of data and hindered performance.
    While your computer will work, your PC may cause you security and support issues. We’d love to help you avoid that.

    Find out more about Windows XP end of support

    Upgrade options
    To make sure your PC is protected and doesn’t cause you potential frustration, upgrade to the latest version of Windows.
    If your PC is older, you may consider browsing a range of new PCs—now more affordable, lightweight and powerful than ever.

    Explore your upgrade options

    Microsoft

    Microsoft respects your privacy. To learn more, please read our Privacy Statement.

    Microsoft Corporation
    One Microsoft Way
    Redmond WA 98052

     
  • Virtual Chitchatting 5:42 PM on 2014/02/28 Permalink  

    jilboobs, takJIL with BOOBS? 

    5:30 PM 2014-08-31






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  • Virtual Chitchatting 6:28 PM on 2014/02/25 Permalink  

    Bank Indonesia main kucing-kucingan dengan analis industri perbankan indonesia 

    bila tanggal 15 februari 2014 lalu, semua laporan keuangan bulanan industri perbankan di indonesia tidak bisa diakses. error ‘glitch’ yang ada adalah seperti gambar di bawah ini.

    20140215

    pada tanggal 18 februari 2014, pilihan bank yang bisa diakses adalah seperti display di bawah ini

    tanggal 24 februari 2014, akses (laporan keuangan bulanan perbankan di indonesia) per bulan november 2013 sudah bisa dilakukan.
    tanggal 25 februari 2014, akses terhadap bulan november 2013 ditutup lagi. lihat screen shot seperti di bawah.

    ngapain sih Bank Indonesia? bank apa lagi yang mau dijadiin tumbal buat pemilu 2014?

    Kebusukan Bank Indonesia dimulai dengan ketidaktransparanan penilaian bank mana yang sehat, bank mana yang sedang sakit, bank mana yang potensil untuk dijadikan tumbal pemilu untuk memenangkan penguasa dan partai yang akan berkuasa, dan berbagai status embel-embel lainnya.

    Kalau pun tidak ada pemilu, penguasa sangat getol memaksa Bank Indonesia untuk mencari bank mana yang bisa ditumbalkan supaya pemerintah yang berkuasa memiliki kecukupan uang tunai untuk menyuap lawan-lawan politiknya. Kalau perlu, ‘menghilangkan’ lawan-lawan politiknya, dengan cara halus maupun kasar. Wet ops, psy ops, you can name any intelligent operations available, or not.

    Bank Indonesia tidak pernah mau mempublikasikan kesehatan suatu bank dengan berbagai argumentasi ilmiah, logis, dan akal-akalan. Pokoke justified. The end justifies the means. By all means necessary.

    Masyarakat umum hanya bisa mereka-reka kesehatan suatu bank berdasarkan laporan keuangan bulanan yang dipublikasikan oleh Bank Indonesia. Timbul pertanyaan, kenapa (setiap) bank tidak dibolehkan mempublikasikan laporan keuangan bulanannya di website-nya masing-masing. Demikian pula status kesehatan suatu bank dari Bank Indonesia.

    Karena di situlah peran para pengawas di Bank Indonesia untuk bisa memeras pemilik dan manajemen bank yang sangat ingin untuk mendapatkan nilai sehat. Itulah sontoloyonya sistem perbankan di Indonesia. Penguasa di Departemen Keuangan/Kementerian Keuangan tahu itu. Mereka mau jatah dan kekuasaan untuk bisa memeras pemilik dan manajemen bank. Dibuatlah Otoritas Jasa Keuangan. Di Inggris aja, OJK-nya dengan nama FSA sudah dibubarkan karena dinilai tidak efektif.

    Birokrasi OJK di Indonesia sangat menggelikan. Lihat dan pelajari SOP, cara kerja, mekanisme kerja OJK yang ada. Ketahuan banget peran penguasa di Lapangan Banteng yang berkeinginan keras untuk bisa memeras pemilik dan manajemen bank. Kalau membayar ‘setoran’ lebih tinggi, pasti hanya mendapat teguran lisan. Paling mentok teguran berupa layangan surat cinta. Ugh, crap.

    Okelah kalau begitu. Selama akses terhadap laporan keuangan bulanan perbankan di Indonesia masih terbuka, that’s fine. Akan tetapi, sampai tadi malam, 14 Februari 2014, akses terhadap laporan keuangan bulanan perbankan di Indonesia masih terbuka. Pagi ini, 15 Februari 2014, akses itu sudah ditutup. Karena bukan hari kerja-kah alasannya? Tidak juga. Beberapa waktu lalu, akses terbuka kala hari libur dan hari libur nasional.

    Sinyalemen KPK mulai membuka tabir kebusukan Bank Indonesia, baik secara oknum, maupun secara institusi. The whole, the entire system has been corrupted. We really do need Indonesian Hitler. Make Indonesian autobahn. Make Indonesian cars, entirely. Make Indonesian railways. Make Indonesian maglev (shinkansen). Bukan pesawat baling-baling! Indonesia, get real!

    Dulu, ada yang bilang Bank Indonesia sebagai sarang penyamun. Si dogol asat sebut. Sudah jelas Bank Indonesia dibuat dan didirikan sebagai kasir pemerintah. Tidak ada otoritas moneter di negara mana pun yang independent. Kebijakannya memang bisa dibilang independent. Disebut otoritas karena sifatnya yang memang otoriter. Tidak bisa disalahkan walau menyengsarakan rakyat dan bangsa suatu negara. Keadilan berlaku bagi penguasa. Hidup dan kepala rakyat hanya jadi batu pijakan para penguasa.

    Crime pays.

    You can bet on it.

    Emang ada Gubernur Bank Indonesia yang tidak pernah di penjara?

    Boediono sedang menghitung hari untuk digantung karena menyediakan dana pemilu 2009 sebesar Rp 6 trilyun bagi Soesilo Bambang Yoedhoyono.




    http://www.bi.go.id/id/publikasi/laporan-keuangan/bank/umum-konvensional/Default.aspx

    ketika diakses per 13 Februari 2014, ceklis semua bank terlihat


    http://www.bi.go.id/id/publikasi/laporan-keuangan/bank/umum-konvensional/Default.aspx

    ketika diakses per 15 Februari 2014, banyak bank hilang dari ceklis.

    Tidak itu saja, begitu dipilih salah satu bank, begini hasil query-nya:

    Laporan Keuangan Publikasi Neraca bank ini tidak tersedia.

    Laporan Keuangan Publikasi Laporan Laba Rugi dan Saldo Laba bank ini tidak tersedia.

    Laporan Keuangan Publikasi Komitmen dan Kontinjensi bank ini tidak tersedia.

    Laporan Keuangan Publikasi Kualitas Aktiva Produktif dan Informasi Lainnya bank ini tidak tersedia.

    Laporan Keuangan Publikasi Perhitungan Kewajiban Penyediaan Modal Minimum (KPMM) bank ini tidak tersedia.

    Laporan Keuangan Publikasi Perhitungan Kewajiban Penyediaan Modal Minimum (KPMM) Bank Asing bank ini tidak tersedia.

    Sumber data : Berdasarkan Laporan Bulanan Bank Umum (LBU) yang disampaikan Bank kepada Bank Indonesia

    Keterangan : 1. Format Laporan ini sesuai dengan format dalam Surat Edaran Bank Indonesia No.12/11/DPNP tanggal 31 Maret 2010 Tentang Perubahan Kedua atas SE BI No.3/30/DPNP tanggal 14 Desember 2001 perihal Laporan Keuangan Publikasi triwulanan dan Bulanan Bank Umum serta Laporan Tertentu yang Disampaikan kepada Bank Indonesia.

    2. Bank Indonesia tidak bertanggung jawab terhadap kebenaran isi laporan. Kebenaran isi laporan tersebut sepenuhnya merupakan tanggungjawab bank.

    3. Apabila ada pertanyaan mengenai isi laporan dapat menghubungi alamat/nomor telepon Bank yang bersangkutan sebagaimana tercantum di atas.


    http://www.pacific.net.id/pakar/sj/masih_sekitar_masalah_blbi.html

    MASIH BERGULAT DENGAN MASALAH BLBI

    Oleh : J. Soedradjad Djiwandono

    Gurubesar tetap Ilmu Ekonomi, Universitas Indonesia

    PENDAHULUAN

    Permasalahan BLBI telah beberapa lama menjadi bahan pergunjingan di masyarakat. Panitia Kerja (Panja) BLBI Komisi IX DPRRI telah meminta penjelasan dari sejumlah mantan pejabat yang dianggap berhubungan dengan kebijakan dan pelaksanaannya. DPR juga meminta penjelasan dari sejumlah pengelola dan pemilik bank-bank penerima bantuan likuiditas tersebut.

    Masalah BLBI menarik perhatian masyarakat terutama semenjak pengumuman BPK mengenai hasil audit BI disertai dengan suatu disclaimer yang secara populernya diartikan di masyarakat sebagai penolakan laporan keuangan atau neraca bank sentral Indonesia ini. Padahal arti yang benar dari disclaimer dalam suatu laporan audit adalah bahwa pemeriksa (BPK dalam hal ini) itu berposisi netral, tidak mengatakan menolak tetapi juga tidak mengatakan menerima laporan yang ada. Posisi ini dipegang oleh BPK karena menurut pernilaiannya laporan BI mengandung berbagai hal yang dinilai tidak jelas.

    Sebenarnya dua instansi, Bank Indonesia dan Departemen Keuangan, yang langsung berkaitan dengan permasalahan ini harus sepakat dulu mengenai kriteria dan berbagai hal yang menyangkut BLBI supaya pertanggung jawaban dalam pembebanan pembiayaannya tidak menimbulkan masalah. Tetapi kesepakatan ini memang belum tercapai. Akan tetapi karena belum adanya kesepakatan tersebut BPK telah melakukan audit dengan menggunakan sebagai kriteria ketentuan-ketentuan yang ada mengenai fasililitas-fasilitas yang merupakan BLBI tersebut.

    Atas dasar audit tersebut kemudian BPK menyusun laporan dan mengumumkan temuannya kepada masyarakat luas. Belum adanya kesepakatan kedua instansi tersebut ternyata menimbulkan masalah. Sebenarnya disclaimer itu sendiri netral. Akan tetapi dengan membuat pernialian dan kemudian mengumumkannya kepada masyarakat luas BPK memang tidak netral. Atas dasar penemuan ini masyarakat kemudian membuat interpretasi bahwa BPK telah menolak laporan BI. Ini merupakan interpretasi yang tidak tepat.

    Makalah ini akan membahas berbagai hal mengenai BLBI, utamanya yang berkaitan dengan aspek kebijaksanaannya, untuk menambah kejelasan tentang permasalahannya. Ini diharapkan ikut mengurangi kesimpang siuran pembahasan mengenai masalahnya maupun jalan keluar yang sedang dicari berbagai pihak untuk menyelesaikannya.

    MASALAH BLBI

    Komponen terbesar dari BLBI adalah bantuan likuiditas Bank Indonesia yang diberikan kepada bank-bank yang menghadapi masalah likuiditas karena terjadinya penarikan dana nasabah secara besar-besaran dan bersamaan, berkaitan dengan krisis yang melanda perekonomian nasional. Akan tetapi BLBI juga menyangkut berbagai fasilitas BI kepada bank-bank dalam bentuk lain sebagaimana dapat diikuti di bawah. Bantuan likuiditas ini dipermasalahkan dari aspek kebijaksanaannya, proses penyaluran dan pemanfaatannya serta pembebanan pembiayaanya.

    Masalah ini lebih mencuat lagi setelah diumumkannya hasil audit BPK terhadap Bank Indonesia yang memberikan suatu disclaimer, artinya BPK tidak memberikan pendapat karena belum adanya kejelasan mengenai berbagai hal, seperti kesepakatan antara BI dan Depkeu tentang kriteris BLBI. Akan tetapi ternyata disclaimer ini tidak menghalangi BPKmembuat pernilaian setelah melakukan audit. Karena kreteria yang disepakati oleh kedua instansi mengenai BLBI belum tersedia, maka BPK telah menggunakan ketentuan perundangan yang berlaku tentang berbagai jenis bantuan likuiditas untuk memberikan pernilaiannya. Meskipun ada disclaimer BPK juga memberi pernilaian terhahdap kinerja BI, seperti lemahnya pengawasan intern dan pembukuan yang tidak beres dan pernilaian lain.

    Laporan tentang audit ini kemudian oleh BPK diumumkan di masyarakat yang menimbulkan berbagai reaksi. Salah satunya adalah dibentuknya Panitia Kerja (Panja) BLBI Komisi IX DPR yang memanggil berbagai instansi dan pejabat serta mantan pejabat untuk diminta keterangan tentang permasalahan BLBI. Selain para pejabat dan mantan pejabat Panja juga meminta keterangan dari pengelola dan pemilik berbagai bank yang meneima bantuan likuiditas. Bahkan kemudian Panja BLBI berencana untuk meminta keterangan mantan Presiden Suharto yang oleh pendukungnya langsung dituduh merupakan upaya mengaburkan masalah yang sebenarnya.

    ARTI

    Sebelum membahas permasalahan BLBI saya ingin kembali mengungkapkan apa arti BLBI terlebih dahulu. Sebagaimana saya utarakan dalam tulisan terdahulu ( lihat artikel saya mengenai BLBI pada http://www.pacific.net.id/pakar/sj ), BLBI adalah bantuan likuiditas Bank Indonesia yang diberikan atas permintaan bank-bank yang mengalami masalah likuiditas. Bantuan ini diberikan untuk menjaga kestabilan sektor perbankan serta sistim pembayaran nasional agar jangan terganggu oleh ketidak seimbangan (mismatch) antara penerimaan dan penarikan dana pada bank-bank, baik untuk jangka pendek maupun panjang.

    Dalam operasinya ada berbagai jenis fasilitas likuiditas bank sentral kepada sektor perbankan dengan persyaratan yang berbeda, sesuai dengan sasaran maupun peruntukannya. Karena jenis fasilitas yang beragam ini, maka dalam arti luas BLBI adalah semua bantuan likuiditas BI diluar kredit likuiditas Bank Indonesia (KLBI) yang diberikan kepada sektor perbankan.

    Meskipun bantuan likuiditas untuk menghadapi masalah perbankan ini sudah ada dan dipergunakan sejak lama, istilah bantuan likuiditas BI atau BLBI baru digunakan oleh Bank Indonesia sejak tahun 1998. Istilah ini muncul semenjak Indonesia menjalankan program pemulihan ekonomi dengan dukungan IMF yang menyebutkan berbagai fasilitas tadi sebagai liquidity supports. Sebagai terjemahan dari liquidity support dan untuk membedakannya dengan KLBI yang lebih dikenal di masyarakat, telah digunakan istilah bantuan BLBI.

    Menurut cacatan BI bantuan likuiditas yang termasuk dalam BLBI meliputi 15 jenis yang dapat digolongkan kedalam 5 kelompok fasilitas sebagai berikut:

    • Fasilitas dalam rangka mempertahankan kestabilan sistim pembayaran yang bisa terganggu karena adanya mismatch atau kesenjangan antara penerimaan dan penarikan dana perbankan, baik dalam jangka pendek disebut fasilitas diskonto atau fasdis I dan yang berjangka lebih panjang, disebut fasdis II.
    • Fasilitas dalam rangka operasi pasar terbuka (OPT) sjalan dengan program moneter dalam bentuk SBPU lelang maupun bilateral
    • Fasilitas dalam rangka penyehatan (nursing atau rescue) bank dalam bentuk kredit likuiditas darurat (KLD) dan kredit sub-ordinasi (SOL)
    • Fasilitas untuk menjaga kestabilan sistim perbankan dan sistim pembayaran sehubungan dengan adanya penarikan dana perbankan secara besar-besaran (bank run atau rush) dalam bentuk penarikan cadangan wajib (GWM) atau adanya saldo negatif atau saldo debet atau overdraft rekening bank di BI
    • Fasilitas untuk mempertahankan kepercayaan masyarakat pada perbankan dalam bentuk dana talangan untuk membayar kewajiban yang timbul dari pelaksanaan janji Pemerintah memperhatikan kepentingan deposan, dimulai dengan deposan kecil dan kemudian keseluruhan deposan dan kreditur bank dalam sistim penjaminan menyeluruh (blanket guarantee) dan membayar kewajiban luar negeri bank dalam rangka perjanjian Frankfurt.

    PEMBAYARAN DEPOSAN DAN BLANKET GUARANTEE

    Salah satu aspek BLBI yang dipermasalahkan adalah mengenai dasar kebijaksanaan pemberiannya yang akhirnya meliputi jumlah yang sangat besar tersebut. Apakah pemberian BLBI kepada sektor perbankan merupakan kebijaksanaan Pemerintah atau sebenarnya semata-mata kebijaksanaan Bank Indonesia sendiri? Aspek ini dipermasalahkan, artinya siapa yang membuat kebijaksanaan BLBI, terutama setelah tiga mantan Menkeu seusai memberi keterangan di DPR diberitakan mengatakan bahwa pembebrian BLBI bukan kebijaksanaan Pemerintah dan bahwa Bank Indonesia salah menafsirkan kebijaksanaan Pemerintah.

    Kalau digunakan definisi yang sangat umum bahwa BLBI adalah semua bantuan likuiditas BI diluar KLBI yang diberikan kepada sektor perbankan, bantuan likuiditas yang dipermasalahkan ini meliputi 15 jenis. Mungkin saja perbedaan pendapat antara Depkeu dengan BI ini berkaitan dengan sebagian dari jenis-jenis bantuan tersebut dan bukan untuk semuanya. Laporan audit BPK juga menyebutkan mana dari BLBI yang pembebanan biayanya sepantasnya dipikul Pemerintah dan mana yang dianggap harus ditanggung (sendiri) oleh BI. Ini nampaknya menunjukkan adanya sebagian dari BLBI yang dianggap disepakati oleh BI dan Depkeu (Pemerintah?), karena itu bebannya secara sah dipikul anggaran Pemerintah dan sebagian lain yang pemberiannya tanpa kesepakatan. Mungkin bagian kedua ini yang dianggap bukan kebijaksanaan Pemerintah, karena itu harus ditanggung sendiri oleh BI (bukan Pemerintah?).

    Beragamnya bantuan likuiditas yang dapat dimasukkan sebagai BLBI membuat argumentasi mengenai kebijaksanaan BLBI dapat menimbulkan tambahan salah pengertian, karena mungkin saja kita berbicara mengenai dua hal yang memang berbeda. Ini harus dipisahkan dari perbedaan pendapat yang sesungguhnya, yang mengenai hal yang sama. Kalau dikatakan BLBI ini kebijaksanaan BI, Pemerintah tidak menginstruksikan BI memberikan BLBI atau BI salah menafsirkan kebijakan BLBI. Yang mana sebenarnya dari jenis-jenis tersebut yang dipermasalahkan. Ini perlu disadari bersama agar tidak menambah ruwetnya masalah yang memang sudah menimbulkan banyak salah pengertian tersebut.

    Kalau dikatakan bahwa Pemerintah tidak menginstruksikan BI untuk memberikan BLBI atau BI salah mengartikan kebijaksanaan Pemerintah, maka ada berbagai implikaksi yang perlu memperoleh perhatian kita semua. Sebagai dikatakan di atas istilah BLBI baru muncul bulan-bulan pertama tahun 1998, mungkin Maret 1998. Karena itu tentu saja instruksi memberikan BLBI itu ya tidak ada. Akan tetapi ini tidak sama dengan mengatakan pemberian BLBI itu bukan kebijaksanaan Pemerintah.

    Salah satu yang dalam definisi luas termasuk sebagai BLBI adalah dana talangan BI untuk membayar pemilik deposito dan tabungan sampai dengan 20 juta rupiah pada 16 bank yang dicabut ijin usahanya awal Nopember 1997. Hal yang serupa adalah yang menyangkut pemilik deposito dan tabungan diatas 20 juta rupiah pada bank-bank dalam likuidasi (BDL) yang pembayarannya didasarkan atas instruksi Presiden kepada Menkeu 18 Pebruari 1998.

    Tindakan melakukan pembayaran kepada deposan dan penabung adalah merupakan pelaksanaan dari keputusan Sidang Kabinet yang menjadi petunjuk Presiden tanggal 3 September 1997. Mengenai hal ini instruksi tersebut mengatakan bahwa bank-bank yang tidak sehat dan tidak dapat ditolong dengan merger atau akuisisi akan dilikuidasikan dengan memperhatikan kepentingan deposan, utamanya deposan kecil. Keputusan ini dilaksanakan dengan penentuan jumlah maksimal 20 juta rupiah yang akan dikembalikan kepada pemilik. Pengeluaran ini dibiayai dengan dana talangan BI. Saya sendiri dalam pertemuan antara team ekonomi (Dewan Moneter) dengan Presiden semula mengusulkan jumlah tersebut 30 juta rupiah per rekening, sedangkan Menkeu mengusulkan jumlah yang akhirnya menjadi keputusan Presiden yaitu 20 juta rupiah per rekening pernasabah. Ini tentu dengan pertimbangan bahwa dana talangan tersebut nantinya akan dibebankan kepada anggaran Pemerintah.

    Perlu dikemukakan di sini bahwa ketentuan perundangan yang berlaku, ( PP nomor 68 Tentang Likuidasi Bank Tahun 1996 ), memang tidak mengatur demikian. Menurut ketentuan ini pengembalian uang deposan dibiayai dengan penjualan aset bank yang dilikuidasi. Tindakan ini memang berbeda dengan aturan likuidasi bank, antara lain karena belum adanya program asuransi deposito.

    Jadi pengembalian dana milik deposan kecil yang dibiayai dengan dana talangan BI dan merupakan salah satu bentuk BLBI ini memang suatu kebijaksanaan. Kebijaksanaan ini diputuskan Pemerintah dalam suatu Sidang Kabinet, diikuti dengan instruksi Presiden. Dalam pelaksaknaannya hal ini dibahas lebih dahulu oleh Team Negosiasi Pemerintah dalam mempersiapkan program ekonomi-keuangan Pemerintah menghadapi keadaan krisis dengan bantuan siaga IMF yang dituangkan di dalam Memorandum of Economic and Financial Policies atau MEFP. Memorandum yang secara rinci memuat program yang akan dilaksanakan Pemerintah ini memuat berbagai kondisi penyaluran pinjaman yang disepakati ( conditionalities ). Kemudian dengan suatu surat pengantar, lazim disebut sebagai letter of intent (LOI), memorandum tersebut diserahkan kepada Manajemen IMF untukdisetujui tidaknya.

    Termasuk di dalam Program Pemerintah tersebut adalah restrukturisasi sektor keuangan, yang didahului dengan tindakan mencabut ijin usaha atau lebih populer menutup bank yang tidak solvent. Baik kebijaksanaan penutupan bank tidak solvent maupun pembayaran deposan dan tabungan sampai maksimal 20 juta rupiah merupakan kebijaksanaan Pemerintah. Karena itu dana talangan BI yang menjadi salah satu jenis BLBI sudah selayaknya merupakan beban Pemerintah.

    Bagaimana dengan pengembalian dana nasabah di atas 20 juta rupiah? Ini mungkin dari aspek ketentuan-perundangan memang dapat menimbulkan masalah. Saya hanya ingin mengungkapkan apa yang terjadi dan mengapa. Dalam pembahasan menindak lanjuti kesepakatan kedua Indonesia dengan IMF yang dimuat dalam LOI kedua, 15 Januari 1998, perkembangan krisis yang sangat cepat melatar belakangi keputusan Pemerintah untuk memberikan jaminan sementara (dua tahun) kepada pemilik dana (deposan dan penabung) serta kreditor secara keseluruhan dari bank-bank nasional. Artinya adalah kalau ada bank nasional yang dilikuidasi, seperti yang dilakukan awal Nopember 1997 dan setelah itu, pemilik dana dan kreditor bank-bank yang dilikuidasi tersebut dijamin pengembaliannya oleh Pemerintah. Program ini dengan demikian merupakan penjaminan secara menyeluruh dana deposito dan tabungan serta kreditor perbankan nasional, secara populernya dinamakan blanket guarantee. Mungkin perlu diketahui bahwa program serupa juga diterapkan di berbagai negara Asia, seperti Korea Selatan, Thailand, Philippina dan Malaysia.

    Sebagai implikasi dari diterapkannya program penjaminan menyeluruh desakan menjadi semakin keras dari masyarakat (beberapa kali dilakukan demosntrasi di DPR, BI dan Depkeu ) agar Pemerintah juga mengembalikan dana nasabah di atas 20 juta rupiah pada 16 bank-bank yang dilikuidasi awal Nopember 1997. Mereka mengatakan bahwa Pemerintah tidak adil, dalam waktu yang pendek merubah ketentuan dari melindungi deposan kecil saja menjadi melindungi seluruh pemilik dana, bahkan kreditor bank. Saya sendiri menyampaikan masalah ini dua kali, pada suatu pertemuan team ekonomi dengan Presiden (akhir Januari/awal Pebruari 1998) dan terakhir pada waktu dipanggil Presiden untuk diberitahu mengenai pemberhentian saya (17 Pebruari 1998). Catatan BI menunjukkan bahwa Menkeu waktu itu juga mengajukan usul yang sama mengenai hal ini awal minggu kedua Pebruari 1998.

    Dalam pelaksanaannya Presiden waktu itu menginstruksikan Menkeu tanggal 18 Pebruari 1998 untuk melakukan pengembalian dana deposito dan tabungan di atas 20 juta rupiah pada bank-bank yang telah ditutup. Menjadi masalah sekarang apakah dana talangan BI yang digunakan untuk membiayai pengembalian dana nasabah ini merupakan bagian BLBI yang pembebanannya layak dialihkan kepada Pemerintah atau tidak. Bahwa hal ini bisa menimbulkan masalah hukum saya kira memang benar. Pertama, karena ketentuan likuidasi bank memang tidak mengatur demikian, sama halnya dengan pembiayaan pengembalian deposito dibawah 20 juta rupiah. Kedua, kalau digunakan dasar PP tentang blanket guarantee, maka kita menghadapi masalah memberlakukan ketentuan ini secara surut, yang tidak dibenarkan. Di sini harus diakui ada masalah. Akan tetapi mengatakan bahwa ini semata-mata kebijaksanaan BI dan bukan kebijaksanaan Pemerintah, jelas tidak tepat. Ini adalah keputusan Presiden waktu itu yang dalam sistim yang berlaku adalah Pemerintah dan dipersiapkan oleh team Pemerintah, dimana BI menjadi bagian daripadanya.

    Sebagaimana diketahui, penjaminan secara menyeluruh deposito dan tabungan serta kreditor perbankan nasional atau blanket guarantee diterapkan Pemerintah melalui suatu peraturan Pemerintah ( PP nomor 26 tanggal 26 Januari 1998). Tetapi bagaimana dengan dana talangan BI blanket guarantee itu sendiri? Saya kira kalau kita akan menundukkan diri hanya kepada ketentuan likuidasi bank, pemberian jaminan menyeluruh ini juga tidak sesuai dengan ketentuan tersebut.

    Argumen bahwa dana untuk penjaminan program blanket guarantee dianggap sah karena ada PP-nya, sedangkan pembiayaan pembayaran dana milik nasabah bank-bank dalam likuidasi (BDL) tidak sah karena tidak ada PP-nya, saya kira mengandung kejanggalan juga. Argumen demikian hanya mendasarkan pada ketentuan perundangannya saja secara kaku. Padahal kalau dilihat dari aspek yang lebih luas, termasuk sasaran dari kebijaksanaan yang melatar belakanginya, keduanya sebenarnya sama. Keduanya merupakan upaya untuk mempertahankan keberadaan dan kestabilan sektor perbankan dan sistim pembayaran pada waktu program asuransi deposito belum ada. Keduanya merupakan tindakan yang didasari atas kebijaksanaan Pemerintah. Kalau ukuran yang dipakai adalah ketentuan tentang lukuidasi bank sebenarnya semuanya tidak sesuai. Dengan lain perkataan kalau itu dasarnya maka blanket guarantee ini, meskipun ada Ppnya, juga harus ditolak atau dinilai tidak sah.

    Bahwa keputusan Pemerintah membayar kembali dana nasabah pada bank-bank yang ditutup tanpa mengeluarkan ketentuan perundangannya mungkin lebih menunjukkan suasana krisis. Dalam perkembangan yang sangat cepat waktu krisis Pemerintah menghadapi berbagai masalah yang bersifat dilematis, dimana kecepatan bertindak sangat krusial. Mungkin bisa juga dikatakan bahwa pada kasus ini yang terjadi adalah kelambatan dalam penyusunan atau penyesuaian ketentuan. Akan tetapi, kalau cepat disesuaikan dan ternyata perkembangan berubah cepat, nantinya akan menghadapi masalah lain, yaitu bahwa kebijaksanaan Pemerintah terlalu cepat berubah atau tidak konsisten. Dalam keadaan sekarangpun kritik demikian telah keras dilancarkan.

    Masalah yang serupa terjadi dalam hal dana talangan BI untuk membayar arrears pinjaman perbankan dalam rangka trade financing dan money line dari bank-bank di luar negeri yang diputuskan sebagai bagian dari penanganan masalah pinjaman perusahaan swasta dalam kesepakatan Frankfurt bulan Juni 1998.


    http://www.pacific.net.id/pakar/sj/masih_sekitar_masalah_blbi2.html

    MASIH BERGULAT DENGAN MASALAH BLBI (2)

    Oleh : J. Soedradjad Djiwandono

    Gurubesar tetap Ilmu Ekonomi, Universitas Indonesia

    Cambridge, MA, 18 Pebruari, 2000.

    MASALAH PENUTUPAN BANK

    Apakah penutupan bank tidak solvent itu kebijaksanaan Pemerintah? Jawabannya adalah ya, ini adalah kebijaksanaan Pemerintah. Mengapa demikian? Di atas diungkapkan bahwa Pemerintah memutuskan melakukan likuidasi bank yang tidak sehat dan tidak bisa ditolong dengan merger atau akuisisi. Tindakan ini memrupakan pelaksanaan dari keputusan Sidang Kabinet diperkuat dengan instruksi Presiden tanggal 3 September 1997. Mungkin perlu diingat kembali bahwa Pemerintah memutuskan untuk mengundang IMF untuk mengatasi masalah ekonomi-keuangan yang diidentifikasikan sebagai menyurutnya kepercayaan pasar terhadap perekonomian nasional. Dengan mengundang lembaga multilateral yang akan memberikan bantuan teknis dan pinjaman siaga serta dukungan negara-negara sahabat diharapkan kepercayaan pasar yang terus menerus menurun, nampak dari rupiah yang terdepresiasi drastis, akan dapat pulih kembali. Kebijaksanaan mengundang IMF ini dilakukan Pemerintah dengan keputusannya pada Sidang Kabinet minggu pertama Oktober 1997.

    Pada waktu negosiasi dengan team IMF diidentifikasikan bahwa pemulihan kepercayaan pasar dan ekonomi nasional ini menuntut reformasi ekonomi sektor riil, restrukturisasi sektor keuangan dan pelaksanaan kebijaksanaan fiskal-moneter yang berhati-hati. Dan dalam restrukturisasi sektor keuangan diutamakan sektor perbankan. Sedangkan restrukturisasi sektor perbankan didahului dengan penutupan bank-bank yang tidak solvent serta rekapitalisasi dan restrukturisasi bank-bank lain dengan penguatan institusi keuangan, termasuk perbaikan pengawasan, peraturan dan perundangan, sistim pengadilan dan penegakan hukum, transparansi dan governance. Dari ini jelas penutupan bank tidak solvent pada permulaan Nopember adalah merupakan kebijaksanaan Pemerintah dengan persiapan yang melibatkan unsur-unsur dari team ekonomi Pemerintah yang bernegosiasi dengan IMF.

    Tentu saja lembaga yang paling banyak mempersiapkan segala sesuatunya adalah Bank Indonesia yang juga berfungsi sebagai pemegang otorita pengawasan bank. Mungkin masyarakat perlu mengingat kembali bahwa pengumuman mengenai pencabutan ijin usaha 16 bank pada permulaan Nopember 1997 dilakukan oleh tiga orang Menteri dengan Gubernur BI di Gedung Sekretariat Negara. Ini dilakukan setelah hampir dua minggu Pemerintah Indonesia melakukan negosiasi dengan IMF mengenai program pemulihan ekonomi nasional dengan bebebrapa kali melaporkan perkembangan negosiasi kepada Presiden waktu itu.

    Bahwa pencabutan ijin usaha 16 bank tidak memberikan hasil seperti yang diharapkan, bahkan justru sebaliknya yang terjadi, tentu itu harus diakui karena telah menjadi kenyataan. Akan tetapi disinipun kita tidak bisa terlalu cepat hanya menyalahkan tindakan ini saja tanpa menganalisis apa yang terjadi di masyarakat waktu itu. Saya juga membuat tulisan mengenai masalah penutupan 16 ini dengan latar belakang dan implikasinya dimuat dalam Kolom Pakar Pacific net (lihat alamat website di atas).

    Kalau dikatakan kebijaksanaan Pemerintah itu tidak konsisten, banyak berubah dalam waktu singkat, ini mungkin mengandung kebenaran. Tetapi ini merupakan masalah lain, berbeda dengan mengatakan bahwa ini bukan kebijaksanaan Pemerintah atau bahwa kebijaksanaan Pemerintah tersebut disalah mengertikan BI waktu itu. Bagaimanapun semua ini masih harus diuji lebih lanjut dengan kondisi yang melatar belakanginya, keadaan krisis yang memang berkembang sangat cepat. Dalam keadaan ini upaya untuk mempertahankan sistim atau sektor perbankan menghadapi keadaan krisis yang merupakan kenyataan yang dihadapi waktu itu. Analisis dan pernilaian yang dilakukan setelah semuanya terjadi, termasuk reaksi pasar serta perkembangan-perkembangan sosial politik yang terkait, dengan menggunakan ukuran untuk keadaan normal, memang menghasilkan suatu gambaran tindakan atau kebijaksanaan yang tidak konsisten.

    BLBI DAN TUGAS BANK SENTRAL

    BLBI yang paling dominan dari segi besarnya adalah bantuan likuiditas untuk mengatasi masalah kesenjangan likuiditas sektor perbankan. Dari keseluruhan jumlah BLBI lebih dari 50% berasal dari bantuan likuiditas pada sektor perbankan yang mengalami masalah likuiditas sebagai akibat dari krisis yang menimbulkan penarikan dana nasabah secara besar-besaran dan bersamaan

    Kalau suatu bank mengalami masalah likuiditas dan tidak dapat menyelesaikannya dengan sumber yang ada, maka bank sentral mempunyai kewajiban membantunya, tentu dengan berbagai persyaratan yang harus dipenuhi. Sebagaimana diketahui, bahkan dalam keadaan normal, tanpa adanya krisis dalam perekonomian, suatu bank dapat saja menghadapi masalah kesenjangan likuiditas karena kewajiban membayar yang lebih besar dari penerimaan dana.

    Dalam pembayaran dengan menggunakan dokumen melalui sektor perbankan atau pembayaran bukan tunai, pada suatu saat kesenjangan aliran dana atau mismatch dalam likuiditas bisa terjadi pada suatu bank, termasuk bank sehat sekalipun. Bank yang kalah kliring adalah bank yang mengalami masalah kesenjangan likuiditas ini. Dalam keadaan ini bank yang bersangkutan diberi waktu untuk menyelesaikan masalah tersebut. Bank dapat menggunakan dananya sendiri yang disimpan di BI atau disimpan didalam kasnya, atau mencari pinjaman antar bank untuk menutup selisih tersebut. Kalau mereka tidak dapat menggunakan sumber-sumber tersebut, maka bank sentral menyediakan fasilitas untuk mengatasi masalah yang dihadapi bank tersebut. Berbagai fasilitas diskonto yang merupakan BLBI diberikan untuk maksud ini.

    Pada waktu krisis melanda perbankan setelah adanya keketatan likuiditas yang luar biasa, penarikan dana nasabah yang juga terdorong oleh ketidak pastian dalam suasana krisis telah menimbulkan tekanan luar biasa pada banyak bank. Masalah likuiditas yang banyak dialamai oleh bank tidak bisa ditutup dengan sumber-sumber yang ada pada waktu keadaan normal. Pasar uang antar bank terkotak-kotak sehingga dan tidak dapat diharapkan oleh bank-bank yang dianggap lemah di pasar. Mereka ini yang kemudian lari ke BI, mengajukan permintaan menggunakan BLBI.

    Dalam masa krisis perkembangan diatas terjadi demikian cepatnya, suatu bank yang sehat dalam waktu singkat dapat menghadapi masalah mismatch likuiditas yang karena kondisi keuangan terus memburuk, semakin parah menghadapi penarikan dana nasabah. Dalam waktu singkat bank-bank ini dapat berubah kondisi menjadi menghadapi masalah solvabilitas. Pada waktu krisis masalah ini cepat merembet ke banyak bank (menjadi sistemik) dan dengan cepat sektor perbankan mengalami krisis dimana sebagian bank menjadi tidak solvent.

    Perkembangan yang demikian cepat ini tidak bisa dibayangkan pada waktu keadaan masih belum diwarnai oleh krisis dan juga setelah krisis berlalu. Ini yang menyulitkan mereka yang melihat keadaan krisis ini dengan kacamata atau ukuran keadaan normal. Karena itu langkah-langkah yang ditempuh waktu krisis juga sukar dibayangkan bagaimana mungkin terjadi pada waktu keadaan normal. Menerapkan ukuran-ukuran keadaan normal untuk menganalisa keadaan waktu krisis, apakah dengan tetap memegang ketentuan perundangan yang berlaku atau menolak menerima bahwa ada perbedaan kondisi tentu akan menimbulkan perbedaan pernilaian. Ini merupakan masalah yang menimbulkan perbedaan pendapat mengenai kebijaksanaan pemberian BLBI.

    Tindakan penutupan 16 bank tidak solvent yang dimaksudkan untuk mengembalikan kepercayaan pasar terhadap sektor perbankan ternyata tidak mencapai hasil. Kepercayaan terhadap sektor perbankan justru sebaliknya menjadi lebih buruk lagi. Penarikan dana perbankan menjadi sangat meningkat pada waktu bank-bank menghadapi keketatan likuiditas. Pada waktu yang sama di masyarakat tersebar rumor dan selebaran gelap akan dilaksanakannya penutupan bank lebih lanjut. Keadaan ini mendorong Pemerintah mengumumkan pernyataan untuk tidak menutup bank lagi sebagai upaya menyelamatkan sistim pembayaran dan sektor perbankan.

    Pernyataan Pemerintah tidak akan menutup bank lagi ini disampaikan oleh Gubernur BI pada waktu bersama Menkeu dan Memperindag mengumumkan berbagai langkah reformmasi ekonomi sektor riil dalam Peket Kebijakan Ekonomi 3 Nopember 1997 (Kompas On Line, 4/11/97). Langkah-langkah ini merupakan bagian dari program pemulihan ekonomi yang disebutkan di dalam LOI pertama, hasil kesepakatan dengan IMF akhir Oktober 1997. Kemudian setelah dilihat krisis ekonomi dan depresiasi rupiah tidak mereda, bahkan sebaliknya, pernyataan Pemerintah untuk tidak menutup bank ini diulangi oleh Presiden waktu itu pada waktu mengumumkan garis besar LOI kedua 15 Januari 1998 (Suara Pembaharuan Daily, 16/1/98)

    Dalam keadaan erosi besar-besaran dana perbankan oleh para pemilik dana, kebijaksanaan tidak menutup bank ini membawa implikasi dilaksanakannya pemberian bantuan likuiditas kepada sektor perbankan untuk menyelamatkan dari keruntuhannya. Penarikan besar-besaran dan bersamaan dana perbankan dilakukan oleh para pemilik dana yang mencoba menyelamatkan dana tersebut dari kemungkinan hilang dengan penutupan bank yang tidak solvent. Sebagian dana dipindahkan dari rupiah menjadi dollar, dimasukkan ke dalam bank-bank asing atau malah dipindahkan ke bank-bank di luar negeri. Ini semua yang menyebabkan meningkatnya BLBI dalam periode setelah penutupan 16 bank sampai setelah diterapkannya sistim penjaminan menyeluruh pada akhir Januari 1998.

    Selain pemilik dana memindahkan dana mereka ke bank yang lebih dianggap aman, masyarakat juga semakin tidak mempercayai bank sehingga perdagangan banyak yang dilakukan hanya dengan cara pembayaran tunai. Ini menyebabkan keluarnya uang kertas dari BI yang jauh melebihi keadaan normal. Bahkan pada waktu keadaan terpaksa, uang plastik lima puluh ribuan, yang dikeluarkan sebagai commemorative notes memperingati 25 Tahun Indonesia Membangun, yang diedarkan 1 Maret 1993. Uang tersebut tidak laku terjual karena harga jual yang besarnya dua kali lipat dari nilainya sebagai alat tukar yang sah (legal tender). Sejumlah 245 milyar rupiah dari uang plastik ini kemudian diedarkan pada bulan Januari 1998 untuk memenuhi kebutuhan tambahan uang menghadapi penarikan dana perbankan.

    Pemberian bantuan likuiditas oleh BI kepada sektor perbankan yang mengalami masalah likuiditas didasarkan atas tugasnya sebagai bank sentral yang menurut Undang-undang yang berlaku, baik UU tentang Bank Sentral maupun UU Pokok Perbankan, harus menjaga kestabilan sistim pembayaran dan perbankan sebagai sektor yang merupakan pelaku utama dalam sistim pembayaran nasional. Pada wkatu sebagai sektor perbankan terancam hancur, pada waktu sistim pembayaran nasional terancam macet karena antar mereka tidak dapat menyelamatkan diri, maka fungsi sebagai lender of last resort inilah yang mendasari tindakan membantu sektor perbankan dengan BLBI.

    Dasar peraturan perundangan ini kemudian ditegaskan dalam kebijaksanaan Pemerintah, baik Keputusan Sidang Kabinet maupun instruksi Presiden yang merupakan kepala Pemerintahan dalam sistim yang berlaku. Kebijaksanaan Pemerintah ini pada waktu menghadapi keadaan krisis mengambil berbagai bentuk seperti membantu bank yang mengalami likuiditas, menutup bank yang tidak solvent dan implikasinya –seperti pembayaran kepada pemilik dana dan penerapan sistim jaminan yang menyeluruh — dan kemudian tidak menutup bank lagi maupun yang sebaliknya. Langkah-langkah tersebut dikritik sebagai bukti bahwa kebijaksanaan yang dianut oleh Pemerintah atau Bank Inodonesia memang tidak konsisten. Bahkan BI dikatakan mencla-mencle.

    Setelah semua ini terjadi nampaknya sulit untuk mendebat kritik yang antara lain diungkapkan oleh para anggota Panja BLBI pada waktu saya dan teman-teman mantan pejabat dan pejabat BI dipanggil tersebut. Saya hanya dapat memberikan penjelasan mengapa kebijaksanaan ini nampak tidak konsisten. Menurut pendapat saya, apa yang akhirnya terjadi ini merupakan kombinasi dari keadaan tidak independentnya BI saat itu di satu pihak, dan perkembangan krisis itu sendiri dipihak lain.

    Mengapa tidak independentnya BI menjadi penyebab? Karena, seperti penjelasan saya dan rekan-rekan BI pada pertemuan DPR, saya telah mengajukan usul untuk menutup sejumlah bank ( tujuh bank ) pada akhir tahun 1996 dan diulang sekitar bulan Maret 1997. Pada waktu itu akhirnya Presiden setuju untuk menutup bank-bank tersebut akan tetapi diminta agar pelaksanaannya menunggu setelah pelaksanaan Pemilu Mei 1997. Dalam posisi BI yang independent setelah Mei 1999, Gubernur tidak perlu minta ijin kepada Presiden, apalagi menerima petunjuk yang bertentangan dengan posisinya, jelas tidak perlu. Sebagaimana saya laporkan DPR akhirnya setelah Pemerintah setuju menutup sejumlah bank, sesuai kesepakatan dengan IMF yang mendatangkan bantuan siaga, langkah restrukturisasi keuangan pertama adalah menutup bank-bank yang tidalk solvent. Dalam hal ini ketujuh bank yang semula sudah saya usulkan untuk ditutp dan telah disetujui Presiden tersebut menjadi bagian dari ke 16 bank yang ditutup awal Nopember 1997.

    Setelah diamati bahwa penutupan 16 bank ini tidak menndatangkan hasil yang diinginkan, bahkan justru berdampak sebaliknya yaitu bahaya hilangnya kepercayaan terhadap pasar sama sekali, maka kebijaksanaan pentutupan bank dibalik menjadi tidak akan melakukan penutupan bank lebih lanjut. Seperti saya ungkapkan di atas, ini saya sampaikan, atas nama Pemerintah, pada waktu pengumuman Paket Kebijaksanaan 3 Nopember 1997. Akan tetapi kemudian hal ini ditegaskan lebih lanjut di masyarakat dengan pernyataan Presiden pada waktu penanda tanganan LOI kedua tanggal 15 Januari 1998 yang terkenal itu. IMF yang memberikan dukungan pada program ekonomi-keuangan Pemerintah tersebut juga mengambil posisi yang sama, sebab blanket guarantee yang memberi jaminan menyeluruh perbankan nasional itu mengandung arti tdak menutup bank, atau tidak mau menerima dampak penutupan bank seperti yang terjadi setelah penutupan 16 bank sebelumnya.

    Setelah keadaan lebih sedikit tenang Pemerintah kembali melakukan penutupan, pengambil alihan serta pembekuan operasi sejumlah bank pada bulan Agustus 1998 dan sekali lagi padabulan Maret 1999. Tindakan-tindakan ini nampak seperti tidak konsisten. Tetapi perlu disadari bahwa kondisi yang ada karena perkembangan keadaan dalam krisis memang tidak menentu. Posisi BI sebagai bagian Pemerintah dengan Gubernurnya sebagai pembantu Presiden memang mempersulit pelaksanaan tugas bank sentral. Perubahan kebijaksanaan Pemerintah bukan barang yang terlalu aneh waktu itu, bahkan pada waktu pasar internasional semakin dapat melihatnya karena transparansi yang meningkat. Dalam sektor perbankan penutupan 16 bank yang kemudian dalam waktu singkat diikuti dengan pembelian suatu bank oleh salah seorang pemilik bank yang ditutup menggambarkan betapa tidak independentnya otorita moneter-perbankan saat itu. Reformmasi sektor riil dengan penundaan sejumlah proyek besar yang dalam waktu sangat singkat diubah kembali untuk tetap dilanjutkan, penghapusan monopoli yang muncul dalam bentuk baru, ini contoh-contoh tidak konsistennya kebijaksanaan yang terlampau naif bagi kita untuk mengatakan tidak mempunyai dampak pada perkembangan perbankan dan moneter waktu itu.

    Suatu hal yang sampai sekarang tidak pernah dikemukakan adalah bahwa sekiranya BLBI itu tidak diberikan sistim perbankan bisa juga hancur sama sekali dan sistim pembayaran macet total. Mungkin kurang disadari di masyarakat bahwa sebelum krisis pembayaran transaksi dengan dukumen atau bukan tunai yang nampak dari besarnya kliring harian itu mencapai jumlah 18 trilyun rupiah per harinya. Dampak bagi sektor riil dan masyarakat, sekiranya keduanya hancur sudah jelas, akan hancur pula. Kalau ini terjadi BI sebagai bank sentral juga jelas akan menyandang predikat gagal menjalankan tugasnya sebagai otoritas yang bertanggung jawab terhadap keberadaan dan kestabilan sektor perbankan serta sistim pembayaran nasional. Mungkin kalau hal tersebut terjadi kebijaksanaan Pemerintah atau kebijaksanaan BI konsisten dan tidak mencla-mencle, tetapi jelas tugas yang diembannya juga tidak dilaksanakan dan dampak negatifnya jelas jauh lebih besar dari yang sudah sangat besar ini.

    Skenario alternatif yang disebutkan di atas dikemukakan untuk mengatakan bahwa memang biaya yang akhirnya dipikul oleh perekonomian nasional, oleh masyarakat dari berbagai kebijaksanaan yang dilaksanakan itu sangat besar. Akan tetapi hal ini dilakukan untuk menghindarkan diri dari biaya yang lebih besar lagi, yaitu kehancuran sama sekali sistim pembayaran nasional, kehancuran sama sekali dari sektor bahkan sistim perbankan nasional.

    Di atas tadi telah disebutkan bahwa berbagai negara Asia karena adanya krisis juga menerapkan jaminan menyeluruh pada dana nasabah dan kreditor perbankan. Selain itu bank sentral negara-negara tersebut juga memberikan bantuan likuiditas kepada sektor perbankan seperti yang dilaksanakan di Indonesia. IMF baru saja menyelesaikan studi yang membahas permasalahan ini dalam terbitan yang disusun oleh Tomas Balino, et al, Financial Sector Crisis and Restructuring: Lessons from Asia, Washington DC : IMF, September 1999.

    Mengenai biaya yang dipikul perekonomian nasional dari bantuan likuiditas kepada sektor perbankan studi IMF tersebut melaporkan bahwa bantuan likuiditas yang diberikan bank sentral di Indonesia, Korea, Malaysia, Philippina dan Thailand memang kebanyakan besar jumlahnya. Untuk periode Juni 1997 – Juni 1999 biaya yang ditunjukkan dalam persentasi terhadap GDP untuk masing-masing negara adalah 17% untuk Indonesia, 7% untuk Korea, 13% untuk Malaysia, 0,8% untuk Philippina dan 22% untuk Thailand ( Tabel 3 dari studi di atas ). Studi tersebut selain menunjukkan semua negara yang mengalami krisis perbankan telah menjalankan langkah yang sama, bahwa bank sentralnya memberikan bantuan likuiditas, juga menunjukan betapa besarnya biaya yang harus dipikul masyarakat, kecuali Philippina.

    PEMBEBANAN BIAYA BLBI

    Masalah pembebanan dari pengeluaran bank sentral yang digunakan untuk membiayai BLBI ini menjadi rumit karena adanya kekurang jelasan atau beda pengertian mengenai berbagai hal yang disebutkan di atas. Sebenarnya sekiranya telah ada kesepakatan antara Departemen Keuangan dengan BI mengenai kriteria dan akhirnya jumlah dari keseluruhan bantuan likuiditas, maka seharusnya temuan BPK akan berbeda. Tentunya bukan dalam bentuk disclaimer dan karena itu tidak menimbulkan pergunjingan seperti sekarang. Tetapi ini telah terjadi jadi sekarang menimbulkan masalah.

    Implikasi dari penggunaan ketentuan perundangan secara kaku, dalam hal ini menggunakan ukuran keadaan normal untuk menilai keadaan krisis, memang dapat membawa kita pada konklusi yang dapat keliru, meskipun dari segi ketentuan yang ada nampaknya memang tidak sesuai. Apalagi kalau digunakan asummsi bahwa setiap ditemukan kasus demikian langsung konklusinya adalah bahwa telah terjadi kesengajaan untuk penyelewengan, ini bisa menghasilkan rekomendasi yang salah arah. Orang juga dapat menggunakan ketentuan yang kaku mengenai audit BPK sendiri dan berkesimpulan bahwa audit ini tidak mengikuti ketentuan yang berlaku, misalnya mengenai pengumuman hasil audit oleh BPK kepada masyarakat yang sebenarnya tidak sesuai dengan ketentuan. Tetapi ini akan menjadi polemik yang bisa tidak berkesudahan yang bukan maksud dari tulisan ini.

    Nampaknya menggunakan ketentuan perundangan secara kaku tidak banyak akan menjawab masalah bagaimana membebankan biaya pemberian BLBI yang sudah terjadi tersebut. Selain itu, mengikuti ketentuan yang berlaku secara kaku juga menimbulkan berbagai kejanggalan. Misalknya dalam hal dana talangan BI untuk membiayai pembayaran kepada pemilik dana 16 bank yang ditutup Nopember 1997. Ketentuan likuidasi bank tidak mengatur hal ini. BI diminta Pemerintah waktu itu untuk membayar lebih dahulu. Sekarang temuan BPK mengatakan BI tidak berhak minta Pemerintah mengganti biaya yang telah dikeluarkan tersebut. Hal serupa dengan berbagai pengeluaran lain. Ini memang perlu kejelasan, sehingga tidak menjadi perdebatan yang tidak menghasilkan jalan keluar.

    Mengenai pembebanan pembiayaan pada APBN dan karena itu akhirnya dibayar oleh masyarakat, memang benar. Yang juga jelas adalah bahwa beban itu telah terjadi waktu krisis dan semakin ditunda penyelesaiannya jumlahnya dapat menjadi meningkat. Coba diingat tentang biaya rekapitalisasi untuk berbagai bank, termasuk bank-bank Pemerintah, dengan tertundanya pelaksanaan telah berakibat terjadinya pembengkakan. Perhitungan pembiayaan yang menggunakan pinjaman memang selalu demikian, karena selain jumlah pokok kita bicara mengenai bunga atas pokok pinjaman. Pokoknya tidak begerak akan tetapi bunganya bertambah terus. Selain itu, pada waktu krisis masih berjalan perbankan kerapkali menghadapi masalah yang memeperburuk posisinya dari dua sisi, suku bunga deposito yang biasanya meningkat di sisi pengeluaran dan pengembalian kredit yang semakin seret karena nasabah yang menjadi bermasalah pada sisi penerimaan. Untuk bank yang mempunyai kewajiban dalam valas hal ini masih ditambah dengan depresiasi yang memperberat posisinya.

    Mengapa akhirnya beban tersebut harus dibayar masyarakat, atau pembayar pajak? Sebenarnya ini bermula dari tuntutan agar bantuan likuiditas bank sentral kepada sektor perbankan ini menjadi transparan, agar tidak ada yang disembunyikan yang bisa banyak implikasinya. Ini serupa dengan tuntutan agar segala bentuk subsidi yang dilakukan untuk sektor atau kegiatan tertentu yang diprioritaskan dalam perekonomian dimasukkanm dalam APBN; supaya ada transparansi, supaya rakyat mengetahuniya lewat anggota DPR. Jalan yang paling baik dari meningkatkan transparansi ini adalah kalau masyarakat atau rakyat dapat mengetahuinya secara jelas. Dan dalam sistim penyelenggaraan negara hal ini paling baik dilakukan melalui APBN yang penyusunannya harus melalui hak budget DPR. Jalan ini dengan demikian memenuhi tuntutan transparansi tersebut.

    Secara teoritis sebenarnya kalau penyusunan anggaran BI dilakukan dengan pembahasan DPR sebenarnya transparansi tersebut dipenuhi, masyarakat mengetahui melalui wakil rakyat yang membahas anggaran tersebut. Dalam hal ini sebenarnya tidak menjadi masalah apakah BLBI dibebankan pada anggaran Pemerintah atau anggaran BI. Tentu saja ada aspek lain yang perlu diperhatikan, akan tetapi dalam aspek peningkatan transparansi ini sebenarnya tidak harus jalur anggaran Pemerintah ini yang ditempuh.

    Kalau diikuti hasil audit BPK untuk menentukan mana yang layak dibebankan anggaran Pemerintah dan mana yang tidak layak, masalah selanjutnya adalah bagaimana bagian beban BI ini nantinya dibiayai. Perhitungan yang menghasilkan konklusi bahwa BI sudah bangkrut adalah berdasarkan penentuan bahwa BLBI atau sebagian dari BLBI harus ditanggung BI. Kalau BI harus menanggung beban tersebut dan dianggap bahwa beban ini merupakan kredit macet, maka BI harus membentuk cadangan piutang yang bermasalah tersebut. Dalam perhitungannya cadangan yang harus dibentuk ini akan menyebabkan seluruh kewajiban BI diluar modalnya menjadi jauh lebih besar dari tagihan atau assetnya. Dengan demikian BI menjadi tidak solvent dan harus dilikuidasi.

    Kalau penyelesaian ini dilakukan, maka setelah bank sentral ini dibangkrutkan maka Pemerintah, menurut ketentuan perundangan yang berlaku, berkewajiban untuk merekapitalisasi banknya sampai sonvent kembali. Pemerintah akan melakukan hal ini dengan membebankan siapa? Tentu saja pada APBN, kecuali kalau akan menjual saham bank sentral kepada masyarakat. Ini telah banyak diungkapkan, saya hanya menyebutkan sebagai kelengkapan uraian mengenai masalah pembebanan biaya BLBI.

    Sebenarnya yang juga perlu diingat mengenai masalah pembebanan ini adalah bahwa sebelum berlakunya ketentuan baru tentang bank sentral (UU Tentang Bank Sentral bulan Mei 1999) kedudukan BI pada dasarnya adalah merupakan bagian dari Pemerintah ( saya telah sering bicara dan menulis mengenai masalah tidak independentnya BI dan berbagai implikasinya ). Dari penentuan tuganya yang tegas-tegas dikatakan membantu Pemerintah, bahkan dalam kebijaksanaan moneter selain dalam mendorong kelancaran produksi dan pembangunan (pasal 7 UU nomor 13 1968), menunjukkan bahwa bank sentral sebelum Mei 1999 adalah bagian dari Pemerintah. Selain itu status Gubernur BI yang sejak tahun 1983 sampai Mei 1998 dijadikan anggota Kabinet, juga menggaris bawahi posisi BI sebagai bagian Pemerintah tersebut.

    Dalam kaitan diatas, selain maksud pembebanan pada APBN bermula dari perlunya transparansi dari kegiatan semacam ini, argumen mengenai pembebanan BLBI mungkin bukan masalah antara Pemerintah dan BI akan tetapi masalah hubungan antar instansi (Depkeu dan BI) di dalam satu Pemerintah. Kejelasan masalah, akuntabilitas instansi atau bahkan individu kiranya perlu dijadikan transparan, akan tetapi mudah-mudahan perdebatannya bukan masalah mencari kambing hitam. Kalau hal ini yang dicari nampaknya tidak sulit, biasanya yang lemah dalam berbagai posisinya yang harus memikul.

    BEBERAPA CACATAN

    1. Pada waktu dilakukan pembahasan di DPR, Ketua Panja BLBI mengatakan bahwa tindakan yang sangat luas dampak negatifnya ini tidak mungkin dilakukan tanpa ada yang salah. Siapa yang salah itu? Siapa yang harus bertanggung jawab? Bagaimana mungkin hal ini menimbulkan tindakan saling tuding mengenai siapa yang salah? Dalam salah satu komentar saya, saya mengajukan alternatif lain dari tidak ada yang salah, yaitu semua salah. Siapa semua itu?

    2. Sekiranya apa yang dilakukan waktu itu memberikan hasil seperti yang diharapkan, perbankan tidak mengalami kerusakan yang lebih besar, rupiah menguat dan sektor riil tertolong, apakah akan ada kritik terhadap BLBI? Saya kira sebaliknya, mungkin kebijaksanaan ini disanjung-sanjung. Saya jadi ingat pada kata-kata orang bijak bahwa kegagalan itu adalah anak tiri, sedangkan sukses itu banyak bapanya. Karena BLBI yang dilaksanakan untuk menghadapi krisis perbankan nampak seperti kegagalan kebijaksanaan maka tidak ada lembaga apalagi individu yang bersedia mendakunya. Akan tetapi seandainya yang terjadi adalah sebaliknya, masalah perbankan terselesaikan dengan baik, saya hampir yakin dewasa ini ada banyak pihak yang menunjukkan kontribusinya pada kebijaksanaan tersebut. Manusiawi? Ya!

    3. Ada sesuatu yang nampak kurang pas dalam kita menyikapi masalah BLBI ini. Ini menyangkut bagaimana jauh berbedanya orang memandang BPPN dengan BLBI. Pembahasan mengenai BPPN nampak lebih dilatar belakangi oleh besarnya kekuasaan lembaga ini atas asset perbankan dan nasabah perbankan. Bahkan terkesan kedudukan pimpinannya sering diperebutkan. Akan tetapi mengenai BLBI pembahasannya menampakkan sulit mencari yang bersedia menaggung bebannya. Kalau diterapkan kata-kata orang bijak di atas, BPPN ini banyak bapaknya sedangkan BLBI itu anak tiri. Saya kira satu aspek yang dilupakan orang di sini adalah bahwa BPPN adalah lembaga yang dibentuk Pemerintah untuk mengambil alih masalah bank-bank yang sedang menderita sakit dan perlu disehatkan. Penyakit bank-bank tersebut antara lain tercermin dari pinjamannya yang kelewat besar pada BI karena bantuan likuiditas yang diterimanya selama krisis. Kalau mau ekstrim orang bisa mengatakan BPPN itu lahir karena adanya BLBI. Jadi?

    4. Semua argumen di atas diajukan bukan untuk mengkaburkan masalah BLBI. Bahkan sebaliknya diinginkan untuk menyumbang kejelasan masalahnya. Ini dikemukakan bukan untuk menutup kesalahan atau penyelewengan yang mungkin terjadi, menyangkut individu yang ternyata mengambil manfaat pribadi dari penyalurannya atau menyalah gunakan penggunaannya, di BI ataupun bank-bank penerima atau diluar itu. Disinilah pertanggung jawaban itu dituntut. Saya ingin menulis kembali apa yang telah saya kemukakan sebelum ini ; dari aspek sosial dan moral bagi para pejabat yang tersangkut adalah bahwa mereka tidak menerima imbalan dalam arti materi atau yang lain yang berkaitan dengan pemberian failitas ini. Ini tidak cukup, karena dalam suatu kebijakan seorang penentu kebijakan harus bertanggung jawab dalam arti akuntabilitas, dalam sesuatu hirarki kekuasaan atasan akhirnya harus ikut bertanggung jawab dari kesalahan bawahan. Akan tetapi pertanggung jawaban suatu kebijakan tentu berbeda dengan suatu tindakan pidana. Dalam hal ini semua test minimal bagi akuntabilitas sosial dan moral pejabat adalah apakah masing-masing bersih dari menerima imbalan atau tidak. Mengenai penyelewengan atau penyalah gunaan penggunaannya pemilik atau pimpinan bank penerima yang harus bertanggung jawab. Semua ini harus terungkap dari investigative audit atau penyidikan lain yang sedang berjalan.


    http://m.jaringnews.com/index.php/ekonomi/perbankan/6671/dijuluki-sarang-penyamun-bi-punya-sejarah-memalukan

    Dijuluki Sarang Penyamun, BI Punya Sejarah Memalukan

    Eben Ezer Siadari

    BI belum sepenuhnya terbebas dari citra sarang penyamun tersebut.

    JAKARTA, Jaringnews.com – Mantan deputi senior Gubernur Bank Indonesia, Anwar Nasution, pernah menjuluki Bank Indonesia sebagai sarang penyamun didasari keprihatinannya pada maraknya korupsi di bank sentral itu.

    Kini publik kembali teringat pada julukan itu. Kian gencarnya sorotan diarahkan kepada mantan deputi senior Gubernur BI, Miranda Goeltom, setelah tertangkapnya Nunun Nurbaetie, serta dinonaktifkannya deputi Gubernur BI Budi Mulya dalam kasus ‘pinjaman’ sebesar Rp1 miliar dari Robert Tantoelar, terpidana kasus Bank Century, menimbulkan keraguan jangan-jangan BI belum sepenuhnya terbebas dari citra sarang penyamun tersebut.

    Kepada wartawan, Selasa (13/12) Gubernur Bank Indonesia (BI) Darmin Nasution mengatakan kasus suap pemilihan Deputi Gubernur Senior BI Miranda S. Gultom adalah sejarah yang memalukan. Menurut dia, pihaknya telah mengambil langkah untuk tidak membiarkan peristiwa serupa terulang. “Menyedihkan terjadi di BI. Sudahlah itu sejarah memalukan. Ke depan akan kita bangun kebiasaan baru agar fit and proper buat statement dan pakta integritas,” kata Darmin.

    Bukan hanya kasus cek pelawat dalam pemilihan deputi gubernur BI itu yang merupakan sejarah memalukan bagi bank ‘sarang penyamun’ itu. Penelusuran Jaringnews menunjukkan setidaknya 12 petinggi BI setingkat direktur dan deputi gubernur BI, pernah masuk bui karena kasus korupsi. Tiga diantaranya adalah gubernur. Walau belum ada penelitian ilmiah, tapi dapat dikatakan BI mungkin salah satu bank sentral di dunia yang petingginya terbanyak dihukum karena korupsi.

    Para petinggi BI yang pernah masuk bui atas tuduhan korupsi antara lain Soedradjad Djiwandono, Syahril Sabirin dan Burhanuddin Abdullah. Ketiganya pernah menjabat gubernur BI dan korupsi yang dituduhkan kepada mereka terjadi pada saat mereka menjabat.

    Pejabat lainnya adalah Paul Soetopo, Hendrobudijanto, Heru Supraptomo, Aulia Pohan, Bun Bunan Hutapea, Aslim Tadjuddin dan Iwan Prawiranata. Mereka ini pernah menduduki jabatan gubernur BI, atau setingkat dengan deputi gubernur BI zaman sekarang.

    Sekadar mengingatkan, Paul Soetopo adalah mantan Direktur Urusan otoritas dan Pengendalian Moneter Bank Indonesia. Ia divonis hukuman penjara 2,5 tahun dan denda Rp 20 juta oleh Majelis Hakim Pengadilan Negeri Jakarta Pusat pada 4 April 2003 karena dinyatakan terbukti menyetujui pemberian fasilitas Bantuan Likuiditas Bank Indonesia (BLBI) senilai lebih dari Rp 2,02 triliun kepada lima bank yang kalah kliring: Bank Harapan Sentosa, Bank Nusa Internasional, Bank Umum Nasional, Bank Anriko, dan Bank Upindo. Ia dibebaskan dari tuntutan pidana di tingkat banding sehingga jaksa kemudian mengajukan kasasi.

    Pada 22 Juni 2005, Mahkamah Agung memutuskan bahwa ia bersalah dan dihukum 1,5 tahun penjara. Dalam kasus ini, tersangkut pula dua direksi BI lain yakni Hendrobudiyanto dan Heru Supraptomo. Mereka dituduh menyalahgunakan wewenangnya karena mengetahui adanya penyalahgunaan dana BLBI oleh bank penerima namun tidak pernah memberikan sanksi kepada bank-bank tersebut.

    Dua pejabat lain setingkat di bawah direksi atau deputi gubernur BI adalah Oey Hoey Tiong dan Rusli Simanjuntak. Keduanya masuk bui tersangkut kasus korupsi yang melibatkan Burhanuddin Abdullah, Bun Bunan Hutapea dan Aulia Pohan.

    Terungkapnya lagi kasus Miranda Goeltom dan Budi Mulya melahirkan spekulasi akan bertambahnya pejabat BI yang mengikuti jejak pendahulu mereka menorehkan sejarah gelap di institusi bergengsi tersebut.

    (Ben / Deb)


    http://tempo.co.id/harian/profil/prof-anwarnasution.html

    Profil Anwar Nasution

    Nama : ANWAR NASUTION

    Tempat, Tgl lahir : Tapanuli Selatan, Sumatera Utara, 5 Agustus 1942

    Agama : Islam

    Pendidikan :

    • SD Negeri I, Sipirok (1955)
    • SMP Negeri, Sipirok (1958)
    • SMA Negeri Teladan, Medan (1961)
    • Fakultas Ekonomi UI, Jakarta (1968)
    • School of Government, Universitas Harvard, AS (1973)
    • Tax Administration, University of Southern California, Los Angeles (1976)
    • Universitas Tufts, Massachusetts, AS (doktor, 1982)

    Karya Tulis Penting : Financial Institutions and Policies in Indonesia, ISEAS, 1983

    Pekerjaan :

    • Lektor Fakultas Ekonomi UI (1964-sekarang)
    • Research Associate Lembaga Penyelidikan Ekonomi & Masyarakat (1975-sekarang)
    • Ketua Tim Konsultan Bank Umum Koperasi Indonesia (1984- sekarang)
    • Staf Ahli majalah Infobank (1982-sekarang)
    • Tenaga Perbantuan Departemen Keuangan Ditjen Moneter (1968- 1975)
    • Konsultan Ekonomi BI (1982-1983)
    • Dosen Fakultas Ekonomi UI * Dekan Fakultas Ekonomi (1998-1999).
      • Deputi Senior Bank Indonesia (Sejak 1999)

    Alamat rumah : Jalan Taman Lebak Bulus I No. 3, Cilandak, Jakarta Selatan

    Alamat kantor : Gedung BI, Jalan Thamrin, Jakarta Pusat.


    ‘Preman’ di ‘Sarang Penyamun’

    ANWAR NASUTION

    Rasa humor, tampaknya, tidak bisa lepas dari sosok Anwar Nasution, Deputi Senior Gubernur BI, yang kini menjadi pelaksana tugas kepemimpinan BI setelah Gubernur BI, Syahril Sabirin, ditahan Kejaksaan Agung. Ketika sejumlah wartawan ingin mengucapkan selamat atas terpilih dirinya sebagai Deputi Senior Gubernur Bank Indonesia, Anwar berujar: “Jangan memberi ucapan selamat. Lebih tepat ucapan duka cita. Soalnya, gaji saya sekarang hanya sepertiga dari yang saya terima setiap bulannya. Padahal, tugas dan beban saya lebih berat,” ucapnya tertawa, seperti dikutip sebuah majalah.

    Sesungguhnya, ucapan Anwar itu tidak berlebihan. Dengan menjadi Deputi Senior Gubernur BI, ia harus melepaskan sejumlah jabatannya, seperti sebagai Dekan Fakultas Ekonomi Universitas Indonesia, Komisaris Semen Gresik, Komisaris Pelindo II, dan Konsultan. Selain itu, sudah pasti, waktunya akan banyak tersita di BI, sehingga kesempatannya untuk berkumpul dengan keluarga pun jadi berkurang, termasuk shoping ke mal bersama anak dan isterinya. Bahkan, suatu kali, ia harus absen menemani anak dan isterinya berlibur ke luar negeri –sekaligus menjadi pembicara pada sebuah seminar di sana– karena harus tampil di DPR untuk melakukan presentasi sebagai calon Deputi Senior Gubernur BI.

    Naiknya Anwar menjadi orang nomor dua di bank sentral itu dipenuhi pro-kontra. Alasannya macam-macam, ada yang mengatakan ia tidak mampu membangun kerja tim, enggan melepaskan jabatannya sebagai Dekan FE UI. Tetapi semua ini, agaknya, pro-kontra itu tak lepas dari sikapnya yang memang kritis dan blak-blakan. Anwar, sejak dulu memang dikenal sebagai ekonom yang sangat vokal. Banyak kritik tajam yang dialamatkan ke pemerintah menyangkut kebijakan sektor ekonomi, moneter, maupun politik secara umum. Salah satu kritiknya yang paling monumental adalah: “Bank Indonesia itu sarang penyamun.” Orang pun tercengang.

    Tentu ia tidak asal melemparkan kritik terhadap bank sentral. Semua itu, katanya, tidak lepas dari tindakan BI sendiri. Lembaga itu lebih banyak berperan sebagai bagian dari birokrasi, daripada sebagai bank sentral. Ia menunjuk, hampir semua program kredit yang dikeluarkan BI lebih bernuansa politik. “Karena itu terjadilah praktek mark up, korupsi, kolusi, dan nepotisme, serta adanya investasi keliru yang mengakibatkan kehancuran sistem perbankan,” katanya.

    Lebih jauh, ia mengungkapkan bagaimana ulah bank sentral yang diibaratkan sebagai rumah gadai. Alasannya, BI kerap memberikan kredit tanpa memperhatikan karakter dan tingkah laku si penerima kredit itu sendiri. Itu semua berakibat fatal, dan itu harus dibayar mahal oleh perbankan nasional. Antara lain, katanya, itu terlihat dari tindakan BPPN yang harus membayar mahal ahli hukum, konsultan, dan tenaga ahli lainnya. Karena itu, lanjutnya, BI tidak boleh lagi memberi kredit-kredit yang bernuansa politik.

    Anwar lahir Sipirok, Tapanuli Selatan, Sumatera Utara, 47 tahun lalu. Ia menghabiskan masa kecilnya di tanah kelahirannya itu — tempat ia menamatkan SD dan SMP. Ketika sekolah di SMA Teladan, Medan, ia menjadi “preman” –istilah di sana untuk anggota gank. Namun, sekolahnya lancar. Di SMP, Anwar malah menjadi juara pertama, di SMA pun ia jadi juara dua. Mengambil jurusan ilmu pasti dan pengetahuan alam, ia juga menjuarai mata pelajaran aljabar, goneometri, dan ilmu falak. Anehnya, “Mata pelajaran ekonomi malah saya tak suka,” katanya.

    Tidak heran kalau kemudian ia mendaftar di Fakultas Matematika & Ilmu Pasti Alam (FMIPA) ITB di Bandung, 1961. Baru setahun ia kuliah, seorang bekas rekan se-SMA datang “menggoda”. “Lowongan untuk sarjana matematika susah, nanti mau kerja apa kau,” kata si teman, yang lalu menganjurkannya pindah ke fakultas ekonomi. Anwar mencoba mendaftar ke FE UI — dan diterima.

    Tinggal di asrama mahasiswa UI di Rawamangun, Anwarlah yang memprakarsai nama Daksinapati –kata Sanskerta yang berarti “calon suami yang baik”. Nama itu yang dipakai hingga kini. Pada 1966, ia turut menyelenggarakan seminar ekonomi, yang kesimpulannya dipakai sebagai bahan Ketetapan MPRS No. 63/MPRS/66.

    Pada 1968, setelah lulus dari FE UI, Anwar mengajar di almamaternya, sambil menjadi tenaga bantuan pada Dirjen Moneter Departemen Keuangan. Sejak 1975, ia menjadi peneliti pada Lembaga Penyelidikan Ekonomi Masyarakat (LPEM) FE UI. Yang menarik sebagai peneliti, menurut dia, ialah tidak adanya ikatan birokrasi. “Saya paling malas kalau disuruh rapat,” ujar Anwar, yang meraih gelar doktor pada Universitas Tufts, Medford, Massachusetts, AS, 1982 dengan disertasi berjudul “Macroeconomic Policies, Financial Institutions and a Short Run Monetary Model of the Indonesian Economy”. Di Amerika, ia juga mendalami administrasi perpajakan.

    Anwar anak sulung di antara enam bersaudara. Kedua orangtuanya guru SMP. Ia menikah dengan perancang interior Maya Ayuna, 1974. Dulu, pada 1970-an ia berlatih karate pada Lahardo. Sebagai murid yang setia, Anwar ikut berpartisipasi ketika Lahardo diadu melawan macan di Stadion Utama Senayan, Jakarta. Sebelum Lahardo masuk gelanggang, menurut cerita Anwar, ia dan teman-temannya mengelilingi sang macan. Tahu-tahu, ada penonton iseng melempar sesuatu. “Kami langsung bubar, karena macan keburu mengamuk duluan,” tutur penggemar joging ini, terbahak-bahak. (mis/sumber: apa&siapa tempo dan kliping)


    http://rapolo.wordpress.com/2003/11/21/dr-anwar-nasution/

    Dr. Anwar Nasution Setelah Masuk ‘Sarang Penyamun’

    rapOLO, November 21, 2003 at 6:18 pm

    Ia dikenal sebagai ekonom yang sangat vokal. Sebelum menjadi Deputi Senior Gubernur Bank Indonesia, ia sering mengkritik tajam pemerintah dan Bank Indonesia menyangkut kebijakan sektor ekonomi dan moneter. Salah satu kritiknya yang paling monumental ketika ia menyatakan: “Bank Indonesia itu sarang penyamun.” Maka, saat diangkat masuk BI, banyak harapan dialamatkan ke pundaknya untuk membersihkan penyamun dari bank sentral itu. Tapi, tampaknya mantan Dekan Fakultas Ekonomi Universitas Indonesia itu tidak bisa berbuat banyak. Publik yakin, pria kelahiran Sipirok, Sumatera Utara 5 Agustus 1942, ini tidak sembarang melemparkan kritik terhadap bank sentral itu. Sebab sebagai seorang ekonom dan akademisi, ia diyakini punya alasan cukup kuat tentang pernyataan-pernyataannya. Doktor bidang ekonomi dari Tufts University, Massachusetts, USA 1982, itu mengatakan kritiknya tidak lepas dari tindakan BI sendiri. Lembaga ini lebih banyak berperan sebagai bagian dari birokrasi daripada sebagai bank sentral.

    Menurutnya, hampir semua program kredit yang dikeluarkan BI lebih bernuansa politik. Sehingga terjadilah praktek mark up, korupsi, kolusi, dan nepotisme, serta adanya investasi keliru yang mengakibatkan kehancuran sistem perbankan. Sebelum diberlakukannya UU No. 23/1999, BI memang masih belum independen dan masih mengucurkan kredit. Sebelum menjabat di BI, ia juga mengungkapkan bagaimana ulah bank sentral ini yang diibaratkannya sebagai rumah gadai. Hal mana, BI kerap memberikan kredit tanpa memperhatikan karakter dan tingkah laku si penerima kredit itu sendiri. Tindakan itu berakibat fatal, dan harus dibayar mahal oleh perbankan nasional. Antara lain, katanya, itu terlihat dari tindakan BPPN yang harus membayar mahal ahli hukum, konsultan, dan tenaga ahli lainnya. Karena itu, lanjutnya, BI tidak boleh lagi memberi kredit-kredit yang bernuansa politik.

    Lalu setelah masuk BI yang disebutnya ‘sarang penyamun’ itu, tampaknya ia tidak bisa berbuat banyak. Posisinya sebagai Deputi Senior Gubernur BI tidak cukup kuat untuk melakukan reformasi di bank central yang penuh noda itu. Mentalitas para pejabat dan karyawannya yang sudah terbiasa melayani kepentingan diri, sehingga berakibat kebijakan moneter negeri ini sempat amburadul, tak mudah diubah. Bahkan berbagai pihak sempat menduga bahwa ia menjadi larut dalam ‘sarang penyamun’ itu. Atau BI kini sudah tidak lagi sebagai’sarang penyamun’? Namun, kelihatannya ia bukan orang yang diinginkan dalam tubuh BI. Presiden Megawati Sukarnoputri juga tampaknya tak melihat potensinya untuk dapat memperbaiki kinerja BI. Terbukti, ia tidak ikut dicalonkan untuk menjabat Gubernur BI menggantikan Syahril Sabirin yang akan berakhir masa jabatannya 17 Mei 2003. Padahal, sebelumnya banyak pihak menduga ia akan dicalonkan. Bahkan disebut, ia salah seorang yang paling layak dicalonkan daripada tiga calon yang diajukan presiden.

    Ketidakkuasaannya melakukan reformasi dalam tubuh BI, tercermin juga dalam sikapnya sehari-hari. Ia malah sempat melontarkan betapa pihak asing tak memandangnya, karena jabatannya hanya deputi senior, saat syahril Sabirin dalam tahanan sekalipun. Lalu, ia pun sempat menyatakan mengundurkan diri bersama empat deputi Gubernur BI, secara serempak, saat Gubernur BI Syahril Sabirin ditahan karena dituduh terlibat kasus Bank Bali. Pengunduran diri ini mengundang pro dan kontra. Ada yang mengiranya sebagai persekongkolan atau mungkin tekanan untuk mengganti Syahril Sabirin yang memang sudah lama diinginkan Presiden Abdurrahman Wahid ketika itu. Apalagi, sehari setelah pengunduran diri itu, presiden mengajukan namanya menjadi calon Gubernur BI bersama Dr Hartadi dan Fajriah Fajriah yang saat itu menjabat Direktur Pengawasan BI.

    Namun, keinginan penggantian Gubernur BI itu rupanya tidak mudah dilakukan. Terjadi pro dan kontara tentang hal ini. Akhirnya pemerintah dan DPR sepakat (Minggu 19/11/2000) proses pergantian gubernur bank sentral itu diundur sambil menunggu revisi Undang-undang (UU) No. 23/1999 tentang BI. Kendati Gus Dur sendiri tetap bersikeras mempertahankan Anwar Nasution sebagai calon gubernur BI. Pasalnya, Anwar dinilai memenuhi kriteria untuk menduduki posisi orang nomor satu di bank sentral itu. Kalangan DPR menolak pencalonan Anwar, karena selain ada parpol yang mempunyai kepentingan untuk mempertahankan Syahril, mekanisme yang ditempuh Gus Dur juga dinilai melanggar UU No. 23/1999.

    Beberapa pengamat berpendapat, pengajuan tiga bakal nama calon gubernur BI dan deputi gubernur senior merupakan kesalahan, bahkan pemerintah bisa dikategorikan melanggar UU No. 23/1999. Syahril yang berstatus tahanan rumah dalam kasus Bank Bali (BB) tidak bisa diberhentikan begitu saja selama belum ada kepastian hukum yang menyebutkan dia bersalah. Ini disebut bukan sekadar intervensi, tapi juga pelanggaran UU. Sementara, untuk mencegah kevakuman kepemimpinan BI, pemerintah tetap meminta kepada mereka yang mengundurkan diri untuk bekerja sampai terpilihnya deputi yang baru. Pemerintah memandang, pengunduran diri mereka bukan dilihat sebagai bentuk kegagalan kerja, tetapi merupakan permintaan pribadi masing-masing sebagai tanggung jawab moral terhadap apa yang terjadi di masa lalu.

    Kepala Biro Humas BI Halim Alamsyah itu juga mengeluarkan pernyataan pers yang menyebutkan, penanggungjawab pelaksanaan tugas BI tetap dilaksanakan anggota Dewan Gubernur BI. Selain itu, BI mengimbau kalangan perbankan dan lembaga keuangan baik dalam maupun luar negeri serta masyarakat tetap tenang dan bertindak wajar, sehingga tak mengganggu upaya pemulihan ekonomi nasional yang saat ini sedang dilaksanakan. Sementara itu, Anwar Nasution didampingi Deputi Gubernur BI Achyar Ilyas dan tiga orang staf BI sebelumnya menjenguk Syahril Sabirin di Rumah Tahanan (Rutan) Kejaksaan Agung. Wartawan yang mengira terjadi penandatanganan serah terima wewenang Gubernur BI di tahanan itu, langsung mengerumuni Anwar. Anwar membantah isu serah terima itu. Ia mengatakan, belum ada rencana Syahril mundur dari jabatan sebelum pengadilan memutuskan apakah salah atau tidak. Ia yang menjadi pelaksana tugas kepemimpinan BI setelah Syahril Sabirin ditahan, juga berkali-kali berkata tak tahu saat wartawan menanyakan pendapatnya tentang rekayasa di balik penahanan Syahril.

    Perjalanan karir penulis Financial Institutions and Policies in Indonesia, ISEAS (1983), ini banyak berada di lingkungan akademis. Diawali sebagai asisten pengajar, dosen dan guru besar ekonomi di FEUI mulai tahun 1964 sampai sekarang. Selain itu sejak tahun 1985 menjadi pengajar tamu mata kuliah ekonomi di Lemhannas, Seskoal dan Seskoad. Pada tahun 1995-1996, ia sempat menjadi pengajar tamu mata kuliah ekonomi pembangunan di University of Helsinki, Finlandia. Selain itu ia juga aktip sebagai konsultan dan menjabat Komisaris Semen Gresik, dan Pelindo II.

    Maka ketika ia baru diangkat menjadi Deputi Senior Gubernur BI, Rasa humor, saat sejumlah wartawan ingin mengucapkan selamat, secara berkelakar ia mengatakan: “Jangan memberi ucapan selamat. Lebih tepat ucapan duka cita. Soalnya, gaji saya sekarang hanya sepertiga dari yang saya terima setiap bulannya. Padahal, tugas dan beban saya lebih berat,” ucapnya tertawa, seperti dikutip sebuah majalah. Ucapan itu tidak berlebihan. Sebab dengan menjadi Deputi Senior Gubernur BI, ia harus melepaskan sejumlah jabatannya. Soalnya, sebagai deputi senior, ia tidak bisa lagi merangkap jabatan. Selain itu, sudah pasti, waktunya akan banyak tersita di BI. Sehingga kesempatannya berceramah di mana-mana seperti sediakala dan untuk berkumpul dengan keluarga pun jadi berkurang. Termasuk shoping ke mal bersama anak dan isterinya. Bahkan, suatu kali, ia harus absen menemani anak dan isterinya berlibur ke luar negeri -sekaligus menjadi pembicara pada sebuah seminar di sana- karena harus tampil di DPR untuk melakukan presentasi sebagai calon Deputi Senior Gubernur BI.

    Kendati demikian, diangkatnya ia menjadi orang nomor dua di bank sentral itu bukan tidak mengundang pro-kontra. Alasannya macam-macam. Di antaranya sikap kritisnya terhadap pemerintah menyangkut kebijakan sektor ekonomi, moneter, maupun politik secara umum. Salah satu kritiknya yang paling monumental adalah: “Bank Indonesia itu sarang penyamun.” Kritik ini membuat orang-orang BI tercengang dan berang. Sebagian ada pula yang mengatakan bahwa ia tidak berkemampuan membangun kerja tim. Juga keenggannya melepaskan jabatan sebagai Dekan FE UI. Pria Batak berjiwa kebangsaan ini menghabiskan masa kecil di tanah kelahirannya Sipirok, Tapanuli Selatan. Di situ ia menamatkan SD dan SMP. Di SMP, ia meraih juara pertama. Lalu melanjut ke SMA Teladan, Medan. Di sini, ia menjadi “preman” -istilah di sana untuk anggota gank. Namun, sekolahnya tetap lancar. Bahkan ia masih jadi juara dua. Mengambil jurusan ilmu pasti dan pengetahuan alam, ia juga menjuarai mata pelajaran aljabar, goneometri, dan ilmu falak. Anehnya, “Mata pelajaran ekonomi malah saya tak suka,” kanangnya.

    Lalu, tak heran bila kemudian ia mendaftar di Fakultas Matematika & Ilmu Pasti Alam (FMIPA) Institut Teknologi Bandung (ITB), 1961. Baru setahun ia kuliah, seorang rekan se-SMA “menggodanya”. Rekannya bilang, lowongan untuk sarjana matematika susah. “Nanti mau kerja apa kau,” kata si teman, yang lalu menganjurkannya pindah ke fakultas ekonomi. Anwar pun mendaftar ke FE UI dan diterima. ITB pun ditinggalkan, lalu tinggal di asrama mahasiswa UI di Rawamangun. Ketika di asrama itu, ia memprakarsai nama asrama itu, Daksinapati, kata Sanskerta yang berarti “calon suami yang baik”. Nama itu dipakai hingga kini. Pada 1966, ia turut menyelenggarakan seminar ekonomi, yang kesimpulannya dipakai sebagai bahan Ketetapan MPRS No. 63/MPRS/66.

    Pada 1968, setelah lulus dari FE UI, ia mengajar di almamaternya, sambil menjadi tenaga bantuan pada Dirjen Moneter Departemen Keuangan. Sejak 1975, ia menjadi peneliti pada Lembaga Penyelidikan Ekonomi Masyarakat (LPEM) FE UI. Menurutnya, hal yang menarik sebagai peneliti adalah tidak adanya ikatan birokrasi. Ia mengaku paling malas kalau disuruh rapat. Ia pun kemudian meraih MPA di Harvard University, Massachusetts, USA pada tahun 1973. Tahun berikutnya (1974), ia menikah dengan perancang interior Maya Ayuna. Gelar doktornya dalam bidang ekonomi diraih di Tufts University, Medford, Massachusetts, USA pada tahun 1982. dengan disertasi berjudul “Macroeconomic Policies, Financial Institutions and a Short Run Monetary Model of the Indonesian Economy”. Di negeri Paman Sam itu, penggemar joging ini, juga mendalami administrasi perpajakan. Ia anak sulung dari enam bersaudara. Darah guru mengalir dalam tubuhnya. Kedua orangtuanya guru SMP. Pria yang suka kelakar ini, juga rajin berolahraga. dulu, pada 1970-an ia berlatih karate pada Lahardo. Sebagai murid yang setia, ia ikut berpartisipasi ketika Lahardo diadu melawan macan di Stadion Utama Senayan, Jakarta. Sebelum Lahardo masuk gelanggang, ia dan teman-temannya mengelilingi sang macan. Tahu-tahu, ada penonton iseng melempar sesuatu. “Kami langsung bubar, karena macan keburu mengamuk duluan,” tuturnya seraya tertawa terpingkel-pingkel.

    Kinerja

    Seusai menjadi pembicara kunci pada Seminar ‘BPR, Peluang Investasi’ di Malang, beberapa waktu lalu, ia mengatakan semua pihak agar jangan hanya menyalahkan tim ekonomi Kabinet Gotong Royong sehubungan dengan upaya mereka dalam pemulihan ekonomi bangsa yang terkesan ‘jalan di tempat.’ Karena ada berbagai masalah dan faktor yang kurang mendukung upaya pemulihan ekonomi bangsa ini, seperti masa transisi menjadi sistem demokrasi. Selain persoalan masa transisi, katanya, hal itu juga dipengaruhi adanya perubahan sistem pemerintah dari sentralistis menjadi otonomi serta adanya pengurangan peran politik dari TNI. Sehingga perlu waktu untuk perbaikan yang dilakukan secara bertahap.

    Ia juga menjelaskan salah satu strategi pemerintah yang kini gencar dilakukan untuk pemulihan ekonomi nasional adalah memberdayakan usaha kecil menengah (UKM) melalui empat pilar kebijakan, yakni kebijakan kredit perbankan, kebijakan kredit program, bantuan teknis, serta pengembangan kelembagaan. Ia berharap melalui empat pilar strategi tersebut dapat memperluas akses UKM terhadap fasilitas kredit perbankan, sehingga potensi UKM dapat dikembangkan sekaligus mempercepat usaha negeri ini untuk keluar dari krisis ekonomi. Ia pun menyebut pertumbuhan ekonomi Indonesia masih belum bisa dikatakan sustainable (berkesinambungan). Sebab, iklim investasi di dalam negeri belum memungkinkan bagi para investor untuk berbondong-bondong masuk dan membuka investasi baru di Indonesia.

    Menurutnya, adanya peningkatan konsumsi dalam negeri, juga tidak mampu memacu kenaikan investasi. Oleh karena itu, agenda terpenting bagi pemerintah, termasuk BI, adalah bagaimana menjaga situasi dan kondisi sosial, ekonomi, dan politik, serta keamanan dalam negeri yang dapat merangsang masuknya investor. “Betul dalam teori ekonomi yang kita pelajari, kalau konsumsi itu meningkat, maka melalui proses akselerator hal itu akan menggerakkan dan mendorong perekonomian. Asalkan, kenaikan konsumsi itu memang meningkatkan investasi. Dengan peningkatan investasi yang terjadi, harusnya akan meningkatkan income. Akan tetapi, belum kelihatan di sini bahwa kenaikan konsumsi menaikan investasi, jelasnya.


    http://rusdimathari.wordpress.com/2008/01/03/memo-memo-rahasia-soal-blbi/

    Memo-Memo Rahasia soal BLBI

    by rusdi mathari, Januari 3, 2008

    Setelah sempat diributkan oleh Ketua BPK Anwar Nasution, kasus BLBI kembali hilang dari ingatan. Dari masa ke masa, dari rezim ke rezim, kasus penggasiran uang negara terbesar itu hanya menjadi dagangan politik dan kekuasaan. Padahal ada beberapa temuan yang mengindikasikan bahwa penyaluran BLBI diduga sarat kongkalikong antara pejabat BI dan konglomerat pemilik bank. Inilah beberapa memo pejabat pemerintah dan pemilik bank yang tercecer dan belum sepenuhnya terungkap kepada publik menyangkut kejanggalan penyaluran BLBI.

    SUATU hari di pertengahan bulan September 2002, saya menghadiri jamuan makan para pejabat BPPN. Nama BPPN saat itu sedang berada di puncak ketenaran dan para pejabat lembaga ad hoc itu ingin para wartawan mendengar “wejangan” mereka. Tempatnya di Mercantile Club, Wisma BCA, Jakarta dengan jamuan makan malam yang luar biasa mahal, setidaknya menurut ukuran saya.

    Ketika acara jamuan mulai beranjak ke menu utama setelah disuguhi menu pembuka, saya mulai bertanya soal BLBI sehubungan rencana BPPN untuk kembali memanggil Usman Admadjaja, salah satu konglomerat penerima BLBI. Menjawab pertanyaan saya, seorang pejabat BPPN mengungkapkan bahwa dari RP 153,4 triliun BLBI yang dikucurkan oleh Bank Indonesia, sebanyak 21 persen diantaranya ternyata tidak ada jaminan. Sementara yang ada jaminannya pun, sebanyak 74 persen tidak diikat dengan azas legalitas. “Kami tidak tahu kenapa BI bisa kebobolan seperti itu,” kata pejabat tadi.

    Hal itu baru ketahuan oleh BPPN, kata pejabat tadi, setelah lembaganya kembali mengotak-atik dokumen perihal BLBI sehubungan dengan rencana pemanggilan kembali Usman Admadjaja, salah satu konglomerat penerima BLBI bekas pemilik Bank Danamon. Ada beberapa debitur yang namanya tercantum sehubungan dengan penyerahan jaminan yang kurang itu tapi pejabat tadi tak bersedia menyebutkannya kepada saya. Sebuah keterangan dan penjelasan yang aneh.

    Mengapa aneh? Karena lembaga sebesar BPPN yang didirikan sejak 1998 untuk mengurusi BLBI ternyata baru mengetahui ada “ketimpangan” itu justru pada saat masa kerjanya akan berakhir pada tahun 2003. Soal temuan itu pun BPPN sebenarnya bisa dikatakan sangat terlambat bila mengingat Badan Pemeriksa Keuangan sudah lebih awal mengungkapkan banyaknya ketimpangan antara jumlah BLBI yang dikucurkan dengan jaminan yang diberikan oleh para debitur.

    Berdasarkan hasil audit pada 1999, BPK antara lain pernah mengungkapkan bahwa dari Rp 144,5 triliun dana BLBI yang dikucurkan kepada 54 bank, hanya sekitar Rp 24 triliun yang diikat dengan jaminan. Sisanya menurut BPK, tidak ada kejelasan. Itulah sebagian carut marut kasus BLBI, yang kemudian kembali diributkan banyak orang menyusul temuan terbaru BPK (Anwar Nasution) soal mengalirnya dana BI kepada sejumlah anggota DPR-RI senilai Rp 31,5 miliar.

    Bertindak sebagai kasir adalah Yayasan Pengembangan Perbankan Indonesia yang berada di bawah naungan BI. Laporan BPK menjelaskan, dana Rp 31,5 miliar itu dicairkan oleh Rusli Simanjuntak yang selanjutnya diserahkan kepada anggota Komisi Keuangan dan Perbankan DPR, Anthony Zeidra Abidin. Tujuannya untuk memuluskan pembahasan amendemen UU BI dan penyelesaian kasus BLBI (Suara Pembaruan 30 Oktober 2007).

    Seperti halnya pejabat BI dan anggota DPR yang terlibat dalam urusan suap menyuap itu, Anwar juga pasti punya motif mengeluarkan pernyataan dan mengungkap aliran dana dari BI kepada para anggota DPR, apalagi dia waktu itu juga orang penting di di BI. Motif-motif semacam itulah yang sejauh ini telah ikut menghambat penuntasan aliran BLBI. Skandal itu hanya menjadi hangat-hangat tahi ayam dengan memunculkan tokoh baru lalu dilupakan kembali. Kali ini tokohnya Anwar Nasution meski kita tak tahu ke mana “bola” sedang diarahkan oleh bekas Deputi Senior Gubernur BI itu.

    Satu hal yang jelas, penyaluran BLBI sejak awal memang kontroversial. Bukan saja nilainya yang luar biasa (enam ratusan triliun rupiah) namun karena penyalurannya juga tidak pernah transparan diketahui publik dan dicurigai penuh dengan perselingkuhan antara pejabat BI dengan para pemilik bank: tidak jelasnya jaminan yang diberikan dan kemudahan yang diberikan oleh BI kepada bank-bank penerima, meskipun bank-bank itu sudah mengalami overdraft (saldo negatif) yang parah dan terjadi berulang kali.

    Semula ada usaha meyakinkan bahwa pengucuran BLBI terutama dimaksudkan untuk menyelamatkan bank dari badai rush pasca-likuidasi 16 bank 1 November 1997 dan gonjang-ganjing fluktuasi mata uang rupiah. Belakangan ketahuan, dari seluruh bank yang mengalami kesulitan likuiditas sebagian besar bukan diakibatkan oleh rush (penarikan dana secara masif) melainkan justru diakibatkan oleh penyaluran kredit kepada kelompok terafiliasi alias menabrak batas maksimum pemberian kredit (BMPK).

    Salah satu dokumen yang mengindikasikan terjadinya pelanggaran BMPK adalah dokumen berkode SR dengan nomor 28/MK/1998, ditujukan kepada Presiden RI bertanggal 18 Mei 1998. Sesuai dokumen yang berbentuk surat itu, sedikitnya ditemukan 12 bank yang kesulitan likuiditasnya disebabkan oleh pengucuran kredit kepada kelompoknya sendiri. Keduabelas bank itu: PT Bank Surya Tbk., PT Bank Pelita, PT Bank Istismarat Indonesia, PT Bank Centris, PT Subentra, PT Bank Deka, PT Hokindo, PT Bank Danamon Indonesia Tbk., PT Bank Dagang Nasional Indonesia Tbk, PT Bank Tiara Asia Tbk., PT Bank Modern Tbk., dan PT Bank Umum Nasional Tbk.

    Merujuk kepada surat menter keuangan itu, permasalahan likuiditas Bank Danamon (Usman Admadjaja) dan BDNI (Sjamsul Nursalim) ternyata juga sudah terjadi jauh sebelum likuidasi 16 bank dan Indonesia dihantam krismon seperti yang selama ini dijadikan alasan oleh pemilik kedua bank tersebut. Dua bank itu telah mendapatkan dana dari BI melalui surat berharga pasar uang khusus (SPBUK) masing-masing Rp 11,3 triliun dan Rp 9,8 triliun – beberapa bulan sebelum terjadinya krisis moneter. Khusus kepada BDNI, bank sentral bahkan telah mengucurkan kredit kepada grup terkait sebesar US$ 600 juta antara Mei-Oktober 1997.

    Oleh BPK pemberian SBPUK kepada bank-bank bermasalah itu, dinilai diberikan tanpa analisis terlebih dahulu atas kondisi keuangan bank. Padahal analisis layak tidaknya satu fasilitas diberikan kepada sebuah bank semacam itu merupakan tugas BI dalam hal ini Urusan Pengawasan Bank (UPwB). Contohnya adalah SBPUK yang dikeluarkan lewat Surat Direksi No.30/50/Dir/UK tanggal 30 Desember 1997.

    Pemberian fasilitas itu juga dianggap tidak sesuai dengan surat Presiden RI tanggal 27 Desember 1997 yang dikirim kepada Gubernur BI Soedradjad Djiwandono melalui Surat Menteri Sekretaris Negara bernomor R-183/M.Sesneg/12/1997. Isi surat itu antara lain berisi persetujuan Presiden RI tentang pemberian fasilitas SBPUK untuk mengatasi saldo debit bank yang ada harapan sehat. Mengapa hanya bank yang punya harapan sehat? Berdasarkan laporan tingkat kesehatan bank, Presiden RI rupanya mengetahui bahwa sebagian besar bank penerima SBPUK ternyata memang tidak sehat bahkan sudah sakit sejak sebelum krismon. Beberapa bank diantaranya kemudian dinyatakan sebagai Bank Beku Operasi dan Bank Beku Kegiatan Usaha.

    Surat tersebut merupakan balasan terhadap surat Gubernur BI yang dikirim kepada Presiden RI pada tanggal 26 Desember 1997. Dalam surat itu, Soedradjad melaporkan perkembangan terakhir keadaan bank yang mengalami saldo debit yang terus membengkak sebagai akibat tekanan dari berbagai penarikan nasabah. Dijelaskan pula untuk mencegah runtuhnya perbankan, maka diperlukan penggantian saldo debit.

    “Sambil menunggu kondisi perbankan dan pulihnya kepercayaan terhadap perbankan, BI, sekiranya disetujui, akan mengganti saldo debit dengan SBPUK sesuai dengan memo terlampir”. Begitulah sebagian isi surat dari Soedradjad Djiwandono.

    Memo yang dimaksud Soedradjad tak lain adalah memo bernomor MO-67/MK/97 yang dibuat Mar’ie Muhammad (Menteri Keuangan) kepada Soedradjad tanggal 26 Desember 1997. Memo Mar’ie keluar karena ada kabar tentang disposisi Soeharto yang meminta agar Bank Utama -milik Sigit dan Tommy Soeharto- dimerger dengan Bank Harapan Sentosa milik Hendra Rahardja, kakak Eddy Tanzil, buronan dalam kasus Bapindo. Disposisi itu, sebelumnya juga disampaikan Mar’ie secara lisan dalam rapat Dewan Moneter. Karena memo itulah, Soedradjad mengirim surat kepada Seoharto sebagai Presiden RI dan dijawab oleh Mensesneg dengan menyetujui saran Soedradjad.

    Namun SPBUK ternyata tetap mengalir kepada bank-bank yang tidak punya harapan sehat yaitu 12 bank seperti yang dimaksudkan oleh surat Menteri Keuangan bernomor 28/MK/1998 tadi. Dalam surat itu disebutkan, 12 bank tersebut telah melakukan rekayasa pemberian fasilitas kredit yang dilakukan pihak terafiliasi yang jumlahnya tak memenuhi persyaratan yang wajar. Kalau dijumlah, nilai total pemberian kredit yang tak wajar itu mencapai Rp 23,27 triliun atau US$ 608,4 juta.

    Untuk pengucuran BLBI kepada BDNI, terungkap hanya ada enam perusahaan yang terkait dengan BDNI yang perikatannya secara hukum relatif kuat. Enam perusahaan itu adalah PT Bahtera Sinar Mulia, PT Bakahuni Sarana Prima, PT Diners Yaya Indonesia, PT Gajah Perkasa Sakti, PT Langgeng Baja Pratama, dan PT Nusa Minera Utama. Menjelang BDNI dinyatakan sebagai Bank Beku Operasi, total kredit yang diberikan pada enam perusahaan itu mencapai Rp1.528.704 juta dan US$97,368,800.

    Kecuali tiga perusahaan yang disebutkan pertama, perjanjian kredit untuk tiga perusahaan berikutnya banyak dilakukan di bawah tangan. Akad pemberian kredit sebesar Rp1,5 miliar kepada PT Nusa Minera Utama pada 20 November 1995, misalnya, dibuat di bawah tangan oleh Rudolf Kasenda dengan Indrawan Widjaja yang mewakili BDNI. Padahal, posisi Kasenda – pernah menjabat kepala staf Angkatan Laut RI – adalah Komisaris BDNI bersama Makmun Murod, juga pensiunan jenderal.

    Kejanggalan lain yang juga belum terungkap adalah penggunaan dana SBPUK sebesar Rp 9,8 triliun yang telah mengucur ke kocek BDNI. Padahal, sebagaimana tertulis dalam surat menteri keuangan tadi, pada 27 Maret 1995 atau sekitar empat bulanan sebelum krismon – BDNI sudah pula disuntik oleh BI dengan SBPUK sebesar Rp 345 miliar dan pinjaman subordinasi sebesar Rp 270,9 miliar (Rp 70,9 miliar diantaranya merupakan konversi SBPU). Dana yang dikucurkan oleh BI itupun ternyata bukan untuk penyehatan BDNI melainkan untuk pembelian Bank Dewa Rutji.

    Pada 24 Oktober 1997, ketika rekening giro BDNI di BI mengalami overdraft sebesar Rp 638,8 miliar, bank sentral secara maraton masih menyuntikkan dana kepada BDNI. Ini bisa dilihat antara lain dari pemberian fasilitas diskonto (Fasdis) I pada 27 Oktober 1997 sebesar Rp 515 miliar, yang ternyata tetap tak banyak membantu pemulihan likuiditas BDNI. Bahkan saat pengumuman likuidasi 16 bank 1 November 1997, ketika saldo debit BDNI sudah membengkak menjadi Rp 1,479 triliun dan akhirnya menjadi Rp 2,013 triliun pada 6 November 1997, BI masih menyuntikkan dana melalui SBPU kredit usaha kecil (KUK) sebesar Rp200 miliar dan Fasdis II sebesar Rp 3 triliun.

    Pemberian BLBI ini, terus berlanjut sepanjang November-Desember 1997, sebelum akhirnya ditemukan banyak penyimpangan dalam penggunaannya dan SBPUK yang telah dilahapnya mencapai Rp9,8 triliun. Total seluruh BLBI yang diterima oleh BDNI sekitar Rp 37 triliun.

    Pola pengucuran BLBI yang hampir sama dengan DBNI juga diberikan BI kepada Bank Danamon. Akta Perjanjian Jual Beli SPBUK dengan pemberian jaminan bernomor 107 tanggal 14 Januari 1998, yang dibuat oleh notaris Lindasari Bachroem disebutkan bahwa pada 31 Oktober 1997 utang Danamon kepada BI sebesar Rp 3,46 triliun berupa Fasdis II dengan memakai jaminan. Jaminan dalam akta yang dibuat atas nama Direktur Utama Bank Danamon Nienie Narwastu Admadjaja (putri Usman Admadjaja) dan Direktur Bank Danamon Soesilo Oetomo itu, antara lain PT Kuningan Persada, PT Bentala Anggada Mandura, dan PT Bank Danamon Indonesia – semuanya milik keluarga Admadjaja.

    Pinjaman ini harusnya sudah lunas paling lambat 29 Desember 1997 tapi oleh pihak Danamon diperpanjang lagi hingga 30 hari atas izin BI. BI lalu menghapus dan mengubah Fasdis II untuk Danamon dengan memperbesar pagu pinjaman kepada Danamon melalui pembelian SBPUK berupa Surat-surat utang dari Danamon sebesar Rp11,41 triliun. Dana itu telah diterima Danamon pada 31 Desember 1997 dengan cara pemindahan buku oleh BI ke rekening Danamon. Belakangan, oleh Danamon jumlah yang diterima diklaim hanya sebesar Rp11,29 triliun dengan alasan disesuaikan dengan jangka waktu diskonto yang diberikan sebesar 27 persen atau setara dengan Rp117,63 miliar.

    Melalui surat bernomor 704/BPPN-LGS/Team BDI/1998, 20 April 1998, oleh BPPN pihak Danamon sebenarnya telah diminta untuk menyediakan akta yang disebut-sebut telah memberikan perpanjangan waktu pembayaran atas Fasdis II tersebut. Danamon membalas lewat surat bertanggal 21 April 1998 dan menyatakan bahwa akta perpanjangan tersebut tidak ada. Bank itu juga tidak menjabarkan perhitungan penyesuaian jangka waktu diskontonya yang telah menyebabkan selisih harga SBPUK sebesar Rp117,63 miliar. BPPN kemudian merekomendasikan bahwa perpanjangan waktu 30 hari dari Fasdis II itu sebenarnya tidak tersedia dalam pemeriksaan hukum. Jumlah BLBI yang diterima oleh Danamon mencapai Rp 23 triliun.

    Lalu, ke mana uang BLBI itu dipergunakan? Merujuk surat BPPN kepada Menteri Keuangan, 18 Mei 1998, bernomor S-3/PROG/BPPN/1998/Rahasia, sebagian besar digunaan untuk kepentingan pemegang saham pendiri maupun manajemennya. Surat itu juga mengungkapkan, Danamon telah kelimpungan likuiditas jauh sebelum terjadinya krismon.

    Sebagai pemilik Usman Admadjaja dan beberapa direksi Danamon disebut-sebut telah melakukan rekayasa pemberian fasilitas kredit. Sampai surat itu dibuat, total kredit yang diberikan kepada pihak terafiliasinya sudah mencapai Rp 8,25 triliun. Penggunaan dana bank untuk kepentingan pribadi dan kelompoknya itu juga melambung jauh dari batas-batas yang ditentukan oleh undang-undang perbankan dan hal itu diakui oleh Danamon.

    Dalam suratnya kepada BI bertanggal 13 April 1998, yang ditandatangani Rita Kusumawijaya, Eddy Riyanto, dan Maria Regina L.W., dinyatakan bahwa pihak Danamon memang telah melanggar BMPK seperti yang ditemukan BPPN. Kendati berbeda angka nominalnya sampai 28 Februari 1998 diketahui bahwa paling sedikit Danamon telah mengucurkan kredit sebesar Rp4,18 triliun kepada kelompok usahanya di 77 perusahaan.

    Kredit itu antara lain digunakan untuk memborong saham PT Astra Internasional (sebanyak 19 perusahaan) sebesar Rp 1,49 triliun, pembelian dan pengembangan kapling di Jalan Sudirman, Jakarta (53 perusahaan) sebesar Rp 2,07 triliun, dan pembelian Extention Kuningan (5 perusahaan) sebesar Rp 618,9 miliar. Sementara jumlah kredit yang dikucurkan untuk debitur grup dan debitur nongrup mencapai Rp 7,59 triliun lebih.

    Kredit yang diberikan kepada debitur grup celakanya juga banyak mengucur pada kelompok usaha para pemilik bank yang juga bermasalah dalam kasus BLBI. Ada yang mengucur pada PT Kiani Kertas milik Bob Hasan sebesar Rp 766,73 miliar, Grup BDNI milik Sjamsul Nursalim sebesar Rp 285,95 miliar, dan yang terbesar mengalir kepada PT Chandra Asri (Grup Bank Andromeda) milik Bambang Trihatmodjo, Prajogo Pangestu, dan Peter F. Gontha, sebesar Rp 2,91 triliun. Dan ini yang mungkin luar biasa: sebagian besar perusahaan pemegang saham Grup BDNI dimiliki oleh Grup Danamon sendiri. Menurut laporan itu paling tidak terdapat 12 perusahaan milik Danamon yang tercatat sebagai pemegang saham di grup BDNI.

    Temuan-temuan itu sebenarnya bisa dengan mudah didapat oleh negara jika memang serius mengusut penyaluran BLBI. Namun rupanya penuntasan kasus BLBI cenderung dijadikan alat tawar menawar politik dan selesai karena dilupakan orang. Komisi Pemberantasan Korupsi jauh-jauh hari bahkan mengatakan BLBI adalah kasus lama-sebuah isyarat keengganan untuk mengusutnya. Kelak mungkin akan muncul tokoh baru seperti Anwar Nasution, yang mengangkat kembali kasus BLBI dengan temuan lama yang diperbaharui tapi tetap tanpa ada keseriusan menyelesaikan.


    http://rusdimathari.wordpress.com/2008/02/18/sandyakalaning-bank-indonesia-sarang-penyamun/

    Sandyakalaning Bank Indonesia (Sarang Penyamun)

    by rusdi mathari, Februari 18, 2008

    Kejelasan tentang nama calon Gubernur BI semakin melengkapi sinisme publik terhadap pergantian Gubernur BI, yang sejak zaman Soedradjad Djiwandono digantikan oleh Syahril Sabirin lalu Syahril ke Burhanuddin Abdullah, selalu didahului dengan “sengketa” politik para penguasa. Kini pergantian Burhanuddin pun diawali dengan “sengketa” semacam itu melalui pernyataan Anwar Nasution tentang aliran dana BI ke sejumlah anggota DPR. Lalu bagaimana nasib kasus BLBI itu sendiri?

    CUACA mendung yang terus menggantung di langit Jakarta tampaknya hanya menyiratkan satu hal bagi Gubernur Bank Indonesia, Burhanuddin Abdullah: jabatannya akan diakhiri dengan status dirinya sebagai tersangka. Sebuah predikat yang dulu juga disandang oleh Syahril Sabirin dan Soedradjad Djiwandono, pendahulu Burhanuddin. Dengan predikat tersangka pada Burhanuddin itu, Bank Indonesia kini menjadi bank sentral di dunia yang paling banyak -untuk tidak menyebut sebagai satu-satunya- yang “menghasilkan” mantan gubernur dengan status tersangka.

    Semula banyak analis pasar keuangan yang meramalkan bahwa penetapan status tersangka pada Burhanuddin bisa berakibat pada nilai tukar rupiah. Sebuah ramalan yang mestinya memang niscaya terutama karena posisi gubernur bank sentral memang sentral untuk menekan atau membuat laju pergerakan nilai tukar. Di Amerika Serikat, bahkan sempat ada ungkapan jika gubernur bank sentral negara itu batuk maka moneter Amerika bisa terguncang dan getarannya juga bisa terasa pada stabilitas moneter di negara-negara lain. Tapi ini Indonesia dan bukan Amerika.

    Setidaknya hingga minggu ini, setelah dua pekan lebih Burhanuddin ditetapkan sebagai tersangka oleh Komisi Pemberantasan Korupsi alias KPK, nilai tukar rupiah terutama terhadap mata uang dolar Amerika tetap tak menunjukkan gejala, misalnya akan turun nilainya. Rupiah tetap berada pada harga “normal” sekitar Rp 9.000-an terhadap dolar. Padahal bukan Burhanuddin saja yang menjadi tersangka, tapi juga Kepala Kantor BI Surabaya Rusli Simanjuntak (dulu Kepala Biro Gubernur BI) dan Direktur Hukum BI Oey Hoey Tiong (lihat “Tersangka BI akan Bertambah” Harian Bangsa 30 Januari 2008).

    Kecuali penetapan Soedradjad sebagai tersangka, penetapan Burhanuddin dan juga Syahril sebagai tersangka berkaitan dengan nama Anwar Nasution (mantan Deputi Senior Gubernur BI, sekarang Ketua BPK). Syahril adalah tersangka dan kemudian menjadi terpidana dalam kasus cessie Bank Bali (sekarang Bank Permata). Kasus itu sempat menyeret Syahril ke balik jeruji sel penjara pada 21 Juni 2000. Syahril dipersalahkan karena dianggap tidak menerapkan prinsip kehati-hatian yang merupakan prinsip perbankan dan dihukum penjara selama 3 tahun oleh PN Jakarta Pusat pada 13 Maret 2002 meskipun lalu dibebaskan dari semua dakwaan oleh Pengadilan Tinggi DKI Jakarta lima bulan kemudian (lihat “Terkejut, Katakan Bukan Kesalahan Pribadi” http://www.riaupos.com 30 Januari 2008).

    Banyak yang mengatakan, kasus Syahril sarat dengan muatan politis dan kepentingan terutama dari penguasa saat itu (Presiden Abdurrahman Wahid) yang berniat mengganti Syahril dengan Anwar (lihat “Golkar, Seng Ada Lawan…..” Gatra 7 Desember 2000). Sebagai gantinya, Syahril ditawarkan menjadi duta besar atau menjabat sebagai Ketua DPA oleh Gus Dur tapi Syahril menolak.

    Kasus Burhanuddin lebih jelas menyeret nama Anwar. Dialah orang yang pertama kali mengungkapkan ke publik soal aliran dana BI kepada sejumlah anggota DPR-RI senilai Rp 31,5 miliar. Bertindak sebagai kasir adalah Yayasan Pengembangan Perbankan Indonesia yang berada di bawah naungan BI. Laporan BPK menurut Anwar menjelaskan, dana Rp 31,5 miliar itu dicairkan oleh Rusli yang selanjutnya diserahkan kepada anggota Komisi Keuangan dan Perbankan DPR, Anthony Zeidra Abidin. Tujuannya untuk memuluskan pembahasan amendemen UU BI dan penyelesaian kasus BLBI (Lihat “Aliran Dana BI ke DPR-BK DPR Akan Panggil ICW” Suara Pembaruan 30 Oktober 2007).

    Keputusan pencairan dana BI itu diambil pada rapat pada 3 Juni 2003. Menurut Burhanuddin setiap kebijakan strategis dan prinsip diputuskan di dalam Rapat Dewan Gubernur yang sifatnya kolegial dan bukan keputusan pribadi. Sementara kebijakan untuk melakukan diseminasi bantuan hukum adalah kebijakan yang sangat diperlukan pada saat itu. Kira-kira begitulah alasan Burhanuddin. Duduk dalam Dewan Gubernur itu adalah Anwar (saat itu menjabat Deputi Gubernur Senior), Aulia Pohan, Aslim Tadjudin, Maman Soemantri, Bun Bunan Hutapea, dan Maulana Ibrahim. Namun menurut Anwar, dirinya tidak mengikuti rapat karena sedang berada di luar negeri. (lihat “Anwar Nasution Bantah Terlibat Kasus Aliran Dana BI ke DPR”, Koran Tempo 23 November 2007).

    Pendek kata, “gara-gara” pernyataan Anwar yang meributkan soal aliran dana BI itulah, Burhanuddin dan dua pejabat BI lainnya menjadi tersangka. Mungkinkah Anwar punya kepentingan politik tertentu dengan melempar kasus aliran dana BI itu ke publik? Berkali-kali Anwar membatah soal itu meskipun tentu saja tak bisa disalahkan jika ada yang menganggap Anwar punya kepentingan, misalnya berambisi menjadi orang nomor satu di BI.

    Semua tahu, Anwar tak pernah menjadi orang nomor satu dalam setiap jabatannya, kecuali sekarang di BPK. Ketika masih mengajar di Universitas Indonesia, Anwar hanya menjadi Dekan FEUI, dan bukan menjadi rektor perguruan tinggi itu. Ketika Anwar diangkat jadi Deputi Gubernur BI pada tahun 1999, muncul pro dan kontra. Anwar terkenal kritis terhadap kebijakan sektor ekonomi, moneter, dan politik. Pernyataannya soal BI yang paling terkenal adalah BI sarang penyamun. Anwar penah pula menyebut BI sebagai rumah gadai, karena BI dianggap sering mengucurkan dana likuiditas tanpa memerhatikan karakter dan tingkah laku si penerima dana.

    Dengan menjabat Deputi Gubernur BI, banyak yang meragukan bahwa Anwar tidak lagi kritis. Anwar sempat sesumbar, bila ada pejabat BI terlibat penyelewengan BLBI, dia akan mengantarnya sendiri ke Kejaksaan Agung (lihat “Anwar Nasution” Apa & Siapa, PDA Tempo). Faktanya, tak satu pun pejabat BI yang “berhasil” diantar oleh Anwar ke Gedung Bundar, di kawasan Blok M, Jakarta Selatan. Sebaliknya jabatan Anwar semakin mengkilap di BI karena tak lama setelah menjabat Deputi Gubernur BI, dia diangkat menjadi Deputi Senior Gubernur BI- jabatan ini kemudian harus berakhir pada 2004 dan Anwar digantikan oleh Miranda S. Goeltom. Namun Anwar, konon sempat melontarkan pernyataan bahwa pihak asing tak memandangnya karena jabatannya hanya Deputi Senior Gubernur BI (lihat “Dr. Anwar Nasution Setelah Masuk ‘Sarang Penyamun’,” http://www.rapolo.wordpress.com).

    Dengan melempar bola panas tentang aliran dana BI kepada anggota DPR, Anwar dituduh sedang mengincar posisi Gubernur BI, pasca Burhanuddin, sebuah tuduhan yang sekali lagi telah berkali-kali dibantah oleh Anwar. Persoalannya ketika Anwar kemudian sudah menjadi orang nomor satu di sebuah lembaga (BPK), masih banyak yang bersuara sumbang, bahwa BPK di zaman reformasi sudah tak punya “gigi” dibandingkan zaman Orde Baru sehingga Anwar pun disebut-sebut hendak memutar kembali ke haluan menuju “sarang penyamun”.

    Masa jabatan Burhanuddin sebagai Gubernur BI akan berakhir pada 17 Mei mendatang. Presiden SBY sudah mengajukan Agus Martowardojo (Direktur Utama Bank Mandiri) dan Raden Pardede (Komisaris Independen BCA) sebagai calon Gubernur BI dan bukan nama Anwar (lihat “Agus Martowardojo dan Raden Pardede Calon Gubernur BI”, http://www.kompas.co.id, 15 Februari 2008). Dengan mentalnya nama Anwar sebagai calon, maka peluang Anwar untuk kembali berkantor di Gedung BI mungkin saja akan semakin tertutup.

    Kejelasan tentang soal calon Gubernur BI itu, lalu semakin melengkapi sinisme publik terhadap pergantian Gubernur BI, yang sejak zaman Soedradjad digantikan oleh Syahril, lalu Syahril ke Burhanuddin, selalu didahului dengan “sengketa” politik para penguasa. Kini pergantian Burhanuddin pun diawali dengan “sengketa” semacam itu melalui pernyataan Anwar tentang aliran dana BI ke sejumlah anggota DPR. Karena itu jangan terlalu berharap bahwa kasus BLBI yang melibatkan banyak pejabat BI (lihat “Menyusul, Tersangka Baru Kasus Dana BI,” http://www.padangekspres.co.id, 30 Januari 2008) dan telah menguras ratusan triliun keuangan negara itu, akan benar-benar terungkap apalagi selesai (lihat “Memo-Memo Rahasia soal BLBI”).


    Calon Gubernur BI Agus Marto dan Kasus Merincorp

    Tukang Kliping, on Februari 19, 2008 at 9:39 am

    Kasus penghapusan buku dan aset PT. Bank Merincorp oleh Direksi Bank Mandiri sudah berada di tangan Jaksa Muda Tindak Pidana Khusus (Jampidsus), Hendarman Supandji. “Ya, berkasnya sudah ada di meja saya,”katanya. Cuma karena banyaknya kasus, juga beberapa kasus Bank Mandiri yang sudah mulai masuk ke pengadilan, soal itu belum sempat disentuhnya.

    Dalam laporan hasil pemeriksaan Badan Pemeriksa Keuangan (BPK) atas pengelolaan kredit Bank Mandiri, Direksi dan Komisaris Bank itu diduga setuju penghapusanbukuan fasilitas kredit PT. Bank Merincorp senilai US $ 30 juta yang mengakibatkan kerugian negara. Padahal penghapusan bukuan tersebut tidak sesuai dengan Anggaran Dasar.

    Corporate Secretary Bank Mandiri Ekoputro Adijayanto membantah tudingan pengambilalihan Bank Merincorp tidak sesuai prosedur dan terindikasi merugikan negara. Rekapitalisasi Merincorp oleh Bank Mandiri telah sesuai dengan prosedur dan berdasarkan keinginan dari pemerintah.

    Menurut Eko, pada saat krisis moneter hampir seluruh bank mengalami penurunan modal termasuk Bank Merincorp yang sebagian besar sahamnya dimiliki Bank Exim yang merger menjadi Bank Mandiri. Tetapi, karena Merincorp dikategorikan sebagai bank campuran karena sisa sahamnya dimiliki oleh Sumitomo Bank Limited sebesar 26 persen, sehingga tidak masuk dalam program rekapitalisasi dari negara. Makanya, program rekapitalisasi harus dilakukan Bank Exim dan Sumitomo.

    Sumitomo menarik diri pada tahun 1998, Bank Exim menambah modal Merincorp sebesar Rp648,53 miliar sehingga CAR Merincorp menjadi 4 persen. Pertimbanganya, hubungan bisnis dengan Jepang dan terkait juga dengan rencana trade financing yang dilakukan Merincorp kepada Bank Mandiri. “Sumitomo saat itu memberikan trade financing sebesar 160 juta dolar AS atau Rp1,4 triliun. Ini merupakan soft loan, dan ketika itu malah trade financing yang diberikan Jepang sekitar 500 juta dolar AS lebih,”kata Eko.

    Pengambilalihan saham sebesar 26 persen milik Sumitomo itu adalah bagian dari restrukturisasi dan penyehatan Bank Mandiri. Soal pengambilalihan pinjaman Sumitomo kepada Merincorp sebesar 30 juta dolar AS itu, menurut Eko dialihkan menjadi pinjaman Sumitomo ke Bank Mandiri dengan syarat lunak dan masa tenggang hingga 2009. Bahkan komitmen penghapus buku pinjaman (bukan menghapus tagih) sebesar 30 juta dolar AS itu juga telah ditetapkan dalam perjanjian IMPA (Invesment Management and Performance Agreement). “Semua ini atas restu dan perintah dari pemerintah ketika itu,”ujar Eko.

    Penghapus buku pinjaman sebesar 30 juta dolar AS itu kemudian dilaporkan dan disahkan pada Rapat Umum Pemegang Saham (RUPS) Bank Mandiri pada tahun 2002. “Ada payung hukumnya melalui RUPS. RUPS adalah lembaga tertinggi dalam pengambilan keputusan. Jadi ini tidak menjadi masalah sebenarnya, dengan IMPA saja sebenarnya sudah cukup kuat,”kata Eko.


    Tukang Gosip, on Februari 20, 2008 at 3:09 pm said:

    Dulu, waktu Agus Martowardojo (yang sempat terseret kasus Merincorp) mau jadi Dirut Bank Mandiri, beliau harus menggusur ECW Neloe – Dirut Bank Mandiri sebelumnya ke Kejakgung, lalu Cipinang. Kini, sewaktu Agus Martowardojo mau jadi Gubernur Bank Indonesia, beliau juga harus menggusur Burhanudin Abdullah ke KPK. Apa Agus Martowardojo nggak takut hukum karma ya ? Meskipun didukung Ibu Negara dan Ibu Suri, mestinya sih beliau takut….

    Adian Husaini, M.A, on Februari 22, 2008 at 1:00 pm said:

    Persoalannya ketika Anwar kemudian sudah menjadi orang nomor satu di sebuah lembaga (BPK), masih banyak yang bersuara sumbang, bahwa BPK di zaman reformasi sudah tak punya “gigi” dibandingkan zaman Orde Baru sehingga Anwar pun disebut-sebut hendak memutar kembali ke haluan menuju “sarang penyamun”.

    mungkin pernyataan ini tidak tepat, karena banyak studi memperlihatkan bahwa BPK dijaman Orba adalah bagian dari korporatisme negara, sama statusnya seperti DPR, dll, dikuasai oleh ABRI dan Golkar.\

    Baru pasca reformasi BPK dibawah Billy Joedono bisa independen dan mulai ditakuti. ANwar membuat BPK lebih ditakuti koruptor.

    meski cara komunikasi Anwar dalam banyak hal jelek sekali, seperti komentarnya terhadap kasus BI: “saya sudah beri kesempatan ke BI karena mereka teman saya..”, juga terhadap Iriansyah, rasanya analisis di atas sangatlah tidak tepat.

    mungkin benar Anwar ingin jadi Gubernur BI, tapi BPK sebagai lembaga sekarang sangat berwibawa.

    Adian Husaini

    Bukan orang BPK

    rusdi mathari, on Februari 22, 2008 at 2:03 pm said:

    Pak Ahdian

    “Punya gigi” pada kalimat itu dalam konteks pejabat atau ketua BPK di zaman Orba masih disegani atau tepatnya dihormati dan mendapat banyak fasilitas seperti layaknya menteri, karena memang setingkat menteri dan gubernur BI. Di jaman reformasi, pejabat atau ketua BPK, nyaris bukan apa-apa. Itu saja.

    Adian Husaini, M.A, on Februari 23, 2008 at 12:12 pm said:

    Pak Rusdi,

    mungkin tidak terlalu tepat juga penjelasan anda di atas.

    dulu menurut UUD 45 pra amandemen BPK sejajar dengan Presiden, termasuk diantara 5 lembaga negara yang disebut di konstitusi: presiden, MA, DPR< BPK, DPA.

    pasca amademen, dimana struktur ketatanegaraan kita kian tidak jelas, BPK bisa dianggap sebagap state auxiliary bodies. lembaga-lembaga negara tetapi disebutkan di konstitusi.

    posisi cukup terhormat, gaji dan fasilitas juga setara dengan Pimpinan DPR: VOlvo, dll

    juga BPK sekarang jauh lebih dihormati dibandingkan dulu. dalam sejarahnya, BPK hanya dihormati ketika jaman M Jusuf. citranya terpuruk ketika JB Sumarlin kena kasus Golden Key. CItra naik lagi ketika Billy Joedono. kalau era Anwar, mungkin tidak tepat kalau disegani, tapi ditakuti karena Anwar kalau ngomong kayak sopir mabok.

    jadi tidak relevan analisa tentang “tidak diseganinya” BPK sekarang.

    Adian Husaini: saya bukan orang BPK, justru temannya eks Deputi Gubernur BI Maman Soemantri dalam urusan musik ha..ha..ha..mau bikin website aktuil kok nggak jadi-jadi


    Siapakah Biang Kerok Kegaduhan BLBI?

    BLBI Network Monitor, on Maret 2, 2008 at 1:51 pm said:

    Akhirnya Kejaksaan Agung (Kejakgung) tidak menemukan perbuatan melawan hukum yang mengarah pada tindak pidana korupsi dalam dua kasus Bank Likuiditas Bank Indonesia (BLBI). Pada kesempatan itu, Jaksa Agung Muda Tindak Pidana Khusus Kemas Yahya Rahman juga mengumumkan pembubaran tim 35 jaksa yang bertugas menyelidiki dua kasus BLBI tersebut sekaligus menghentikan penyelidikan kasus tersebut.

    Keputusan Kejagung tersebut relevan dengan logika keadilan hukum bisnis. Bagaimana mungkin, obligor yang dinilai pemerintah sebagai obligor yang kooperatif, dianiaya melalui berbagai unjuk rasa oleh para aktivis mahasiswa, dan juga dibombardir berita negatif yang berasal dari anggota DPR-RI. Sebaliknya, obligor yang jahat dan tidak kooperatif (seperti yang disampaikan Menkeu Sri Mulyani dalam Rapat Paripurna DPR-RI), justru tidak tersentuh hukum. Bahkan sebagian, sukses ngumpet di luar negeri.

    Oleh sebab itu, sebaiknya aparat hukum, baik Polri maupun Kejakgung mengusut siapa konglomerat hitam yang menjadi biang kerok dan sponsor dibalik kegaduhan BLBI selama ini. Selain merepotkan pemerintah karena membuang-buang energi dengan membuka kasus lama yang sudah closed, tekanan publik melalui unjuk rasa dan pernyataan negatif, sudah menorehkan citra negatif terhadap iklim investasi di Indonesia.

    Berbagai kalangan kritis memprediksi, ada disain besar yang disponsori oleh konglomerat hitam untuk meluluh-lantakan tatanan hukum bisnis investasi setelah dia mereguk keuntungan ekonomis dan politis sekaligus. Dalam hal kepentingan ekonomis, konglomerat hitam itu hanya ingin mengeruk keuntungan tanpa mau mempertanggungjawabkan kewajiban utang-utang.

    Konglomerat hitam sudah mengambilalih asset obligor BLBI melalui Badan Penyehatan Perbankan Nasional (BPPN) dengan harga yang murah, namun tidak mau membayar kewajiban kepada pihak ketiga. Pengusutan terhadap konglomerat hitam seperti ini pastilah akan memberikan citra positif terhadap pemerintahan Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono. (SBY). Adakah political will pemerintah untuk memberangus konglomerat hitam seperti ini? sebaiknya pemerintah yang menjawab pertanyaan ini.


    http://www.haluankepri.com/nasional/355-terbukti-bi-sarang-penyamun.html

    Terbukti, BI Sarang Penyamun

    Jumat, 28 May 2010 00:00

    JAKARTA-Anggota Komisi XI DPR dari Fraksi PDIP Eva Kusuma Sundari menyatakan banyaknya kasus korupsi di Bank Indonesia (BI) yang terungkap membuktikan bahwa bank sentral benar merupakan sarang penyamun. Terakhir, kasus dugaan korupsi di BI yang terungkap adalah suap pencetakan uang pecahan Rp 100.000.

    “Saya ingat betul ketika Pak Anwar Nasution belum menjabat sebagai Deputi Gubernur Senior BI pernah menyatakan bahwa Bank Indonesia itu adalah sarang penyamun. Itu terbukti dengan terungkapnya kasus-kasus korupsi di bank sentral itu,” kata Eva kepada wartawan di Gedung DPR, Jakarta, Kamis (27/5).

    Menurut Eva, masalah struktural dan kelembagaan di BI ini akan terus terjadi jika kursi Gubernur BI tidak segera diisi. “Kita tahu dengan masalah Bank Centuy dan kasus suap ini, kebutuhan mengisi Gubernur BI sudah sangat mendesak,” ujar Eva Sundari.

    Dijelaskan Eva, Komisi XI dalam rapat internalnya dengan Badan Supervisi BI, Selasa (25/5) lalu juga menghasilkan satu kesepakatan bahwa pengawasan BSBI akan segera dioptimalkan. “Tujuannya agar kerja BSBI sesuai dengan tujuan DPR. Jadi ada sinkronisasi antara DPR dan BSBI,” kata Eva.

    Terkait dengan dugaan suap terhadap pejabat BI, Komisi XI berencana akan mengirim tim pengawas supervisi ‘on the spot’ ke Australia untuk melakukan investigasi, terutama di pengadilannya. “Upaya ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui seperti apa masalahnya dan bagaimana modusnya. Kita akan putuskan ini setelah bertemu dengan Menkeu minggu depan. Rencananya mau diputuskan tadi dalam rapat internal, sayangnya tadi belum kuorum,” ujar Eva.

    Skandal suap pencetakan uang pecahan Rp 100 ribu yang diduga melibatkan oknum pejabat BI berinisial “S dan “M” itu juga mengundang reaksi keras anggota Dewan dari fraksi yang lain. Anggota Komisi XI DPR dari Fraksi Partai Demokrat Vera Vebyanty menegaskan, pihaknya akan segera memanggil BI.

    “Kasus ini akan kita selidiki secara tuntas dan berkoordinasi dengan Mabes Polri untuk memanggil pihak terkait. Pastinya Radius Christianto (perwakilan perusahaan RBA di Indonesia) dan siapa pejabat BI yang berinisial “S” dan “M” itu,” tegas Vera.

    Menurut Vera, meski kebijakan moneter dalam UU BI tidak masuk kewenangan Komisi XI, namun pihaknya tidak akan membiarkan kasus ini begitu saja. “DPR akan membawa kasus ini ke rapat paripurna dan bekerjasama dengan KPK, Polri, agar pihak asing tidak lebih dulu mengintervensi kasus ini,” tambah Veby

    Sementara angggota Komisi XI DPR RI dari Fraksi PDIP Arief Budimanta mempertanyakan kredibilitas BI. “Harus ada evaluasi total terhadap keberadaan BI selama ini,” tegas Arief.

    Anggota Komisi XI dari Fraksi PKS, Andi Rahmat, menduga skandal ini sudah berlangsung lama. “Saya yakin praktik semacam ini sudah berlangsung lama, tidak hanya pecahan uang Rp 100 ribu saja. Itulah sebabnya kenapa RUU mata uang selalu gagal digodok DPR. Karena itu saya akan mendorong agar RUU mata uang segera dibahas kembali DPR,” kata Andi.

    Andi menambahkan, lambatnya DPR menggodok RUU Mata Uang karena ada tarik menarik kepentingan BI dengan Peruri. Selama ini BI mencurigai Peruri sebagai pihak yang mengurusi percetakan uang.

    Dua pejabat senior BI tersebut berinisial ‘S’ dan ‘M’ terindikasi menerima 1,3 juta dolar AS, atau setara Rp 12 miliar dari anak usaha Reserve Bank of Australia (RBA) untuk memenangkan kontrak pencetakan uang pecahan Rp 100.000 itu.

    Desak KPK

    Sementara itu secara terpisah Wakil Ketua DPR Pramono Anung mendesak Komisi Pemberantasan Korupsi (KPK) untuk segera turun tangan mengusut skandal suap percetakan uang pecahan Rp 100 ribu yang diduga melibatkan oknum pejabat Bank Indonesia (BI) berinisial “S dan “M” tersebut disamping Jampidsus juga diharapkan membentuk tim khusus menangani kasus tersebut. “KPK harus turun tangan terkait tender pengadaan kertas uang yang selama ini sangat tertutup,” ujar Pramono.

    Menurut Pramono, selama ini korupsi di BI hanya tercium baunya, tapi tidak tahu apa yang terjadi sebenarnya. “Jampidsus juga untuk segera membuat tim khusus menangani kasus ini. Kasus ini terang benderang karena KPK-nya Australia sudah membuka secara resmi ke publik dan menurut saya hal yang tidak terbantahkan, meski kalau disini masih diperdebatkan,” kata Pram.

    DPR sendiri diharapkan terus mengawasi, meski selama ini tidak ada bukti, tapi DPR sudah merasakan ada ketidakberesan. “Praktek suap terjadi di BI. Sistem pengadaan kertas dan cetak uang selalu tidak transparan, padahal di dalam negeri ada pabrik kertas uang yang harganya bersaing,” tandas Pram.

    Lantaran itu, ujarnya, kalau benar terjadi suap kepada pejabat BI terkait tender kertas uang pecahan Rp 1000 ribu, tidak tertutup kemungkinan praktek yang sama terjadi pada kasus lainnya.

    Menurut Pramono, berdasarkan laporan koran Australia, terlihat betul yang mengatur dugaan suap itu bukan hanya pejabat BI, tapi orang-orang yang mempunyai jaringan di BI.

    Dia menduga makelar di BI selama ini banyak. “Ini kasus yang lebih besar dari kasus Gayus, karena berkaitan dengan kebijakan dan uang yang sangat besar. Mereka bermain di internal karena sistem pengadaannya bersifat tertutup dan bisa berperan banyak,” tutur Pramono. (sm/sam)


    http://archive.kaskus.co.id/thread/5182954/0

    BI Tetap Jadi Sarang Penyamun Sampai Kiamat?

    jagu4r – 02/09/2010 05:08 PM

    Kamis, 02/09/2010 | 10:32 WIB

    core net – 02/09/2010 05:15 PM

    :cystg yg berani ngusut kriminalkan aja

    SETELAH ‘lolos’ dari penolakan publik dan sejumlah anggota DPR akibat sosok Darmin Nasution diduga terlibat kasus pajak dan skandal ‘bailout’ Bank Century, akhirnya mantan Dirjen Pajak dan Plt/Pjs Gubernur Bank Indonesia (BI) ini resmi diambil sumpahnya sebagai orang nomor satu di BI pada pelantikannya di Kantor Mahkamah Agung, Rabu (1/9/2010). Yang menarik, mantan Deputi Gubernur Senior BI Anwar Nasution yang hadir mengatakan, Darmin Nasution harus bisa membersihkan nama BI dari perliaku dan persepsi ‘sarang penyamun’. Mantan Ketua BPK itu juga berharap pengawasan di bank sentral ditegakkan dan dibenahi agar tidak lagi ada kasus Bank Bali dan skandal Bank Century.

    Seperti diberitakan di berbagai media, menurut dia, persepsi sarang penyamun bukan saja dari kalangan internal BI, melainkan kepentingan politik yang ingin memanfaatkan bank sentral sebagai sapi perahan, baik dalam bentuk materi dan nonmateri. Bank sentral ini pun diharapkan independen, mandiri dan bebas dari tekanan-tekanan politik dan penguasa. Istilah sarang penyamun, tidak lain dari gambaran BI yang dianggap menjadi markas besar koruptor. Kasus yang lalu, melalui kewenangannya menyalurkan Kredit Likuiditas Bank Indonesia (BLBI) sebesar Rp 650 triliun, bank sentral yang saat itu berada di bawah Departemen Keuangan juga menyalurkan kredit untuk membantu likuiditas perbankan yang terancam bangkrut akibat krisis moneter yang menghantam Indonesia pertengahan 1997.

    Anehnya, berbagai pihak yang dianggap bertanggung jawab terhadap penyaluran dan penagihan kembali BLBI, seperti beberapa pejabat BI, pejabat Departemen Keuangan, hingga pejabat BPPN ternyata tidak dapat dijerat hukum. Inipun terjadi saat terjadi kasus dugaan korupsi aliran dana bailout Bank Century sekarang ini. Kasus demi kasus dugaan korupsi terus menyeruak di BI, diantaranya yang terungkap adalah kasus dugaan suap pencetakan uang pecahan Rp 100.000. Skandal suap pencetakan uang pecahan Rp 100 ribu yang diduga melibatkan oknum pejabat BI berinisial “S dan “M” yang terindikasi menerima 1,3 juta dolar AS, atau setara Rp 12 miliar dari anak usaha Reserve Bank of Australia (RBA) untuk memenangkan kontrak pencetakan uang pecahan Rp 100.000 tersebut.

    Mendiang Presiden Gus Dur juga pernah menyebut BI sebagai sarang penyamun. Akibatnya, guru besar UGM Prof Boediono yang dikenal relatif cukup bersih dan lugu pun tertular virus penyamun dan menjadi bulan-bulanan opini publik hingga cercaan demo aktivis yang berteriak “Boediono Maling!”. Sayang, Boediono yang sebelumnya sangat dihormati sebagai intelektual UGM, harus membayar mahal harga dirinya setelah terkonpirasi dan terkooptasi penguasa untuk ikut melumuri lembaga BI dengan kasus Bank Century. Maklum, mantan Gubernur BI Boediono yang dijadikan Wapresnya SBY dinilai sebagai orang yang paling bertanggung jawab dalam pengambilan keputusan dicairkannya dana bailout sebesar Rp 6,7 triliun ke Bank Century.

    Akibat BI identik sarang penyamun, maka tak heran lembaga ini menghasilkan alumni ataupun lulusan pejabat BI yang mengantongi ‘predikat’ status tersangka. Sebut saja, mantan Gubernur BI Soedradjad Djiwandono, Syahril Sabirin, Burhanuddin Abdullah, Aulia Pohan dan pejabat BI lainnya. Bahkan, kasus Burhanuddin juga menyeret nama Anwar Nasution. Ditambah lagi, Deputi Gubernur Senior BI Miranda Goelton terlibat kasus suap dalam pemilihannya di DPR. Maka, terasa pantas dan tidak salah jika publik memberi cap dan merek yang mantap, yakni: “BI sebagai sarang penyamun”.

    Lantas bagaimana solusinya agar BI tidak menjadi sarang penyamun? Apakah perlu dipasang sosok Gubernur BI yang jujur dan berani dihukum mati jika melakukan korupsi, kolusi dan nepotisme? Sebenarnya, anggota Badan Anggaran DPR RI Bambang Soesatyo pernah menyarakan dukungannya kepada figur Rizal Ramli, mantan Menko Perekonomian era pemerintahan Gus Dur, untuk menduduki jabatan Gubernur BI menggantikan Boediono saat itu. Karena figur Rizal Ramli dinilai relatif lebih jujur dibanding nama-nama lainnya yang diunggulkan sebagai pejabat Gubernur BI. Namun, sudah pasti ekonom vokal ini diduga tidak bakal disentuh oleh geng SBY atau lingkaran Istana, untuk dijadikan orang nomor satu di BI. Mungkin mereka takut proyek-proyeknya bakal dihantam oleh ‘orangnya’ Gus Dur tersebut.

    Maka, sekarang setidaknya terpikir oleh kita, bahwa untuk menjadikan lembaga BI yang bersih dan bebas dari sarang penyamun, tergantung political will rezim yang sedang berkuasa. Apabila sang rezim menghendaki BI dibersihkan dari sarang penyamun maka seketika itu juga kun fayakun BI jadi lembaga yang bersih dan mandiri. Tapi, kalau rezim penguasa tak menghendaki BI bersih karena masih dimanfaatkan untuk kepentingan politiknya atau sebagai mesin uang/ATM partai politik penguasa, maka sampai kiamat pun BI akan menjadi ‘sarang penyamun’. Lantas pertanyaan kita, apakah Gubernur BI sekarang Darmin Nasution masuk geng rezim penguasa yang akan memanfaatkan BI untuk kepentingan politik dan Pemilu/Pilpres2014?

    Kalau boleh menduga, Darmin Nasution itu apakah orangnya SBY? Sebab, mengapa Presiden hanya mengajukan nama Darmin sebagai calon tunggal Gubernur BI kepada DPR untuk dilakukan fit and proper test (uji kelayakan dan kepatutan) ‘paksaan’ oleh Komisi XI DPR. Akhirnya, Komisi DPR yang membidangi keuangan dan perbankan ini pun ‘terpaksa’ memilih Darmin Nasution sebagai Gubernur BI. Nampaknya, pihak DPR tak berkutik, mungkin kalau macam-macam akan diseret kasusnya oleh Komisi Pemberantasan Korupsi (KPK). Maklum, kalangan anggota DPR juga dikenal tidak bersih-bersih amat. Komisi XI DPR hanya mampu menyodorkan ‘kontrak politik’ kepada Darmin Nasution seolah-olah DPR itu kelihatan ‘galak-galak’ sedikitlah.

    Inilah 9 butir “kontrak politik” antara Komisi XI DPR dengan Darmin Nasution setelah mengikuti proses fit and proper test:

    1. Berdasarkan kesimpulan dan rekomendasi Pansus Angket Kasus Bank Century yang menyebutkan adanya dugaan keterlibatan saudara Darmin Nasution sehubungan dengan posisinya sebagai salah satu anggota Komite Stabilitas Sistem Keuangan dalam proses bailout Bank Century dan kasus hukum lainnya selama menjabat di lembaga pemerintahan lainnya, maknakala pada suatu saat dinyatakan secara formal oleh instrumen hukum di Indonesia (KPK, Kejaksaan Agung atau kembaga hukum lainnya) sebagai terdakwa, maka yang bersangkutan harus bersedia mengundurkan diri dari jabatan Gubernur BI pada saat itu juga tanpa harus menunggu ketetapan hukum yang tetap.

    2. Sebagai Gubernur Bank Sentral Indonesia, dalam menjalankan tugasnya sebagai Gubernur Bank Indonesia, selalu berkomitmen membuat kebijakan moneter yang integratif, yaitu bukan kebijakan moneter yang absolut melainkan kebijakan moneter yang selalu paralel dan sinergi dengan kebijakan yang dapat menjadi insentif terhadap sektor riil terutama pemberdayaan UMKM. Kebijakan tersebut antara lain memberikan kemudahan akses pembiayaan, mendorong pemberlakukan tingkat suku bunga pinjaman yang rendah dan selisih bunga yang kecil dengan tetap memperhatikan prudential system.

    3. Berkomitmen untuk membuat kebijakan yang dapat meningkatkan efisiensi industri perbankan di Indonesia.

    4. Dalam rangka meningkatkan mekanisme check and balance antara DPR dengan BI berkomitmen untuk bersama-sama mendorong dan memberdayakan Badan Supervisi Bank Indonesia dalam menjalankan fungsi dan tugas mengevaluasi kinerja BI yang disampaikan Komisi XI. Selama ini peran BSBI belum optimal.

    5. Guna memperkokoh independensi BI sebagai instrumen moneter yang kredibel, transparan dan akuntabel, maka Gubernur BI bersedia dan berkomitmen untuk melakukan reformasi birokrasi di kalangan internal BI, mengingat maraknya berbagai kasus yang terjadi selama ini lebih banyak disebabkan tidak berjalannya good corporate governance di lingkungan BI.

    6. Perbankan syariah dan BPR harus dikembangkan secara adil dan proporsional.]

    7. Memperjuangkan perbankan nasional menjadi tuan rumah di negeri sendiri dan tidak ada kendali asing dan memperjuangkan asas resiprokal dengan perbankan negara lain.

    8. Bahwa janji Gubernur BI terpilih untuk merubah paradigma kerja BI agar pro sektor riil harus terbukti demi upaya BI untuk menciptakan kedaulatan keuangan dan perbankan nasional.

    9. Apabila semua penjelasan dan klarifikasi selama fit and proper test terhadap kasus yang ditanyakan oleh para anggota Komisi XI DPR terbukti tidak benar, maka Saudara Darmin Nasution bersedia mengundurkan diri. Surahman mengatakan, kontrak politik ini merupakan bagian dari hak politik dan konstitusional Komisi XI. Maka, tak akan dimintakan persetujuan Darmin atas poin-poin dalam keputusan ini. Selanjutnya, Komisi XI akan melaporkan hasil keputusan ke Rapat Paripurna pekan depan.

    http://jakartapress.com/www.php/news/id/15800/BI-Tetap-jadi-Sarang-Penyamun-Sampai-Kiamat.jp

    ————–

    Bijimana orang-orang di BI itu tidak kaya-kaya kayak penyamun, kalo duit yang namanya RUPIAH itu: dia sendiri yang cetak, dia sendiri yang mengedarkan, dan dia sendiri yang mengawasinya …


    http://ekonomi.inilah.com/read/detail/2042056/bi-masihkah-sarang-penyamun

    BI, Masihkah Sarang Penyamun?

    Oleh: Iwan Purwantono, Senin, 28 Oktober 2013 | 10:23 WIB

    INILAH.COM, Jakarta -Dua kasus mencuat, menyeret Gubernur BI Agus DW Martowardojo. Yakni korupsi di proyek Hambalang dan suap BUMN, temuan SEC-komisi pasar modal Amerika Serikat (AS).

    Pada 1996, Prof Anwar Nasution sempat membuat pernyataan yang bikin heboh. Dia menyebut BI adalah sarang penyamun. Tentu saja, Anwar punya alasan kuat yang bisa dipertanggung jawabkan. Satu hal lagi, mantan Deputi Senior Gubernur BI itu, tentu tak sedang bercanda.

    Nah, sejarah akhirnya membuktikan kebenaran pernyataan tersebut. Sudah banyak elite BI yang masuk kerangkeng karena korupsi. Mulai dari Syahril Sabirin, Burhanuddin Abdullah, Aulia Pohan sampai Miranda S Goeltom.

    Kini, BI dipimpin Agus Martowardojo, ternyata belum bersih-bersih benar. Belakangan, muncul dua kasus besar yang melibas bos bank sentral itu. Yaitu korupsi Hambalang dan suap Diebold Inc untuk pejabat bank BUMN temuan SEC (Security Exchange Commission) alias komisi pasar modal AS.

    Dalam korupsi Hambalang, audit BPK menemukan adanya kesalahan Agus Martowardojo ketika menjabat sebagai menteri keuangan. Kesalahannya, Agus menyetujui dispensasi waktu pengajuan revisi Rencana Kerja dan Anggaran Kementerian/Lembaga (RKA KL) TA 2010 yang diajukan Sekretaris Kemenpora.

    Padahal, RKA KL TA 2010 itu, telah melebihi batas waktu sebagaimana diatur dalam PMK 69/PMK.02/2010. Selain itu, Agus juga menetapkan persetujuannya soal penggantian tahun jamak dalam kontrak proyek Hambalang. Menurut aturan, usulan pergantian kontrak proyek Hambalang harus mendapat persetujuan Menpora dan Menteri Pekerjaan Umum.

    Anehnya, Agus langsung setuju meski proposal tersebut hanya ditandatangani sekretaris Kemenpora dan Direktur Penataan Bangunan dan Lingkungan Kemenperian PU. Sedangkan kasus suap bank BUMN, temuan SEC, cukup menarik.

    Berdasarkan investigasi komisi pasar modal AS itu, terdapat suap yang dilakukan Diebold INC, perusahaan ATM asal AS kepada sejumlah pejabat bank pelat merah pada 2005-2010. Diebold menjatah sogokan berupa perjalanan wisata ke AS dan Eropa.

    Paket pelesiran yang ditawarkan Diebold, cukup menarik. Semisal Grand Canyon, Napa Valley, Las Vegas, New York City, Washinton DC, Hawaii, serta sejumlah tempat wisata terkenal di Eropa. Nah, biaya plesir para bos itu, menelan biaya sampai US$ 147 ribu atau Rp 1,6 miliar.

    Lalu, bank BUMN apa saja yang menggunakan ATM karya Diebold? Ada dua, yakni BRI dan Bank Mandiri. Nah, kala suap itu berlangsung, Agus Martowo menjabat sebagai Dirut Bank Mandiri.

    Kalau sudah begitu, sulit membantah pernyataan Anwar Nasution tadi. Ternyata, BI belum bebas dari penyamun? Jangan-jangan lebih parah lagi. [tjs]


    http://ekonomi.kompasiana.com/moneter/2013/11/20/bank-indonesia-masih-sarang-penyamun-611392.html

    Bank Indonesia “Masih” Sarang Penyamun

    OPINI | 20 November 2013 | 17:55

    Demikian ekonom UI Anwar Nasution berujar tentang Bank Indonesia (BI), ketika kontroversi Bantuan Likuiditas Bank Indonesia (BLBI) sebesar Rp 650 triliun mengemuka ke publik pasca keruntuhan Orde Baru. Pernyataan Anwar kala itu tentu saja cukup mencengangkan, mengingat posisi strategis Bank Indonesia sebagai pengelola moneter nasional sekaligus regulator semua Bank yang beroperasi di Indonesia.

    Seolah menjadi penguat atas pernyataan tersebut, sejumlah kasus korupsi terkuak dan melibatkan banyak pejabat Bank Indonesia sepanjang satu dekade terakhir. Setidaknya sudah tiga Gubernur BI yang membelitkan dirinya dengan kasus korupsi; Soedradjad Djiwandono, Syahril Sabirin dan Burhanuddin Abdullah. Lantas kita juga pernah mendengar nama bekas Deputi Gubernur BI; Aulia Tantowi Pohan, Miranda Gultom, Iwan R Prawinata, Siti Chalimah Fadjrijah atau Budi Mulya. Lalu beberapa Direksi BI antara lain Oey Hoey Tiong, Heru Supraptomo, Hendro Budianto, dan Paul Sutopo, dan pejabat sedikit dibawah level direktur BI terdapat nama Rusli Simanjuntak (Kepala Biro Gubernur BI), serta masih banyak pejabat lain yang kejahatannya tak terlalu terekspose media.

    Kasus-kasusnya pun beragam, dari suap, korupsi, sampai praktik pelanggaran hukum dengan bumbu intrik politik kekuasaan mengemuka sepanjang waktu. Para pihak yang terlibat pun bermacam-macam, mulai dari anggota DPR korup, aparat penegak hukum nakal, bahkan vendor pencetakan uang pun tak lepas dari aksi kejahatan pengelola moneter nasional tersebut. Belum lagi kasus yang melibatkan Komite Stabilitas Sistem Keuangan (KSSK) pada 21 November 2008 silam, yang memutuskan menyelamatkan Bank Century (bailout) dengan cara yang sangat kontroversial, yang hingga kini penyelesaiannya masih berlarut-larut karena melibatkan rezim penguasa didalamnya.

    Krisis Kredibilitas

    Lewat serentetan kasus tersebut Bank Indonesia seolah menjawab kekhawatiran masyarakat tentang arti pentingnya menjaga amanah dengan cara yang salah. Boleh jadi “kepercayaan” telah hanya menjadi mitos bagi para pengelola BI dewasa ini. Sifat jujur dan amanah seperti yang pernah terdengar dari pendahulu mereka, macam Syafruddin Prawiranegara seolah membekas sebagai sejarah yang gagal diteladani. Bank Indonesia telah terjebak dengan virus kekuasaan bernama korupsi, reputasi sebagai bank sentral nyaris hancur ditangan segelintir orang yang rendah integritas dan lacur karena harta.

    Jadi, jika anda seorang warga negara biasa atau pernah menjabat sebagai auditor bank swasta berlabel Panin yang tugasnya melakukan pengawasan dan menghindarkan bank dari tindak kejahatan perbankan, kemudian anda mencoba mengeluh atau melapor tentang perilaku menyimpang suatu Bank ke BI tapi seolah-olah tidak didengar dan dibiarkan menjadi korban. Ya, jangan heran. Karena sensitivitas bank sentral kita cuma berlaku untuk kategori warga negara tertentu dengan status dan dukungan materi yang cukup untuk membuat mereka terperangah dan mulai mendengar keluhan. Situasi yang nyaris sama dengan mudah kita temui di lembaga pemerintah lainnya yang sarat dengan pola birokrasi feodal.

    Tulisan ini tentu tidak akan membahas soal kapabilitas BI dalam menentukan kebijakan moneter dan makro ekonomi lainnya yang mempengaruhi nasib perekonomian kita. Namun sebagaimana pelajaran yang kita petik dari runtuhnya perekonomian barat akhir-akhir ini. Kemampuan mengelola arus ekonomi ternyata tidak cukup dengan soal intelektualitas, analisa mendalam atas pergerakan pasar, dan kemampuan mengukur variabel ekonomi dalam angka. Tapi lebih mendasar dari itu, persoalan integritas, kehormatan dan kesederhanaan sikap menjadi landasan utama dalam pengambilan kebijakan para pengelola perekonomian. Hal yang kemudian dalam dunia perbankan tertuang dalam prinsip kehati-hatiannya.

    Keprihatinan yang Memprihatinkan

    Sebagai sesama warga negara, saya hanya bisa berucap “prihatin” manakala kasus auditor bank swasta nasional yang dipecat atau dipaksa mengundurkan diri, karena alasan yang dicari-cari berupa mangkir dari kantor 5 hari tanpa pemberitahuan. Hal yang mengaburkan masalah sebenarnya, soal kejahatan perbankan, soal fraud yang melibatkan petinggi Bank tersebut, soal penggelapan dana. Soal “kecil” dalam bank yang mengelola uang masyarakat, dengan nominal beberapa Rupiah. Soal yang sering kita temui jauh hari sebelumnya, yang seolah-olah mereplika perilaku regulatornya (BI) yang salah.

    Lagi-lagi soal amanah yang cacat, soal pelanggaran yang ditemukan auditor yang tugasnya memang harus mencari pelanggaran dan penyimpangan pelaku bisnis Bank. Dan karena “ketidakberuntungan” harus berhadap-hadapan dengan petinggi institusi Bank, penguasa kecil yang cenderung diktatif karena merasa institusi adalah dirinya, mirip dengan slogan l’etat c’est moi. Hingga mereka yang berbeda kepentingan harus dipaksa mengaku kalah dan mengikuti keinginannya meski itu salah.

    Meski ada lembaga regulator yang bertugas sebagai pengawas Bank, kita tentu harus tahu diri, karena mereka terlalu banyak makan gula-gula, dan terserang penyakit diabetes hingga matanya sudah tak lagi “awas” alias rabun. Jadi saya tak juga terkejut jika KPK kelak mampu membongkar bau busuk yang lebih luas lagi, ketika kasus Century telah berani mereka korek lebih dalam dan lebar. Sehingga akan menambah panjang sejarah kelam Gubernur BI yang membelitkan dirinya dengan kasus Korupsi.

    Kalau sudah begini anda, saya, kita bisa apa?


    http://acch.kpk.go.id/modus-korupsi-di-sektor-perbankan

    Modus Korupsi di Sektor Perbankan

    Secara teoritis, kejahatan perbankan khususnya pembobolan dan penjarahan bank didorong oleh motif untuk menguntungkan pribadi bankir dengan cara merugikan bank dan masyarakat. Dalam kenyataannya praktek ini pernah dan selalu akan terjadi di belahan dunia manapun, baik di negara maju maupun negara berkembang. Praktik tersebut selalu terjadi ketika kesempatan untuk melakukannya terbuka.

    Secara empiris, tindak pidana korupsi perbankan melalui penipuan, pembobolan dan penjarahan seringkali terjadi di Indonesia. Hampir setiap tahun hal tersebut terjadi baik yang menimpa bank besar maupun bank kecil. Baik yang dilakukan oleh pihak dalam bank maupun pihak luar bank. Baik yang dilakukan oleh pemilik bank maupun oleh pegawai bank.

    Tindak kejahatan yang dilakukan pun semakin beragam dan kompleks. Dari mulai pembobolan kartu kredit, pemalsuan kartu ATM, pemindahbukuan secara ilegal, transfer fiktif, surat tagihan bodong, NCD fiktif sampai kredit fiktif.

    Kejahatan yang relatif kecil dan dilakukan oleh pegawai rendahan biasanya terjadi karena kelemahan dalam sistem prosedur di dalam bank. Kejahatan besar yang dilakukan manajemen puncak dan pemilik bank biasanya bukan karena kelemahan prosedur internal, tetapi lebih diakibatkan kelemahan karakter bankir.

    Terlepas dari siapapun yang melakukannya, praktek pembobolan dan korupsi perbankan adalah sangat berbahaya karena dapat menggoyahkan keamanan sistem keuangan dan kepercayaan publik terhadap perbankan nasional. Karena itu penegakan hukum dan tindakan preventif menjadi sangat penting dalam mencegah terjadinya tindak kejahatan perbankan.

    Studi Modus Korupsi di Sektor Perbankan dilakukan dengan tujuan untuk : (1) mengklasifikasikan antara kejahatan perbankan umum dengan tindak pidana korupsi pada sektor perbankan. (2) mendapatkan gambaran awal – yang sebisa mungkin menyeluruh – tentang potensi dan kondisi kejahatan perbankan termasuk korupsi pada lembaga perbankan termasuk korupsi pada lembaga perbankan. (3) memetakan potensi terjadinya kejahatan perbankan dan korupsi yang mungkin terjadi pada sektor perbankan serta modus operandinya, (4) mendapatkan gambaran awal yang dari waktu ke waktu bisa digunakan sebagai data pembanding dengan kondisi di masa depan, (5) mencari akar masalah atas potensi terjadinya kejahatan perbankan dan korupsi pada sektor perbankan, (6) menyusun masukan yang dapat digunakan untuk menghindari terjadinya kejahatan perbankan dan korupsi pada sektor perbankan, (7) menyusun masukan mengenai penanganan kejahatan perbankan dan kasus korupsi pada sektor perbankan terkait dengan kewenangan KPK.

    Hasil selengkapnya Studi Modus Korupsi di Sektor Perbankan bisa didownload di bawah ini.

    http://acch.kpk.go.id/documents/10157/27925/Modus_Korupsi_Sektor_Perbankan.pdf


    http://twitter.com/KPK_RI

    http://nasional.kompas.com/read/2013/12/04/0519211/KPK.Endus.Potensi.Skandal.Perbankan.Terkait.Pemilu.2014

    KPK Endus Potensi Skandal Perbankan Terkait Pemilu 2014

    Rabu, 4 Desember 2013 | 05:19 WIB

    Wakil Ketua Komisi Pemberantasan Korupsi Bambang Widjojanto (LUCKY PRANSISKA)

    JAKARTA, KOMPAS.com – Komisi Pemberantasan Korupsi (KPK) mengendus potensi korupsi di sektor perbankan untuk pendanaan partai politik dalam menghadapi Pemilu 2014. Perbankan menjadi sektor yang potensial dijadikan “bancakan” para koruptor dalam tiga kali pemilu terakhir, yaitu pada 1999, 2004, dan 2009.

    “(Pada) 2008, (skandal Bank) Century terjadi. (Pada) 2004, (kasus) kredit-kredit bank juga terjadi. Apa tahun ini tidak ada masalah itu? Kami mempelajari ada (potensi serupa),” kata Wakil Ketua KPK Bambang Widjojanto dalam diskusi di kantor Transparency International Indonesia (TII), Jakarta, Selasa (3/12/2013).

    Menurut Bambang, sebelum Pemilu 1999 terjadi skandal Bantuan Likuiditas Bank Indonesia (BLBI). Dari kasus ini, ujar dia, ada dana sekitar Rp 160 triliun yang tak jelas peruntukannya. Sementara pada 2004, kata Bambang, terjadi beberapa kasus pembobolan dana perbankan.

    Pada 2004, sebut Bambang, terjadi antara lain menimpa BNI oleh Maria Pauline senilai Rp 1,2 triliun. Dia pun mengatakan, ada dua atau tiga kasus terkait bank lain. “Termasuk Bank Global,” sebut dia.

    KPK, kata Bambang, saat ini sedang melakukan kajian terhadap sektor perbankan. Dia mengatakan, kajian itu memiliki tingkat kesulitan cukup tinggi karena ada kekhususan.

    Bambang mengatakan, ada tiga sektor yang rentan disalahgunakan untuk mendulang dana menjelang pemilu. Selain perbankan, sebut dia, dua hal lain adalah bantuan sosial dan dana optimalisasi.

    Perbankan menjadi incaran untuk penggalangan dana pemenangan pemilu, menurut Bambang, karena kapitalisasi dana di dalamnya. “Itu yang disebut cash and carry-nya jelas. Transaksi bribery (suap) kan cash and carry. Ada uang, ada barang. Ada uang, ada jasa.”

    Tahun pemilu, kata Bambang, ditandai dengan tingginya pergerakan aliran uang. Ongkos politik yang mahal serta sumber pendanaan yang tak transparan dan akuntabel, sebut dia, adalah akar permasalahan korupsi di dunia politik.

    Penulis : Rahmat Fiansyah

    Editor : Palupi Annisa Auliani


    Bokir, Rabu, 4 Desember 2013 | 10:05 WIB

    syukur dah kalo KPK sdh mengendus kemungkinan pembobolan perbankan lg, smoga jgn ada lagi korupsi sistemik & canggih ala Century, jg smoga dalang pembobolan & pemakai duit haram Century sgr terungkap & ditangkap KPK.

    Mohd, Rabu, 4 Desember 2013 | 09:49 WIB

    Udah deh KPK, beresin dulu Hambalang dan Century dg cepat dan memuaskan ! Buatlah kami puas dengan sitaan yg nilainya sebanding dg kehilangan negara yg 6,7T dan 2T itu. Kalo itu tuntas, baru deh omong milestone yg laen. Ga usah maruk karena penyidik kalian emang dikit.

    wibowo, Rabu, 4 Desember 2013 | 08:49 WIB

    Tidak usah caci-maki, kalau ga suka ya keluar dari Indonesia. Berbuatlah yang terbaik bagi negaramu. Kalau kamu merasa lebih baik ya gantikan mereka.

    iwan hendrawan, Rabu, 4 Desember 2013 | 06:02 WIB

    Tujuan reformasi telah salah arah dan dibelokkan: dlu sama2 ingin berantas korupsi,prakteknya stelah berhasil melengserkan p harto klompok reformis jegal menjegal di parlemen dan malah brkoalisi dgn klompok korup akibatnya ikutan korupsi sndri.,parahnya korupsi berjamaah menghindari resiko ditnggung

    Dady, Rabu, 4 Desember 2013 | 05:44 WIB

    PEMILU 2014 ..Waspadai BANCAKAN PARTAI SAPI akibat merger XL- AXIS … dan juga partai lain di TELCO !!

    Mohd, Rabu, 4 Desember 2013 | 09:52 WIB

    Kejauhan mas Bro. Tuh bongkar SKK Migas, duitnya jelas triliunan dan itu hak negara. Deviardi jelas2 bilang di BAP kalo proyek2 migas digilir oleh garong bernama PDIP, Golkar dan Demokrat ! XL-AXIS mah swasta murni, mana bisa KPK masuk.


    http://kpk.go.id/id/berita/berita-sub/1550-bank-selalu-dibobol-jelang-pemilu

    Bank Selalu Dibobol Jelang Pemilu

    Rabu, Desember 04 2013 15:17

    JAKARTA – Wakil Ketua Komisi Pemberantasan Korupsi (KPK) Bambang Widjojanto mengatakan, angka korupsi di Indonesia semakin meroket menjelang pemilu. “Pada pemilu-pemilu sebelumnya selalu ada kasus yang menjebol keuangan negara,” kata dia, Selasa (3/12).

    Bambang memaparkan pola pengerukan keuangan negara selalu berulang menjelang pemilu. Ia mencontohkan sebelum Pemilu 1999, terjadi kasus Bantuan Likuiditas Bank Indonesia (BLBI). Dari anggaran sebesar Rp 600 triliun, ada sekitar Rp 100 triliun yang tidak jelas. Bahkan, sampai saat ini pemerintah harus membayar bunganya.

    Pada 2004, sebelum Pemilu 2005, lanjutnya, terjadi pembobolan BNI 46 Kebayoran Baru dengan letter of credit atau surat utang bodong senilai Rp 1,7 triliun. Pelaku pembobolan bank ini adalah Dirut PT Gramarindo, Maria Pauline Lumowa.

    Sedangkan pada 2008, sebelum Pemilu 2009, terjadi kasus pemberian Fasilitas Pendanaan Jangka Pendek (FPJP) dan penetapan Bank Century sebagai bank gagal berdampak sistemik. Akibat dari kebijakan ini, negara harus menggelontorkan dana talangan atau bail out sebesar Rp 6,7 triliun. KPK baru menetapkan satu orang tersangka dalam kasus ini, yaitu Budi Mulya.

    Karena itu, Bambang menilai hasil survei lembaga Transparency International (TI) bukan merupakan akhir dunia. Menurutnya, kenyataan korupsi di Indonesia yang masih buruk harus menjadi masukan dalam upaya memberantasnya.

    “Saya hanya mau katakan, hasil survei ini bukanlah kiamat. Survei Corruption Perception Index (CPI) ini bisa menjadi ukuran lain yang penting dalam pemberantasan korupsi, tapi jangan dianggap yang paling penting,” kata Bambang. Tokoh yang akrab disapa BW ini menambahkan hasil survei CPI ini jangan dilihat begitu saja.

    Secara metodologis, survei itu memang dapat dipercaya, tetapi tidak bisa menjadi justifikasi terhadap semua upaya yang dilakukan dalam pemberantasan korupsi. Apalagi, hasil survei ini diambil dari satu kelompok tertentu, dalam hal ini pengusaha atau pelaku bisnis sehingga tidak dapat menilai secara keseluruhan atau holistik.

    Tertinggi

    Kemarin, Transparency International (TI) kembali meluncurkan Corruption Perception Index (CPI) atau indeksi tingkat persepsi publik terhadap korupsi secara global. Indeks persepsi korupsi Indonesia pada tahun ini masih lebih buruk dari sejumlah negara miskin Afrika.

    Pada CPI 2013 ini, Indonesia mendapatkan nilai skor sebesar 32 poin dan menempati peringkat ke-114 dari 177 negara. Pada 2012 lalu, Indonesia berada di peringkat 118 dari 176 negara meski memiliki poin yang sama, yaitu 32.

    Nilai yang diraih Indonesia ini masih kalah dengan sejumlah negara dari Afrika yang tergolong miskin, seperti Ethiopia dan Tanzania, dengan nilai 33 poin. Bahkan, negara yang baru merdeka beberapa tahun lalu, seperti Kosovo, tingkat korupsinya leb’ baik dari Indonesia dengan meraih 3 poin.

    Sekretaris Jenderal TI Indonesia Dadang Trisasongko memaparkan hasil survei di Indonesia ini diuku dari sembilan sumber data, seperti ilihat dari aspek birokrasi, parlemen, penegak hukum, dan layanan pemerintah.

    “Kepolisian dan lembaga peradilan masih menjadi lembaga yang korupsi, juga ada parlemen dan partai politik. Jadi, masih ada problem di penegak hukum dan peradilan dan puncaknya pada penangkapan Ketua MK (Akil Mochtar) dan hakim Pengadilan Tipikor (Setyabudi Tedjocahyono) juga ditangkap KPK,” kata Dadang, kemarin.

    Akan tetapi, ada beberapa sumber data yang menyumbang hasil positif dalam hasil survei ini, yaitu adanya penegakan hukum serta pencegahan dan pemberantasan korupsi. Dalam hal ini, KPK memiliki prestasi dan membuat Indonesia tetap memiliki nilai positif.

    Sumber: Republika, 4 Desember 2013


    http://www.theglobal-review.com/content_detail.php?lang=id&id=14083&type=5

    Waspadai Kejahatan Perbankan Jelang Pemilu 2014

    Satya Dewangga *), 04-12-2013

    Ada dua momentum penting dihadapi bangsa Indonesia, yaitu periode akhir tahun Pemerintahan Presiden SBY dan kedua menghadapi Pemilu dan Pilpres 2014. Pengamat dengan memanfaatkan media massa pada umumnya lebih sensitif dalam merasakan suasana dan kecenderungan yang akan terjadi. Tulisan ini akan menyoroti permasalahan ekonomi nasional dan pemberantasan korupsi dengan tujuan agar para pemangku kepentingan (stakeholders) lebih cepat mewaspadainya.

    Presiden Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono (SBY) tampak sangat risau terhadap perkembangan ekonomi belakangan ini, sampai-sampai ia mengajak anggota kabinet mendinginkan suasana di tengah keteduhan Istana Cipanas.

    Berbagai indikator ekonomi memang memperlihatkan kecenderungan memburuk, tentu saja merupakan pukulan bagi pemerintahan SBY, mengingat masa kerjanya makin pendek. Sejumlah indikator makin tidak menggembirakan, mencakup pelemahan nilai tukar rupiah, inflasi bulan November, cadangan devisa, pembengkakan jumlah subsidi BBM, dan membesarnya defisit transaksi berjalan.

    Masalah-masalah yang dikemukakan diatas terutama yang dirisaukan Presiden SBY, pada umumnya tergolong pada masalah-masalah ekonomi makro, tidak menyentuh langsung kepentingan rakyat biasa. Namun semua sadar, bahwa persoalan ekonomi golongan rakyat biasa, golongan menengah sangat tergantung pada kondisi masalah-masalah ekonomi makro tersebut. Padahal, secara makro saat ini situasi ekonomi berat.

    Dalam situasi ekonomi makro yang berat tersebut sebuah pengalaman yang berharga dari sejarah adalah langkah Orde Baru mengatasi situasi pasca G30S/PKI yang tidak kalah parahnya dari situasi saat ini, yaitu ada keberanian politik mengambil berbagai keputusan ekonomi sebagai awal memecahkan lingkaran setan kesulitan ekonomi.

    Jadi persoalan pertama yang harus dijawab oleh para ekonom adalah apa hambatan utama dibidang ekonomi dewasa ini dan apa alternatif pemecahannya. Selanjutnya pertanyaan ditujukan kapada para politisi yaitu apakah berani memilih salah satu alternatif yang tersedia dan dengan keberanian politik yang luar biasa dibuat keputusan politik nasional untuk bangsa Indonesia melakukannya. Hanya inilah kuncinya, yaitu unsur serta faktor kepemimpinan politik negeri ini.

    Sementara itu, terkait pemberantasan korupsi. Komisi Pemberantasan Korupsi (KPK) mewaspadai adanya kasus pembobolan korupsi dana perbankan menjelang perhelatan Pemilihan Umum (Pemilu) 2014. Kewaspadaan tersebut, menurut Wakil Ketua Komisi Pemberantasan Korupsi (KPK) Bambang Widjojanto, tidaklah berlebihan. Pasalnya, kata Bambang, masyarakat Indonesia selalu disuguhkan kasus pembobolan bank setiap kali menjelang pemilu.

    Menurut penulis, kejahatan perbankan yang terjadi menjelang Pemilu, dicurigai adalah bagian dari kegiatan politik sesuatu golongan, yang seperti dalam pembahasan masalah situasi ekonomi makro, maka negeri ini harus berani mengambil suatu keputusan politik yang menentukan. Kekhawatiran terjadinya kejahatan perbankan seperti pada tahun 2004 dan tahun 2009 seperti tersebut diatas dibuat oleh Bambang Wijoyanto, Wakil Ketua KPK.

    Sungguh ironis, Wakil Ketua KPK bisa membuat peringatan kepada masyarakat kemungkinan menghadapi Pemilu dan Pilpres 2014 akan ada lagi skandal perbankan, tetapi ia sebagai pimpinan KPK tidak berani mendorong KPK membuat keputusan politik yang berani, bagaimana dan ke arah mana skandal bank Century yang sudah berusia sekitar lima tahun tersebut, tetapi masih menggantung tidak menentu, harus diakhiri. Pengakhiran kasus skandal Bank Century secara politik perlu dilakukan agar menjadi contoh untuk tidak terjadi kembali.

    Persoalan Bank Century adalah membongkar pertama, siapa yang secara politik bertanggung jawab terjadinya keputusan bailout sebesar 6,7 Triliun kepada bank Century. Orang ini harus mempertanggung jawabkannya secara politik dan diancam pidana karena telah mengakibatkan negara dirugikan sebesar Rp 6,7 Triliun dan ada fihak-fihak lain yang menjadi kaya. Kedua, meneliti aliran dana yang terjadi untuk menemukan siapa saja yang telah menikmati dana talangan sebesar Rp 6,7 Triliun tersebut dan menangkap serta mengirimkannya ke Lembaga Pemasyarakatan Nusakambangan. Ketiga, kita perlu memiliki pemangku kepentingan dari kalangan politik yang berani mengambil keputusan politik itu, karena tanpa itu KPK dimana Bambang Wijayanto penulis prediksi diatas bertugas, akan selalu dalam kebimbangan dan masalah bank Century semakin berlarut-larut.

    Oleh karena itu, perlu dikritisi usulan Wakil Ketua Komisi III DPR-RI, Aziz Syamsuddin, agar KPK vakum selama proses Pemilu 2014. Usulan ini memancing pendapat jika KPK vakum, maka masyarakat dapat golput. Seharusnya, pemberantasan korupsi tidak perlu dihentikan, dan justru untuk mengawasi adanya politik uang menjelang dan saat Pemilu 2014.

    *) Penulis adalah peneliti muda di Forum Dialog (Fordial)


    http://www.jpnn.com/read/2013/12/09/204763/KPK-Cegah-Tradisi-Gangsir-Bank-

    KPK Cegah Tradisi Gangsir Bank

    Tiga Kali Terjadi Jelang Pemilu

    Senin, 09 Desember 2013 , 05:38:00

    JAKARTA – Komisi Pemberantasan Korupsi (KPK) melakukan studi kejahatan pembobolan perbankan yang ternyata terjadi tiga kali berturut-turut menjelang perhelatan pemilu. Kejahatan menggangsir dana di bank itu diduga dilakukan oleh pemangku kebijakan dan dialirkan sebagai pendanaan pemilu.

    Wakil Ketua KPK Bambang Widjojanto mengungkapkan, dari hasil studi yang dilakukan instansinya, tenyata ada siklus kejahatan perbankan yang terjadi menjelang pemilu. Mantan pengacara itu kemudian membeberkan sejumlah hasil studinya.

    Misalnya, kejahatan perbankan yang terjadi pada 1998, setahun menjelang Pemilu 1999. “Ketika itu, kita tahu bersama terjadi kasus Bantuan Likuiditas Bank Indonesia (BLBI) senilai 144,5 triliun,” ujar pria yang akrab disapa BW itu. Karena perkara itu, negara harus membayar utang Rp 60 triliun per tahun kepada IMF hingga 2018.

    “Kemudian, menjelang Pemilu 2004 terjadi skandal penyaluran kredit fiktif pada 4″5 bank yang nilainya juga banyak,” ungkapnya.

    Nah, yang hingga kini masih hangat ialah pemberian fasilitas pendanaan jangka pendek (FPJP) dan penetapan Bank Century sebagai bank gagal berdampak sistemik.

    Perkara ini hingga kini masih ditangani KPK. Baru dua orang yang dijadikan tersangka dalam perkara ini. Itu pun diduga bukan pemeran utama yang mengakibatkan negara rugi hingga Rp 6,7 triliun tersebut. “Nah, kita tidak melakukan justifikasi, tapi apakah pada menjelang 2014 ini bakal terjadi lagi” Ini yang kami sedang lakukan pencegahannya,” papar Bambang.

    Mengapa kejahatan perbankan kerap terjadi menjelang pemilu” Menurut Bambang, hal itu berkaitan dengan kapitalisasi yang luar biasa besar di sektor tersebut. “Kalau dicermati, kasus-kasus yang ditangani KPK yang utama juga sektor perbankan, bantuan sosial, importasi, dan sektor migas,” ungkap pejabat kelahiran Jakarta tersebut.

    Lantas, siapakah yang bisa terjerat dalam perkara ini” Bambang mengatakan, orang-orang yang bermain di sektor itu bisa saja terjerat perkara. Terutama pembuat kebijakan. “Kami terus melakukan kajian pencegahannya untuk sektor perbankan ini,” katanya.

    Dalam acara yang berbeda kemarin, Ketua KPK Abraham Samad menambahkan, skandal perbankan setiap menjelang pemilu itu terjadi karena kejahatan tersebut dilakukan oleh penguasa. “Yang kedua kejahatan seperti itu sifatnya white collar crime. Jadi, agak sulit mendeteksinya,” ujar pria asal Makassar itu.

    Faktor ketiga, ada indikasi bahwa uang dari kejahatan tersebut disalurkan untuk kegiatan yang bersifat pemilu dan pilpres.

    Meski ada indikasi uang dari kejahatan perbankan mengalir ke pemilu, Abraham tidak berani menyebutkan indikasi pelakunya berkaitan dengan partai politik tertentu.

    “Kami belum bisa pastikan. Tapi, kejahatan seperti ini dilakukan para pemangku kebijakan yang punya kewenangan luar biasa,” ujarnya.

    Abraham mengatakan, kondisi perbankan di Indonesia rentan kejahatan. Sebab, banyak bank kecil di Indonesia dan tiba-tiba mengalami kesulitan pendanaan, kemudian dilimpahkan ke pemerintah. Dari situ, pemerintah melakukan kewajiban penyelamatan. “Di sinilah kerawanan itu terjadi dan harus diantisipasi,” ungkapnya.

    Salah satu tindakan yang dilakukan KPK untuk mencegah hal tersebut ialah melakukan kerja sama dengan Otoritas Jasa Keuangan (OJK). “Kita bekerja sama melakukan pemantauan,” paparnya.

    Menurut Abraham, yang terpenting dalam perkara ini ialah pencegahan. Dia mengatakan, jika pencegahan tidak dapat dilakukan, uang negara yang begitu besar sulit diselamatkan.

    Abraham mencontohkan perkara Century yang kini sedang ditangani. Dia tidak yakin uang negara yang kembali akan sebesar kerugiannya, yakni Rp 6,7 triliun.

    Saat ditegaskan apakah kasus Century juga mengalir ke Pemilu 2009, Abraham menjawab hal tersebut akan terungkap dalam sidang. (bay/gun/dim/c1/kim)


    http://www.kaltimpost.co.id/berita/detail/45011/dana-kejahatan-bank-mengalir-ke-pemilu.html

    http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:RmBKNsLBuuEJ:www.kaltimpost.co.id/berita/detail/45011/dana-kejahatan-bank-mengalir-ke-pemilu.html+&cd=1&hl=en&ct=clnk&client=firefox-aurora

    Dana Kejahatan Bank Mengalir ke Pemilu

    Sudah Tiga Kali Terjadi Jelang Pemilihan Umum

    Senin, 9 Desember 2013 – 09:59:04

    JAKARTA – Komisi Pemberantasan Korupsi (KPK) juga melakukan studi kejahatan pembobolan perbankan yang ternyata terjadi tiga kali berturut-turut menjelang perhelatan pemilu. Kejahatan menggangsir dana di bank itu diduga dilakukan oleh pemangku kebijakan dan dialirkan sebagai pendanaan pemilu.

    Wakil Ketua KPK Bambang Widjojanto mengungkapkan dari hasil studi yang dilakukan instansinya ternyata ada siklus kejahatan perbankan yang terjadi menjelang pemilu. Mantan pengacara itu kemudian membeberkan sejumlah hasil studinya.

    Misalnya, kejahatan perbankan yang terjadi pada 1998, setahun menjelang Pemilu 2009. “Ketika itu kita tahu bersama terjadi kasus Bantuan Likuiditas Bank Indonesia (BLBI) senilai 144,5 triliun,” ujar pria yang akrab disapa BW itu. Akibat perkara itu negara harus membayar utang Rp 60 triliun per tahun pada IMF hingga 2018.

    “Kemudian menjelang pemilu 2004 terjadi skandal penyaluran kredit fiktif pada 4-5 bank yang nilainya juga banyak,” ungkapnya. Nah, yang hingga kini masih hangat ialah pemberian fasilitas pendanaan jangka pendek (FPJP) dan penetapan Bank Century sebagai bank gagal berdampak sistemik.

    Perkara ini hingga kini masih ditangani KPK. Baru dua orang yang dijadikan tersangka dalam perkara ini. Itu pun diduga bukan pemeran utama yang menyebabkan negara mengalami kerugian hingga Rp 6,7 triliun tersebut. “Nah kita tidak melakukan justifikasi, tapi apakah menjelang 2014 ini bakal terjadi lagi? Ini yang kami sedang lakukan pencegahannya,” papar Bambang.

    Mengapa kejahatan perbankan kerap terjadi menjelang pemilu? Menurut Bambang hal itu karena kapitalisasi yang luar biasa di sektor tersebut. “Kalau dicermati kasus-kasus yang ditangani KPK yang utama juga sektor perbankan, bantuan sosial, importasi, dan sektor migas,” ungkap pejabat kelahiran Jakarta tersebut.

    Lantas siapakah yang bisa terjerat dalam perkara ini? Bambang mengatakan orang-orang yang bermain sektor itu bisa saja terjerat perkara. Terutama pada pembuat kebijakan. “Kami terus melakukan kajian pencegahannya untuk sektor perbankan ini,” kata BW.

    Ketua KPK Abraham Samad menambahkan, skandal perbankan setiap menjelang pemilu itu terjadi karena kejahatan tersebut dilakukan oleh orang yang memegang kekuasaan.

    “Yang kedua kejahatan seperti itu sifatnya white collar crime jadi agak sulit mendeteksinya,” terang pria asal Makassar ini. faktor ketiganya, uang dari kejahatan tersebut memang ada indikasi diperuntukkan untuk kegiatan yang bersifat pemilu dan pilpres.

    Meski ada indikasi uang dari kejahatan perbankan mengalir ke pemilu namun Abraham tidak berani menyebutkan indikasi pelakunya berkaitan dengan partai politik tertentu.

    “Kami belum bisa pastikan, tapi kejahatan seperti ini dilakukan para pemangku kebijakan yang punya kewenangan luar biasa,” ujarnya.

    Abraham mengatakan, kondisi perbankan di Indonesia rentan terjadi kejahatan. Sebab banyak bank kecil di Indonesia dan tiba-tiba kesulitan pendanaan kemudian dilimpahkan ke pemerintah. Dari situ, pemerintah akan melakukan kewajiban penyelamatan. “Di sinilah kerawanan itu terjadi dan harus diantisipasi,” ungkapnya.

    Salah satu yang dilakukan KPK untuk mencegah hal tersebut ialah dengan melakukan kerja sama dengan Otoritas Jasa Keuangan (OJK). “Kita bekerja sama melakukan pemantauan,” paparnya. Abraham mengungkapkan yang terpenting dalam perkara ini ialah pencegahan.

    Menurutnya, jika tidak berhasil melakukan pencegahan maka yang terjadi uang negara yang hilang begitu besar sulit diselamatkan.

    Dia mencontohkan perkara Century yang kini sedang ditangani, Abraham tidak yakin uang negara yang kembali akan sebesar kerugiannya, yakni Rp 6,7 triliun. Saat ditegaskan apakah kasus Century juga mengalir ke pemilu 2009? Abraham menjawab hal tersebut akan terungkap di persidangan.

    AKSI PPATK

    Tengara petinggi KPK soal adanya kasus skandal perbankan setiap menjelang pemilu mendapat perhatian Pusat Penelitian Analisa dan Transaksi Keuangan (PPATK). Lembaga pengawas lalu lintas transaksi keuangan itu mendesak Komisi Pemilihan Umum (KPU) mendapatkan data rekening dana kampanye calon legislatif (caleg).

    PPATK meminta kepada KPU berinisiatif menyerahkan daftar nama dan tanggal lahir pengurus partai politik, demi memantau aliran dana kampanye pemilu legislatif 2014.

    Ketua PPATK Muhammad Yusuf menyatakan, PPATK selama ini selalu meminta kepada KPU untuk bisa menyerahkan rekening dana kampanye masing-masing caleg. Namun, faktanya KPU hanya memiliki laporan rekening dana kampanye partai politik, akibat keterbatasan aturan Undang-Undang Pemilu nomor 8 tahun 2012.

    “Kalau rekening dirasa keberatan, kita sederhanakan supaya KPU serahkan data lengkap pengurus 12 parpol,” ujar Yusuf dalam diskusi bertajuk Pemilu Bersih Tanpa Politik Uang di Café Deli, Jakarta, kemarin (8/12).

    Menurut Yusuf, identitas itu penting bagi PPATK untuk melakukan deteksi dini. Modus di dua pemilu sebelumnya, terjadi transaksi mencurigakan di sejumlah rekening saat mendekati tahun pemilihan.

    “Kalau hanya nama, itu banyak (yang sama). Tapi tempat tanggal lahir enggak sama. Kalau bisa lengkap, tapi kalau enggak bisa minimal nama lengkap dan tempat tanggal lahir,” ujarnya.

    Yusuf menjelaskan, tren yang terjadi di pemilu 2004 dan 2009 kembali terulang jelang pemilu 2014. Satu tahun jelang pemungutan suara pemilu legislatif, terjadi transaksi di sejumlah rekening yang terindikasi terkait dengan dana kampanye parpol.

    “Itu seperti pola peng-ijonan. Sudah diberikan satu tahun sebelumnya, lalu menjelang pemungutan suara, selanjutnya satu tahun setelah pemilu,” jelasnya.

    Maraknya transaksi mencurigakan itu, muncul dengan adanya penarikan dana tunai dalam jumlah yang besar. Namun, saat ditelusuri, dana tunai itu tidak digunakan untuk pembelian barang ataupun jasa, sehingga terindikasi menjadi transaksi yang mencurigakan.

    “Kami sudah meminta kepada pemerintah untuk mengatur regulasi pembatasan transaksi tunai. Karena ini urgent,” ujar Yusuf.

    Penggunaan anggaran negara, lanjut Yusuf, juga rawan diselewengkan untuk kepentingan politik dan pribadi. Dana negara yang paling rawan adalah anggaran bantuan sosial. Ini karena dana pusat yang mengalir ke rekening daerah, sering diselewengkan dengan dialihkan ke rekening pribadi untuk dinikmati bunga dari besaran anggaran tersebut.

    “Kasus Wali Kota Bandung merupakan contoh dari temuan PPATK,” ujar Yusuf.

    Penyelewengan di dunia perbankan untuk kepentingan politik juga bisa terjadi. Yusuf mencontohkan, pencairan dari kredit yang tidak prudent rawan untuk diselewengkan guna kepentingan politik.

    Dana Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) dari berbagai Badan Usaha Milik Negara (BUMN) juga kerap dimanfaatkan elite politik.

    “Belum lagi dana pendidikan. Itu tersalur ke daerah Rp 320 triliun, tidak ada kontrol dari pusat,” ujarnya mengingatkan.

    Yusuf juga meminta peran OJK untuk selektif memeriksa pribadi yang kerap menukar uang dengan nilai pecahan. OJK harus mempertanyakan, apa relevansi orang tersebut sehingga membutuhkan uang pecahan dalam jumlah banyak. “Jika tidak relevan, tentu ini bisa kita mitigasi, dan tentunya memudahkan kinerja KPK,” jelasnya.

    Menurut Yusuf, dirinya prihatin dengan fakta banyaknya transaksi mencurigakan dalam proses pemilu, namun penegakan hukum yang dilakukan masih rendah. “Negara kita luas. Masak tidak ada pelanggaran pemilunya. Harus ada upaya penegakan hukum, supaya ada efek jeranya,” tandasnya.

    Bagaimana tanggapan KPU? Komisioner KPU Sigit Pamungkas menyatakan, problem untuk mewajibkan laporan rekening caleg maupun pengurus partai disebabkan batasan pada UU. Aturan KPU hanya bisa memberikan batasan bahwa semua sumbangan harus masuk ke rekening parpol, baru didistribusikan ke pihak lain. “Kalau memang ada inisiatif individual, tentu baik,” ujar Sigit.

    Dia menambahkan, langkah PPATK menelusuri aliran dana kampanye melalui identitas pengurus partai, patut diapresiasi. KPU dalam hal ini siap untuk memberikan data lengkap kepengurusan parpol jika memang dibutuhkan oleh PPATK. “Kalau PPATK membutuhkan kepengurusan, itu bukan sesuatu yang sulit,” ujarnya. (bay/gun/dim/kim/jpnn/che/k7)?


    http://m.poskotanews.com/2013/12/21/waspadai-suntikan-modal-ke-bank-mutiara-jelang-pemilu/

    Diguyur LPS Rp1,5 Triliun

    Waspadai Suntikan Modal ke Bank Mutiara Jelang Pemilu

    Sabtu, 21 Desember 2013 – 13:44

    JAKARTA (Pos Kota) – Langkah Lembaga Penjamin Simpanan (LPS) menyuntikkan modal ke PT Bank Mutiara sebesar Rp1,5 triliun mengundang tanda tanya dan kritik oleh DPR.

    LPS sendiri beralasan, keputusan itu demi mengatasi merosotnya rasio kecukupan modal (capital adequacy ratio/CAR) bank yang sebelumnya bernama Bank Century.

    Sekretaris Fraksi Hanura, Saleh Husin mengatakan, momentum pemberian suntikan modal Bank Mutiara, yang sebelumnya dikenal sebagai Bank Century, layak diwaspadai.

    “Kita harus kritis, saat ini akhir 2013 dan 2014 merupakan tahun-tahun politik ketika semua pihak mengerahkan semua sumber-sumber kekuatan politik, termasuk sumber dana. Jangan sampai, aliran suntikan modal ke bank dibelokkan untuk kepentingan politik,” kata Saleh, Sabtu (22/12).

    Saleh juga mengingatkan, keputusan memberikan dana talangan atau bailout pada Bank Century pada November 2009, diambil beberapa bulan sebelum Pemilu 2009. Nilainya mencapai Rp6,7 triliun meski estimasi awal hanya membutuhkan sekitar Rp600 miliar.

    Untuk itu, saat ini publik harus mengawasi dan pihak LPS, Bank Indonesia dan Bank Mutiara pun wajib menunjukkan transparansi penggunaan dana. “Sejarah tidak boleh berulang dan terjadi lagi skandal Bank Century dengan wajah baru. Jangan sampai terjadi Century Jilid II,” tegas Saleh. (rizal/yo)


    http://www.tribunnews.com/nasional/2013/12/22/hanura-waspadai-suntikan-modal-untuk-eks-bank-century-jelang-pemilu

    Pemilu 2014

    Hanura Waspadai Suntikan Modal untuk Eks Bank Century Jelang Pemilu

    Minggu, 22 Desember 2013 09:10 WIB

    Saleh Husin (kedua kanan) (Wartakota/Henry Lopulalan)

    Laporan Wartawan Tribunnews.com, Ferdinand Waskita

    TRIBUNNEWS.COM, JAKARTA – Sekretaris Fraksi Hanura Saleh Husin mempertanyakan langkah Lembaga Penjamin Simpanan (LPS) menyuntikkan modal ke PT Bank Mutiara Tbk sebesar Rp 1,5 triliun. LPS beralasan, keputusan itu demi mengatasi merosotnya rasio kecukupan modal (capital adequacy ratio/CAR) bank tersebut.

    Saleh Husin mengatakan, momentum pemberian suntikan modal Bank Mutiara, yang sebelumnya dikenal sebagai Bank Century, layak diwaspadai.

    “Kita harus kritis, saat ini akhir 2013 dan 2014 merupakan tahun-tahun politik ketika semua pihak mengerahkan semua sumber-sumber kekuatan politik, termasuk sumber dana. Jangan sampai, aliran suntikan modal ke bank dibelokkan untuk kepentingan politik,” kata Saleh dalam keterangannya, Minggu (22/12/2013).

    Saleh juga mengingatkan, keputusan memberikan dana talangan atau bailout pada Bank Century pada November 2009, beberapa bulan sebelum Pemilu 2009. Nilainya mencapai Rp 6,7 triliun meski estimasi awal hanya membutuhkan sekitar Rp 600 miliar.

    Untuk itu, saat ini publik harus mengawasi dan pihak LPS, Bank Indonesia dan Bank Mutiara pun wajib menunjukkan transparansi penggunaan dana.

    “Jangan sampai sejarah berulang dan terjadi lagi skandal Bank Century dengan wajah baru,” tegas Saleh.

    Jika ditotal, maka dana penambahan modal dari negara bagi bank tersebut mencapai Rp 8,2 triliun.

    Kredit Macet

    Saleh Husin yang juga Ketua DPP Partai Hanura itu pun mengkritisi alasan tambahan modal untuk mendongkrak rasio kecukupan modal (CAR). Merosotnya CAR, menurut manajemen Bank Century lantaran adanya Non-Performing Load (NPL) alias kredit macet yang mencapai Rp 400 miliar.

    “LPS sebagai pemegang saham Bank Mutiara dan BI jangan hanya mengurusi CAR. Mereka harus menegur dan mengevaluasi kinerja direksi Bank Mutiara. Juga, memverifikasi apakah memang benar ada kredit macet sebesar itu dan apakah memang membutuhkan dana Rp 1,5 triliun,” kata Saleh.

    Penulis: Ferdinand Waskita

    Editor: Gusti Sawabi

    Sumber: Tribun Jakarta


    http://www.neraca.co.id/article/36332/Mewaspadai-Siklus-Krisis-Perbankan-Jelang-Pemilu-2014

    Mewaspadai (Siklus) Krisis Perbankan Jelang Pemilu 2014

    Oleh: Tigor Damanik, Alumnus FHUI 1982 dan Mantan Auditor Bank BUMN

    Senin, 30/12/2013

    Mengamati pelemahan rupiah terhadap USD (United States Dollar )/Dolar Amerika Serikat (AS) selama kurang lebih dua bulan terakhir ini, dimana kurs rupiah nyaris dan diperkirakan dalam waktu dekat akan menyentuh level Rp. 12.000,00 per USD-nya.

    Kemudian, disepanjang tahun 2013 dimana Bank Indonesia (BI) gencar menaikkan suku bunga acuannya (= BI Rate ) dari semula di angka “kondusif” 5,5% hingga menjadi di angka “fantastis” 7,5% menjelang akhir Nopember dan bertahan hingga saat ini.

    Berikut potensi krisis ekonomi dunia pasca “shutdown” (pemberhentian sementara aktifitas pemerintahan) AS beberapa waktu lalu yang diperkirakan mempengaruhi perekonomian manca negara, terutama negara-negara yang “sangat” tergantung ekonominya kepada negara adhi daya itu.

    Berbagai kejadian di 2013 tersebut, terutama gerak pelemahan rupiahnya, jika dikaitkan dengan krisis ekonomi dan perbankan yang pernah melanda Indonesia (termasuk beberapa negara Asia, Eropa dan Afrika) pada tahun 2008 memiliki kemiripan.

    Pertama, yakni bermomen sama. Sama-sama setahun menjelang Pemilu (2009 dan 2014). Kedua, situasi kondisi perekonomian dunia juga ber-ritme hampir sama atau (bisa dikatakan) sedang terjadi krisis ekonomi dunia.


    Ketiga, pelemahan nilai rupiah meski sedikit demi sedikit namun membukit dan gerak pelemahannya relatif cepat serta angka kurs rupiahnya berada di level Rp. 12.000,00-an.

    Jelang Pemilu 2014

    Menengok kemiripan kondisi tersebut tentu wajar saja jika ada pihak yang berpendapat bahwa (akan) terdapat potensi terjadinya bank gagal berdampak sistemik “jilid dua”.

    Sekalipun kans bakal terjadinya kecil, mengingat traumatik skandal Bank Century yang sejak 2008 hingga saat ini masih sangat mengental dan terus dikejar, bahkan diobok-obok, namun yang namanya (kemungkinan) niat jahat dan rakus terhadap tahta dan harta (greedy) tentu setiap jengkal geraknya perlu diwaspadai.

    Merefleksi krisis 2008 (setahun jelang Pemilu 2009) dinyatakan bahwa telah terjadi krisis keuangan dan moneter hingga “terpaksa” mengambil langkah kebijakan untuk mem-bail out Bank Century sekitar Rp. 600,00 miliaran dan menjadi masalah besar karena terealisasi dalam jumlah “fantastis” yakni Rp. 6,7 triliun!


    Bank (kecil/tidak ternama) mana yang oleh Pemerintah dinyatakan sebagai bank gagal berdampak sistemik kala itu, jika tidak segera diselamatkan akan berefek domino kepada ketidakpercayaan masyarakat terhadap institusi perbankan yang berlanjut ke ketidak percayaan (masyarakat) kepada Pemerintah.

    Langkah penyelamatan melalui kebijakan bail out (pemberian dana talangan) mana diklaim sebagai “perbuatan mulia” karena telah menyelamatkan ekonomi dan perbankan di Indonesia.

    Meski faktanya justru menjadi aib bagi dunia perbankan Indonesia dan diduga melibatkan banyak (oknum) petinggi negeri dan kerap dimanfaatkan sebagai senjata/amunisi politisasi jika suatu saat diperlukan.

    Timbul pertanyaan, jika menengok kepada histori, mungkinkah akan terulang kembali bank gagal berdampak sistemik mirip Bank Century menjelang Pemilu 2014 ?”.

    Dengan “mengorbitkan” (kembali) sebuah bank kecil/menengah/tidak terkenal (karena jika dilakukan via bank besar pasti cepat terdeteksi ) yang sengaja dikondisikan bermasalah hingga harus diselamatkan karena dinilai berdampak sistemik?


    Atau melalui pemberian fasilitas kredit yang tidak sewajarnya, baik jumlah maupun prosedurnya yang bertujuan guna pendanaan bagi pemenangan diri, kelompok dan atau partai politiknya ?.

    Patut mengapresiasi antisipasi dan kecurigaan Komisi Pemberantasan Korupsi (KPK) terhadap kemungkinan siklus krisis perbankan yang muncul menjelang Pemilu 2014 sebagaimana dikemukakan Wakil Ketua KPK Bambang Widjajanto karena merupakan salah satu tugas KPK di bidang pencegahan.

    Menyoroti kemunculan kasus-kasus perbankan sejak menjelang Pemilu 1999 saat Rapat Dengar Pendapat dengan Komisi III DPR di Jakarta, 2 Desember 2013.

    Sebelum Pemilu 1999 ada kasus Bantuan Likuiditas Bank Indonesia. Jelang Pemilu 2004 ada 3 kasus perbankan. Menjelang Pemilu 2009 lagi-lagi publik digegerkan dengan isu kasus perbankan yang terkenal dengan : “Skandal Bank Century”.

    KPK sedang mempelajari modusnya dan jika memang benar ada kecenderungan ke arah itu maka KPK akan mengkonfirmasikannya kepada lembaga perbankan terkait supaya jangan sampai perbankan menjadi korban dimanfaatkan untuk tujuan negatif oleh kekuatan tertentu.


    Hanya saja menjadi terasa hambar, janggal dan aneh bin ajaib jika sampai Gubernur BI Agus Martowadojo menyatakan tidak perlu khawatir atas gerak pelemahan nilai rupiah saat ini yang menilai bahwa pelemahan nilai tukar rupiah masih dalam batas normal dan bukan merupakan sesuatu yang harus ditakutkan.

    Pelemahan rupiah mana, katanya dipengaruhi faktor perkembangan ekonomi global yang berdampak terhadap negara-negara berkembang. Tekanan terhadap rupiah hanya bersifat sementara karena lebih banyak dipengaruhi oleh sentimen pasar global dan spekulasi penarikan stimulus The Fed ( Federal Reserve Bank )/Bank Sentral AS hingga ikut memicu pelemahan rupiah.

    Meminta pasar untuk tidak perlu khawatir dengan pelemahan tersebut sembari mengatakan bahwa nilai rupiah masih wajar meski terjadi pelemahan. Pergerakan nilai tukar adalah suatu yang dinamis, tidak bisa dinilai hanya dengan melihat setiap hari.

    Bahkan Agus juga menyatakan bahwa pihaknya tidak akan pernah menargetkan satu tingkat nilai tukar tertentu, namun lebih pada bagaimana menjaga fundamental ekonomi.

    Tapi, bagaimana bisa menjaga fundamental ekonomi jika pelemahan kurs (terkesan) dibiarkan ?. Apalagi, meski BI Rate telah dinaikkan ke angka tertinggi 7,5% namun kurs rupiah masih tetap saja melemah (?!)


    Kebijakan BI Rate, selain memberikan dampak positif (dalam mengendalikan inflasi dan defisit pada neraca transaksi berjalan) juga berdampak negatif. Bahkan dalam praktik dilapangan justru dampak negatifnya lebih mendominasi terutama pengaruhnya terhadap nafas kehidupan dan gairah sektor riil.

    BI Rate tinggi menyebabkan terjadinya pelambatan di sektor riil dan melesunya gairah dan atau aktivitas UKM (usaha kecil dan menengah) mengingat suku bunga kredit bank yang tinggi. Ekstremnya para pengusaha UKM berpotensi gulung tikar (tutup) karena tidak bisa lagi memodali usahanya akibat suku bunga kredit bank yang tinggi.

    Harapan

    Kunci pas mengatasi pelemahan rupiah hingga dapat menguat ke level kurs normal/wajar ( di Rp. 9.600,00 atau maksimal di Rp. 10.000,00-an per USD-nya) adalah perlunya harmonisasi antara Pemerintah sebagai pengambil kebijakan fiskal dan BI sebagai pengambil kebijakan moneter.

    Bergerak sesuai bidang tugas masing-masing dan bermuara kepada tujuan yang sama,yakni sama-sama mendorong pertumbuhan ekonomi yang realistis.


    Gubernur BI sebagai pejabat penting negara pemilik otoritas moneter sejatinya bukanlah berargumen makro semata, tapi harus lebih mikro, faktual dan realistis.

    Pro aktif meminta/membujuk para anak bangsa (di dalam negeri maupun di manca negara) yang masih menyimpan USD-nya agar segera merupiahkannya dan atau memulangkan dananya ke di Indonesia karena, antara lain, BI Rate sudah tinggi.

    Terhadap pelemahan rupiah petinggi negara sejatinya wajib khawatir dan ekstra serius untuk melakukan berbagai upaya antisipatif dan signifikatif bagaimana memulihkannya hingga kembali ke level normal supaya tidak berdampak sistemik terhadap perekonomian nasional secara keseluruhan.

    Bukan malah lebih serius dan fokus untuk kepentingan pribadi/kelompoknya, guna memenangi diri dan partainya pada Pemilu 2014. Sudah tidak saatnya lagi para pejabat berbicara enteng dan retorik karena akan semakin berdampak negatif terhadap pasar.

    Kiranya tidak akan ada lagi bank kecil yang sengaja dikondisikan “bermasalah” dan lalu meminta BI untuk membantu pendanaannya dimana dana talangannya justru ditilep untuk keperluan tahta dan harta.


    Perlu mewaspadai dan memantau gerak negatif praktik perbankan, termasuk pemberian kredit yang tidak sewajarnya kepada perorangan dan atau melalui bendera perusahaannya untuk menjadi (calon) anggota legislatif dan pembiayaan pemenangan partainya jelang Pemilu Legislatif 9 April 2014. (analisadaily.com)


    http://www.neraca.co.id/article/36332/Mewaspadai-Siklus-Krisis-Perbankan-Jelang-Pemilu-2014/2

    http://www.neraca.co.id/article/36332/Mewaspadai-Siklus-Krisis-Perbankan-Jelang-Pemilu-2014/3

    http://www.neraca.co.id/article/36332/Mewaspadai-Siklus-Krisis-Perbankan-Jelang-Pemilu-2014/4

    http://www.neraca.co.id/article/36332/Mewaspadai-Siklus-Krisis-Perbankan-Jelang-Pemilu-2014/5

    http://www.neraca.co.id/article/36332/Mewaspadai-Siklus-Krisis-Perbankan-Jelang-Pemilu-2014/6

    http://www.neraca.co.id/article/36332/Mewaspadai-Siklus-Krisis-Perbankan-Jelang-Pemilu-2014/7

    http://www.neraca.co.id/article/36332/Mewaspadai-Siklus-Krisis-Perbankan-Jelang-Pemilu-2014/8


    http://gagasanhukum.wordpress.com/2014/01/16/waspada-krisis-perbankan-jelang-pemilu/

    Waspada Krisis Perbankan Jelang Pemilu

    Oleh Tigor Damanik, Januari 16, 2014

    Perlu dicermati pelemahan rupiah terhadap dolar AS selama kurang lebih dua bulan terakhir, kini telah menembus angka di atas Rp 12.000, per dolar AS. Sepanjang 2013 Bank Indonesia (BI) begitu gencar menaikkan suku bunga acuan (BI Rate) dari semula di angka “kondusif” 5,5 persen hingga menjadi di angka “fantastis” 7,5 persen jelang akhir November dan bertahan hingga saat ini. Berikut potensi krisis ekonomi dunia pasca shutdown (pemberhentian sementara aktifitas pemerintahan) AS beberapa waktu lalu yang jelas mempengaruhi perekonomian manca negara, terutama negara-negara yang ekonominya tergantung kepada AS.

    Berbagai peristiwa itu, khususnya terhadap gerak pelemahan rupiah, dikaitkan dengan krisis ekonomi dan perbankan yang pernah melanda Indonesia (termasuk beberapa negara Asia, Eropa dan Afrika) pada 2008, memiliki kemiripan.

    Pertama, momen sama, yakni sama-sama satu tahun menjelang pelaksanaan pemilu (2009 dan 2014). Kedua, situasi kondisi perekonomian dunia juga hampir sama atau (bisa dikatakan) sedang terjadi krisis ekonomi dunia. Ketiga, pelemahan rupiah, meski sedikit demi sedikit namun membukit dan gerak pelemahannya pun berlangsung relatif cepat serta angka kurs rupiah berada di level Rp 12 ribuan. Atas dasar itu, tentu wajar jika ada pihak yang berpendapat bahwa (akan) terdapat potensi terjadinya bank gagal berdampak sistemik untuk kedua kalinya. Sekalipun kemungkinan kans bakal terjadinya agak kecil, mengingat traumatik skandal Bank Century yang sejak 2008 hingga saat ini belum jelas penyelesaiannya, namun (kemungkinan) niat jahat dan rakus terhadap tahta dan harta (greedy) tentu perlu diwaspadai.

    Merefleksi krisis 2008 (setahun jelang Pemilu 2009) dinyatakan bahwa telah terjadi krisis keuangan, moneter dan perbankan hingga perlu mengambil langkah penyelamatan Bank Century kala itu yang berjumlah Rp 600,00 miliaran dan menjadi masalah besar karena terealisasi dalam jumlah “fantastis” sebesar Rp 6,7 triliun.

    Sekarang, bank (kecil/tidak ternama) mana yang akan dinyatakan sebagai bank gagal berdampak sistemik oleh pemerintah dan jika tidak segera dilakukan penyelamatan maka akan berefek domino kepada ketidakpercayaan masyarakat terhadap institusi perbankan yang berlanjut pada ketidakpercayaan (masyarakat) kepada Pemerintah? Langkah penyelamatan melalui kebijakan bailout (pemberian dana talangan) mana disebut sebagai perbuatan mulia karena telah menyelamatkan ekonomi dan perbankan di Indonesia kala itu?

    Meski faktanya justru menjadi aib bagi dunia perbankan Indonesia dan diduga melibatkan banyak (oknum) petinggi negeri dan kerap dimanfaatkan sebagai senjata/amunisi pertarungan politik. Timbul pertanyaan, mungkinkah sejarah akan terulang, kembali terjadi bank gagal berdampak sistemik sebagaimana kasus Bank Century, menjelang Pemilu 2014 ini? Misal, dengan sengaja “mengorbankan” (kembali) sebuah bank kecil/menengah/tidak terkenal (karena jika dilakukan via bank besar pasti akan cepat terdeteksi) dikondisikan bermalasah hingga perlu penyelamatan karena diputuskan pemerintah berdampak sistemik?

    Atau kemungkinan melalui pemberian fasilitas kredit yang tidak prosedural dan tidak sewajarnya yang diberikan kepada perorangan maupun korporasi yang bertujuan untuk pendanaan bagi pemenangan diri, kelompok dan atau partai politiknya?

    Mengapresiasi antisipasi dan kecurigaan Komisi Pemberantasan Korupsi (KPK) terhadap kemungkinan siklus krisis perbankan muncul kembali menjelang Pemilu 2014 mendatang sebagaimana dikemukakan Wakil Ketua KPK Bambang Widjajanto yang merupakan salah satu tugas KPK di bidang pencegahan. Dengan menyoroti kemunculan kasus-kasus perbankan sejak menjelang Pemilu 1999 pada saat Rapat Dengar Pendapat dengan Komisi III DPR di Jakarta pada 2 Desember 2013 lalu.

    Ingat, sebelum Pemilu 1999 ada kasus Bantuan Likuiditas Bank Indonesia. Jelang Pemilu 2004 ada 3 kasus perbankan. Menjelang Pemilu 2009 lagi-lagi publik digegerkan dengan isu kasus perbankan yang terkenal dengan, “Skandal Bank Century”. Dimana KPK terus dan sedang mempelajari modusnya. Jika memang benar ada kecenderungan ke arah itu maka KPK akan mengkonfirmasikannya kepada lembaga perbankan terkait supaya jangan sampai perbankan menjadi korban praktik negatif oleh kekuatan tertentu.

    Memang terasa janggal dan aneh jika sampai Gubernur BI menyatakan tidak perlu khawatir atas gerak pelemahan nilai rupiah saat ini. Dengan menilai bahwa pelemahan nilai tukar rupiah masih dalam batas normal dan bukan merupakan sesuatu yang harus ditakutkan. Dimana tekanan terhadap rupiah hanya bersifat sementara karena lebih banyak dipengaruhi oleh sentimen pasar global dan spekulasi penarikan stimulus The Fed (Federal Reserve Bank/Bank Sentral AS) yang ikut memicu pelemahan rupiah.

    Bahkan lucunya menyatakan bahwa pihaknya tidak akan pernah menargetkan satu tingkat nilai tukar tertentu, namun lebih pada bagaimana menjaga fundamental ekonomi. Pertanyaannya, bagaimana bisa menjaga fundamental ekonomi jika pelemahan kurs (terkesan) terus dibiarkan? Apalagi, meski BI Rate telah dinaikkan ke angka tertinggi 7,5 persen namun kurs rupiah masih tetap saja melemah (?!). Karena menaikkan BI Rate ke angka yang lebih tinggi akan sangat membahayakan perekonomian nasional, khususnya terkait aktivitas sektor riil.

    Kebijakan BI Rate, selain memberikan dampak positif (dalam mengendalikan inflasi dan defisit pada neraca transaksi berjalan) tapi juga berdampak negatif! Dalam praktik dilapangan, jika BI Rate tinggi, dampak negatifnya lebih mendominasi terutama pengaruhnya terhadap gairah sektor riil melambat, hingga ekstrimnya, para pengusaha UKM berpotensi untuk gulung tikar, karena tidak bisa lagi memodali usahanya akibat suku bunga kredit bank yang tinggi. (Sumber: Suara Karya, 15 Januari 2014)

    Tentang penulis:

    Tigor Damanik, pemerhati perbankan, tinggal di Medan.


    http://www.voa-islam.com/read/indonesiana/2014/01/18/28707/bambang-widjojanto-bank-dibobol-angka-korupsi-meroket-jelang-pemilu/#sthash.UdVW7X2b.dpbs

    Bambang Widjojanto: Bank Dibobol, Angka Korupsi Meroket Jelang Pemilu

    Sabtu, 14 Rabiul Akhir 1435 H / 18 Januari 2014 00:04 wib

    JAKARTA (voa-islam.com) – Sistem demokrasi kalo di bahas dengan akal sehat dan menimbang kenyataan dilapangan tidak seindah bahasa retorika di buku-buku dan kampus-kampus. Karena faktanya lebih dari 60 tahun Indonesia merdeka pun tak merasakan kemerdekaan hakiki. Lebih tepatnya tetap menjadi objek perampokan oknum partai politik melalui katabelece penguasa.

    Sebut saja skandal bank Century dan bank BNI 46 yang dibobol untuk mendanai salah satu parpol memenangkan pemilu. Tahun 2014 yang juga merupakan tahun politik sering menjadi kekhawatiran beberapa pihak akan adanya peristiwa pembobolan bank.

    Dalam sebuah kesempatan, Gubernur Bank Indonesia Agus Martowardojo mengatakan agar semua pihak mewaspadi Bank Pembangunan Daerah (BPD) dan Bank Perkreditan Rakyat.

    Menurutnya, kedua bank tersebut harus mendapat pengawasan agar tata kelola perusahaan menjadi lebih baik. Mengingat kedua bank tersebut sangat dekat dengan kegiatan pemerintah daerah.

    “Ada yang diwaspadai secara umum misalnya BPD, itu dekat sekali dengan kegiatan pemda dan perlu dijaga good governance-nya, BPR juga. Sehingga kita tidak ingin hal-hal seperti itu (pembobolan bank),” katanya di Gedung BI, Jakarta, Jumat (17/1).

    Sebelumnya, Wakil Ketua Komisi Pemberantasan Korupsi (KPK) Bambang Widjojanto mengatakan, angka korupsi di Indonesia semakin meroket menjelang pemilu. “Pada pemilu-pemilu sebelumnya selalu ada kasus yang menjebol keuangan negara,” ujarnya.

    Ia mencontohkan sebelum Pemilu 1999, terjadi kasus Bantuan Likuiditas Bank Indonesia (BLBI). Dari anggaran sebesar Rp 600 triliun, ada sekitar Rp 100 triliun yang tidak jelas. Bahkan, sampai saat ini pemerintah harus membayar bunganya.

    Pada 2004, sebelum Pemilu 2005, lanjutnya, terjadi pembobolan BNI 46 Kebayoran Baru dengan letter of credit (LoC) atau surat utang bodong senilai Rp1,7 triliun. Pelaku pembobolan bank ini adalah Dirut PT Gramarindo, Maria Pauline Lumowa.

    Sedangkan pada 2008, sebelum Pemilu 2009, terjadi kasus pemberian Fasilitas Pendanaan Jangka Pendek (FPJP) dan penetapan Bank Century sebagai bank gagal berdampak sistemik.

    Bambang memaparkan pola pengerukan keuangan negara selalu berulang menjelang pemilu. Ia mencontohkan sebelum Pemilu 1999, terjadi kasus Bantuan Likuiditas Bank Indonesia (BLBI). Dari anggaran sebesar Rp 600 triliun, ada sekitar Rp 100 triliun yang tidak jelas. Bahkan, sampai saat ini pemerintah harus membayar bunganya.

    Pada 2004, sebelum Pemilu 2005, lanjutnya, terjadi pembobolan BNI 46 Kebayoran Baru dengan letter of credit atau surat utang bodong senilai Rp 1,7 triliun. Pelaku pembobolan bank ini adalah Dirut PT Gramarindo, Maria Pauline Lumowa.

    Sedangkan pada 2008, sebelum Pemilu 2009, terjadi kasus pemberian Fasilitas Pendanaan Jangka Pendek (FPJP) dan penetapan Bank Century sebagai bank gagal berdampak sistemik. Akibat dari kebijakan ini, negara harus menggelontorkan dana talangan atau bail out sebesar Rp 6,7 triliun. KPK baru menetapkan satu orang tersangka dalam kasus ini, yaitu Budi Mulya.

    Karena itu, Bambang menilai hasil survei lembaga Transparency International (TI) bukan merupakan akhir dunia. Menurutnya, kenyataan korupsi di Indonesia yang masih buruk harus menjadi masukan dalam upaya memberantasnya.

    “Saya hanya mau katakan, hasil survei ini bukanlah kiamat. Survei Corruption Perception Index (CPI) ini bisa menjadi ukuran lain yang penting dalam pemberantasan korupsi, tapi jangan dianggap yang paling penting,” kata Bambang. Tokoh yang akrab disapa BW ini menambahkan hasil survei CPI ini jangan dilihat begitu saja.

    Secara metodologis, survei itu memang dapat dipercaya, tetapi tidak bisa menjadi justifikasi terhadap semua upaya yang dilakukan dalam pemberantasan korupsi. Apalagi, hasil survei ini diambil dari satu kelompok tertentu, dalam hal ini pengusaha atau pelaku bisnis sehingga tidak dapat menilai secara keseluruhan atau holistik.

    Beginilah Pemilu, modal besar tapi hasilnya? Apa pendapat anda? [brbs/umar/voa-islam.com]


    http://www.neraca.co.id/article/37647/KRISIS-EKONOMI-POTENSI-BANGKRUTNYA-PERBANKAN-DAN–DANA-ILEGAL-PEMILIHAN-PRESIDEN-2014-1

    KRISIS EKONOMI, POTENSI BANGKRUTNYA PERBANKAN DAN DANA ILEGAL PEMILIHAN PRESIDEN 2014 (1)

    Oleh: Salamuddin Daeng, Peneliti Institute for Global Justice (IGJ)

    Senin, 27/01/2014

    Tahun 2014 adalah tahun “vivere pericoloso” hidup secara berbahaya, bukan hanya karena tahun ini merupakan tahun politik Pemilu Legislatif dan Pemilihan Presiden, juga karena tahun ini adalah puncak dari krisis ekonomi sejak 2008 lalu disertai dengan konflik politik diantara faksi nasional yang kian memuncak.

    Paling membahayakan apabila situasi krisis ekonomi bertemu dengan krisis politik, yang akhirnya menjadi ruang bagi tindak korupsi sektor perbankan dan keuangan. Ingat sejarah hitam perbankan Indonesia sejak krisis 1998, negara dirugikan ratusan triliun dan mewariskan utang negara yang tampaknya tidak akan pernah dapat terbayarkan.

    Tekanan pada Neraca Pembayaran Indonesia (NPI) tahun 2013 dipengaruhi oleh meningkatnya defisit transaksi. Defisit transaksi berjalan diperkirakan mencapai 3,5% dari PDB, dari defisit pada tahun 2012 sebesar 2,8% dari PDB. Angka ini jauh diatas asumsi pemerintah dan para analis ekonomi. Peningkatan defisit neraca transaksi berjalan terutama disebabkan menurunnya ekspor non-migas, meningkatnya impor migas dan kebutuhan pokok lainnya.

    Akibatnya nilai tukar rupiah terhadap dolar AS terus merosot, sementara Bank Indonesia (BI) melakukan intervensi melalui 2 (dua) hal: (1) intervensi pasar uang dengan mengorbankan devisa negara yang tersisa untuk membeli rupiah dan (2) menaikkan suku bunga acuan BI rate secara terus menerus. Baru-baru ini BI telah menetapkan suku bunga sebesar 7,5 %, dalam rangka menahan gejolak rupiah. Alhasil, sejak Juni 2013 BI Rate sudah naik hingga 175%. Bank Indonesia menaikkan BI Rate sebagai antisipasi inflasi dan terpuruknya rupiah.


    Kebijakan ini memang terlihat dapat meredam gejolak namun hanya dalam jangka pendek, atau meningkatkan penerimaan pemerintah dalam surat utang, namun dalam jangka panjang ternyata kebijakan peningkatan suku bunga semakin memberatkan industri dan perbankkan nasional itu sendiri.

    Terlihat jelas, kinerja ekonomi dan perusahaan kian merosot dan berdampak pada perlambatan ekonomi. Keadaan ini tentu sangat mengkuatirkan. Dunia usaha khususnya industri di Indonesia telah terpukul oleh 2 (dua) hal sekaligus yakni (1) meningkatnya harga bahan baku impor akibat dari merosotnya nilai tukar rupiah terhdap US dolar, dan (2) meningkatnya suku bunga yang akan semakin memperberat kemampuan perusahaan dalam membayar utang-utangnya.

    Bank Dunia dan IMF mengeluarkan perkiraan yang relatif sama tentang nasib ekonomi Indonesia pada 2014. Bank Dunia menyatakan pertumbuhan ekonomi Indonesia hanya sekitar 5,3%. IMF menyatakan pertumbuhan ekonomi hanya sekitar 5,5%. Kedua perkiraan tersebut berada dibawah optimisme pemerintah mengejar pertumbuhan, 6 %.

    Seluruh sektor ekonomi menerima tekanan yang berat akibat kebijakan suku bunga tinggi dan merosotnya nilai tukar rupiah terhadap dollar AS. Sektor industri prosesing menerima dampak paling parah mengingat kredit sektor ini adalah yang paling besar yakni 16.46% dari total loan, diikuti dengan sektor Wholesale and Retail Trade dengan kredit senilai 18.45% dari total loan. Sektor lain yang menerima tekanan besar adalah sektor pertambangan. Pemberatan ini akibat dari turunan peraturan pelaksanaan UU Minerba, larangan ekspor mineral mentah dan bea keluar ekspor bahan tambang yang tinggi. Dengan demikian pada akhirnya kebijakan suku bunga tinggi dan dampak dari merosotnya nilai tukar rupiah terhadap US AS akan menghantam sektor perbankan.

    Perbankan Di Tepi Jurang Krisis


    Di satu sisi kebijakan menaikkan suku bunga dapat menahan pertumbuhan ekspansi kredit perbankan, namun di sisi lain justru akan semakin memberatkan konsumen perbankan dalam melunasi utang-utang mereka, baik dalam kredit investasi, modal kerja maupun kredit konsumsi. Akibatnya semakin beresikonya kredit perbankan seperti kredit macet, dan peningkatan NPL perbankkan. Selain dari sisi konsumen, kebijakan suku bunga tinggi secara langsung menghantam daya beli masyarakat.

    Lembaga pemeringkat Fitch Ratings merilis dalam laporan “2014 Outlook: Asia-Pacific Banks” memproyeksikan non-performing loan (NPL) pada 2014 akan meningkat menjadi 3%-4%. Sementara per Oktober 2013, tingkat NPL perbankan mencapai 1,9%.

    Terlihat beberapa bank telah menunjukkan angka NPL yang tinggi, seperti rasio kredit bermasalah NPL BTN diprediksi 4% di akhir 2013. Kondisi ini telah menimbulkan gonjang ganjing dalam manajemen bank tersebut. Alasan kredit bermasalah menjadi alasan pergantian direksi bank BUMN tersebut. Atas dasar evaluasi BI, Wakil Direktur Utama Evi Firmansyah dan Direktur Saut Pardede gagal dalam fit and proper test alias uji kepatutan dan kelayakan anggota direksi dan pejabat eksekutif BTN yang dilaksanakan Bank Indonesia (BI).

    Tampak ada resiko peningkatan NPL di Bank Mutiara, meningkat dari 2,89% (gross) dan 2,58 (net) menjadi 10,92% (gross) dan 10,37% (net). Pemerintah kembali memberikan dana talangan kepada Bank Mutiara senilai Rp 1,5 triliun, padahal skandal bailout bank tersebut belum terselesaikan.

    Tidak hanya Bank Mutiara, bank lainnya juga mengalami kekeringan likuiditas yang semakin parah baik karena kredit macet, merosotnya nilai tukar dan banyaknya utang perbankan. Perkiraan para ahli menyebutkan likuiditas perbankan yang ketat di akhir 2013 akan berlanjut hingga tahun depan. Malah, likuiditas di 2014 diperkirakan akan semakin kerontang. Wajar saja bila bank memasang target konservatif dalam penghimpunan dana pihak ketiga (DPK) di tahun depan.


    Bank Central Asia (BCA) hanya mematok target pertumbuhan DPK sebesar 445 triliun atau naik 9,88% dibandingkan tahun ini. Padahal target pertumbuhan DPK tahun ini naik sebesar 15% dari tahun lalu. Caranya dengan menggenjot dana murah.

    Bank Rakyat Indonesia (BRI) menargetkan perolehan DPK tahun 2014 15%-17% atau sesuai proyeksi BI. Target tersebut lebih rendah ketimbang target tahun ini yang sebesar 20%.

    Selain itu tampak ada resiko pada bank asing seperti PT Bank Permata Tbk (BNLI) yang secara mendadak menerbitkan obligasi dengan bunga tinggi. PT Bank Permata Tbk (BNLI) menerbitkan obligasi dan obligasi subordinasi tahap I tahun 2013 untuk meraih dana segar hingga Rp 3,5 triliun. Tahap I tahun 2013 dengan nilai Rp1,5 triliun dua tahun mendatang.

    Beberapa perusahaan yang memiliki keterkaitan dengan Bank Permata seperti Perusahaan Listrik Negara (PLN) terancam gagal bayar utang. Sebagaimana kita ketahui bahwa sebelumnya PLN Tambah Utang Rp 6 Triliun, PT Standard Chartered Securities Indonesia sebagai penjamin pelaksana emisi, dan wali amanat dipercayakan ke Bank Permata. Secara keseluruhan, potensi gagal bayar utang PLN mencapai 210 Trilyun.

    Bank Badan Usaha Milik Negara (BUMN) tengah berhadapan dengan tumpukan kredit macet yang menggunung. Bulan April 2013 yang lalu, 4 (empat) Bank BUMN dengan nilai total 10,03 triliun dari kredit macet senilai 70 triliun melakukan hair cut dan telah mendapat persetujuan Rapat Umum Pemegang Saham (RUPS). Tindakan hair cut ini perlu mendapat pengawasan secara ketat karena berpeluang korupsi.


    Bank BUMN mana yang memiliki kredit macet terbesar? Urutan pertama, Bank Mandiri. Saat ini Bank Mandiri memiliki kredit macet 32,75 triliun dari 478.605 debitor. Sebagian merupakan limpahan Badan Penyehatan Perbankan Nasional (BPPN) sejak krisis moneter 1998. Dari jumlah itu, plafon hapus tagih yang disetujui 4,9 triliun.

    Posisi kedua adalah BNI dengan total kredit macet 22 triliun. Dari jumlah tersebut, plafon hapus tagihnya mencapai 4,6 triliun. Posisi ketiga adalah Bank Rakyat Indonesia (BRI) dengan kredit macet 14,5 triliun. Sebenarnya total kredit macet BRI hingga akhir 2012 lalu mencapai 24,66 triliun. Namun dari jumlah tersebut, 14,53 triliun sudah dilakukan pemulihan. Dari kredit macet tersisa, plafon hapus tagih mencapai 426,46 miliar. Terakhir, Bank Tabungan Negara (BTN) mencatat kredit macet sebesar 743,5 miliar dari 51.999 debitor, dari jumlah tersebut, plafon hapus tagih disetujui sebesar 115 miliar.

    Secara keseluruhan kredit bermasalah hingga saat ini masih cukup tinggi. Fitch Ratings dalam laporan terbarunya tersebut memperingatkan perbankan di Asia Pasifik mengenai potensi lonjakan rasio kredit bermasalah (non-performing loan/NPL) pada 2014. Lembaga pemeringkat ini memprediksi rasio kredit bermasalah perbankan akan naik menjadi 3%-4% dari total kredit. Nilai ini berarti setara dengan dua kali kredit bermasalah perbankan Indonesia pada Oktober 2013 yang rata-rata sebesar 1,9%. Nilai non-performing loan perbankan kembali ke posisi tahun 2006-2007, sebelum krisis 2008 terjadi, yang mengawali kisah korupsi Bank Century.

    Table 1: Loans growth vs Deposits growth

    Year Loans growth Deposits growth


    2006 13.9% 14.1%

    2007 26.5% 17.4%

    2008 30.5% 16.0%

    2009 10.0% 12.3%

    2010 22.8% 18.8%


    2011 24.6% 19.1%

    2012 23.1% 15.8%

    Source: Bank Indonesia (processed)

    Perbankkan nasional berada pada tepi jurang krisis. Asosiasi Pengusaha Indonesia (Apindo) mengkhawatirkan bank-bank kecil akan ambruk karena suku bunga Bank Indonesia (BI Rate) terus naik. Pasalnya, keuntungan bank-bank dari selisih bunga kredit akan semakin kecil dan dikuatirkan akan muncul bank-bank seperti Bank Century yang ambruk karena kondisi perekonomian memburuk. (Bersambung)


    http://www.neraca.co.id/article/37647/KRISIS-EKONOMI-POTENSI-BANGKRUTNYA-PERBANKAN-DAN–DANA-ILEGAL-PEMILIHAN-PRESIDEN-2014-1/2

    http://www.neraca.co.id/article/37647/KRISIS-EKONOMI-POTENSI-BANGKRUTNYA-PERBANKAN-DAN–DANA-ILEGAL-PEMILIHAN-PRESIDEN-2014-1/3

    http://www.neraca.co.id/article/37647/KRISIS-EKONOMI-POTENSI-BANGKRUTNYA-PERBANKAN-DAN–DANA-ILEGAL-PEMILIHAN-PRESIDEN-2014-1/4

    http://www.neraca.co.id/article/37647/KRISIS-EKONOMI-POTENSI-BANGKRUTNYA-PERBANKAN-DAN–DANA-ILEGAL-PEMILIHAN-PRESIDEN-2014-1/5

    http://www.neraca.co.id/article/37647/KRISIS-EKONOMI-POTENSI-BANGKRUTNYA-PERBANKAN-DAN–DANA-ILEGAL-PEMILIHAN-PRESIDEN-2014-1/6

    http://www.neraca.co.id/article/37647/KRISIS-EKONOMI-POTENSI-BANGKRUTNYA-PERBANKAN-DAN–DANA-ILEGAL-PEMILIHAN-PRESIDEN-2014-1/7


    http://www.neraca.co.id/article/37647/KRISIS-EKONOMI-POTENSI-BANGKRUTNYA-PERBANKAN-DAN–DANA-ILEGAL-PEMILIHAN-PRESIDEN-2014-1/2

    KRISIS EKONOMI, POTENSI BANGKRUTNYA PERBANKAN DAN DANA ILEGAL PEMILIHAN PRESIDEN 2014 (2)

    Oleh: Salamuddin Daeng, Peneliti Institute for Global Justice (IGJ)

    Selasa, 28/01/2014

    Ditengah hiruk pikuk korupsi APBN yang menyita perhatian publik seperti kasus Korupsi Hambalang yang melibatkan petinggi Partai Demokrat. Kasus ini telah di entertainment sepanjang tahun 2013. Sisi lain, kasus korupsi perbankan bagaikan silent tsunami merambat dan dapat meruntuhkan sektor keuangan nasional.

    Krisis keuangan selalu menjadi ruang moral hazard pelaku sektor keuangan dan perbankan. Modus yang selalu terjadi, pemilik bank merampok banknya sendiri dan membangkrutkannya lalu kemudian meminta dana talangan dari pemerintah dengan alasan krisis.

    Sementara pemerintah yang berkuasa mengambil kesempatan ini untuk mendapatkan sumber dana bagi pemenangan politiknya. Itulah sebabnya di Indonesia korupsi perbankan rawan terjadi setiap menjelang pemilihan umum, dengan cara menciptakan krisis.

    Tahun 1998-1999 terjadi mega perampokan keuangan negara yang dilakukan dunia perbankan melalui skema BLBI/KLBI. Negara dirugikan mencapai 630,13 trilun untuk menyuntik likuiditas puluhan bank-bank yang bermasalah dan bangkrut. Ternyata uang negara itu telah terbukti disalahgunakan, dilarikan oleh para obligor kakap BLBI ke luar negeri.


    Tahun 2004 menjelang pemilihan umum juga terjadi perampokan keuangan negara melalui Bank “Cessie” Bali, yang sekarang menjadi PT Bank Permata Tbk (BNLI). Negara dirugikan ratusan miliar untuk menalangi bank ini.

    Menjelang pemilihan umum 2009 kembali terjadi kasus perampokan Bank Century, yang diduga melibatkan rezim SBY-Boediono yang kemudian menjadi pemenang Pemilu. Nilai kerugian negara mencapai 6,5 triliun. Dunia perbankan terus digoyang dan digarong. Tahun 2013, Bank Century kembali disuntik dana oleh LPS senilai 1,2 triliun. Padahal kasus korupsi 2009 belum terselesaikan secara terang benderang.

    Gubernur BI, Boediono, sebagai orang yang paling bertanggung jawab atas peristiwa tersebut masih menjabat wakil presiden. Lembaga penegak hukum gagal menuntaskan secara menyeluruh kasus korupsi Bank Century. Prestasi kelam penegakan hukum ini akan terus menjadi preseden buruk dalam dunia perbankan Indonesia. Krisis menjadi alasan elite politik dalam mengeruk keuangan negara dengan cara korupsi.

    Menjelang pemilu 2014 ternyata masih banyak perkara atau kasus lama yang menumpuk di Kejaksaan Agung yang hingga kini belum tuntas. Sebut saja kasus korupsi proyek privatisasi PT Jakarta International Container Terminal (JICT) atau Pelindo II dengan kerugian negara 12,9 miliar. Yang mana Herwidayatmo, saat ini menjabat Wakil Direktur Utama Bank Permata (Pelaksana Tugas Direktur Utama hasil RUPS Bank Permata) menjadi tersangka berdasarkan surat jaksa agung muda tindak pidana khusus (Jampidsus) No:Print-70/F/Fkp.1/06/2000, 2 Juni 2000, 13 tahun yang lalu. Terkait kasus Herwidayatmo yang sudah ditetapkan sebagai tersangka dan saat ini belum ada tindak lanjut kejelasan.

    Perekonomian nasional semakin rapuh akibat perampokan demi perampokan perbankan oleh elite politik yang bekerjasama dengan pengusaha perbankan. Padahal luka ekonomi Indonesia akibat krisis 1998 dan mega korupsi BLBI masing mengangga sampi detik ini. Luka yang menganga kembali disobek berdarah oleh perampokan sistemik Bank Century.


    Dalam tahun politik 2014 peluang bagi terjadinya kembali penjarahan bank dan sektor keuangan pada umumnya seakan kembali menemukan momentum dikarenakan 2 (dua) hal, yakni pertama, transformasi fungsi pengawasan oleh BI kepada Otoritas Jasa Keuangan (OJK) dan kedua, transformasi dari BUMN Jamsostek, Askes, Asabri, Taspen, Jamkesda ke badan hukum publik Badan penyelenggara Jaminan Sosial (BPJS).

    Proses transformasi dari BI ke OJK oleh banyak kalangan dikuatirkan akan menimbulkan kekisruhan dikarenakan bertepatan dengan tahun politik dan momentum krisis. Dalam tahun politik, elite politik yang berkuasa tengah haus dana dan cenderung menggunakan segala macam cara untuk memperoleh sumber pembiayaan Pemilu, termasuk menjarah sektor perbankan melalui tangan direksi. Sementara bagi bank-bank yang tengah sekarat dapat dengan mudah dibangkrutkan agar memperoleh dana talangan dari pemerintah.

    Jika moral hazard politisi bertemu dengan para direksi perbankan yang berpengalaman korupsi, maka dikuatirkan tidak ada pihak yang bertanggung jawab jika ada bank yang dibangkrutkan. Hal ini dikarenakan tidak adanya single authority dalam lembaga pemerintahan dan tanggung jawab telah tersebar kedalam berbagai lembaga otonom yakni BI, OJK, LPS, yang kesemuanya tidak dapat dijamin netralitasnya terhadap elite politik yang berkuasa baik di pemerintahan maupun DPR. (Selesai)