JP Coen, the man initiating slavery and gangster in Jakarta

JP Coen, the man initiating slavery and gangster in Jakarta

http://www.rmol.co/read/2012/08/25/75692/Misteri-Kematian-JP.-Coen-

Misteri Kematian JP. Coen

Yan Daryono, Sabtu, 25 Agustus 2012 , 09:39:00 WIB


GUBERNUR JENDERAL JP. COEN

SEJAK pertengahan abad 17, Sultan Agung Hanyokrokusumo, penguasa Kerajaan Mataram di Jawa Tengah, menyadari bahwa keberadaan VOC di Batavia akan menjadi ancaman bagi kawasan nusantara, khususnya Pulau Jawa. Ia segera menggalang kekuatan dengan Kesultanan Cirebon dan Kesultanan Banten, untuk melakukan serangan ke Batavia.

Ribuan prajurit dipimpin para senopati segera dikerahkan menuju Batavia. Ada yang melalui jalur darat dan ada pula yang melalui jalur laut. Perang pun pecah. Batavia harus menghadapi serangan dari dua penjuru, yaitu serangan darat dan laut. Tetapi ternyata tidak mudah menaklukan Batavia.

JP.Coen yang menguasai strategi militer, mampu bertahan dan mampu memporak porandakan kekuatan militer Mataram serta para sekutunya. Bertahun-tahun Sultan Agung mengerahkan ribuan prajurit, selama itu pula Batavia tak kunjung bisa ditaklukan. Bahkan karena kalah taktik, tidak sedikit pasukan Mataram yang tercerai berai melarikan diri ke pedalaman dan memilih desersi dari kesatuannya. Perang yang tragis.

Di tengah kancah peperangan itu, di Batavia terjadi skandal cinta Sara Spex yang memalukan dan membuat JP.Coen marah besar. Ia tanpa belas kasih menghukum pancung Sara Spex, putri koleganya di Amsterdam yaitu Jaques Spex. Kejadian tersebut menumbuhkan dendam bagi Jaques Spex yang kesal karena tidak bisa membela dan melindungi putrinya.

Sebagai pelampiasan dendam terhadap JP.Coen, Jaques Spex segera menggunakan “orang dalam” Staadhuis untuk membunuh JP.Coen. Konon di saat serbuan Mataram yang bertubi-tubi ke Batavia, JP.Coen sempat terjangkit wabah penyakit kolera. Moment inilah yang dimanfaatkan dengan baik oleh Jaques Spex untuk melampiaskan dendamnya, membunuh JP.Coen.

Namun menurut catatan Staadhuis, JP. Coen wafat pada tengah malam karena sakit kolera yang sangat parah. Kematian JP.Coen memang cukup misterius. Sebagian pihak ada yang menyebutkan, ia tewas karena serangan pasukan prajurit Mataram. Namun di lain pihak, menyebutkan ia wafat karena sakit.

Tapi yang anehnya kematian JP.Coen diselimuti misteri yang sulit dibuktikan sampai saat ini. Bahkan pemakamannya pun sempat dirahasiakan. Misteri kematian JP.Coen semakin meruak, ketika Heeren XVII di Belanda menunjuk dan mengangkat Jaques Spex sebagai Gubernur Jenderal VOC di Hindia menggantikan JP.Coen yang telah mangkat. [***]

Penulis adalah jurnalis senior dan pemerhati sejarah Jakarta. Seri tulisan ini dikutip dari kolom “Kata Bang Yan” di http://www.JakartaBagus.Com.


http://internasional.kompas.com/read/2011/07/30/11272939/Mati.Pun.JP.Coen.Tetap.Kontroversial

Mati Pun, JP Coen Tetap Kontroversial

Sabtu, 30 Juli 2011 | 11:27 WIB


Patung JP Coen masih berdiri tegak di lapangan De Roode Steen di Kota Hoord, kota kelahirannya.

HOORN, KOMPAS.com — Inilah Jan Pieterszoon Coen, pemimpin VOC yang hidup pada 1587-1629. Ia dijuluki Ijzeren Jan, Jan Besi, karena kebengisannya. Bahkan, beberapa hari sebelum mengembuskan napasnya yang terakhir, ia masih menyiksa anak asuhnya, Sarah, yang ketahuan main serong dengan seorang pelaut. Sang pelaut dihukum mati.

Baru 42 tahun umurnya ketika ia meninggal. Namun, dalam hidup yang relatif singkat itu, dia mampu jadi tokoh kontroversial. JP Coen lahir di Hoorn, kota pelabuhan cantik di Belanda Utara, dijuluki kota VOC dan juga kota museum. Kota ini juga sarat monumen.

Salah satu monumen penting di Hoorn adalah patung Jan Pieterzoon Coen yang berdiri megah di alun-alun pusat kota. Dilihat dari segi artistik, patung itu indah, tetapi bagi beberapa kalangan, patung JP Coen sangat mengganggu.

Patung itu melambangkan penghormatan terhadap seorang pembantai terbesar dalam sejarah Belanda. Begitu pendapat Eric van de Beek, pemrakarsa Burgerinitiatief atau Prakarsa Warga yang ingin patung itu dipindahkan dari Alun-alun Hoorn ke museum, sebagiamana dilaporkan Radio Nederland, Jumat (29/7/2011).

“Bukankah Mahkamah Internasional ada di Den Haag. Jadi Belanda seharusnya menjadi negeri teladan dalam hal ini”, demikian ucap Eric van de Beek, bukan untuk menulis kembali atau mengingkari sejarah.

Binasakan penduduk Banda

Di masa itu, jauh sebelum ada istilah genosida, JP Coen dipandang sebagai tokoh bertangan besi dan tidak ragu mengorbankan nyawa. Inilah yang menjelaskan nama julukannya Ijzeren Jan, Jan Besi. Kekejamannya yang paling besar adalah membinasakan penduduk Banda karena mereka melawan monopoli pala VOC. Mereka tidak mau hanya menjual pala kepada VOC dengan harga murah.

JP Coen, si peletak dasar Batavia, dijuluki Mur Jangkung, kalau melihat patung yang dibuat menurut ukuran sebenarnya, dia tidak jangkung. Ia coba membuat Batavia seperti Hoorn, kota kelahirannya. “JP Coen dibangga-banggakan oleh pemerintah kolonial. Mulai dari zaman VOC sampai dengan masa kolonial Hindia Belanda. Bahkan, gambar JP Coen ada di uang gulden ketika itu”, kata Dr Liliek Suratminto, pakar VOC kepada Radio Nederland.

Dia pernah lihat uang itu di Museum Bank Indonesia. Itu mencerminkan penghormatan pemerintah kolonial terhadap JP Coen. “Patung JP Coen di Waterlooplein, sekarang Lapangan Banteng, digusur, ketika Jepang masuk”, ujar Suratminto.

Protes patung JP Coen

Di Belanda, patung JP Coen di kota kelahirannya sudah diprotes sejak lama. Protes terhadap monumen atau nama adalah gejala segala zaman, dan terjadi di berbagai tempat. Ambil contoh, tempat yang diberi nama diktator Stallin di bekas Uni Soviet. Stallinlaan, di Amsterdam diubah menjadi Vrijheidslaan, jalan raya kebebasan.

Contoh kontroversi lain adalah monumen Van Heutsz yang terletak di bilangan perumahan mewah di Amsterdam yang berulang kali diprotes. Gubernur Jendral JB Van Heutsz ini bertanggung jawab atas kekejaman di Aceh. Di tahun 60-an monumen ini beberapa kali dirusak.

Walaupun sudah lama diprotes, baru sekarang Pemda Kotapraja Hoorn bersedia mencari kompromi. Pemda menolak memindahkan patung yang diresmikan pada 1893 itu. Tapi pada Radio Nederland, JP Westenberg, pejabat Pemda Bidang Seni Budaya, menjelaskan,  “Mempelajari kembali siapa JP Coen dan apa saja ulahnya di Nusantara kala itu”.

Patung itu akan dilengkapi dengan naskah yang menjelaskan segi-segi positif dan negatif JP Coen.

Sumber : Radio Nederland
Editor : Egidius Patnistik


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jan_Pieterszoon_Coen

Jan Pieterszoon Coen

Jan Pieterszoon Coen (8 January 1587 – 21 September 1629) was an officer of the Dutch East India Company (VOC) in the early seventeenth century, holding two terms as its Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies.

He was long considered a national hero in the Netherlands, for providing the impulse that set the VOC on the path to dominance in the Dutch East Indies. A quote of his from 1618 is well known, “Despair not, spare your enemies not, for God is with us”. Since the latter half of the 20th century he has been looked at in a more critical light, as some people[who?] view his often violent means to have been excessive.

Coen was known in his time on account of strict governance and harsh criticism of people who did not share his views, at times directed even at the 17 Lords of the VOC (for which he was reprimanded). Coen was known to be strict towards subordinates and merciless to his opponents.

His willingness to use violence to obtain his ends was too much for many, even for such a relatively violent period of history. When Saartje Specx, a girl whom he had been entrusted to care for, was found in a garden in the arms of a soldier, Pieter Cortenhoeff, Coen showed little mercy in having Cortenhoeff beheaded. Specx only escaped the death penalty by drowning because she was still underage.

Saartje Specx (1617–1636) was the daughter of Jacques Specx, governor of the North Quarter of the Dutch East India Company’s (VOC’s) Asian trading empire, and a Japanese concubine. Saartje (Sara in English) was born at the Dutch trading base on the island of Hirado. In 1629, aged 12, she was living at Batavia in Java under the protection of Jan Coen, governor of the Dutch East Indies.

There she fell in love with 15-year-old Pieter Cortenhoeff, a standard-bearer in the VOC army, and was found making love to him in Coen’s private apartment. When the Governor heard of this, a contemporary writer attested, “his face turned white and his chair and the table trembled.” Coen had Cortenhoeff beheaded and had to be dissuaded from having Saartje drowned. Instead she was severely beaten in front of the Town Hall of Batavia.

Under the rules governing the VOC’s Asian possessions, Saartje Specx, as a part-Asian, had no right to live in the Netherlands. On her father’s return to Java she made a good marriage to Georgius Candidius, a Calvinist minister, and accompanied him to the Dutch trading base in Formosa (Taiwan), where she died, aged 19, in 1636.

Further but more extensive actions perpetrated by order of Coen, are recounted in a BBC Television documentary series “The Spice Trail” (episode 2: “Nutmeg and Cloves”).[1] The program also contains details of wanton acts of destruction committed by the Dutch in the spice islands of Eastern Indonesia, the purpose of which was to create scarcity of natural produce in order to maintain price levels.

Life

Coen was born at Hoorn on 8 January 1587 and in 1601 travelled to Rome to study trade in the offices of Justus Pescatore, where he learned the art of bookkeeping. Joining the Dutch East India Company (VOC), he made trading voyages to Indonesia in 1607 and 1612. On the second trip, he commanded two ships and in October 1613 was appointed accountant-general of all VOC offices in Indonesia and president of the head office in Bantam (Indonesian: Banten) and of Jakarta.

In 1614, he was made director-general, second in command. On 25 October 1617 the XVII Lords of the VOC appointed him their fourth governor-general in the East Indies (of which he was informed on 30 April 1618). On account of disputes at the head office in Bantam with natives, the Chinese, and the English, the VOC desired a better central headquarters.

Coen thus directed more of the company’s trade through Jakarta, where it had established a factory in 1610. However, not trusting the native ruler, he decided in 1618 to convert the Dutch warehouses into a fort. While away on an expedition the English had taken control over the town.

Coen managed to reconquer Jakarta with fire destroying most of the town during the process. He rebuilt the city and fort. In 1621 the city was renamed Batavia. Coen preferred Nieuw Hoorn, after his hometown, but didn’t get his way. Coen also set about establishing a monopoly over the trade in nutmeg and mace, which could be obtained only from the Banda Islands.

The inhabitants of Banda had been selling the spices to the English, despite contracts with the VOC which obliged them to sell only to the VOC, at low prices. In 1621, he led an armed assault of Banda using Japanese mercenaries, taking the island of Lonthor by force after encountering some fierce resistance, mostly by cannons that the natives had acquired from the English.

Many thousands of inhabitants were massacred and replaced by slave labour from other islands to make way for Dutch planters. Of the 15,000 inhabitants it is believed only about a thousand survived on the island. Eight hundred people were deported to Batavia.

On 1 February 1623, he handed his post to Pieter de Carpentier and returned to the Netherlands, where he was given a hero’s welcome off the coast of Texel. He then became head of the VOC chamber in Hoorn and worked on establishing new policies. During his absence from the East Indies, difficulties with the English were exacerbated by the Amboyna Massacre.

On 3 October 1624 he was reappointed governor-general in the East Indies, but his departure was hindered by the English. In 1625, he married and in 1627 departed incognito for the East Indies with his wife, their newborn child and her brother and sister, starting work on 30 September 1627. After his arrival, the English abandoned Batavia and established their headquarters in Bantam.

Twice during Coen’s term in office, Sultan Agung of Mataram besieged Batavia, in 1628 and 1629. However, Agung’s military was poorly armed and had inadequate provisions of food, and was never able to capture the city.

During Agung’s second siege Coen suddenly died on 21 September 1629.


The Spice Trail (BBC 2011 – Complete Series)

4 files, 5.13 GiB (5511266631 Bytes), 5, 3
2011-09-29 11:32:44 GMT, neil1966hardy, green, vip

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http://torrents.thepiratebay.se/6709359/The_Spice_Trail___(BBC_2011_-_Complete_Series).6709359.TPB.torrent

TV : Documentary : HD : English

The Spice Trail is a TV series looking at the discovery and history of spices presented by Kate Humble, who travels around the world to see how spices are made, investigating their history. As she goes, she tells stories and interviews the people from the areas of their origin. We get to see how local economies are built upon the income from the spices and the threats to these economies such as disease, globalisation and fakes.

Episode 1: Pepper and Cinnamon (India and Sri Lanka)
Episode 2: Nutmeg and Cloves (Indonesia)
Episode 3: Vanilla and Saffron (Spain and Morocco)

http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b00yyd1n

Video: MPEG4 Video (H264), 1280×720 25.00fps
Audio: Dolby AC3 48000Hz stereo
Subtitle: English


BBC The Spice Trail 3of3 HDTV x264 AC3 MVGroup

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2011-03-11 02:05:31 GMT, BasilBrush

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http://torrents.thepiratebay.se/6234045/BBC_The_Spice_Trail_3of3_HDTV_x264_AC3_MVGroup.6234045.TPB.torrent

BBC The Spice Trail 3of3 HDTV x264 AC3 MVGroup

Kate Humble goes on the trail of some of the world’s most valuable spices revealing their history, trade, mythology and usage.

Part 3. Vanilla and Saffron.

Kate’s journey takes her from the Atlas Mountains of Morocco to the plains of Spain as she uncovers the story of the world’s most expensive spice, saffron, before crossing the Atlantic to Mexico, in search of Vanilla, a spice discovered by the most famous Spanish Conquistador Hernan Cortes. In the Atlas Mountains, October is saffron harvest month for the Berber people. Kate joins local saffron farmer Ahmed and his family to harvest their crop. Kate then journeys to Paplanta in Mexico, the birthplace of Vanilla, to meet the Totonac – the original guardian of the spice. She witnesses a spectacular death defying fertility dance and meets the people determined to keep Mexican vanilla alive in the face of the massive competition from other producers.

Technical Spec
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BBC The Spice Trail 2of3 HDTV x264 AC3 MVGroup

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http://torrents.thepiratebay.se/6234041/BBC_The_Spice_Trail_2of3_HDTV_x264_AC3_MVGroup.6234041.TPB.torrent

BBC The Spice Trail 2of3 HDTV x264 AC3 MVGroup

Kate Humble goes on the trail of some of the world’s most valuable spices revealing their history, trade, mythology and usage.

Part 2. Nutmeg and Cloves.

Kate embarks on a journey around the fabled spice islands of eastern Indonesia in search of two spices that launched epic voyages of discovery, caused bloody wars and shaped empires – nutmeg and cloves. These two spices, grown on an archipelago of tiny volcanic islands, drew European explorers in search of unbelievable wealth, but also led to massacres of local people and the decimation of their culture. Kate meets the people who have rebuilt their lives and communities around the cultivation and trade of nutmeg and cloves, takes her place on one of the fastest produciton lines in the world, and discovers how the battle for these two spices led to the beginning of the British Empire in North America.

Technical Spec
Video Codec: x264 CABAC
Video Bitrate: 4000 Kbps
Video Aspect Ratio: 1.777:1
Video Resolution: 1280×720
Audio Codec: AC3
Audio Bitrate: 192 Kbps CBR 48KHz
Audio Channels: 2
Run-Time: 59mins
Framerate: 25FPS
Number of Parts: 3
Part Size: 1.72 GB
Subtitles: merged
Source: HDTV


BBC The Spice Trail 1of3 HDTV x264 AC3 MVGroup

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2011-03-11 02:01:21 GMT,BasilBrush

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http://torrents.thepiratebay.se/6234037/BBC_The_Spice_Trail_1of3_HDTV_x264_AC3_MVGroup.6234037.TPB.torrent

BBC The Spice Trail 1of3 HDTV x264 AC3 MVGroup

Kate Humble goes on the trail of some of the world’s most valuable spices revealing their history, trade, mythology and usage.

Part 1. Pepper and Cinnamon.

Kate retraces the steps of 15th-century explorers as she sets out on a spice trail to India and Sri Lanka. Kate begins her travels on India’s ‘Spice Coast’, uncovering the story of pepper, once known as black gold and now the most consumed spice in the world. She does the pepper dance to shake the berries from their stalk, meets farmers fighting back against a disease that is devastating pepper crops, and is taught the centuries old secret language still used by the traders who wheel and deal in the spice. From India, Kate heads south to Sri Lanka, to the land of cinnamon – a place shrouded in mystery to Europeans until the Portugese accidentally landed on its shores. She attends the spectacular Buddhist festival, or Perahara, which celebrates local resistance to the invaders. Kate also takes part in the delicate process of harvesting the spice and making a cinnamon quill, and witnesses the crucial make-or-break negotiations of local farmers trying to sell their crops.

Technical Spec
Video Codec: x264 CABAC
Video Bitrate: 4000 Kbps
Video Aspect Ratio: 1.777:1
Video Resolution: 1280×720
Audio Codec: AC3
Audio Bitrate: 192 Kbps CBR 48KHz
Audio Channels: 2
Run-Time: 59mins
Framerate: 25FPS
Number of Parts: 3
Part Size: 1.72 GB
Subtitles: merged
Source: HDTV