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    Tags: 36 butir-butir Pancasila, 45 butir-butir Pancasila, adab, ajaran kebaikan, ajaran moral, ajaran teokrasi, akhlak, akidah, all is fair in love and war, consequentialism, conviction, deontologi, dogmatisasi pancasila, ekaprasetia pancakarsa, etika kebaikan, etika pragmatis, fanatisme, garis-garis besar haluan negara, gbhn, ibadah, indoktrinasi pancasila, Inpres No.12/1968, keyakinan, kutu loncat, moral virtue, mpr, p4, pedoman penghayatan dan pengamalan pancasila, pragmatic ethics, rekonsiliasi politik, semangat jihad, Tap MPR No.I/2003, Tap MPR No.II/1978, Tap MPR No.V/1988, Tap MPR No.XII/1998, Tap MPR No.XVIII/1998, tap mpr sapu jagat, taqlid, the ends justify the means, virtue ethics   

    Jepang Mengakomodasi Pancasila sebagai Dasar dan Tujuan Indonesia Merdeka 

    Jakarta, 21 Agustus 2011

    Jepang Mengakomodasi Pancasila sebagai Dasar dan Tujuan Indonesia Merdeka

    oleh Sando Sasako
    Lead Consultant
    Advanced Advocacy Plus

    Warisan Pendudukan Jepang

    Serangan Jepang ke Honolulu, Hawaii, per 7 Desember 1941, di hari minggu pagi, mengawali Perang Dunia II di wilayah Asia Pasifik. Di Eropa, Perang Dunia II dimulai Hitler per 1 September 1939. Di saat yang sama, Jepang juga merangsek ke Hong Kong, Filipina, dan Malaya.

    Tujuan serangan ke Hawaii adalah guna mencegah armada perang AS bisa segera membantu negara-negara yang diserang Jepang. Tarakan merupakan wilayah Hindia Belanda yang pertama kali dikuasai Jepang per 11 Januari 1942. Wilayah selanjutnya mencakup Minahasa, Sulawesi Timur, Balikpapan, Ambon; Pontianak, Makassar, Banjarmasin, Palembang, Bali di bulan Februari; Banten, Indramayu (Tayu-Juana), Kragan (Rembang-Tuban); Batavia, dan terakhir Bandung (8 Maret 1942).

    Belanda yang merupakan bagian dari pasukan sekutu, menyatakan perang dengan Jepang di wilayah Asia Pasifik dalam front A-B-C-D (American, British, Chinese, Dutch), 5 jam sesudah Hawaii dibombardir Jepang. Wij zijn in oorlog met Japan, kita berperang dengan Jepang, demikian pernyataan lewat radio oleh AWL Tjarda van Starkenborgh Stachouwer, Gubernur Hindia Belanda kala itu.

    Dengan mengandalkan front A-B-C-D, pernyataan tersebut menjadi gertak kosong tanpa arti ketika satu-persatu kekuatan sekutu dengan mudah dapat ditaklukan Jepang. Benteng Inggris yang berlokasi di Singapura dan terkuat di Asia Tenggara jatuh per 15 Februari. Sisa Angkatan Laut Sekutu dimusnahkan di Laut Jawa pada akhir Februari. Jendral Ter Poorten, Panglima Tertinggi Angkatan Darat Sekutu di Jawa, menyerah tanpa syarat per 9 Maret 1942. Gubernur Hindia Belanda dibuang ke luar Jawa.

    Rakyat Indonesia tidak menyangka akan secepat, sesingkat, dan semudah itu hancurnya perlawanan penjajah Belanda terhadap invasi dan agresi Jepang. Penjajah Belanda praktis tidak melakukan perlawanan yang berarti terhadap Jepang. Di kampungnya sendiri, Negeri Belanda harus takluk terhadap agresi Jerman pada tahun 1940.

    Asia Tenggara yang dibawah komando Panglima Besar (Nanpoo Gun) berpusat di Saigon. Pendudukan Jepang membagi wilayah kekuasaannya di Asia Tenggara atas 3 wilayah, yakni:

    1. Pemerintahan Batavia yang menguasai Jawa-Madura dibawah Pemerintahan Angkatan Darat (Rikugun).
    2. Wilayah Sumatera yang berpusat di Bukittinggi berada dalam Rikugun Melayu (Sumatera dan Melayu) yang berpusat di Singapura.
    3. Pemerintahan Angkatan Laut (Kaigun) di Makassar yang menguasai wilayah Borneo, Bali, sampai Irian.

    Warisan Jepang atas pendudukannya di Hindia Belanda adalah sebagai berikut:

    1. Pengakuan terhadap nama Indonesia menggantikan nama Hindia Timur.
    2. Pengakuan terhadap bahasa Indonesia, ketimbang bahasa Melayu.
    3. Pengakuan terhadap orang/bangsa Indonesia, ketimbang inlander, pribumi.
    4. Pengakuan terhadap wilayah Indonesia adalah wilayah bekas Hindia Belanda (Jenderal Terauchi).
    5. Menetapkan hari Jumat sebagai hari kerja setengah hari.
    6. Tersiapkannya jiwa dan semangat serta dasar dan tujuan bagi bangsa dan negara Indonesia yang ingin merdeka dari segala bentuk penjajahan.
    7. Tercetuskannya istilah Pancasila, UUD 1945 dan Pembukaannya.

    Indoktrinasi Pancasila

    Menyimak pengakuan Soekarno di berbagai kesempatan, tanggal 1 Juni 1945 bukanlah hari lahirnya Pancasila, melainkan hari lahirnya istilah Pancasila.

    Sila

    Muh. Yamin, 19450529

    Soekarno, 19450601

    1

    Peri Kebangsaan

    Kebangsaan Indonesia

    2

    Peri Kemanusiaan

    Internasionalisme atau peri-kemanusiaan

    3

    Peri Ke-Tuhanan

    Mufakat atau demokrasi

    4

    Peri-Kerakyatan (Permusyawaratan, Perwakilan, Kebijaksanaan)

    Kesejahteraan sosial

    5

    Kesejahteraan Rakyat (Keadilan Sosial)

    Ketuhanan yang berkebudayaan

    Menurut Soekarno, aku tidak mencipta Pancasila. Pancasila diciptakan oleh bangsa Indonesia sendiri. Pancasila telah lama tergurat pada jiwa bangsa Indonesia. Pancasila itu corak karakter bangsa Indonesia. Menurut PPKI, Soekarno tidak mementingkan kata-kata, melainkan jiwa dari perumusan lima dasar itu yang berbeda dengan perumusan lima sila yang dimajukan pada 1 Juni 1945.

    Hal ini berbanding terbalik dengan Soeharto, yang mengukuhkan susunan kata per kata pada tata urutan dan rumusan sila-sila dalam Pancasila, berdasarkan Inpres No.12/1968, yakni:

    1. Ketuhanan Yang Maha Esa.
    2. Kemanusiaan yang adil dan beradab.
    3. Persatuan Indonesia.
    4. Kerakyatan yang dipimpin oleh hikmat kebijaksanaan dalam permusyawaratan/ perwakilan.
    5. Keadilan sosial bagi seluruh rakyat Indonesia.

    Sepuluh tahun kemudian, Soeharto mensahkan doktrinasi Pancasila melalui Tap MPR No.II/ 1978 tentang Pedoman Penghayatan dan Pengamalan Pancasila (Ekaprasetia Pancakarsa).


    DENGAN RAHMAT TUHAN YANG MAHA ESA

    MAJELIS PERMUSYAWARATAN RAKYAT
    REPUBLIK INDONESIA

    Menimbang:

    a. bahwa Pancasila yang merupakan pandangan hidup Bangsa dan dasar Negara Republik Indonesia perlu dihayati dan diamalkan secara nyata untuk menjaga kelestarian dan keampuhannya demi terwujudnya tujuan Nasional serta cita-cita Bangsa seperti tercantum dalam Pembukaan UUD 1945.

    b. bahwa demi kesatuan bahasa, kesatuan pandangan, dan kesatuan gerak langkah dalam hal menghayati serta mengamalkan Pancasila diperlukan adanya P4.

    c. bahwa oleh karena itu, MPR yang keanggotaannya diresmikan pada tanggal 1 Oktober 1977 berpendapat perlu adanya Ketetapan MPR tentang P4.

    Mengingat:

    1. Pembukaan dan pasal 1 ayat (2) UUD 1945.

    2. Keputusan-keputusan MPR-RI No.1/1977; No.3/1977; No.4/1977; No.1/1978; dan No.2/1978.

    3. Ketetapan MPR-RI No.1/1973 dihubungkan dengan Keputusan MPR-RI No.2/1977.

    Memperhatikan:

    1. Permusyawaratan dalam Sidang Umum MPR bulan Maret 1978 yang membahas Rancangan Ketetapan tentang P4 yang telah dipersiapkan oleh Badan Pekerja MPR.

    2. Putusan Rapat Paripurna ke-5 tanggal 21-22 Maret 1978 semasa Sidang Umum MPT bulan Maret 1978

    MEMUTUSKAN

    Menetapkan:

    KETETAPAN MPR RI tentang P4 (EKAPRASETIA PANCAKARSA)

    Pasal 1

    P4 ini tidak merupakan tafsir Pancasila sebagai Dasar Negara, dan juga tidak dimaksud menafsirkan Pancasila Dasar Negara sebagaimana tercantum dalam Pembukaan UUD 1945, Batang Tubuh, dan Penjelasannya.

    Pasal 2

    P4 dituangkan dalam rumusan yang sederhana, jelas, dan mudah dipahami maknanya, disusun dengan tata urutan sebagai berikut:
    BAB I:      Pendahuluan
    BAB II:     P4 (Ekaprasetia Pancakarsa)
    BAB III:    Penutup

    Pasal 3

    Pedoman sebagaimana tersebut dalam pasal 1 beserta penjelasannya terdapat dalam naskah P4 sebagai lampiran yang merupakan bagian tak terpisahkan dari Ketetapan ini.

    Pasal 4

    P4 ini merupakan penuntun dan pegangan hidup dalam kehidupan bermasyarakat dan bernegara bagi setiap warga negara Indonesia, setiap penyelenggara Negara, serta setiap lembaga kenegaraan dan lembaga kemasyarakatan, baik di Pusat maupun di Daerah, dan dilaksanakan secara bulat dan utuh.

    Pasal 5

    Menugaskan kepada Presiden sebagai Mandataris atau Presiden bersama-sama DPR untuk mengusahakan agar P4 dapat dilaksanakan sebaik-baiknya dengan tetap berlandaskan pada peraturan perundang-undangan yang berlaku.

    Pasal 6

    Ketetapan ini mulai berlaku pada tanggal ditetapkan.

    Ditetapkan di Jakarta
    Pada tanggal 22 Maret 1978.

    MAJELIS PERMUSYAWARATAN RAKYAT
    REPUBLIK INDONESIA

    Ketua              :    Adam Malik
    Wakil Ketua    :    Mashuri, SH
    Wakil Ketua    :    KH Masjkur
    Wakil Ketua    :    R. Kartidjo
    Wakil Ketua    :    H. Achmad Lamo
    Wakil Ketua    :    Mh. Isnaeni


    Lampiran

    Naskah
    P4 (Ekaprasetia Pancakarsa)

    I. Pendahuluan

    Bahwa sesungguhnya atas berkat rahmat Tuhan Yang Maha Esa, perjuangan rakyat Indonesia telah mengantarkan rakyat Indonesia kepada Negara Republik Indonesia yang merdeka, bersatu, dan berdaulat berdasarkan Pancasila. Maka menjadi tugas dan tanggung jawab setiap warga negara Indonesia dan seluruh bangsa Indonesia untuk mengemban kelangsungan hidupnya.

    Sesungguhnya sejarah telah mengungkapkan, bahwa Pancasila adalah jiwa seluruh rakyat Indonesia, yang memberi kekuatan hidup kepada bangsa Indonesia serta membimbingnya dalam mengejar kehidupan lahir batin yang makin baik, di dalam masyarakat Indonesia yang adil dan makmur.

    Bahwasanya Pancasila yang telah diterima dan ditetapkan sebagai dasar Negara seperti tercantum dalam Pembukaan UUD 1945 merupakan kepribadian dan pandangan hidup Bangsa, yang telah diuji kebenaran, keampuhan, dan kesaktiannya, sehingga tak ada satu kekuatan mana pun juga yang mampu memisahkan Pancasila dari kehidupan bangsa Indonesia.

    Menyadari bahwa untuk kelestarian keampuhan dan kesaktian Pancasila itu, perlu diusahakan secara nyata dan terus-menerus penghayatan dan pengamalan nilai-nilai luhur yang terkandung didalamnya oleh setiap warga negara Indonesia, setiap penyelenggara Negara, serta setiap lembaga kenegaraan dan lembaga kemasyarakatan, baik di Pusat maupun di Daerah.

    Dengan penghayatan dan pengamalan Pancasila oleh manusia Indonesia akan terasa dan terwujudlah Pancasila dalam kehidupan masyarakat dan bangsa Indonesia.

    Untuk memungkinkan dan memudahkan pelaksanaan penghayatan dan pengamalan Pancasila diperlukan suatu pedoman, yang dapat menjadi penuntun dan pegangan hidup bagi sikap dan tingkah laku setiap manusia Indonesia dalam kehidupan bermasyarakat dan kehidupan bernegara.

    P4 itu dituangkan dalam rumusan yang sederhana dan jelas, yang mencerminkan suara hati nurani manusia Indonesia yang berjiwa Pancasila dan yang mampu secara terus-menerus menggelorakan semangat serta memberikan keyakinan dan harapan akan hari depan yang lebih baik, sehingga pedoman itu dapat mudah diresapi, dihayati, dan diamalkan.

    II. P4 (EKAPRASETIA PANCAKARSA)

    Pancasila seperti tercantum dalam Pembukaan UUD 1945 merupakan kesatuan yang bulat dan utuh dari kelima sila, yaitu Ketuhanan Yang Maha Esa, Kemanusiaan yang adil dan beradab, Persatuan Indonesia, Kerakyatan yang dipimpin oleh hikmat kebijaksanaan dalam permusyawaratan/perwakilan, keadilan sosial bagi seluruh rakyat Indonesia.

    Pancasila yang bulat dan utuh itu memberi keyakinan kepada rakyat dan bangsa Indonesia bahwa kebahagiaan hidup akan tercapai apabila didasarkan atas keselarasan dan keseimbangan, baik dalam:

    1. hidup manusia sebagai pribadi,
    2. hubungan manusia dengan masyarakat,
    3. hubungan manusia dengan alam,
    4. hubungan bangsa dengan bangsa-bangsa lain,
    5. hubungan manusia dengan Tuhannya,
    6. mengejar kemajuan lahiriah dan kebahagiaan rohaniah.

    Dengan keyakinan akan kebenaran Pancasila, maka manusia ditempatkan pada keluhuran harkat dan martabatnya sebagai makhluk Tuhan Yang Maha Esa dengan kesadaran untuk mengemban kodratnya sebagai makhluk pribadi dan sekaligus sebagai makhluk sosial.

    Dengan berpangkal tolak dari kodrat manusia sebagai makhluk Tuhan Yang Maha Esa, yang merupakan makhluk pribadi dan sekaligus sebagai makhluk sosial, maka penghayatan dan pengamalan Pancasila akan ditentukan oleh kemauan dan kemampuan seseorang dalam mengendalikan diri dan kepentingannya agar dapat melaksanakan kewajibannya sebagai warga negara dan warga masyarakat.

    Untuk memenuhi kewajibannya sebagai warga negara dan warga masyarakat, manusia Indonesia dalam menghayati dan mengamalkan Pancasila secara bulat dan utuh menggunakan pedoman sebagai berikut:

    1. SILA KETUHANAN YANG MAHA ESA

    Dengan sila Ketuhanan Yang Maha Esa, bangsa Indonesia menyatakan kepercayaan dan ketakwaan terhadap Tuhan Yang Maha Esa dan oleh karenanya manusia Indonesia percaya dan takwa terhadap Tuhan Yang Maha Esa sesuai dengan agama dan kepercayaannya masing-masing menurut dasar kemanusiaan yang adil dan beradab.

    Di dalam kehidupan masyarakat Indonesia dikembangkan sikap hormat-menghormati dan bekerja sama antara pemeluk-pemeluk agama dan penganut-penganut kepercayaan yang berbeda-beda, sehingga dapat selalu dibina kerukunan hidup di antara sesama umat beragama dan berkepercayaan terhadap Tuhan Yang Maha Esa.

    Sadar bahwa agama dan kepercayaan terhadap Tuhan Yang Maha Esa adalah masalah yang menyangkut hubungan pribadi dengan Tuhan Yang Maha Esa yang dipercayai dan diyakininya, maka dikembangkanlah sikap saling menghormati kebebasan menjalankan ibadah sesuai agama dan kepercayaannya dan tidak memaksakan suatu agama dan kepercayaannya itu kepada orang lain.

    2. SILA KEMANUSIAAN YANG ADIL DAN BERADAB

    Dengan sila Kemanusiaan yang Adil dan Beradab, manusia diakui dan diperlakukan sesuai dengan harkat dan martabatnya sebagai makhluk Tuhan Yang Maha Esa, yang sama derajatnya, yang sama hak dan kewajiban-kewajiban asasinya, tanpa membeda-bedakan suku, keturunan, agama, dan kepercayaan, jenis kelamin, kedudukan sosial, warna kulit, dan sebagainya. Karena itu dikembangkan sikap saling mencintai sesama manusia, sikap tenggang rasa dan tepa salira, serta sikap tidak semena-mena terhadap orang lain.

    Kemanusiaan yang adil dan beradab berarti menjunjung tinggi nilai-nilai kemanusiaan, gemar melakukan kegiatan-kegiatan kemanusiaan, dan berani membela kebenaran dan keadilan. Sadar bahwa manusia adalah sederajat, maka bangsa Indonesia merasa dirinya sebagai bagian dari seluruh umat manusia, karena itu dikembangkanlah sikap hormat-menghormati, dan bekerja sama dengan bangsa-banga lain.

    3. SILA PERSATUAN INDONESIA

    Dengan sila Persatuan Indonesia, manusia Indonesia menempatkan persatuan, kesatuan, serta kepentingan dan keselamatan Bangsa dan Negara di atas kepentingan pribadi atau golongan.

    Menempatkan kepentingan negara dan Bangsa di atas kepentingan pribadi berarti bahwa manusia Indonesia sanggup dan rela berkorban untuk kepentingan Negara dan Bangsa, apabila diperlukan. Oleh karena sikap rela berkorban untuk kepentingan Negara dan Bangsa itu dilandasi oleh rasa cinta kepada Tanah Air dan Bangsanya, maka dikembangkanlah rasa kebanggaan berkebangsaan dan bertanah air Indonesia, dalam rangka memelihara ketertiban dunia yang berdasarkan kemerdekaan, perdamaian abadi, dan keadilan sosial.

    Persatuan dikembangkan atas dasar Bhinneka Tunggal Ika, dengan memajukan pergaulan demi kesatuan dan persatuan Bangsa.

    4. SILA KERAKYATAN YANG DIPIMPIN OLEH HIKMAT KEBIJAKSANAAN DALAM PERMUSYAWARATAN/PERWAKILAN

    Dengan sila Kerakyatan yang Dipimpin oleh Hikmat Kebijaksanaan dalam Permusyawaratan/Perwakilan, manusia Indonesia sebagai warga negara dan warga masyarakat Indonesia mempunyai kedudukan, hak, dan kewajiban yang sama. Dalam menggunakan hak-haknya ia menyadari perlunya selalu memperhatikan dan mengutamakan kepentingan Negara dan kepentingan Masyarakat.

    Karena mempunyai kedudukan, hak, dan kewajiban yang sama, maka pada dasarnya tidak boleh ada suatu kehendak yang dipaksakan kepada pihak lain. Sebelum diambil keputusan yang menyangkut kepentingan bersama, terlebih dahulu diadakan musyawarah. Keputusan diusahakan secara mufakat. Musyawarah untuk mencapai mufakat ini diliputi oleh semangat kekeluargaan, yang merupakan ciri khas bangsa Indonesia.

    Manusia Indonesia menghormati dan menjunjung tinggi setiap hasil keputusan musyawarah, karena itu semua pihak yang bersangkutan harus menerimanya dan melaksanakannya dengan itikad baik dan rasa tanggung jawab. Di sini kepentingan bersamalah yang diutamakan diatas kepentingan pribadi dan golongan. Pembicaraan dalam musyawarah dilakukan dengan akal sehat dan sesuai dengan hati nurani yang luhur. Keputusan-keputusan yang diambil harus dapat dipertanggungjawabkan secara moral kepada Tuhan Yang Maha Esa, menjunjung tinggi harkat dan martabat manusia serta nilai-nilai kebenaran dan keadilan, mengutamakan persatuan dan kesatuan, demi kepentingan bersama.

    Dalam melaksanakan permusyawaratan, kepercayaan diberikan kepada wakil-wakil yang dipercayainya.

    5. SILA KEADILAN SOSIAL BAGI SELURUH RAKYAT INDONESIA

    Dengan sila Keadilan Sosial bagi seluruh Rakyat Indonesia, manusia Indonesia menyadari hak dan kewajiban yang sama untuk menciptakan keadilan sosial dalam kehidupan masyarakat Indonesia. Dalam rangka ini, dikembangkanlah perbuatan yang luhur yang mencerminkan sikap dan suasana kekeluargaan dan kegotongroyongan.

    Untuk itu dikembangkan sikap adil terhadap sesama, menjaga keseimbangan antara hak dan kewajiban serta menghormati hak-hak orang lain.

    Demikian pula perlu dipupuk sikap suka memberikan pertolongan kepada orang yang memerlukan agar dapat berdiri sendiri. Dengan sikap yang demikian, ia tidak menggunakan hak miliknya untuk usaha-usaha yang bersifat pemerasan terhadap orang lain, juga tidak untuk hal-hal yang bersifat pemborosan dan hidup bergaya mewah serta perbuatan-perbuatan lain yang bertentangan dengan atau merugikan kepentingan umum.

    Demikian juga dipupuk sikap suka bekerja keras dan sikap menghargai hasil karya orang lain yang bermanfaat untuk mencapai kemajuan dan kesejahteraan bersama. Kesemuanya itu dilaksanakan dalam rangka mewujudkan kemajuan yang merata dan keadilan sosial.

    Demikianlah dengan ini ditetapkan P4 yang dinamakan Ekaprasetia Pancakarsa.

    Ekaprasetia, karena P4 ini bertolak dari tekad yang tunggal, janji yang luhur, kepada diri sendiri bahwa sadar akan kodratnya sebagai makhluk pribadi dan sekaligus sebagai makhluk sosial, manusia Indonesia merasa harus mampu mengendalikan diri dan kepentingannya agar dapat melaksanakan kewajibannya sebagai warga negara dan warga masyarakat.

    Kesadaran akan kodratnya dan kemampuan mengendalikan diri dan kepentingannya itu merupakan modal serta mendorong tumbuhnya karsa pribadi untuk menghayati dan mengamalkan kelima sila dari Pancasila, yang karenanya dinamakan Pancakarsa.

    III. PENUTUP

    Sadar sedalam-dalamnya bahwa Pancasila adalah pandangan hidup Bangsa dan dasar Negara Republik Indonesia serta merasakan bahwa Pancasila adalah sumber kejiwaan Masyarakat dan Negara Republik Indonesia, maka manusia Indonesia menjadikan pengamalan Pancasila sebagai perjuangan utama dalam kehidupan kemasyarakatan dan kehidupan kenegaraan. Oleh karena itu, pengamalannya harus dimulai dari setiap warga negara Indonesia, setiap penyelenggara Negara yang secara meluas akan berkembang menjadi pengamalan Pancasila oleh setiap lembaga kenegaraan dan lembaga kemasyarakatan, baik di Pusat maupun di Daerah.

    Dengan demikian Pancasila sebagai pandangan hidup Bangsa dan dasar Negara Republik Indonesia akan mempunyai arti nyata bagi manusia Indonesia dalam hubungannya dengan kehidupan kemasyarakatan dan kenegaraan.

    Untuk itu perlu usaha yang sungguh-sungguh dan terus-menerus serta terpadu demi terlaksananya penghayatan dan pengamalan Pancasila.

    Demikianlah manusia dan bangsa Indonesia menjamin kelestarian dan kelangsungan hidup Negara Republik Indonesia yang merdeka, bersatu, dan berkedaulatan rakyat berdasarkan Pancasila serta penuh gelora semangat membangun masyarakat Indonesia yang maju, sejahtera, adil, dan makmur.

    Semoga rahmat Tuhan Yang Maha Esa menyertai pelaksanaan Pedoman ini.


    Penjelasan atas Bab II angka 1

    Dengan rumusan sila Ketuhanan Yang Maha Esa seperti tersebut pada Bab II angka 1 tidak berarti bahwa Negara memaksa agama dan suatu kepercayaan terhadap Tuhan Yang Maha Esa, sebab agama dan kepercayaan terhadap Tuhan Yang Maha Esa itu berdasarkan keyakinan, hingga tidak dapat dipaksakan dan memang agama dan kepercayaan terhadap Tuhan Yang Maha Esa itu sendiri tidak memaksa setiap manusia untuk memeluk dan menganutnya.

    Pancasila dan UUD 1945 menjamin kemerdekaan tiap-tiap penduduk untuk memeluk agamanya masing-masing dan beribadat menurut agamanya dan kepercayaannya itu. Kebebasan agama adalah merupakan salah satu hak yang paling asasi di antara hak-hak asasi manusia, karena kebebasan beragama itu langsung bersumber kepada martabat manusia sebagai makhluk ciptaan Tuhan. Hak kebebasan beragama bukan pemberian Negara atau bukan pemberian golongan.


    36 Butir-butir Pancasila

    Kristalisasi P4 tersebut dinyatakan dalam 36 butir-butir Pancasila. Tetapi bila dihitung-hitung, bukannya 36 butir melainkan 37 butir. Beberapa sumber bahkan menjadikan butir-butir tersebut menjadi 35 butir. Mana yang benar?

    Menurut pendapat penulis, kalau ditelaah lebih lanjut, butir-butir Pancasila tersebut malah bisa lebih dari 37. Tafsir, penjelasan, uraian atau apa pun namanya, lampiran Tap MPR No. II/1978 tersebut merupakan naskah P4 yang mencoba mendeskripsikan terhadap apa yang dimaksud dengan P4 menurut setiap sila dalam Pancasila.

    Hal ini dibantah kerasa dalam Pasal 1 dari Tap MPR No.II/1978, yang menyatakan dengan tegas bahwa P4 bukan merupakan tafsir Pancasila sebagai Dasar Negara, dan juga tidak dimaksud menafsirkan Pancasila Dasar Negara sebagaimana tercantum dalam Pembukaan UUD 1945, Batang Tubuh, dan Penjelasannya.

    Dalam pasal 3 disebutkan bahwa Pedoman sebagaimana tersebut dalam pasal 1 beserta penjelasannya terdapat dalam naskah P4 sebagai lampiran yang merupakan bagian tak terpisahkan dari Ketetapan ini.

    Hasil karya dan kerja MPR ini seperti orang-orang buta yang mendeskripsikan gajah menurut apa yang mereka pegang. Soekarno sebagai pencetus istilah Pancasila saja tidak perduli dengan urutan dan susunan kata per kata dalam Pancasila. M. Yamin sendiri pernah menyangkal kristalisasi Pancasila ke dalam 5 kata yang dia sampaikan pada rapat BPUPKI tertanggal 29 Mei 1945.

    A. SILA KETUHANAN YANG MAHA ESA

    1. Percaya dan Takwa kepada Tuhan Yang Maha Esa sesuai dengan agama dan kepercayaan masing-masing menurut dasar kemanusiaan yang adil dan beradab.
    2. Hormat menghaormati dan bekerjasama antar pemeluk agama dan penganut-penganut kepercayaan yang berbeda-beda sehingga terbina kerukunan hidup.
    3. Saling menghormati kebebasan menjalankan ibadah sesuai dengan agama dan kepercayaannya.
    4. Tidak memaksakan suatu agama dan kepercayaan kepada orang lain.

    B. SILA KEMANUSIAAN YANG ADIL DAN BERADAB

    1. Mengakui persamaan derajat persamaan hak dan persmaan kewajiban antara sesama manusia.
    2. Saling mencintai sesama manusia.
    3. Mengembangkan sikap tenggang rasa.
    4. Tidak semena-mena terhadap orang lain
    5. Menjunjung tinggi nilai kemanusiaan.
    6. Gemar melakukan kegiatan kemanusiaan.
    7. Berani membela kebenaran dan keadilan.
    8. Bangsa Indonesia merasa dirinya sebagai bagian dari seluruh umat manusia, karena itu dikembangkan sikap hormat-menghormati dan bekerjasama dengan bangsa lain.

    C. SILA PERSATUAN INDONESIA

    1. Menempatkan kesatuan, persatuan, kepentingan, dan keselamtan bangsa dan negara di atas kepentingan pribadi atau golongan.
    2. Rela berkorban untuk kepentingan bangsa dan negara.
    3. Cinta Tanah Air dan Bangsa.
    4. Bangga sebagai Bangsa Indonesia dan ber-Tanah Air Indonesia.
    5. Memajukan pergaulan demi persatuan dan kesatuan bangsa yang ber-Bhineka Tunggal Ika.

    D. SILA KERAKYATAN YANG DIPIMPIN OLEH HIKMAH KEBIJAKSANAAN DALAM PERMUSYAWARATAN / PERWAKILAN

    1. Mengutamakan kepentinagn negara dan masyarakat
    2. Tidak memaksakan kehendak kepada orang lain.
    3. Mengutamakan musyawarah dalam mengambil keputusan untuk kepentingn bersama.
    4. Musyawarah untuk mencapai mufakat diliputi semangat kekeluargaan.
    5. Dengan iktikad baik dan rasa tanggung jawab menerima dan melaksanakan hasil musyawarah.
    6. Musyawarah dilakukan dengan akal sehat dan sesuai dengan hati nurani yang luhur.
    7. Keputusan yang diambil harus dapat dipertanggung jawabkan secara moral kepada Tuhan Yang Maha Esa.
    8. Menjunjung tinggi harkat dan martabat manusia serta nilai-nilai kebenaran dan keadilan.

    E. SILA KEADILAN SOSIAL BAGI SELURUH RAKYAT INDONESIA

    1. Mengembangkan perbuatan-perbuatan yang luhur yang mencerminkan sikap dan suasana kekeluargaan dan gotong-royong.
    2. Bersikap adil
    3. Menjaga keseimbangan antara hak dan kewajiban.
    4. Menghormati hak-hak orang lain.
    5. Suka memberi pertolongan kepada orang lain.
    6. Menjauhi sikap pemerasan terhadap orang lain.
    7. Tidak bersifat boros
    8. Tidak bergaya hidup mewah
    9. Tidak melakukan perbuatan yang merugikan kepentingan umum.
    10. Suka bekerja keras.
    11. Menghargai hasil karya orang lain.
    12. Bersama-sama berusaha mewujudkan kemajuan yang merata dan berkeadilan sosial.

    45 Butir-butir Pancasila

    Tap MPR No.II/1978 tentang P4 dibatalkan sekali lagi berdasarkan Tap MPR No.I/2003 tentang Peninjauan terhadap Materi dan Status Hukum Tap MPRS dan Tap MPR RI tahun 1960 sampai dengan tahun 2002. Tap MPR No.I/2003 bersifat sapu jagat karena ‘kesaktiannya’ membreidel seluruh Tap MPR yang dinilai tidak sejalan dengan era dan tuntutan reformasi.

    Berdasarkan Tap MPR No.I/2003 tersebut, menurut beberapa sumber yang sangat tidak bisa dipercaya, 36 butir-butir Pancasila kemudian berkembang menjadi 45 butir-butir Pancasila. Berdasarkan penelusuran penulis tentang Tap MPR No.I/2003, kata Pancasila ada disebutkan dalam pasal 6 seperti berikut:

    (Sebanyak 104) Tap MPRS dan Tap MPR yang disebutkan di bawah ini merupakan Tap MPRS dan Tap MPR yang tidak perlu dilakukan tindakan hukum lebih lanjut, baik karena bersifat einmalig (final), telah dicabut, maupun telah selesai dilaksanakan.

    52. Tap MPR No.II/1978 tentang P4 (Ekaprasetia Pancakarsa).

    84. Tap MPR No.V/1988 tentang Pemberian Tugas dan Wewenang Khusus kepada Presiden/Mandataris MPR RI dalam Rangka Penyuksesan dan Pengamanan Pembangunan Nasional sebagai Pengamalan Pancasila.

    90. Tap MPR No.XII/1998 tentang Pencabutan Tap MPR No.V/1998.

    91. Tap MPR No.XVIII/1998 tentang Pencabutan Tap MPR No.II/1978 dan Penetapan tentang Penegasan Pancasila sebagai Dasar Negara.

    Seperti yang pernah penulis sebutkan, perspektif orang-orang buta tersebut –yang mencoba menginterpretasi Pancasila ke dalam pernyataan-pernyataan dogmatis yang kosong, tidak ilmiah, tidak sistematis– semakin berkembang setelah mereka mendapat pegangan baru terhadap bentuk tubuh gajah yang lain.

    A. SILA KETUHANAN YANG MAHA ESA

    1. Bangsa Indonesia menyatakan kepercayaannya dan ketakwaannya terhadap Tuhan Yang Maha Esa.
    2. Manusia Indonesia percaya dan takwa terhadap Tuhan Yang Maha Esa, sesuai dengan agama dan kepercayaannya masing-masing menurut dasar kemanusiaan yang adil dan beradab.
    3. Mengembangkan sikap hormat menghormati dan bekerjasama antara pemeluk agama dengan penganut kepercayaan yang berbeda-beda terhadap Tuhan Yang Maha Esa.
    4. Membina kerukunan hidup di antara sesama umat beragama dan kepercayaan terhadap Tuhan Yang Maha Esa.
    5. Agama dan kepercayaan terhadap Tuhan Yang Maha Esa adalah masalah yang menyangkut hubungan pribadi manusia dengan Tuhan Yang Maha Esa.
    6. Mengembangkan sikap saling menghormati kebebasan menjalankan ibadah sesuai dengan agama dan kepercayaannya masing-masing.
    7. Tidak memaksakan suatu agama dan kepercayaan terhadap Tuhan Yang Maha Esa kepada orang lain

    B. SILA KEMANUSIAAN YANG ADIL DAN BERADAB

    1. Mengakui dan memperlakukan manusia sesuai dengan harkat dan martabatnya sebagai makhluk Tuhan Yang Maha Esa.
    2. Mengakui persamaan derajat, persamaan hak, dan kewajiban asasi setiap manusia, tanpa membeda-bedakan suku, keturunan, agama, kepercayaan, jenis kelamin, kedudukan sosial, warna kulit dan sebagainya.
    3. Mengembangkan sikap saling mencintai sesama manusia.
    4. Mengembangkan sikap saling tenggang rasa dan tepa selira.
    5. Mengembangkan sikap tidak semena-mena terhadap orang lain.
    6. Menjunjung tinggi nilai-nilai kemanusiaan.
    7. Gemar melakukan kegiatan kemanusiaan.
    8. Berani membela kebenaran dan keadilan.
    9. Bangsa Indonesia merasa dirinya sebagai bagian dari seluruh umat manusia.
    10. Mengembangkan sikap hormat menghormati dan bekerjasama dengan bangsa lain.

    C. SILA PERSATUAN INDONESIA

    1. Mampu menempatkan persatuan, kesatuan, serta kepentingan dan keselamatan bangsa dan negara sebagai kepentingan bersama di atas kepentingan pribadi dan golongan.
    2. Sanggup dan rela berkorban untuk kepentingan negara dan bangsa apabila diperlukan.
    3. Mengembangkan rasa cinta kepada tanah air dan bangsa.
    4. Mengembangkan rasa kebanggaan berkebangsaan dan bertanah air Indonesia.
    5. Memelihara ketertiban dunia yang berdasarkan kemerdekaan, perdamaian abadi, dan keadilan sosial.
    6. Mengembangkan persatuan Indonesia atas dasar Bhinneka Tunggal Ika.
    7. Memajukan pergaulan demi persatuan dan kesatuan bangsa.

    D. SILA KERAKYATAN YANG DIPIMPIN OLEH HIKAH KEBIJAKSANAAN DALAM PERMUSYAWARATAN /PERWAKILAN

    1. Sebagai warga negara dan warga masyarakat, setiap manusia Indonesia mempunyai kedudukan, hak, dan kewajiban yang sama.
    2. Tidak boleh memaksakan kehendak kepada orang lain.
    3. Mengutamakan musyawarah dalam mengambil keputusan untuk kepentingan bersama.
    4. Musyawarah untuk mencapai mufakat diliputi oleh semangat kekeluargaan.
    5. Menghormati dan menjunjung tinggi setiap keputusan yang dicapai sebagai hasil musyawarah.
    6. Dengan iktikad baik dan rasa tanggung jawab menerima dan melaksanakan hasil keputusan musyawarah.
    7. Di dalam musyawarah diutamakan kepentingan bersama di atas kepentingan pribadi dan golongan.
    8. Musyawarah dilakukan dengan akal sehat dan sesuai dengan hati nurani yang luhur.
    9. Keputusan yang diambil harus dapat dipertanggungjawabkan secara moral kepada Tuhan Yang Maha Esa, menjunjung tinggi harkat dan martabat manusia, nilai-nilai kebenaran dan keadilan mengutamakan persatuan dan kesatuan demi kepentingan bersama.
    10. Memberikan kepercayaan kepada wakil-wakil yang dipercayai untuk melaksanakan pemusyawaratan.

    E. SILA KEADILAN SOSIAL BAGI SELURUH RAKYAT INDONESIA

    1. Mengembangkan perbuatan yang luhur, yang mencerminkan sikap dan suasana kekeluargaan dan kegotongroyongan.
    2. Mengembangkan sikap adil terhadap sesama.
    3. Menjaga keseimbangan antara hak dan kewajiban.
    4. Menghormati hak orang lain.
    5. Suka memberi pertolongan kepada orang lain agar dapat berdiri sendiri.
    6. Tidak menggunakan hak milik untuk usaha-usaha yang bersifat pemerasan terhadap orang lain.
    7. Tidak menggunakan hak milik untuk hal-hal yang bersifat pemborosan dan gaya hidup mewah.
    8. Tidak menggunakan hak milik untuk bertentangan dengan atau merugikan kepentingan umum.
    9. Suka bekerja keras.
    10. Suka menghargai hasil karya orang lain yang bermanfaat bagi kemajuan dan kesejahteraan bersama.
    11. Suka melakukan kegiatan dalam rangka mewujudkan kemajuan yang merata dan berkeadilan sosial.

    Berakhirnya Era Indoktrinasi Pancasila

    Era indoktrinasi Pancasila berakhir menyusul tumbangnya kepemimpinan orde baru digantikan dengan orde reformasi yang kebablasan dalam hal liberalisme dan individiualisme yang sarat dan sangat kapitalistik. Produk hukum yang memberangus dogmatisasi Pancasila adalah Tap MPR No.12/1998 dan Tap MPR No.18/1998, dan yang terakhir adalah Tap MPR No.I/2003.

    Tap MPR No.XII/1998 tentang Pencabutan Tap MPR No.V/1998 tentang Pemberian Tugas dan Wewenang Khusus kepada Presiden/Mandataris MPR RI dalam Rangka Penyuksesan dan Pengamanan Pembangunan Nasional sebagai Pengamalan Pancasila.

    Tap MPR No.XVIII/1998 tentang Pencabutan Tap MPR No.II/1978 tentang P4 (Ekaprasetia Pancakarsa) dan Penetapan tentang Penegasan Pancasila sebagai Dasar Negara.

    DENGAN RAHMAT TUHAN YANG MAHA ESA

    MPR RI,

    Menimbang:

    a. bahwa Pancasila sebagaimana yang dimaksud dalam Pembukaan UUD 1945, perlu ditegaskan posisi dan peranannya dalam kehidupan bernegara.

    b. bahwa Tap MPR No.II/1978 tentang P4 (Ekaprasetia Pancakarsa) yang materi muatan dan pelaksanaannya tidak sesuai dengan perkembangan kehidupan bernegara, perlu dicabut.

    c. bahwa berhubung dengan itu perlu adanya Tap MPR untuk mencabut Tap MPR No.II/1978 tersebut dan Penetapan tentang Penegasan Pancasila sebagai dasar negara.

    Mengingat:

    1. Pasal 1, 2, dan 3 dari UUD 1945.

    2. Tap MPR No.I/1983 tentang Peraturan Tata Tertib MPR sebagaimana telah beberapa kali diubah dan ditambah terakhir dengan Tap MPR No.I/1998.

    Memperhatikan:

    1. Keputusan Pimpinan MPR No.10/PIMP./1998 tentang Penyelenggaraan Sidang Istimewa MPR.

    2. Permusyawaratan dalam Sidang Istimewa MPR tanggal 10-13 November 1998 yang membahas Rancangan Tap MPR tentang Pencabutan dan Penggantian Tap MPR No.II/1978 tentang P4 (Ekaprasetia Pancakarsa) yang dipersiapkan oleh Badan Pekerja MPR.

    3. Putusan Rapat Paripurna Ke-4 tanggal 13 November 1998 Sidang Istimewa MPR tanggal 10-13 November 1998.

    MEMUTUSKAN

    Menetapkan:

    Tap MPR tentang Pencabutan Tap MPR No.II/1978 tentang P4 (Ekaprasetia Pancakarsa) dan Penetapan tentang Penegasan Pancasila sebagai Dasar Negara

    Pasal 1

    Pancasila sebagaimana dimaksud dalam Pembukaan UUD 1945 adalah dasar negara dari Negara Kesatuan Republik Indonesia harus dilaksanakan secara konsisten dalam kehidupan bernegara.

    Pasal 2

    Dengan ditetapkannya Ketetapan ini, maka Tap MPR No.II/1978 tentang P4 (Ekaprasetia Pancakarsa) dicabut dan dinyatakan tidak berlaku lagi.

    Pasal 3

    Ketetapan ini mulai berlaku pada tanggal ditetapkan.

    Ditetapkan di Jakarta,
    Pada Tanggal 13 November 1998

    MPR RI,

    Ketua          :    H. Harmoko
    Wakil Ketua    :    Hari Sabarno, S.Ip., M.B.A., M.M.
    Wakil Ketua    :    Dr. Abdul Gafur
    Wakil Ketua    :    H. Ismail Hasan Metareum, S.H.
    Wakil Ketua    :    Hj. Fatimah Achmad, S.H.
    Wakil Ketua    :    Poedjono Pranyaoto


    Tinjauan Reflektif Kehampaan MPR

    Tap MPR No.I/2003 merupakan karya dan sidang tahunan terakhir bagi MPR. Dasar utamanya adalah pertimbangan jadwal pelantikan anggota DPR dan DPD yang dihasilkan dalam pemilu nasional maupun pilkada. Efisiensi anggaran dan risiko politisasi merupakan reasoning yang lain.

    Pertimbangan legal lainnya adalah struktur, hierarki, posisi, ketatanegaraan produk hukum MPR yang tidak lagi bisa menerbitkan Tap yang bersifat regeling (mengatur). Penerbitan Tap merupakan kewenangan turunan dari menetapkan GBHN. Amandemen terhadap UUD 1945 membuat MPR tak lagi memiliki kewenangan menetapkan GBHN.

    Sidang Tahunan MPR 2003 merupakan upaya konsolidasi dan penegakkan demokrasi di Indonesia karena bertujuan meninjau seluruh produk MPR sepanjang  sejarahnya. Dana ratusan milyar sudah dianggarkan untuk ‘dihabiskan’ demi perbaikan bangunan politik dan ketatanegaraan.

    Berbagai kemegahan dan kemewahan dalam ritual MPR menjadi tanpa arti dan penuh kesia-siaan, mubazir, dan boros, ketika masyarakat menyaksikan secara langsung betapa banyaknya bangku kosong. Kalau pun bangku sidang terisi, para wakil rakyat yang gila hormat banyak yang tidur, asyik sendiri, browsing, sms-an, BB-an, bahkan menonton video porno. Mereka tidak menghiraukan apa yang sedang dibicarakan selama sidang berlangsung.

    Kelesuan Sidang Tahunan MPR tersebut merefleksikan minimnya semangat reformasi yang nyata di kalangan wakil rakyat yang haus penghormatan. Di tahun 2003, MPR tidak lagi menjadi lembaga tertinggi negara yang amat berkuasa dan lebih berkuasa atas presiden. Walau MPR tetap merupakan simbol wakil rakyat secara kolektif, MPR telah kehilangan legitimasi sebagai lembaga sarat social trust dan public respect.

    Semangat reformasi harus berhadapan dengan tokoh-tokoh masa lalu yang masih kuat secara politik, finansial, dan jaringan. Mereka berpotensi melakukan perlawanan habis-habisan bila dibawa ke pengadilan. Di banyak negara, tokoh-tokoh politik yang terlengserkan banyak yang mengacaukan negara dengan memobilisasi para simpatisan, kader, dan pendukung, baik secara terbuka maupun secara terselubung.

    Kedamaian dan tertib hukum bisa semakin jauh tercapai. Upaya penegakan hukum melalui sistem pengadilan dilakukan secara sangat selektif alias tebang pilih dan tentu dilaksanakan setengah hati. Kesalahan politik di masa lalu tidak dilupakan tetapi dianggap bersifat kolektif, bisa dimaafkan, dan bisa diampuni oleh pemerintah atas nama negara (national pardon, amnesty) yang ingin melakukan rekonsiliasi politik.

    Pancasila yang sangat diagung-agungkan sebagai moral bangsa, nilai-nilai dan perjanjian luhur bangsa, pedoman hidup, dan lainnya menjadi pepesan kosong yang tiada arti ketika harus berhadapan dengan kepentingan politik yang sangat mendewakan tujuan dan menghalalkan segala cara demi tercapainya tujuan.

    Ough, itu dia semangat individualisme dan komunisme, lawan berat moral Pancasila yang sangat ditakuti dan digembar-gemborkan Soeharto. Dalam politik, tidak ada yang abadi, melainkan kepentingan orang yang sedang berpolitik. All is fair in love and war. The ends justify the means. The Machiavellians.

    Ajaran moral tersebut dipelajari sebagai subjek tersendiri pada pendekatan consequentialism. Konsekuensi prilaku seseorang merupakan basis utama suatu penilaian atas kebenaran suatu prilaku. Tiga pendekatan lainnya adalah deontologi, etika kebaikan (virtue ethics), dan etika pragmatis (pragmatic ethics) alias fenomena kutu loncat.


    Catatan Ringkas

    Tulisan ini dimulai dengan tujuan sebagai background research guna menganalisa Pancasila, mulai dari kelahirannya sebagai suatu istilah tersendiri sampai menjadi suatu moral yang didogmatisasi dan terabaikan. Tujuan jangka panjang moral Pancasila adalah tercapainya keadilan sosial bagi seluruh rakyat Indonesia.

    Tujuan jangka pendeknya adalah untuk memenangkan pemilu yang akan datang dengan mengumpulkan uang sebanyak-banyaknya bagi kepentingan partai politik dan para pejabat teras di partai berkuasa maupun di kementertian melalui praktek mark-up, legalisasi alokasi dana dan anggaran APBN.

    Kasus M. Nazaruddin dari Partai Demokrat membuktikan telah terwujudnya demokrasi di Indonesia yang sangat kapitalistik, liberal, dan individualistis. Hidup klas penguasa. Hidup partai berkuasa. Berjayalah terus wahai partai berkuasa dan klas penguasa, di dunia dan di neraka.


    Catatan Penutup

    Sekian puluh tahun yang lalu penulis pernah mencoba mencari buku yang eksklusif membahas tentang moral, akhlak, ajaran kebaikan, ala Indonesia, bahkan di toko buku terbesar di Asia Tenggara. Penulis tidak pernah menemukan apa yang penulis idamkan, kecuali ajaran moral, adab, ibadah, akidah, keyakinan, conviction yang sifatnya ritual, rutin, dan mengagungkan dalil naqli (ajaran teokrasi).

    Tidak ada yang salah memang dengan ajaran teokrasi. Kendala terbesar adalah minimnya pemahaman yang sifatnya prinsipil, logis, universal, dan perseptif bagi banyak kalangan yang dapat dengan mudah dimanipulasi menjadi taqlid kepada sesuatu yang nisbi dan subjektif. Persepsi dipelintir menjadi ajaran mujahidin, semangat jihad dengan fanatisme yang sempit dan fundamental wahabian.

    Bila kita telaah keberadaan kita sebagai makhluk individu yang terbentuk dari air mani yang berkembang menjadi darah, untuk kemudian menjadi daging, urat, dan tulang; kita akan segera tersadar bahwa kita memiliki sistem biologika tubuh yang terus menerus mengalami transformasi, untuk tidak dikatakan bermutasi atau ber-evolusi.

    Sistem tubuh (body system) tersebut berkembang sejalan sistem kejiwaan seseorang (psychological system) sebagai manusia individu. Dalam perkembangannya, lingkungan fisik dan sosial (milieu) seseorang tersebut membentuk cara berpikir tersendiri (mind system), bersikap, berprilaku, dan berinteraksi dengan lingkungan tempat dimana dia tinggal dan menetap (psychosocial).

    Siklus penciptaan manusia yang terus berulang selama manusia ada, sekian ratus ribu tahun, sebenarnya merefleksikan kejadian manusia itu sama di mana saja dan kapan saja. Yang membedakannya cuma nama tempat dan nama pelaku orangnya saja. Bukankah Al-Quran telah menyuarakannya dalam QS-2:66, QS-3:140, dan seterusnya.

    Mulailah dengan iktikad, niat yang baik, untuk melakukan sesuatu yang baik, untuk mencapai yang lebih baik, dengan berlaku seadil-adilnya, etis, dan segala macam adab yang baik. Ajaran teokrasi lagi.

     
  • Virtual Chitchatting 5:09 PM on 2011/08/20 Permalink
    Tags: dasar negara, panitia 9, pembukaan UUD 1945, pembukaan UUD RIS, pembukaan UUDS 1950, piagam jakarta, ppki, proklamasi kemerdekaan, tujuan negara   

    Dasar-dasar dan Tujuan Negara dalam Pembukaan Konstitusi Indonesia 

    Pembukaan UUD 1945 ala M. Yamin

    Untuk membentuk pemerintah negara Indonesia yang melindungi segenap bangsa Indonesia dan seluruh tumpah darah Indonesia, dan untuk memajukan kesejahteraan umum, mencerdaskan kehidupan bangsa, menyuburkan hidup kekeluargaan, dan ikut serta melaksanakan ketertiban dunia yang berdasarkan kemerdekaan, perdamaian dan keadilan sosial, maka disusunlah kemerdekaan kebangsaan Indonesia dalam satu Undang-Undang Dasar Negara Indonesia, yang terbentuk dalam satu susunan negara Republik Indonesia yang berkedaulatan rakyat, dengan berdasar kepada : Ketuhanan Yang Maha Esa, kebangsaan, persatuan Indonesia, dan rasa kemanusiaan yang adil dan beradab, kerakyatan yang dipimpin oleh hikmah kebijaksanaan dalam permusyawaratan perwakilan, dengan mewujudkan keadilan sosial bagi seluruh rakyat Indonesia.

    Rapat BPUPKI, Jakarta, 29 Mei 1945


    Piagam Jakarta

    Bahwa sesungguhnya kemerdekaan itu yalah hak segala bangsa, dan oleh sebab itu maka penjajahan di atas dunia harus dihapuskan, karena tidak sesuai dengan peri-kemanusiaan dan peri-keadilan.
    Dan perjuangan pergerakan Kemerdekaan Indonesia telah sampailah kepada saat yang berbahagia dengan selamat sentausa mengantarkan Rakyat Indonesia ke depan pintu gerbang Negara Indonesia, yang merdeka, bersatu, berdaulat, adil dan makmur.
    Atas berkat Rahmat Allah Yang Maha Kuasa, dan dengan didorongkan oleh keinginan luhur, supaya berkehidupan kebangsaan yang bebas, maka Rakyat Indonesia dengan ini menyatakan kemerdekaannya.
    Kemudian daripada itu untuk membentuk suatu Pemerintah Negara Indonesia yang melindungi segenap Bangsa Indonesia dan seluruh tumpah-darah Indonesia, dan untuk memajukan kesejahteraan umum, mencerdaskan kehidupan bangsa, dan ikut melaksanakan ketertiban dunia yang berdasarkan kemerdekaan, perdamaian abadi, dan keadilan sosial, maka disusunlah kemerdekaan Kebangsaan Indonesia itu dalam suatu Hukum Dasar Negara Indonesia, yang terbentuk dalam suatu susunan negara Republik Indonesia yang berkedaulatan Rakyat, dengan berdasar kepada: ke-Tuhanan dengan mewajibkan menjalankan syari’at Islam bagi pemeluk-pemeluknya; menurut dasar kemanusiaan yang adil dan beradab, persatuan Indonesia, dan kerakyatan yang dipimpin oleh hikmat-kebijaksanaan dalam permusyawaratan perwakilan, serta dengan mewujudkan suatu keadilan sosial bagi seluruh Rakyat Indonesia.

    Jakarta, 22 Juni 2605 (Tahun Masehi: 1945)

    Tertanda,
    Panitia Kecil, Panitia – 9
    PPKI, Panitia Persiapan Kemerdekaan Indonesia
    1.    Ir Sukarno.
    2.    Drs. Mohammad Hatta.
    3.    Mr. A.A. Maramis.
    4.    Abikusno Tjokrosujoso.
    5.    Abdulkahar Muzakir.
    6.    H. Agus Salim.
    7.    Mr. Achmad Subardjo.
    8.    Wachid Hasjim.
    9.    Mr. Muhammad Yamin.


    Proklamasi Kemerdekaan Republik Indonesia

    Pidato Proklamasi

    Saudara-saudara sekalian !
    Saya telah minta saudara-saudara hadir di sini untuk menyaksikan suatu peristiwa maha-penting dalam sejarah kita.
    Berpuluh-puluh tahun kita bangsa Indonesia telah berjoang untuk kemerdekaan tanah air kita. Bahkan telah beratus-ratus tahun !
    Gelombangnya aksi kita untuk mencapai kemerdekaan kita itu ada naiknya dan turunnya, tetapi jiwa kita tetap menuju kearah cita-cita.
    Juga di dalam zaman Jepang, usaha kita untuk mencapai kemerdekaan nasional tidak berhenti-berhenti. Di dalam zaman Jepang ini, tampaknya saja kita menyandarkan diri kepada mereka. Tetapi pada hakekatnya, tetap kita menyusun tenaga kita sendiri, tetap kita percaya kepada kekuatan sendiri.
    Sekarang tibalah saatnya kita benar-benar mengambil nasib-bangsa dan nasib-tanah-air di dalam tangan kita sendiri. Hanya bangsa yang berani mengambil nasib dalam tangan sendiri, akan dapat berdiri dengan kuatnya.
    Maka kami, tadi malam telah mengadakan musyawarat dengan pemuka-pemuka rakyat Indonesia, dari seluruh Indonesia.
    Permusyawaratan itu seia-sekata berpendapat, bahwa sekaranglah saatnya untuk menyatakan kemerdekaan kita.
    Saudara-saudara ! Dengan ini kami nyatakan kebulatan tekad itu.
    Dengarkanlah proklamasi kami :

    Proklamasi

    Kami bangsa Indonesia dengan ini menyatakan Kemerdekaan Indonesia.
    Hal-hal yang mengenai pemindahan kekuasaan dan lain-lain diselenggarakan dengan cara seksama dan dalam tempo yang sesingkat-singkatnya.

    Jakarta, 17 Agustus 1945.
    Atas nama Bangsa Indonesia,

    Soekarno – Hatta.

    Demikianlah saudara-saudara !
    Kita sekarang telah merdeka !
    Tidak ada ikatan lagi yang mengikat tanah-air dan bangsa kita !
    Mulai saat ini kita menyusun Negara Kita !
    Negara Merdeka, Negara Republik Indonesia, – merdeka kekal dan abadi.
    Insya Allah, Tuhan memberkati kemerdekaan kita itu.


    Pembukaan UUD 1945

    Pembukaan

    Bahwa sesungguhnya kemerdekaan itu ialah hak segala bangsa dan oleh sebab itu, maka penjajahan di atas dunia harus dihapuskan, karena tidak sesuai dengan peri kemanusiaan dan peri keadilan.
    Dan perjuangan pergerakan kemerdekaan Indonesia telah sampailah kepada saat yang berbahagia dengan selamat, sentausa, mengantarkan rakyat Indonesia ke depan pintu gerbang (kemerdekaan) Negara Indonesia, yang merdeka, bersatu, berdaulat, adil dan makmur.
    Atas berkat rahmat Allah Yang Maha Kuasa dan dengan didorongkan oleh keinginan luhur, supaya berkehidupan kebangsaan yang bebas, maka rakyat Indonesia menyatakan dengan ini kemerdekaannya.
    Kemudian dari pada itu, untuk membentuk suatu Pemerintah Negara Indonesia yang melindungi segenap bangsa Indonesia dan seluruh tumpah darah Indonesia dan untuk memajukan kesejahteraan umum, mencerdaskan kehidupan bangsa, dan ikut melaksanakan ketertiban dunia yang berdasarkan kemerdekaan, perdamaian abadi, dan keadilan sosial, maka disusunlah Kemerdekaan Kebangsaan Indonesia itu dalam suatu Undang-Undang Dasar Negara Indonesia, yang terbentuk dalam suatu susunan Negara Republik Indonesia yang berkedaulatan rakyat dengan berdasar kepada : Ketuhanan Yang Maha Esa, kemanusiaan yang adil dan beradab, persatuan Indonesia, dan kerakyatan yang dipimpin oleh hikmat kebijaksanaan dalam permusyawaratan/perwakilan serta dengan mewujudkan suatu keadilan sosial bagi seluruh rakyat Indonesia.

    Jakarta, 18 Agustus 1945


    Pembukaan UUD RIS, Republik Indonesia Serikat

    Mukaddimah

    Kami bangsa Indonesia semenjak berpuluh-puluh tahun lamanya bersatu-padu dalam perjuangan-kemerdekaan, dengan senantiasa berhati-teguh berniat menduduki hak-hidup sebagai bangsa yang merdeka-berdaulat.
    Kini dengan berkat dan rahmat Tuhan telah sampai kepada tingkatan sejarah yang berbahagia dan luhur.
    Maka demi ini, kami menyusun kemerdekaan kami itu dalam suatu Piagam Negara yang berbentuk Republik Federasi, berdasarkan pengakuan ke-Tuhanan Yang Maha Esa, peri-kemanusiaan, kebangsaan, kerakyatan, dan keadilan sosial.
    Untuk mewujudkan kebahagiaan, kesejahteraan, perdamaian, dan kemerdekaan dalam masyarakat dan negara-hukum Indonesia Merdeka yang berdaulat sempurna.


    Pembukaan UUD Sementara 1950

    Bahwa sesungguhnya kemerdekaan itu ialah hak segala bangsa dan oleh sebab itu, maka penjajahan di atas dunia dihapuskan, karena tidak sesuai dengan peri-kemanusiaan dan peri-keadilan.
    Dan perjoangan pergerakan kemerdekaan Indonesia telah sampailah kepada saat yang berbahagia dengan selamat sentausa mengantarkan Rakyat Indonesia ke depan pintu gerbang kemerdekaan Negara Indonesia, yang merdeka, bersatu, berdaulat, adil, dan makmur.
    Dengan berkat dan rahmat Tuhan tercapailah tingkatan sejarah yang berbahagia dan luhur.
    Maka demi ini, kami menyusun kemerdekaan kami itu dalam suatu Piagam Negara yang berbentuk Republik-Kesatuan, berdasarkan pengakuan ke-Tuhanan Yang Maha Esa, peri-kemanusiaan, kebangsaan, kerakyatan, dan keadilan sosial, untuk mewujudkan kebahagiaan, kesejahteraan, perdamaian, dan kemerdekaan dalam masyarakat dan Negara-hukum Indonesia Merdeka yang berdaulat dan sempurna.


    Source: Hazairin, Demokrasi Pancasila, cet.6, Rineka Cipta, Jakarta, Juli 1990.

     
  • Virtual Chitchatting 1:59 AM on 2011/08/17 Permalink
    Tags: 1997 asian financial crisis, Adriana Ferreyr, advocate for both government and corporate transparency, Berkshire Hathaway, Dodd-Frank financial legislation, euro zone, european monetary system, family offices, family-office industry, hedge fund, lowered US bonds investment grades, petrobras, Private Investor Coalition, Soros Fund Management, strategies and trading exposures, Tamiko Bolton, the market situation is much more baffling and much less predictable, The PIGS (Portugal Ireland Greece Spain) debts debacle   

    Even the legendary financial mogul must step out, or die 

    Even the legend must step down and surrender his throne. None is forever.

    An applause should be given to Soros’ basic instinct to harvest his lucrative move as the subprime mortgage crisis started to surface.

    In 2007, as the subprime mortgage crisis was gaining speed, Soros again stepped in. Quantum returned 32 percent that year and posted an 8 percent gain in 2008, when funds on average dropped about 19 percent. Overall, Quantum Endowment grew from about $11 billion in June 2000 to today’s level. 

    Compiled by S3ra Sutan Rajo Ali.


    Another surge to this page once came back again. This time the issue is the rich old grandpa George Soros (82) got married again, this time is with Tamiko Bolton (40) at Soros’ residence in Southampton, New York, 11 August 2012. The stories and the latest pictures are presented below.

    Updated in Jakarta, as of 12 August 2012 18:28:04


    As this page is increasing enormous visits, I am updating to the cause what has been going on with this significant page loads. Eventually, this news should be the case:

    http://www.nypost.com/p/pagesix/soros_rips_ex_extort_try_io0srQjCFOIMnW3iidPuLM

    Soros rips ex’s ‘extort’ try

    Last Updated: 12:45 AM, November 1, 2011
    Posted: 12:19 AM, November 1, 2011

    Billionaire investor George Soros is firing back at his Brazilian ex-lover, soap star Adriana Ferreyr, who is suing him for $50 million — claiming the attractive brunette is a money-grabber desperately trying to “extort” him for his millions.

    The Post exclusively revealed in August that Soros, 81, worth an estimated $14.5 billion, was being sued by Ferreyr, 28, who claimed he dumped her after a five-year relationship and reneged on an agreement to buy her a $1.9 million Upper East Side apartment.

    Soros’ lawyer, William D. Zabel, last night served Ferreyr’s lawyers with papers arguing the case should be dismissed.

    The papers, seen by Page Six, state that Soros and Ferreyr had an “on-again, off-again and non-exclusive intimate relationship.” But it claims she “hoped to extract even more from Soros — millions more,” and says her lawsuit is “part of her continued quest to cash in on their casual relationship.”

    Blasting Ferreyr’s claim in her court filing that Soros was obligated to buy her an apartment as “patently preposterous,” the papers state that she “may have been disappointed that Soros moved onto other women, ending her hopes of living in an extravagant ‘dream apartment’ for free.”

    Ferreyr claimed in her blockbuster lawsuit filed at Manhattan Supreme Court that Soros threw a lamp and “attempted to choke her” as they argued in bed together at his Manhattan home in August 2010.

    This claim is blasted by Soros as “odious and utterly baseless.” His lawyers argue the police report shows that the lamp “fell on [Ferreyr’s] right foot,” adding it makes no mention of choking and she told police, “She was not fearful of Soros.”

    But Ferreyr’s lawyer, Robert Hantman, told us, “These are chauvinistic and simplistic statements which are devoid of any reality.”

    Hantman added, “I do not believe this motion to dismiss will be successful.”

    http://szatmartv.ro/?p=15480


    2011-08-15     21:24:36          Euro zone bond debate raises pressure on Merkel

    2011-08-15     21:32:14          Stop coddling the super-rich: Buffett

    2011-08-11     10:46 EDT      What the Downgrade Means for U.S. Treasurys

    2011-08-14     21:38:46          Soros suggests Greece, Portugal quit euro-zone

    2011-08-12     08:28               Ex suing George Soros living in same building as woman he gave apartment to

    2011-07-27                             Soros to Stop Managing Money for Outside Investors – WSJ.com

    2011-07-26     20:57               Soros to close Quantum fund to outsiders

    2011-07-26     13:40               Soros to close Quantum fund to outsiders

    2011-07-26                             Biter Bit: George Soros closes hedge fund to outsiders

    2011-07-26     18:08               Soros to End Four-Decade Hedge-Fund Career

    2011-07-26     13:42               Soros Returns Capital, Avoids Dodd Frank

    2011-07-26     17:17 BST      George Soros ‘retires’ as hedge fund manager, blaming US regulations

    2008-08-15     05:13 EDT      Soros Hedge Fund Bought Petrobras Stake Worth $811 Million


    Stop coddling the super-rich: Buffett

    By Santosh Nadgir

    Reuters – 6 mins ago, 2011-08-15 21:32:14, GMT+7

    http://news.yahoo.com/stop-coddling-super-rich-buffett-084140678.html

    BANGALORE (Reuters) – Billionaire Warren Buffett urged U.S. lawmakers to raise taxes on the country’s super-rich to help cut the budget deficit, saying such a move will not hurt investments.

    “My friends and I have been coddled long enough by a billionaire-friendly Congress. It’s time for our government to get serious about shared sacrifice,” The 80-year-old “Oracle of Omaha” wrote in an opinion article in The New York Times.

    Buffett, one of the world’s richest men and chairman of conglomerate Berkshire Hathaway Inc , said his federal tax bill last year was $6,938,744.

    “That sounds like a lot of money. But what I paid was only 17.4 percent of my taxable income – and that’s actually a lower percentage than was paid by any of the other 20 people in our office. Their tax burdens ranged from 33 percent to 41 percent and averaged 36 percent,” he said.

    Lawmakers engaged in a partisan battle over spending and taxes for more than three months before agreeing on August 2 to raise the $14.3 trillion U.S. debt ceiling, avoiding a U.S. default.

    “Americans are rapidly losing faith in the ability of Congress to deal with our country’s fiscal problems. Only action that is immediate, real and very substantial will prevent that doubt from morphing into hopelessness,” Buffett said.

    Buffett said higher taxes for the rich will not discourage investment.

    “I have worked with investors for 60 years and I have yet to see anyone – not even when capital gains rates were 39.9 percent in 1976-77 – shy away from a sensible investment because of the tax rate on the potential gain,” he said

    “People invest to make money, and potential taxes have never scared them off.”

    (Reporting by Santosh Nadgir; Editing by David Holmes)


    Euro zone bond debate raises pressure on Merkel

    By Noah Barkin and Gernot Heller

    Reuters – 52 mins ago, 2011-08-15 21:24:36, GMT+7

    http://news.yahoo.com/euro-zone-bond-debate-raises-pressure-merkel-102548076.html

    BERLIN (Reuters) – One of Germany’s leading economic associations came out in favor of joint euro zone bond issuance on Monday, raising pressure on Chancellor Angela Merkel to consider bolder crisis steps ahead of a meeting with the French president.

    Until now, the idea of so-called “Eurobonds” has been fiercely opposed by Berlin, which is fearful such a step would push up German borrowing costs and reduce incentives for weaker euro zone members like Greece to reform their economies.

    A German government spokesman was emphatic — Merkel and France’s Nicolas Sarkozy will not discuss common euro zone issuance in Paris on Tuesday because Berlin does not think it is a good idea.

    Sarkozy’s office said very much the same.

    “The German government has said on numerous occasions that it does not believe Eurobonds make sense and that’s why they will not play any role at tomorrow’s meeting,” German spokesman Steffen Seibert said.

    But a deepening of the debt crisis over the past weeks, with big member states like Italy, Spain and even France coming under pressure, appears to be convincing some Germans to reconsider this hardline stance, even if top government officials continue to rule it out.

    The president of Germany’s BGA export association became the first senior industry head to back the idea, telling Reuters that all other avenues for fighting the crisis had been exhausted.

    “What is the alternative?” Anton Boerner said in an interview. “The alternative is the markets attack Italy, then France, we lose our AAA rating and then it’s our turn. This is a downward spiral that would lead to a worldwide depression.

    “What have we achieved then?” Boerner continued. “We’ll end up paying (for the crisis) three times over. This way we pay just once.”

    The head of the center-left Social Democrats, Sigmar Gabriel, has also backed the idea, telling German public television station ARD late on Sunday that euro zone countries should be able to raise 50-60 percent of their funding through such joint issues if they agreed to certain conditions.

    “States that use Eurobonds would have to agree to give up a degree of sovereignty over their own budgets,” Gabriel said.

    After unveiling tougher austerity plans in return for European Central Bank help, Italian Economy Minister Giulio Tremonti said a common euro zone bond would stop markets forcing high-debt economies in the bloc to the brink.

    “We would not have arrived where we are if we had had the euro bond,” he said on Saturday.

    GOVERNANCE IN FOCUS

    Merkel and Sarkozy are instead expected to discuss improving economic governance in the euro zone. Officials have suggested they could agree to introduce regular meetings of euro zone leaders — a longstanding French demand — and enlarge the role of European Council President Herman van Rompuy to make him a spokesman for the euro.

    These steps could bring greater policy discipline in the 17-nation currency bloc, which has regularly sowed confusion in the markets by talking with disparate voices, but are unlikely to assuage market concerns about the high debt and deficit levels of certain countries in the bloc.

    Yields on Italian and Spanish bonds fell back to around 5 percent last week after the ECB intervened in the market to support them. The ECB is due to publish data at 1330 GMT detailing how many bonds it bought in the week up to last Wednesday.

    Both German Finance Minister Wolfgang Schaeuble and Economy Minister Philipp Roesler gave interviews over the weekend in which they spoke out against euro zone bonds and debt collectivization.

    Conservative German newspaper Die Welt, however, reported that the government was no longer ruling out the idea.

    Merkel, whose popularity has sunk to its lowest level in nearly five years according to some recent polls, could face a revolt within her coalition and Germany’s broader economic policy establishment if she agreed to joint bond issuance.

    Her coalition partners, the Free Democrats (FDP) and the Bavarian Christian Social Union (CSU), are seen as dead-set against the idea.

    The leadership of the FDP have set a meeting for Wednesday to discuss their stance on the euro crisis, which will be chaired by Roesler, a party spokesman said.

    German media reports have said a working group within Merkel’s own Christian Democrats (CDU) has been studying the idea of Eurobonds in greater detail, suggesting some may be open to it. But leading members of the party have ruled it out in clear terms in recent weeks and other northern European member states, such as the Netherlands and Finland are also vehemently opposed.

    Boerner of the BGA said, however, that Eurobonds may be the only solution that can prevent the markets from launching new assaults on euro zone members.

    “We must show the markets that we are ready to use the appropriate tools, and that means Eurobonds signed off by Germany,” said Boerner. “We need Eurobonds with strict conditions attached. We need this and we need it fast.”

    (Writing by Noah Barkin, editing by Mike Peacock)


    What the Downgrade Means for U.S. Treasurys

    By Daniel Gross | Contrary Indicator

    Thu, Aug 11, 2011 10:46 AM EDT

    http://finance.yahoo.com/blogs/daniel-gross/downgrade-means-u-treasurys-144601291.html

    In market turmoil like we’ve seen in the past weeks, investors frequently adhere to a simply playbook: sell risky assets and buy investments deemed to be safer. Typically that leads investors to dump stocks and put money into safe havens like cash, gold or government bonds. After all, stocks can fluctuate wildly, and individual stocks can ultimately go to zero. (Lehman Brothers stockholders were wiped out entirely when the crisis hit in the fall of 2008.)

    Bonds, by contrast, offer regular, fixed interest payments and a guarantee to return the principal. U.S. government bonds had always been the ultimate safe haven, as they come with the backing of the full faith and credit of the world’s largest and most powerful economy.

    But  Standard & Poors’ decision to downgrade America’s debt rating last Friday from AAA to AA+ may cause investors to think twice. So it’s worth considering what the downgrade and the recent, somewhat counterintuitive action in the bond market mean for investors seeking safety.

    What do Treasury bonds pay now? Very little.  To see what different government bonds yield, check out the data at the Treasury Department’s website. As of yesterday, government bonds maturing in one month pay an annual interest rate of .02 percent; five-year bonds pay an annual interest rate of .93 percent, while 10-year bonds pay 2.17 percent. These are extraordinarily low returns. But they still pay a smidgen more than a typical bank savings account.

    Bank certificates of deposit that are federally insured (check out Bankrate.com for rates) of similar duration generally pay slightly lower interest rates than government bonds. But in this climate, it may be possible to find some that pay a bit more. In general, it’s best to remember the basic rule on all fixed-income instruments: greater safety and a shorter term generally translate into lower interest rates.

    Does the S&P downgrade mean that it is now riskier to buy U.S. government bonds, or bonds of states and cities? In theory, yes. Or at least that’s what S&P was implying. Ratings are supposed to be indicators on the relative confidence the agency has that investors will be paid back. But there’s a wrinkle here. The two other main credit rating agencies, Moody’s and Fitch, have maintained their high U.S. government rating.

    In addition, the federal government differs from, say, a company whose debt S&P might rate. It has the power to print money and to raise taxes, and has plenty of revenues and resources it can use to make good on its interest payments. Even after the downgrade, nobody really believes the U.S. is less likely to keep current on its debt than it was a few weeks ago.

    What’s more, the market generally seems to have shrugged off S&P’s warning. In the past several days, rather than rising —- as one would expect interest rates of a downgraded entity to do —- the interest on U.S. government bonds has fallen rapidly. In other words, investors seem to have responded to the downgrade by expressing more confidence in the asset. It’s as if a restaurant received a negative rating on its cleanliness, and the next day people lined up around the corner.

    So if buy government bonds today, I’ll be getting a lower rate than before the downgrade? Yes. And that’s one of the ironies of this situation. This shows that ratings are only one of many factors that impact prices and interest rates. Given S&P’s less-than-stellar reputation, and the unique role that the U.S. government occupies in the credit markets, a simple rating change alone wouldn’t be expected to have a huge impact. We have to consider the other factors that have been influencing bond prices in recent weeks.

    There’s a global flight to safety. Even downgraded, the U.S. remains a comparative bastion of stability in an uncertain world. Government bond markets are huge, and highly liquid, meaning it is easy to get in and out of them quickly.

    The U.S. government has always paid its debt. The dollar, while generally weak, is not the sort of currency that crashes 10 percent overnight. And so whenever something bad happens in the world —- an earthquake in Japan, instability in London, problems with European debt, uprisings in Arab countries —- investors around the world rush to buy U.S. government bonds. That pushes prices up and interest rates down. That’s what has been happening in the past couple of weeks.

    But it’s not just about what is happening in the rest of the world. Aren’t bond prices influenced by trends in the U.S. economy? Yes. Inflation —- and the fear of inflation —- tend to push interest rates up, while concerns about growth tend to push them down. These factors have been helping to keep interest rates on government debt low in the aftermath of the downgrade.

    The brinksmanship and uncertainty sown by the debt ceiling debacle, the promise of large budget cuts to come, and general concerns about economic malaise have pushed economists and investors to ratchet down their expectations for growth in the U.S. in recent weeks. What’s more, with the continuing fall in energy prices —- a function of concern about a global growth slowdown —- inflation fears have ebbed. These three forces are powerful factors that help push U.S. government interest rates down.

    How will interest rates be affected by the Federal Reserve’s plan to keep interest rates low? The nation’s central bank is yet another wild card influencing rates. In recent years, the Federal Reserve has been enormously influential in helping to dictate the prices of bonds. It controls short-term interest rates by buying and selling very short-term securities.  At other times, it can do the same with longer-term debt. As part of its first round of quantitative easing, for example, the Fed bought $1 trillion in long-dated mortgage-backed securities.

    In June, it finished its second round of quantitative easing, conjuring up money to buy $600 billion in U.S. government bonds, focusing on those that mature in five to seven years. The transparent point of this was to push interest rates down. So the Fed can be a very influential player in certain parts of the bond market. The Fed announced on Tuesday that it is planning to keep very short-term interest rates at their current low level through mid 2013. But it did not signal that it plans to embark upon other efforts to buy large quantities of longer-dated debt.

    What’s the best way to buy bonds? This is ultimately a matter of preference. The U.S. has created a vast amount of debt in recent years, which means investors have plenty of instruments to choose from, ranging from one-month out to 30 years. The Treasury Departments afford individuals the opportunity to buy bonds directly from the government through its Treasury Direct site.

    Online brokerage firms permit individuals to buy and trade bonds, just as they do with stocks. For customers not interested in simply buying and holding onto bonds until they mature, mutual fund companies like Pimco offer actively managed bonds funds. Investment companies have also rolled out a host of U.S. bond exchange traded funds.

    Daniel Gross is economics editor at Yahoo! Finance.

    Email him at grossdaniel11@yahoo.com; follow him on Twitter @grossdm.


    Soros suggests Greece, Portugal quit euro-zone

    AFP – Sun, Aug 14, 2011

    http://news.yahoo.com/soros-suggests-greece-portugal-quit-euro-zone-102219477.html

    George Soros, the US speculator turned billionaire philanthropist, has suggested both Greece and Portugal quit the European Union and the euro-zone because of their massive debts.

    “One has so mishandled the Greek problem that the best way forward at present might be an orderly exit” with Greece leaving both the EU and the euro common currency, he said in an interview published Sunday by the German magazine Spiegel.

    He suggested the same might go for Portugal.

    “The EU and the euro would survive it,” he added.

    Debt-stricken Greece and Portugal are struggling to implement eurozone and International Monetary Fund-mandated reforms, by slashing spending and raising taxes in exchange for financial aid.

    Soros also suggested the time had come for eurozone members to accept the introduction of eurobonds.

    “Whether you like it or not, the euro exists. And for it to function properly, countries sharing the currency must be able to refinance a large part of their debt under the same conditions.2

    Berlin is opposed to the introduction of such bonds, but Soros suggested Germany, as Europe’s strongest financial partner, should be responsible for defining the rules for its introduction.

    Soros, who made over $1 billion by betting against the British pound in 1992, also said he had no intention of playing the market against the common european currency.

    “I am certainly not betting against the euro. Because the Chinese have a huge interest in an alternative to the dollar and will do everything possible to help Europeans save it,” he said.

    Both Greece and Portugal, along with Ireland, have been granted multi-billion EU-IMF rescue loans to prevent them from defaulting on their huge debts.


    Ex suing George Soros living in same building as woman he gave apartment to

    By EMILY SMITH and JEREMY OLSHAN

    Last Updated: 8:28 AM, August 12, 2011

    Posted: 12:57 AM, August 12, 2011

    http://www.nypost.com/p/news/local/manhattan/soros_gals_dwelling_on_feud_i9K8Y2VDOBD7nGRjHxsrVL

    George Soros’ girlfriend Tamiko Bolton and the ex suing him Adriana Ferreyr both live in the same building at 30 E. 85th Street – NYPOST.com

    Splash News

    SWITCH: Mogul George Soros lounged in luxury with Adriana Ferreyr (above) before dumping her for meditative Tamiko Bolton.

    ARIEL HANSEN

    Tamiko Bolton

    Billionaire George Soros must have a firm “my place, not yours” policy now that his current squeeze and the ex-lover who’s suing him for $50 million both live in the same Manhattan apartment building.

    The wealthy octogenarian left it to the condo board and doorman to referee between Adriana Ferreyr, the 28-year-old former Brazilian soap star who claims Soros reneged on promises of a $1.9 million apartment, and Tamiko Bolton, 39, the woman to whom he gave it instead.

    Things became so testy between the rival women at 30 E. 85th St. — when the scorned Ferreyr managed to rent another apartment there — that each accused the other of harassment, according to court papers.

    It didn’t help that after five years together, including vacations hobnobbing in St. Barts, Ferreyr says Soros broke things off just days after signing the contract on the apartment of her dreams.

    The passive-aggressive catfight between the sultry actress and the sexy licensed pharmacist escalated to the point that Bolton began “slandering her to the board of the building, the management company, doormen and lawyers,” Ferreyr charges in her lawsuit.

    Bolton, who was identified as a partner in Soros Fund Management on the list of attendees at several events around the world, including a UN summit on climate change, could not be reached for comment.

    But she never actually worked for Soros and was merely his guest on these jaunts, Soros spokesman Michael Vachon said.

    “Tamiko Bolton is not and has never been an employee of SFM,” he said.

    Sources say she is the octogenarian’s frequent “companion,” traveling with him to events and meetings in Europe.

    Bolton still lives in Apartment 7C, the one Ferreyr says she chose after months of real-estate searching.

    She learned of the betrayal only during a brief reconciliation, when Soros — who today turns 81 — admitted during pillow talk that he gave it to his new gal pal.

    At that point, according to the lawsuit, the two argued, and when things escalated she claims Soros slapped her across the face and tried to bash her with a lamp.

    Her account and all the allegations in the lawsuit are “a delusional work of fiction,” spokesman Vachon said, calling it “obviously an attempt to extract money from my client, who is known to be a very wealthy man.”

    Soros was furious that Ferreyr — who is currently taking economics and philosophy classes at Columbia University — found a lease in the building and did everything he could to get her thrown out, she claims, including hiring private investigators to stalk her.

    Additional reporting by Rebecca Rosenberg and Reuven Fenton


    Soros Fund All in the Family

    Billionaire’s Firm to Return Outside Cash, Convert to ‘Family Office’; Avoiding Dodd-Frank

    By ROBERT FRANK, GREGORY ZUCKERMAN and STEVE EDER

    JULY 27, 2011

    http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424053111903999904576469761599552864.html

    Soros to Stop Managing Money for Outside Investors – WSJ.com

    George Soros is turning his legendary hedge-fund firm into a $24.5 billion “family office,” a move that allows it to avoid a new level of regulatory oversight facing many hedge funds.

    Mr. Soros helped pioneer the modern hedge fund and became one of the world’s best known investors. His firm, Soros Fund Management LLC, told clients it will no longer manage outside investors’ money. It will return less than $1 billion to investors and manage the remaining approximately $24.5 billion—including funds owned by Mr. Soros, his family and their foundations—through a family office.

    A letter to his investors dated Tuesday said the switch takes advantage of “an exception” in the Dodd-Frank financial legislation. Family offices, regardless of their size, won’t face the same regulations being imposed on hedge funds and private-equity firms.

    Mr. Soros’s firm also said it was parting ways with its chief investment officer after three years. People familiar with the matter said the firm has underperformed the market this year and last, losing 6% so far this year and rising just 2.5% last year. The chief investment officer, Keith Anderson, couldn’t be reached for comment.

    The family-office move is an example of how financial firms of all stripes are adjusting and in some cases changing stripes in light of the new regulatory requirements of Dodd-Frank, passed a year ago. The legislation remains the source of considerable political pushback and intense industry lobbying.

    The pending hedge-fund regulation was born out of the financial crisis and aims partly to help regulators keep tabs on risks to markets that could be mounting based on hedge-fund trading. While it is rare that any one hedge fund can upend a market, these funds often make similar market bets and use borrowed money that can amplify their bets. If funds pile into a wager that backfires, losses can ripple throughout markets.

    The new rules require many hedge funds to register with the Securities and Exchange Commission by March 2012. SEC-registered managers are expected to have compliance programs that meet certain standards and to participate in proposed systemic-risk reporting, which would require them to turn over more data about their strategies and trading exposures to the U.S. government on a confidential basis.

    One particular concern of managers, besides the time and money spent on compliance, is that once the funds become registered they will be subject to more onerous reporting requirements, including public disclosures about their operations, personnel and the amount of assets they manage.

    Family offices—private operations created by wealthy families to manage their investments and personal affairs—are now a must-have accessory for the American super-rich. Individuals from Bill Gates and Paul Allen, to retail-magnate Leslie Wexner and the Weyerhaeuser lumber dynasty have their own offices. Oprah Winfrey made headlines last year when she hired a new family-office chief who had worked for billionaire Eli Broad.

    Early proposals from Congress would have required family offices to register. As Dodd-Frank was being hammered out, a group of wealthy families banded together to form the Private Investor Coalition, which spent hundreds of thousands of dollars to lobby to keep family offices out of the legislation, according to their lobbying disclosures.

    They argued that family offices are aimed at preserving wealth and making conservative investments, not trying to beat markets over time. They also said that since family offices don’t solicit or manage money from outside investors, they shouldn’t be subject to regulations aimed at protecting investors. Wealthy families, they said, should be able to risk money as they please. Ultimately, Congress decided not to require family offices to register along with hedge funds, even though family offices may be required to share some information with federal regulators.

    Lawyers and wealth advisers said the population of hedge-fund managers likely to take the route to family offices is limited. The primary focus of most hedge-fund managers is to attract outside money and earn fees managing those funds.

    “There are not that many people who would think it’s worth it to turn off the spigot and walk away,” said Leor Landa, at Davis Polk & Wardwell LLP.

    Indeed, MSD Capital, the investment firm of Michael Dell, founder of computer giant Dell Inc., has been taking more money from outside investors over the past year, though the bulk of the firm’s more than $10 billion in assets remain Mr. Dell’s, according to a person familiar with the matter.

    Some have taken the issue into account. Anticipated regulation was a factor in the 2009 decision by Tim Barakett to return money to outside investors of his hedge-fund firm, Atticus Capital LP, and instead convert the operations into a family office, according to a person familiar with his thinking.

    Increased regulation was one reason Stanley Druckenmiller earlier this year elected to return cash to outside investors, said someone familiar with his thinking, though he also wanted to invest solely for himself to slow the pace of his life.

    Family offices date to John D. Rockefeller, who hired a small group of staffers in the 1880s to handle his bills, business interests and charitable giving. Since then, the number of family offices has expanded to more than 1,000, according to a 2008 study by the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania. Because they cost millions a year to run, family offices are typically launched by families with at least $100 million.

    The offices have grown in size and sophistication. What used to be small groups charged with paying the family bills and managing butlers, cleaning staff and family travel, have now become investment arms often staffed by former Wall Streeters and investment advisers. A typical single-family office serves 13 households in a family, covering 40 family members, according to the Wharton study.

    The Soros firm’s move this week, reported earlier by Bloomberg News, had some wealth advisers fretting that if more large hedge funds recast themselves as family offices to get around the regulations, that would discredit the family-office industry’s argument for remaining unregulated.

    “If suddenly you have other big hedge funds doing the same thing, that would have to open up the regulators’ eyes and force them to re-examine the issue,” said Stephen Martiros, a Boston-based adviser to family offices. “That’s the real worry for family offices right now.”

    —Jenny Strasburg and Jean Eaglesham contributed to this article.

    Write to  Steve Eder at steve.eder@wsj.com and Gregory Zuckerman at gregory.zuckerman@wsj.com


    Soros to close Quantum fund to outsiders

    By Dan McCrum in New York

    Last updated: July 26, 2011 8:57 pm

    http://74.6.117.48/search/srpcache?ei=UTF-8&p=soros%2Chedge+fund&fr=news-us-tts&u=http://cc.bingj.com/cache.aspx?q=soros%2chedge+fund&d=4898822773148036&mkt=en-US&setlang=en-US&w=bafb4b9b,d3df4377&icp=1&.intl=us&sig=PbVRHy2KTVInUazPehXsVg–

    George Soros, the billionaire hedge fund manager, is closing his Quantum fund to outside investors and returning their money.

    Quantum, which will continue to manage about $24.5bn of Soros family money, blamed the decision on new financial regulations requiring hedge funds to register with the Securities and Exchange Commission.

    “An unfortunate consequence of these new circumstances is that we will no longer be able to manage assets for anyone other than a family client as defined under the regulations”, Jonathan and Robert Soros, Mr Soros’ sons and Quantum’s co-deputy chairmen, wrote in a letter to investors on Tuesday.

    New regulations require hedge funds with more than $150m under management to report details about investments, employees and investors, and also makes them subject to possible inspections by the SEC. Mr Soros’ decision contrasts with his own reputation as an advocate for both government and corporate transparency.

    A spokesman for Mr Soros declined to comment.

    Quantum is returning about $750m of capital to outside investors, according to a person familiar with its decision. Keith Anderson, chief investment officer since 2008, is also leaving the fund.

    The move brings an end Mr Soros’ four-decade career as a hedge fund manager. A Hungarian emigré, he made more than $1bn in 1992 betting that the UK would be forced to devalue sterling and pull out of the European exchange rate mechanism.

    Mr Soros started Quantum in 1973 and developed a reputation for trading on instinct .

    Since inception, Quantum has returned roughly 20 per cent annually. At the end of June, however, the fund was down 6 per cent year-to-date. Speaking in April, Mr Soros told a panel of investors that “I find the current [market] situation much more baffling and much less predictable than I did at the time of the height of the financial crisis”.

    After the technology bubble burst in 2000, Mr Soros returned most of Quantum’s outside capital, or about 40 per cent of the $11bn it then had under management, in order to concentrate on his philanthropic work through the Soros Foundations.

    The remaining capital was largely farmed out to other hedge fund managers. Mr Soros returned to active management in 2007, during the early stages of the financial crisis.

    “He’s 81 years old in an industry where many people retire early, and with his tremendous success he’s one of a very select group who can just decide that he doesn’t want to deal with it,” said Leor Landa, a hedge fund partner at law firm Davis Polk. “Most sizeable hedge fund managers would not view the incremental resources that go into SEC registration as enough of a reason to shut down.”

    Other hedge fund veterans including Stanley Druckenmiller, who managed Quantum in the 1990s, and Carl Icahn have also recently decided they will no longer manage other people’s money.

    “It demonstrates that hedge funds, at least as we once knew them, are gone, replaced by far more transparent entities,” said Anthony Sabino, professor at the Tobin College of Business.

    Copyright The Financial Times Limited 2011. You may share using our article tools.

    Please cut articles from FT.com and redistribute by email or post to the web.


    Soros to close Quantum fund to outsiders

    on Jul. 26, 2011 at 1:40 PM

    http://www.cafemom.com/group/99198/forums/read/14589386/Soros_to_close_Quantum_fund_to_outsiders

    Please respect FT.com’s ts&cs and copyright policy which allow you to: share links; copy content for personal use; & redistribute limited extracts. Email ftsales.support@ft.com to buy additional rights or use this link to reference the article – http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/42bd6288-b785-11e0-b95d-00144feabdc0.html#ixzz1TEa20NJj

    George Soros, the billionaire hedge fund manager best known for defeating the Bank of England on “Black Wednesday” in 1992, is to close his Quantum fund to outside investors and hand back the remaining outside capital.

    Blaming the requirement under new financial regulations to register next year with the Securities and Exchange Commission, the fund will continue to manage around $24.5bn of family money.

    Please respect FT.com’s ts&cs and copyright policy which allow you to: share links; copy content for personal use; & redistribute limited extracts. Email ftsales.support@ft.com to buy additional rights or use this link to reference the article – http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/42bd6288-b785-11e0-b95d-00144feabdc0.html#ixzz1TEa9mzwK

    “An unfortunate consequence of these new circumstances is that we will no longer be able to manage assets for anyone other than a family client as defined under the regulations”, Jonathan and Robert Soros, his sons who are co-deputy chairmen of the fund, wrote in a letter to investors on Tuesday.

    The fund is returning around $750m of capital to outside investors, according to a person familiar with the situation, and Keith Anderson, chief investment officer since 2008, is leaving to seek other opportunities.

    The move brings an end to an almost four-decade career as a hedge fund manager for Mr Soros, an Hungarian emigré who made more than $1bn in 1992 as he and fellow speculators forced the UK to devalue sterling and pull out of the European exchange rate mechanism.

    Mr Soros started Quantum in 1973, where he developed a reputation for trading on instinct shaped by his own investment philosophy, dubbed the “theory of reflexivity” and published in his 1994 book, The Alchemy of Finance.

    In 2000, however, suffering losses from the bursting of the technology bubble and following the departure of chief investment officer Stanley Druckenmiller, Mr Soros returned most of the outside capital in the fund, around 40 per cent of the $11bn then under management, in order to concentrate on his philanthropic work with the Soros Foundation.

    The remaining capital was largely farmed out to other hedge fund managers, before Mr Soros returned to active management in 2007 during the early stages of the financial crisis.

    The decision to return outside capital follows similar moves by Mr Druckenmiller year, and Carl Icahn in March who put the decison down to both regulation and an unwillingness to manage money through another downturn.

    New regulations will require any hedge fund with more than $150m under management to report details about investments, employees and investors, and makes them subject to possible inspections by the SEC.

    http://www.ft.com/intl/cms/s/0/42bd6288-b785-11e0-b95d-00144feabdc0.html#axzz1TEZdUECE


    Biter Bit: George Soros closes hedge fund to outsiders

    07/27/2011

    http://www.professorbainbridge.com/professorbainbridgecom/2011/07/biter-bit-george-soros-closes-hedge-fund-to-outsiders.html

    Liek a lot of wealthy liberals, George Soros is a big fan of government regulations that don’t affect him. Unfortunately, despite being one of liberalism and the Democratic Party’s major financial backers, the Democrat-sponsored Dodd-Frank law has bitten Soros in a big way. Fortunately for Soros, the law does have a loophole that lets him stay oin business for himself and avoid regulation, as the WSJ explains:

    George Soros is turning his legendary hedge-fund firm into a $24.5 billion “family office,” a move that allows it to avoid a new level of regulatory oversight facing many hedge funds. … Soros Fund Management LLC, told clients it will no longer manage outside investors’ money. It will return less than $1 billion to investors and manage the remaining approximately $24.5 billion—including funds owned by Mr. Soros, his family and their foundations—through a family office.

    A letter to his investors dated Tuesday said the switch takes advantage of “an exception” in the Dodd-Frank financial legislation. Family offices, regardless of their size, won’t face the same regulations being imposed on hedge funds and private-equity firms. …

    The pending hedge-fund regulation was born out of the financial crisis and aims partly to help regulators keep tabs on risks to markets that could be mounting based on hedge-fund trading. … The new rules require many hedge funds to register with the Securities and Exchange Commission by March 2012. SEC-registered managers are expected to have compliance programs that meet certain standards and to participate in proposed systemic-risk reporting, which would require them to turn over more data about their strategies and trading exposures to the U.S. government on a confidential basis.

    One particular concern of managers, besides the time and money spent on compliance, is that once the funds become registered they will be subject to more onerous reporting requirements, including public disclosures about their operations, personnel and the amount of assets they manage.

    You’d think that as a good liberal, Soros would be happy to comply with new regulations. After all, his fellow lefties claim that “Soros believes that the public interest should always prevail over his own self-interest, a position that sets him far apart from contemporary neo-liberals who hold the common good (such as it exists in their way of thinking) can only be achieved through pursuit of self-interest and personal gain.” If so, however. shouldn’t the public interest in disclosure trump Soros’ personal self-interest?

    Indeed, isn’t avoiding regulatory burdens and costs something only conservatives do?  Or is it a case of do as I say, not as I do?


    Soros Returns Capital, Avoids Dodd Frank

    Jul. 26, 2011 at 1:42 PM

    BOSTON (TheStreet) — George Soros, the billionaire hedge-fund manager and philanthropist best known for breaking the Bank of England in 1992, will return capital to investors in order to avoid reporting requirements under the Dodd Frank reform act.

    Soros will return money to investors by the end of the year, Bloomberg reported Tuesday, citing two people briefed on the matter. Soros Fund Management will focus on managing assets for his family, according to a letter to the firm’s investors. Soros will turn 81 on August 12.

    “We wish to express our gratitude to those who chose to invest their capital with Soros Fund Management LLC over the last nearly 40 years,” the letter to investors reads, according to the Bloomberg report. “We trust that you have felt well rewarded for your decision over time.”

    Initial media reports trumpeted the end of Soros’ 40-year career as a hedge-fund manager, although the billionaire investor’s firm is far from being done. Soros will return less than $1 billion to external investors, a drop in the bucket compared to the firm’s total assets of more than $25 billion.

    The reason? Under new requirements from the Dodd Frank act, hedge funds are required to register with the Securities and Exchange Commission by March 2012 if the fund continues to manage more than $150 million in assets for outside investors. The new requirements would call for funds to report information about the assets they manage, potential conflicts of interest, and information on investors and employees. The act allows an exemption for what the Commission considers “family office” advisers.

    “We have relied until now on other exemptions from registration which allowed outside shareholders whose interests aligned with those of the family investors to remain invested in Quantum,” the letter continued, according to the Bloomberg report. “As those other exemptions are no longer available under the new regulations, Soros Fund Management will now complete the transition to a family office that it began eleven years ago.”

    While less than $1 billion is small compared to the firm’s overall assets, some positions will have to be trimmed through the end of the year. According to Soros’ last 13F filling with the SEC for the quarter ended March 31, his firm’s top 10 holdings included Adecoagro(AGRO_), InterOil(IOC_), Motorola Solutions(MSI_), Monsanto(MON_), Citigroup(C_) and Wells Fargo(WFC_), among others.

    http://www.thestreet.com/story/11198058/1/soros-returns-capital-avoids-dodd-frank.html


    Soros to End Four-Decade Hedge-Fund Career

    By Katherine Burton

    Jul 26, 2011 6:08 PM GMT+0700

    http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2011-07-26/soros-to-end-four-decades-as-hedge-fund-leader-by-returning-investor-cash.html

    George Soros, the billionaire best known for breaking the Bank of England, is returning money to outside investors in his $25.5 billion firm, ending a career as hedge-fund manager that spanned more than four decades. Photographer: Dominik Asbach/laif/Redux

    George Soros, the billionaire best known for breaking the Bank of England, is returning money to outside investors in his $25.5 billion firm, ending a career as hedge-fund manager that spanned more than four decades.

    Soros, who turns 81 next month, will hand back the money, less than $1 billion, by the end of the year, according to two people briefed on the matter. His firm will focus on managing assets solely for Soros and his family, according to a letter to investors. Keith Anderson, 51, chief investment officer since February 2008, is leaving, said the letter, signed by Soros’s sons Jonathan and Robert, who are co-deputy chairmen.

    “We wish to express our gratitude to those who chose to invest their capital with Soros Fund Management LLC over the last nearly 40 years,” they said in the letter. “We trust that you have felt well rewarded for your decision over time.”

    The move completes Soros’s transformation from a speculator, who in 1992 made $1 billion betting that the Bank of England would be forced to devalue the pound, to philanthropist statesman, a role he first imagined for himself as a Hungarian émigré studying at the London School of Economics after World War II, according to Soros’s writings. In the last 30 years, he’s given away more than $8 billion to promote democracy, foster free speech, improve education and fight poverty around the world, he said in a recent essay.

    Family Assets

    Soros’s sons said they took the decision because new financial regulations would have made it necessary for the firm to register with the Securities and Exchange Commission by March 2012 if it continued to manage money for outsiders. Because the firm has overseen mostly family assets since 2000, when outside money accounted for about $4 billion, they decided it made more sense to run it as a family office, according to the letter.

    The rule calls for hedge funds with more than $150 million in assets to report information about their investors and employees, the assets they manage, potential conflicts of interest and their activities outside of fund advising. Registered funds will also be subject to periodic inspections by the SEC.

    “We have relied until now on other exemptions from registration which allowed outside shareholders whose interests aligned with those of the family investors to remain invested in Quantum,” the executives said in the letter, referring to its flagship Quantum Endowment Fund. “As those other exemptions are no longer available under the new regulations, Soros Fund Management will now complete the transition to a family office that it began eleven years ago.”

    Druckenmiller’s Move

    Soros, who controls more than $24.5 billion for himself, his family and his foundations, declined to comment on the letter. Last year, Stanley Druckenmiller, Soros’s chief strategist from late 1988 until 2000, closed his money- management firm, Duquesne Capital Management LLC, and created his own family office.

    While Quantum has returned about 20 percent a year, on average, since 1969, when its predecessor was started, according to a person familiar with the firm, the fund’s performance has suffered in the last 18 months. In the first half of this year, Quantum lost about 6 percent, the person said, following a gain of 2.5 percent in 2010. Other macro funds have returned 5.6 percent in the last year-and-a-half, according to Chicago-based Hedge Fund Research Inc.

    Soros was born in Budapest in 1930, as Dzjchdzhe Shorash, according Robert Slater’s book “Soros: The World’s Most Influential Investor.” When the Nazis invaded the city in 1944, Soros’s father arranged for false papers for his family and friends that identified them as non-Jews. Most of the people his father helped survived the war, Soros said in the essay published in the New York Review of Books in late June.

    ‘Evil Force’

    “Instead of submitting to our fate we resisted an evil force that was much stronger than we were — yet we prevailed. Not only did we survive, but we managed to help others,” he wrote, adding the experience gave him an appetite for taking risk. “This left a lasting mark on me, turning a disaster of unthinkable proportions into an exhilarating adventure.”

    After London, Soros came to New York at the age of 26 and became a trader, initially buying and selling stocks for Wall Street brokerage F.M. Mayer. He planned to work for five years, enough time, he reckoned, to save $500,000 and return to England where he would pursue his philosophical studies, according to an interview he gave to Michael Kaufman, author of “Soros: The Life and Times of a Messianic Billionaire.”

    Instead, he stayed in the world of finance, eventually moved to Arnhold and S. Bleichroeder Advisors LLC, where he set up the predecessor to the Quantum fund in 1969. He started his own firm in 1973.

    Conflicting Goals

    Over the years, Soros had to deal with conflicting goals of making good and doing good. While Soros’s fund made about $750 million betting on a decline in the Thai baht in 1997, the wager increased economic woes in Thailand as the government spent billions unsuccessfully defending its currency. In the wake of the devaluation, Thailand was forced to cut public spending in exchange for a $17.2 billion rescue package from the International Monetary Fund.

    In 1997, his philanthropic tendencies drove him to buy Russian assets. He took a $1 billion stake in RAO Svyazinvest, Russia’s state-owned telecommunications company, and went on to buy Russian stocks and bonds. He didn’t sell his positions even after publishing a piece in the Financial Times advising the government to devalue the ruble by 15 percent to 25 percent. Four days later, Russia followed his advice.

    “He felt that if he was a beacon of investment in Russia, others would follow and the capital inflows would transform the society and integrate them into the G7,” Robert Johnson, a former Soros managing director, told author Sebastian Mallaby in his book ‘More Money than God.’ “There’s a philanthropic side of George that started to interfere with the speculative one.”

    ‘Public Interest’

    In his recent essay, Soros echoed the remarks of his former colleague.

    “I have made it a principle to pursue my self-interest in my business, subject to legal and ethical limitations, and to be guided by the public interest as a public intellectual and philanthropist,” he wrote. “If the two are in conflict, the public interest ought to prevail,” he said.

    Soros opened his first foundation, the Open Society Fund, in 1979, when his fund had reached about $100 million and his personal wealth had climbed to about $25 million. His initial focus was on promoting democracy and a market economy in Eastern Europe. Soros now funds a network of foundations that operate in 70 countries around the globe, everywhere from the U.S. to Montenegro to South Africa and Haiti.

    In late 1988, he hired Druckenmiller to be his chief strategist to take over the day-to-day trading of the firm’s assets so he could concentrate on his charitable pursuits.

    Breaking the BoE

    While Druckenmiller was the architect of the $10 billion British pound trade, which forced the currency out of the European exchange-rate mechanism, Soros served as a coach to the younger man, encouraging him to increase his bet.

    Druckenmiller left in 2000, together with another star manager, Nick Roditi, after losses when the technology bubble burst. Just two years before, the firm had been the biggest hedge fund in the world with $22 billion in assets, and Soros said it was too much money to manage in such concentrated positions.

    After the departures, Soros decided to farm out more money to portfolio managers both inside and outside Soros Fund Management. He said he would settle for a 15 percent annualized return, about half of what the fund had posted since its start.

    Stepping In

    In 2007, as the subprime mortgage crisis was gaining speed, Soros again stepped in. Quantum returned 32 percent that year and posted an 8 percent gain in 2008, when funds on average dropped about 19 percent. Overall, Quantum Endowment grew from about $11 billion in June 2000 to today’s level.

    The firm went through several chief investment officers, including Soros’s son Robert, before hiring Anderson, who was a co-founder at BlackRock Inc. and its global fixed-income chief.

    The uncertainty about markets and Quantum’s 6 percent dive caused Anderson to sell positions in mid-June and the firm is now holding about 75 percent cash. It hasn’t been decided whether Jonathan and Robert will hire a new CIO, or whether they will add to their stable of external managers.

    In the meantime, Soros continues to focus on his philanthropy and on voicing his views on macroeconomic events, such as the sovereign debt crisis in Europe.

    “My success in the financial markets has given me a greater degree of independence than most other people,” Soros wrote in his recent essay. “This obliges me to take stands on controversial issues when others cannot, and taking such positions has itself been a source of satisfaction. In short, my philanthropy has made me happy.”

    To contact the reporter on this story: Katherine Burton in New York at kburton@bloomberg.net

    To contact the editor responsible for this story: Christian Baumgaertel at cbaumgaertel@bloomberg.net


    George Soros ‘retires’ as hedge fund manager, blaming US regulations

    The man who broke the Bank of England has finally been subjugated himself.

    By Louise Armitstead

    5:17PM BST 26 Jul 2011

    http://www.telegraph.co.uk/finance/personalfinance/investing/8663534/George-Soros-retires-as-hedge-fund-manager-blaming-US-regulations.html

    George Soros, the billionaire financier who famously made $1.1bn (£670m) betting against the pound on Black Wednesday, has been forced to close his funds to outside investors – because of changes to American regulations.

    Mr Soros’ sons, Jonathan and Robert, who are co-deputy chairman of Soros Fund Management (SFM), have written a letter to investors to inform them the hedge fund will convert to a family office by the end of the year.

    Around $1bn is expected to be returned to investors in a move that will effectively mark the end of Mr Soros’ 40-year career as a hedge fund manager.

    The brothers blamed “an important new development relating to regulations by the US Securities and Exchange Commission” for their decision. They said that although the investment house had operated as a family office since 2000, it has since then been allowed to claim various exemptions to be able to manage external funds.

    The letter said: “As those other exemptions are no longer available under the new regulations, SFM will now complete the transition to a family office that it began 11 years ago.”

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    http://www.telegraph.co.uk/finance/personalfinance/investing/8663995/George-Soros-closes-funds-the-letter-in-full.html

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    Davos 2010: George Soros interview 28 Jan 2010

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    It added: “An unfortunate consequence of these new circumstances is that we will no longer be able to manage assets for anyone other than a family client as defined under the regulations. As a result, SFM will ask Quantum’s board to return the relatively small amount of non-qualifying capital to outside investors before the registration deadline, most likely at year end.”

    The only “qualifying capital” going forward would be “Soros family accounts and related entities”.

    Mr Soros, who was born in Hungary but emigrated to America, started the group’s flagship Quantum fund in 1973. It became one of the most successful hedge funds in the world, driven by Mr Soros’ investment philosophy, called the “theory of reflexivity”. In 1992 he bet $10bn that the pound would be devalued and made $1.1bn when the pound was forced out of the European Exchange Rate Mechanism on September 16.

    The funds were hit hard when the technology bubble burst and in 2000 Mr Soros decided to shrink the fund and convert it into a family office. The majority of capital from outside investors – around 40pc of the total $11bn funds under management – was returned.

    The letter said that “in connection to our closure to outside investors” the group’s chief finance officer, Keith Anderson, had quit to “seek other opportunities”. It thanked investors for 40 years of support: “We trust that you have felt well rewarded for your decision over time.”


    Soros Hedge Fund Bought Petrobras Stake Worth $811 Million

    By Jeb Blount and Miles Weiss

    August 15, 2008 05:13 EDT

    http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=newsarchive&sid=aFHPjfeUvtl8

    Aug. 15 (Bloomberg) — Billionaire investor George Soros bought an $811 million stake in Petroleo Brasileiro SA in the second quarter, making the Brazilian state-controlled oil company his investment fund’s largest holding.

    As of June 30, the stake in Petrobras, as the Rio de Janeiro-based oil producer is known, made up 22 percent of the $3.68 billion of stocks and American depositary receipts held by Soros Fund Management LLC, according to a filing with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. Petrobras has since slumped 28 percent.

    Soros has increased his mining and commodities holdings, a move that accelerated in the first quarter with purchases of such companies as Cia. Vale do Rio Doce, the world’s largest iron-ore producer, and Talisman Energy Inc., a Canadian oil and gas company. In November, Petrobras announced the discovery of Tupi, a field with as much as 8 billion barrels of reserves, making it the largest find in the Americas since 1976.

    “Petrobras has something that other oil companies don’t have: oil — lots of it and they’re going to find more,” said Ricardo Kobayashi, equity fund manager with UBS Pactual SA in Rio de Janeiro, which manages about $5 billion of stocks, including shares in Petrobras. “If you can buy now and hang on, if you have the staying power, it’s great.”

    Tupi is part of a new deepwater offshore region known as the pre-salt that may contain as much as 50 billion barrels, according to Peter Wells, oil analyst with the U.K.’s Neftex Petroleum Consultants Ltd.

    Share Slump

    The drop in Petrobras’ U.S.-traded common shares since June 30 would have reduced the value of Soros’s disclosed stake by $235 million.

    Soros Fund Management didn’t report holding any Petrobras shares at the end of the first quarter. It did disclose much smaller stakes in the Brazilian oil company during 2007, including 150,000 depositary shares, with a market value of about $17.3 million, at Dec. 31. The hedge fund company also had calls on another 35,000 shares at Dec. 31.

    Petrobras shares traded at an average closing price of $64.83 each during the second quarter, when Soros bought the stake. The shares today dropped 91 centavos, or 1.8 percent, to $50.68 in New York, valuing Petrobras at $204.8 billion, the world’s 11th-biggest company by market capitalization.

    Soros funds also bought almost 9.5 million shares of Lehman Brothers Holdings Inc. during the second quarter, according to today’s filing. Soros funds held 10,000 Lehman shares at March 31, just before the second quarter began.

    Lehman shares closed at $19.81 each on June 30, giving Soros’s stake in the New York-based brokerage a market value of about $187.7 million when the quarter ended. Lehman shares have since declined 18 percent, reducing the stake’s value to $153.5 million.

    Michael Vachon, a Soros spokesman, didn’t immediately return a telephone call seeking comment.

    To contact the reporters on this story: Jeb Blount in Rio de Janeiro at jblount@bloomberg.net; Miles Weiss in Washington at mweiss@bloomberg.net.

    To contact the editor responsible for this story: Tony Cox in Houston at acox3@bloomberg.net


    Rich Old Grandpa George Soros (82) Got Married Again with Tamiko Bolton (40)

    http://www.metrotvnews.com/metromain/news/2012/08/12/101891/George-Soros-Akan-Menikah-untuk-Ketiga-Kali

    George Soros Akan Menikah untuk Ketiga Kali

    Internasional | Minggu, 12 Agustus 2012 16:30 WIB

    PEMODAL kakap George Soros merayakan dua saat istimewa sekaligus pada Sabtu (11/8) malam. Ia merayakan hari ulang tahun ke-82 sekaligus pertunangannya dengan pacarnya, yang jauh lebih muda, Tamiko Bolton.

    Soros dan Bolton bertemu pada musim semi 2008. Pasangan ini resmi mengumumkan pertunangan mereka dalam pesta di rumah musim panas Soros di Southampton, New York, AS. Menurut seseorang yang dekat dengan Soros, pesta dihadiri sekelompok kecil teman dan keluarga. Spekulan milioner itu menyunting Bolton dengan memberikannya sebuah cincin berlian Graff dengan bentuk mawar emas.

    Soros menyunting Bolton (40) beberapa minggu lalu ketika mereka berakhir pekan di Hamptons, daerah pinggir pantai di Long Island yang kerap dikunjungi orang-orang kaya New York. Bagi Soros, ini akan menjadi pernikahan yang ketiga kalinya. Sementara untuk Bolton, ini kedua kalinya setelah ia menjalin pernikahan pendek pada 1990-an.

    Dari pernikahan-pernikahan sebelumnya, Soros mempunyai lima anak. Tahun lalu, Adriana Ferreyr, bekas pacar Soros, mengajukan tuntutan hukum di pengadilan negara bagian di Manhattan. Adriana menuduh Soros mungkir dari janji untuk membelikannya sebuah apartemen.

    Soros telah mengajukan penangguhan untuk mengabaikan gugatan yang disampaikan oleh mantan bintang opera sabun asal Brasil itu. Juga pada tahun 2011, Soros mengucurkan kekayaannya ke perusahaan keluarga dan berhenti mengelola dana pemilik modal dari luar.

    Soros, yang merupakan penyumbang aktif bagi gerakan politik liberal serta kerap berbicara di acara-acara ekonomi dunia, mengucurkan kekayaannya ke perusahaan keluarga dan berhenti mengelola dana pemilik modal dari luar.

    Soros muncul menjadi terkenal dan kaya dua dekade lalu melalui perdagangan historis yang dilakukannya. Ia mengambil Bank of England serta secara tajam berspekulasi terhadap penurunan nilai mata uang Inggris, pound.

    Bolton sendiri merupakan lulusan University of Miami dengan gelar master di bidang bisnis. Ia pernah membuka bisnis suplemen diet berbasis internet, namun saat ini menjalankan bisnis pelatihan yoga melalui internet.

    Pada awal tahun ini, Reuters pertama kali melaporkan bahwa putera Soros, Jonathan, yang September tahun lalu mundur dari manajemen harian Soros Fund Management, telah memutuskan untuk membuat perusahaan keluarga.

    Dalam proses pemindahan kekayaannya, putera Soros juga berencana untuk membawa karyawan kunci di Soros Fund Management, perusahaan yang terakhir kali dilaporkan memiliki aset senilai 25 miliar dolar itu.(Ant/BEY)


    http://bisnis.news.viva.co.id/news/read/343812-miliarder-george-soros-menikah-lagi

    Miliuner George Soros Menikah Lagi

    Nur Farida Ahniar, Minggu, 12 Agustus 2012, 16:09

    George Soros dan tunangannya Tamiko Bolton
    ( REUTERS/Myrna Suarez)

    Untuk Soros, ini akan menjadi pernikahan ketiga dan kedua bagi Bolton.

    VIVAnews- Miliuner dan investor George Soros mengumumkan pertunangan dengan kekasihnya, Tamiko Bolton dalam perayaan ulang tahunnya ke 82 tahun. Pengumuman itu dilakukan di satu pesta musim panas di rumah Soros di Southampton, New York yang dihadiri teman dan kerabatnya.

    Seperti dikutip Reuters, Soros melamar Bolton (40 tahun) beberapa minggu lalu dalam kunjungannya ke Hamtos, pantai di koloni Long Island yang sering dikunjungi oleh orang kaya New York. Bagi Soros, ini akan menjadi pernikahan ketiga. Bagi Bolton ini pernihakan kedua, setelah perkawinannya pada 1990. Soros memiliki lima anak dari pernikahan sebelumnya.

    Tahun lalu, Adriana Ferreyr, mantan pacar Soros mengajukan gugatan di pengadilan negara Manhattan, menuduh Soros mengingkari janji membelikan apartemen. Soros telah mengajukan mosi penundaan untuk mengabaikan gugatan yang diajukan bintang opera sabun Brazil itu.

    Soros naik menjadi kaya dan terkenal selama dua dekade terakhir dalam bisnis investasinya, dimana ia mengambil dengan cerdik Bank of England, yang terdevaluasi poundsterling Inggris.

    Sedangkan Bulton, memiliki bisnis online yang menawarkan suplemen diet, menjalankan bisnis yoga melalui internet. Ia juga memiliki gelar master bisnis dari University of Miami.


    http://internasional.kompas.com/read/2012/08/12/16282159/George.Soros.Menikah.Lagi

    George Soros Menikah Lagi

    Penulis : Simon Saragih | Minggu, 12 Agustus 2012 | 16:28 WIB
    Editor : Marcus Suprihadi

    Dumb writer and his editor

    NEW YORK, KOMPAS.com- Salah satu orang terkaya di dunia, George Soros (82), menikah lagi untuk ketiga kalinya. Kali ini perempuan yang dia nikahi adalah Tamiko Bolton yang berusia 40 tahun. Pesta pernikahan berlangsung pada hari Minggu (12/8/2012) di New York sekaligus dilakukan pula perayaan ulang tahunnya yang ke-82.

    George Soros terkenal saat krisis moneter menimpa Asia dekade 1990 dimana saat itu Perdana Menteri Malaysia Mahathir Mohammad menuduh Soros berada di balik kekacauan sejumlah mata uang Asia.

    Soros juga dikenal gencar mendorong demokratisasi di sejumlah negara. Soros punya lima anak dari pernikahan sebelumnya. Bagi Soros ini adalah pernikahan yang ketiga kalinya dan kedua bagi Tamiko Bolton.


    http://www.dailystar.com.lb/News/International/2012/Aug-12/184324-billionaire-george-soros-getting-married-for-the-third-time.ashx

    Billionaire George Soros getting married for the third time

    August 12, 2012 09:38 AM

    Billionaire investor George Soros and girlfriend Tamiko Bolton are pictured at Soros’ residence in Southampton, New York August 11, 2012. REUTERS/Myrna Suarez/Handout

    Billionaire investor George Soros had a lot to celebrate on Saturday evening: his 82nd birthday and the engagement to his much younger girlfriend Tamiko Bolton. Soros and Bolton, who met in the spring of 2008, formally announced their engagement at a party at Soros’ summer home in Southampton, New York attended by a small group of friends and relatives, according to a person familiar with the trader.

    Soros proposed to Bolton, 40, a few weeks ago during a weekend visit to the Hamptons, a summer beachside colony on Long Island frequented by New York’s wealthy. For Soros, this will be his third marriage and the second for Bolton, who was married briefly in the 1990s. Soros has five children from his previous marriages.

    Last year, Adriana Ferreyr ,a former girlfriend of Soros, filed a lawsuit in Manhattan state court, alleging he reneged on a promise to buy her an apartment. Soros has filed a pending motion to dismiss the lawsuit filed by the former Brazilian soap opera star. Also in 2011, Soros, who is an active contributor to politically liberal causes and frequently speaks on world economic events, converted his hedge fund into a family office and stopped managing money for outside investors.

    Soros rose to fame and fortune two decades ago on a now-historic trade, in which he took on the Bank of England and shrewdly wagered on a devaluation of the British pound. Bolton, who once started an Internet-based dietary supplement business and is now running a web-based yoga education business, has a masters degree in business from the University of Miami.

    The engagement ring Soros gave Bolton, according to a person close to the trader, is a Graff diamond in a platinum setting on a rose gold band. Among the guests at the party at Soros’ summer home were journalist Jane Bryant Quinn and Blackstone’s Byron Wien.

    Earlier this year, Reuters first reported that Soros’ son Jonathan, who last September stepped down from day-to-day management of the affairs at Soros Fund Management, had decided to set-up his own family office. In moving to manage his own money, Soros’ son also planned to take on key employee of Soros Fund Management, which last reported having about $25 billion in assets.


    http://m.torontosun.com/2012/08/12/billionaire-george-soros-engaged-at-82

    Billionaire George Soros engaged at 82

    Mathew Goldstein, Reuters, Today at 3:26 AM

    George Soros and fiancee Tamiko Bolton at Soros’ residence in Southampton, New York, August 11, 2012. (REUTERS/Myrna Suarez/Handout)

    Billionaire investor George Soros had a lot to celebrate on Saturday evening: his 82nd birthday and the engagement to his much younger girlfriend Tamiko Bolton. Soros and Bolton, who met in the spring of 2008, formally announced their engagement at a party at Soros’ summer home in Southampton, New York attended by a small group of friends and relatives, according to a person familiar with the trader.

    Soros proposed to Bolton, 40, a few weeks ago during a weekend visit to the Hamptons, a summer beachside colony on Long Island frequented by New York’s wealthy. For Soros, this will be his third marriage and the second for Bolton, who was married briefly in the 1990s. Soros has five children from his previous marriages.

    Last year, Adriana Ferreyr ,a former girlfriend of Soros, filed a lawsuit in Manhattan state court, alleging he reneged on a promise to buy her an apartment. Soros has filed a pending motion to dismiss the lawsuit filed by the former Brazilian soap opera star. Also in 2011, Soros, who is an active contributor to politically liberal causes and frequently speaks on world economic events, converted his hedge fund into a family office and stopped managing money for outside investors.

    Soros rose to fame and fortune two decades ago on a now-historic trade, in which he took on the Bank of England and shrewdly wagered on a devaluation of the British pound. Bolton, who once started an Internet-based dietary supplement business and is now running a web-based yoga education business, has a masters degree in business from the University of Miami.

    The engagement ring Soros gave Bolton, according to a person close to the trader, is a Graff diamond in a platinum setting on a rose gold band. Among the guests at the party at Soros’ summer home were journalist Jane Bryant Quinn and Blackstone’s Byron Wien.

    Earlier this year, Reuters first reported that Soros’ son Jonathan, who last September stepped down from day-to-day management of the affairs at Soros Fund Management, had decided to set-up his own family office. In moving to manage his own money, Soros’ son also planned to take on key employee of Soros Fund Management, which last reported having about $25 billion in assets.


    http://hedgefundsex.blogspot.com/2012/05/hedge-fund-titan-soros-presents-new.html

    Hedge Fund Titan Soros Presents New Girlfriend

    George Soros made first public appearance with the girlfriend Tamiko Bolton, who is no longer the secret second mistress. George Soros at a Paley Center screening of “The Intouchables” Monday night with his girlfriend Tamiko Bolton A night before a court date with his ex mistress Adriana Ferreyr.

    It was first time Soros, 81, and Bolton, 39, were photographed together officialy in public as a couple. Bolton resides in the $1.9 million apartment which Ferreyr says Soros promised her, and which she’s suing over. Soros and Bolton’s sudden public appearance, meantime, seemed like a statement (or a show of unity) the night before a hearing in Manhattan Supreme Court.

    Soros was just one of the crème de la crème at the Moet & Chandon and Audi screening, and French consulate after-party celebrating Harvey Weinstein’s induction into the Légion d’Honneur by Nicolas Sarkozy. “Intouchables” is Weinstein’s new French import after his Oscar-winning sensation “The Artist.”

    “I am still trying to piece together how the boy who grew up 10 miles from here in Flushing, and who used to walk two miles to the Mayfair Theater, is standing in a room on the Upper East Side with . . . an impressive group like this, receiving this great honor,” Weinstein said in front of the reception’s hosts (François Delattre and Antonin Baudry), his family (wife Georgina Chapman, mother Miriam, brother Bob Weinstein) and guests (Charlie Rose, Peter Peterson, Jim Dolan, Paul Haggis and Stephen Schwarzman).

    Weinstein called “Intouchables,” which he’s also remaking in English, “An extraordinary story of friendship.”

    Who is George Soros? (http://www.hedgeho.com/hedge-fund-managers-2/who-is-george-soros/)

    Read More: NY Post (http://www.nypost.com/p/pagesix/soros_and_gal_step_out_JHF7GtErreKwxjJs5dsr8N)

    Court Case

    George Soros  81 offered to pay his ex-lover Adriana Ferreyr $1 million to settle her case after backing out of a promise to buy her an Upper East Side apartment.

    But furious Ferreyr turned down the lump sum, insisting she is going to sue billionaire for  $50 million after he promised to buy her a dream, $1.9 million East 85th Street pad, then instead gave it to his new girlfriend, Tamiko Bolton, who — according to Ferreyr — he’d claimed was his nurse.

    Ferreyr’s lawyer, Robert Hantman, declined to comment on any settlement but told us: “We have an excellent judge [Debra James] and we are confident the law is on our side. I feel we have an excellent chance of beating this motion to dismiss. Miss Ferreyr will have her day in court.”

    Tamiko Bolton, Soros’s secret grilfriend

    Soros, has characterized former child actress Ferreyr, 28, as trying to cash in on their five-year relationship, which ended in 2010. But Hantman says in court papers, “The only thing odious and unseemly about this case, aside from the defendant’s actions, is the false and extremely inflammatory and chauvinistic rhetoric suggesting that Ferreyr’s complaint is a ‘quest to cash in on their casual relationship’ or a seeking of the ‘benefits of wealth.’ ”

    Sources tell us the situation has caused Ferreyr so much emotional distress that she’s dramatically lost weight. A friend told, “This isn’t about money, this is about his disrespectful behavior.” Soros’ lawyer, William Zabel, declined to comment on the figure offered, but said, “There was a first settlement offered before she filed the complaint.”

    81 year old keeps great shape by working out 3 days a week.


    http://www.patrickmcmullan.com/site/search.aspx?t=person&s=Tamiko+Bolton

    Tamiko Bolton


    http://www.adevarul.ro/moldova/economie/Celebrul_miliardar_George_Soros_se_insoara_a_treia_oara-la_82_de_ani_0_754124647.html

    Celebrul miliardar George Soros se însoară a treia oară, la 82 de ani

    ibtimes.com, 12 august 2012, 13:15 |  Autor: Ion Preaşca |

    George Soros alături de Tamiko Bolton

    Miliardarul de origine ungară George Soros, a şaptea cea mai bogată persoană din America, şi-a anunţat logodna cu Tamiko Bolton (40 de ani) în cadrul unei festivităţi desfăşurate în noaptea de sâmbătă spre duminică, cu ocazia împlinirii a 82 de ani, potrivit Digi24. Pentru Soros aceasta va fi a treia căsătorie, pentru aleasa inimii sale – a doua la număr. Logodna a fost anunţată într-un cerc restrâns de rude şi prieteni, la reşedinţa de vară a miliardarului Soros din Southampton, New York.

    După cum a declarat unul din apropiaţii miliardarului, Soros i-a oferit un inel de nuntă dnei Bolton din aur roz, cu un diamant al firmei Graff. Despre data nunţii nu se cunosc detalii. George Soros şi Tamiko Bolton, o femeie cu origini japoneze, în vârstă de 40 de ani, s-au întâlnit în 2008, la New York. Mult timp şi-au ascuns relaţia de ochii marelui public. Abia în mai anul acesta au apărut împreună la filmul „The Untouchables”.

    Tamiko este fiica unei asistente medicale nipono-americane şi a unui comandant de navă. A crescut în California, a absolvit Universitatea din Miami şi este consultant pe probleme de îngrijire a sănătăţii şi educaţie. A pus bazele unei companii care vinde online suplimente alimentare şi vitamine şi, recent, are şi o platformă web pentru educaţie yoga.

    Inelul de logodnă pe care i l-a dat miliardarul este un diamant Graff, montat pe o combinaţie de platină, aur şi diamante rare roz.

    Soros are cinci copii

    Tată a cinci copii, George Soros s-a căsătorit şi a divorţat de două ori până acum. S-a însurat în 1960 cu Annaliese Witschak, cu care a avut trei copii şi de care a divorţat în 1983, apoi a luat-o în căsătorie pe Susan Weber Soros, cu 25 de ani mai tânără decât el. Au avut doi copii şi au divorţat în 2005.

    Şi Tamiko Bolton a mai fost căsătorită, în anii ’90, dar pentru scurt timp. Întrebat dacă a încheiat un contract prenupţial, avocatul lui Soros a spus că se ştie că miliardarul va lăsa cea mai mare parte a averii lui unor organizații de caritiate, dar are de gând să fie generos şi cu soția sa.

    Anul trecut, o fostă iubită a lui Soros, Adriana Ferreyr, actriţă braziliană de telenovele, l-a dat în judecată pe miliardar, acuzându-l că nu mai recunoaşte că i-a promis să-i cumpere un apartament.











    Sources:

    http://storage.canoe.ca/v1/dynamic_resize/sws_path/suns-prod-images/1344640778564_ORIGINAL.jpg/?quality=75&size=297

    http://storage.canoe.ca/v1/dynamic_resize/sws_path/suns-prod-images/1344640778564_ORIGINAL.jpg/?quality=75&size=297

     
    • sex 3:26 PM on 2012/08/21 Permalink | Log in to Reply

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  • Virtual Chitchatting 4:49 PM on 2011/08/05 Permalink  

    Menjual tidak sama dengan Memasarkan

    Jakarta, 5 Agustus 2011, 15.54

    Orang Hukum berbicara ekonomi, seperti Jaka Sembung yang tidak bakalan nyambung.  Orang Hukum itu khan taunya dan sukanya pepesan kosong, memperdebatkan sesuatu yang sia-sia, seperti dua orang buta yang mencoba mendeskripsikan gajah berdasarkan apa yang dia pegang.

    Begitu pula ketika Orang Teknik berbicara tentang pemasaran dan melatih orang lain, jelas seperti menegakkan benang basah. Apalagi bagi Orang Teknik yang tidak memiliki kapasitas sebagai pengambil-keputusan. The lesson learnt is that try dealing only with the decision maker, otherwise you are salting the sea.

    Melatih orang itu membutuhkan keahlian manajemen sumber daya manusia.  Keahlian inter-personal dan kemampuan membaca psikologi sikap dan prilaku orang per orang jelas tidak sama. Belum lagi bagaimana cara memasarkan produk yang delicate dalam hal teknologi produksi dan teknologi pemakaian.


    Step number 1, to begin with, Set the mind with 5W + 1H way of thinking.

    Mendeskripsikan Oli

    Bagi orang awam, oli biasanya diasosiasikan dengan kendaraan otomotif, seperti misalnya dengan oli motor, oli mobil. Gunanya adalah untuk melicinkan gesekan dua permukaan logam sehingga tidak menimbulkan bunyi dan tidak cepat aus.

    Dalam bahasa Indonesia, oli dengan tujuan seperti ini dinamakan pelumas. Kata kerjanya melumasi, dan dibendakan menjadi pelumasan. Dalam bahasa Inggris, oli untuk tujuan pelumasan disebut lubricant dengan kata kerjanya to lubricate, dan ketika dibendakan menjadi lubrication.

    Why lube?

    Fungsi teknik dari pelumas adalah sebagai berikut:

    1. Reduce friction and wear which is the major function.
    2. Carry away heat by being circulated and cooled.
    3. Seals against contaminants of which grease are particularly effective.
    4. Prevents rust and corrosion by preventing air or moisture to contact with metal.
    5. Removes contaminants by carrying them to filtration system or settling them in a reservoir.
    6. Transmits power which is the prime function of a hydraulic fluid.
    7. Acts as a dielectric fluid which is a main function of transformer oils.
    8. Dampen shock which is the function of oils in shock absorbers.

    Pendefinisian pelumas bisa dibuat berdasarkan beberapa kriteria berikut:

    1. Tipe.
    2. Standar.
    3. Klasifikasi.
    4. Atribut / properties.
    5. Resistensi terhadap api.
    6. Aplikasi.
    7. Lainnya.

    Pelumas bisa dibedakan menurut bahan dasarnya:

    1. Minyak mentah, base oil.
    2. Sintetis.
    3. Minyak sayur, vegetables.

    Ketika membandingkan masing-masing jenis pelumas, yang perlu dibahas adalah:

    1. kelebihan dan kekurangan.
    2. kekuatan dan kelemahan.

    Atribut atau properties dari pelumas terdiri dari:

    1. Oxidation.
    2. Demulsibility.
    3. Flash point / fire point.
    4. Resistensi terhadap api.
    5. Pour point.
    6. Neutralisation (acidity number / alkalinity number).
    7. Foaming.
    8. Aniline point (solvency, detergency).
    9. Viscosity.
    10. Viscosity reactions to temperature changes.
    11. Viscosity reactions to pressure changes.
    12. Volatilitas.
    13. Lubricity level.
    14. Seal swell.
    15. Additive solubility.
    16. Hydrolytic.
    17. Compatibility with other oil (base, synthetic, vegetable).

    Pelumas juga bisa dibedakan menurut zat pencampurnya (aditif, additives) seperti:

    Jenis pelumas menurut aditif

    Aditif

    Turbine

    Gear

    Hydraulic

    Engine

    Paper Machine

    Circulating

    Rust inhibitor

    v

    v

    v

    v

    v

    v

    Oxidation inhibitor

    v

    v

    v

    v

    v

    v

    Extreme Pressure

    v

    Anti-wear

    v

    v

    Detergents

    v

    v

    Dispersants

    v

    Anti-foam

    v

    v

    v

    v

    v

    v

    VI Improvers

    v

    Demulsifiers

    v

    v

    v

    v

    v

    Berbagai standar pengukuran pelumas:

    1. SAE, Society of Automotive Needs.
    2. API, American Petroleum Institute.
    3. ASTM, American Society of Testing and Materials.
    4. ILSAC, International Lubricant Standardization and Approval Committee.
    5. AAMA, American Automobile Manufacturers Association.
    6. JAMA, Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association.
    7. J-300 Viscosity Classification.

    What is lubed?

    1. Bearings.
    2. Gears.
    3. Seals.
    4. Couplings.
    5. Rantai.
    6. Wire cable.
    7. Wire rope.
    8. Metal working, metal cutting (heat transfer).
    9. Compressors / pneumatics.
    10. Turbines.
    11. Hydraulics.
    12. (Transportation) Engine.
    13. Paper machine.
    14. Circulating / conveyor.

    How to lube?

    1. SOP machining.
    2. Work diagram of machinery.
    3. Process flow.

    Application methods:

    1. Manual lubrication.
    2. Centralised, direct and indirect.

    Pembandingan masing-masing jenis pelumas, untuk:

    1. kelebihan dan kekurangan.
    2. kekuatan dan kelemahan.

    When to lube?

    Identified in the scheduling lubrication program, that includes:

    1. Survey and lab testings.
    2. Calculate the lube consumption.
    3. Stress test / simulation.

    Who to lube?

    mesin
    mekanik
    mekanis


    Semua penjelasan perlu dibuatkan semacam user guide, manual, pedoman, atau apalah namanya sebagai referensi internal dan panduan operasional (SOP).

    Termasuk quick guide untuk:

    1. Viskositas.
    2. Kontaminan, particulates.
    3. Filtrasi.
    4. Apa yang bisa membuat pelumas efektif.
    5. Apa yang bisa membuat pelumas tidak efektif.

    Faktor-faktor apa sajakah yang mempengaruhi viskositas dan/atau kontaminan?

    1. Temperatur.
    2. Kecepatan.
    3. Size / load.
    4. Particulates / debris.
    5. Korosi.
    6. Karat.

    The causalities of viscosity.
    The causalities of contaminants.


    Step number 3, divide and organise the marketing activities into 6 parts:

    1. The sales force.
    2. The marketing team.
    3. The user’s technical/lab.
    4. Site visit to regular and current user(s).
    5. Site visit to the plant @ Bekasi.
    6. Site visit to the plant @ Singapore.

    The marketing activities should be equipped with
    consulting and marketing skills and expertise.

    Screening new persons to do the jobs:

    1. Memiliki latar belakang teknik mesin.
    2. Komunikatif.
    3. Pragmatis dalam menjelaskan apa yang ada dalam ruangan saat walk-in interview.
    4. Uji pengetahuan teknis tentang mesin dan lubrikasi.
    5. Kontrak kesepakatan sebelum dan setelah on-the-job training.
    6. Penilaian kualifikasi selama on-the-job training.
    7. Penilaian kesungguhan, kecakapan, kompetensi melakukan pekerjaan yang diamanatkan secara periodik.

    The Offer

    1. Pembuatan product knowledge dengan memperhatikan beberapa prinsip dan aspek berikut, yakni essentials, practicals, easy to read and to comprehend.
    2. Referensi akan dibuat dalam bentuk modul-modul yang sesederhana mungkin dan membumi, ringkas, sistematis, serta berdasarkan praktek-praktek terbaik di seluruh dunia (world best practices).
    3. Pembuatan modul pelatihan kerja dan kriteria serta kualifikasi rekrutmen pasca pelatihan kerja secara periodik, yakni semasa dan setelah pelatihan, seperti sebulan, tiga bulan, atau lainnya, sesuai kebutuhan.
    4. Termasuk didalam modul pelatihan kerja adalah penilaian kecenderungan sikap dan prilaku karyawan semasa pelatihan dan setelah pelatihan.
    5. Pembuatan rencana aktivitas bagi karyawan baru dan lama (Logical Framework Analysis).
    6. Pembuatan Prosedur Operasi Standar (SOP) menurut klas dan tipe karyawan.

    Masalah Potensil … ?

    Bentuk Keterikatan Kerja …?

    Waktu …?

    Biaya …?

    Bila ada pertanyaan, keterangan,  atau apa pun  yang  ingin disampaikan perihal proposal ini, silahkan hubungi kami melalui saluran komunikasi apa pun. Kami ucapkan terima kasih atas perhatiannya.

    Hormat kami,

    Sando Sasako
    Lead Consultant

     
  • Virtual Chitchatting 2:01 PM on 2011/07/30 Permalink
    Tags: dirty diana, extreme, i love you, if i never see you again, just good friends, liberian girls, lirik lagu, love is on the way, merriam bellina, Michael Jackson, more than words, saigon kick, untuk sebuah nama, wet wet wet, who is it   

    Penyewaan alamat kantor, virtual office, and ruang kantor 

    Hubungi 0852-1035.6516 untuk pengurusan legal documents dan layanan profesional lainnya.

    Pengurusan Legal Documents

    Jakarta
    Last update: Wednesday, 16 October 2013 16:24:51 PM

    Kami menyediakan sewa alamat kantor (virtual office) sampai ruang kantor secara fisik di daerah Slipi, Jakarta Barat. Penawaran dimulai dari harga Rp 100.000 per bulan.

    01 virtual office 15


    02 virtual office 13


    03 virtual office 03


    04 virtual office 01


    05 virtual office 02


    Berbagai fasilitas kami tawarkan, mulai dari penanganan surat/paket/kiriman datang, telpon masuk, penerimaan fax, pemberian notifikasi penerimaan (paket, telpon, fax), call forwarding (manual dan otomatis), penerimaan tamu (office attendant), penyediaan ruang rapat (meeting room), koneksi internet wifi, marketing staff, marketing tools, marketing skills, layanan sekretaris, dan layanan profesional lainnya seperti pembuatan laporan keuangan, laporan pajak (SPT PPN, SPT PPh), konsultasi SDM, disain interior dan arsitektural, teknologi informasi dan komputer, komunikasi perusahaan dan komunikasi pemasaran, customer relationships management (CRM), sampai layanan counselling, psikologis, dan terapis.

    Hubungi 0852-1035.6516 untuk pengurusan legal documents dan layanan profesional lainnya.


    20131017161139 msopm siup form


    20131017161350 msopm siup menengah


    Jenis Bentuk Usaha Tidak Berbadan Hukum:

    1. Perseorangan
    2. Persekutuan Perdata
    3. Fa, Firma
    4. UD/PD, Usaha Distribusi/Perusahaan Dagang
    5. CV, Commanditaire Vennotschaap, Persekutuan Komanditer

    Jenis Bentuk Usaha Berbadan Hukum:

    1. Koperasi
    2. Yayasan
    3. NV, Naamloze Vennootschap
    4. PT, Perseroan Terbatas
    5. PT PMDN, PT dengan fasilitas Penanaman Modal Dalam Negeri
    6. PT PMA, PT dengan fasilitas Penanaman Modal Asing
    7. PT Persero, BUMN
    8. Perjan, Perusahaan Jawatan
    9. Perum, Perusahaan Umum

    Klasifikasi Besar/Skala Usaha berdasarkan Modal:

    1. SIUP Mikro < Rp 50,000,000
    2. SIUP Kecil Rp 50,000,000 s/d Rp 500,000,000
    3. SIUP Menengah Rp 500,000,000 s/d Rp 10,000,000,000
    4. SIUP Besar > Rp 10,000,000,000

    Pembuatan Akte Notaris:

    1. Registrasi/pendaftaran bentuk usaha berbadan hukum
    2. Legalisasi bentuk usaha berbadan hukum

    Dokumen-dokumen Pendukung:

    1. AD, Anggaran Dasar dan berbagai perubahannya
    2. SKDU/SKDP, Surat Keterangan Domisili Usaha/Perusahaan
    3. NPWP, Nomor Pokok Wajib Pajak
    4. SIUP, Surat Izin Usaha Perdagangan
    5. TDP, Tanda Daftar Perusahaan
    6. HO/IG, Izin Gangguan (Hinderordonnantie)

    Dokumen-dokumen Pribadi:

    1. Pas Foto
    2. KTP, Kartu Tanda Penduduk
    3. Paspor
    4. KK, Kartu Keluarga, khusus untuk CEO perempuan
    5. NPWP Pribadi, Nomor Pokok Wajib Pajak Perorangan

    Dokumen-dokumen Kepemilikan Tanah/Bangunan:

    1. SHM, Sertifikat Hak Milik
    2. IMB, Izin Mendirikan Bangunan
    3. PBB, Pajak Bumi dan Bangunan

    Hubungi 0852-1035.6516 untuk pengurusan legal documents dan layanan profesional lainnya.

     
  • Virtual Chitchatting 12:33 AM on 2011/07/21 Permalink  

    another day has passed: some self-enlightenment, self-recognisant 

    another day has passed.

    by S3ra Sutan Rajo Ali

    some self-enlightenment, self-recognisant

    Jakarta, 2011-07-20 08:39 PM
    another life was born.
    another life was taken.

    life goes on.
    lives on earth move on.

    some places remain the same.
    some places have changed.

    some memories of the places were well-preserved.
    some memories of the places were hidden insecurely.

    the places remain the places.
    they shall be meaningful as some people make them recognised.

    some places were built on rocks and sands by men
    some places were built on forces of nature such as wind, water, hot, cold

    they were people that I had known deep in my heart.
    there were people that I knew had no interest of me in whatsoever, but pleased to be acquainted, familiarised.

    where are they now?
    where were they then?

    today, every thing was measured nominally in monetary value.
    they say they are trying to be realistic.

    we are seldom to see a warm and sincere smile, but a mild gesture.
    we are seldom to see long-time buddies, but strangers.

    dimanakah kehangatan pertemanan yang dulu pernah ada?
    dimanakah ada rasa kebebasan berteman seperti dulu kala?
    -21.10

    23.30-
    we used to meet and greet people.
    whenever and wherever and whomever we want to.

    when i want to know one’s status, i just got there.
    there was some bond, some connection, some relativity, as the reason.

    these days, cost and benefit analysis is inevitable.
    what do we have to sacrifice if we are going to some place, to meet people.

    it is not just monetary.
    it is just causality, cause and effect.

    what would i take from you, if i give something for you.
    if i give something to you, what would you give that i want to take.

    quid pro quo.
    an eye for an eye.

    it is not just a simple trade.
    there are some factors unexplained, invisible.

    some people just give it away, and do not even to bother and give a damned care.
    they shall call it phylantropic, or just throwing shit, buang sial.

    the possibilities, the permutations.
    exponentials or just an annihilation.

    ugh how i miss the old days
    or is it the present time that is so harsh to live with?

    ada yang mau membanting tulang, mondar-mandir hanya untuk mendapatkan keuntungan seperak-dua perak.
    ada yang hanya mau duduk berdiam diri saja dan langsung menengadahkan tangan meminta uang jago.

    some people is used to and sufficient just to earn a dime or a penny.
    some people is just too greedy and can never get enough if can only embezzle one billion or two.

    the senior citizens have passed us away, deserted us.
    the toddlers are eager have a grab and to walk freely watching the others move before their eyes.

    i have a wife, a daughter, a son.
    they say, i have come to a full circle.

    they say, you have a colourful life.
    then why have i been so ungrateful.

    they say, it is a form of responsibility in life.
    then why do i feel a burdensome.

    what have i missed?
    why do i feel alone amidst the crowds?

    if it is love, what is love?
    the where is it, the love of my life?

    it is me, it is in me.
    it is me, the love of my life.

    am i losing my identity, my self-identity?
    am i losing me, the love of my life?

    yes, i am.
    i am now living not just for me and myself.

    i have another three lives to take care.
    it is not just monetary to be taken care, but the blood of my life, the spirit, the life force, and mostly, the time.

    it is time that i do not have for me and myself anymore.
    dan demi waktu, yang bergulir di sampingku, for time sake, that slip and passed me by.

    24.13

    12.21 am, saved by wp

     
  • Virtual Chitchatting 5:24 PM on 2011/07/18 Permalink  

    How The Prominent Famous Financial Times Reporting the 4,000 Index of Indonesian Capital Market 

    How The Prominent and Famous Financial Times Reporting the 4,000 Index of Indonesian Capital Market

    ugh, skin deep.
    another bubble to be busted? the question is when the hell will be coming to town?

    Indonesia: the new safe haven?

    July 15, 2011 2:51 pm
    by Anthony Deutsch

    Just when it seemed that no market was safe from global events, Jakarta’s composite index managed to close at a gravity-defying all-time high on Friday. While most of the world’s markets are in the grip of uncertainty amid tepid US economic recovery, a looming US debt crisis and eurozone jitters, the Jakarta stock exchange continued its inexorable ascent, closing up 0.6 per cent at 4,023.202.

    Not bad performance, but is it sustainable?

    Take a look at the rosy picture:

    Analysts in Indonesia seem to think so. Destry Damayanti, the head of research at Mandiri Securities firm told beyondbrics that Indonesia’s market is insulated from global economic woes.

    “What make us immune from all the troubles in the world is we have a strong economic fundamentals, a consistent policy and good valuation, ” Damayanti said.

    Damayanti indicated that much of the money coming into the stock exchange is from foreign investors. According to statistics from the Bank Indonesia, the country’s central bank, the country is expected to see an estimated $11 billion in capital inflows into the portfolio market this year. This figure is slightly lower than last year’s total of $15.7bn last year.

    So far this year the IDX has seen foreign outflows of $802m, as investors withdrew from riskier growth market investments. The IDX fell 8 per cent in the first 38 days of the year, only to climb 17 per cent since that low point.

    Foreign direct investment, on the other hand, is expected to be higher this year than last, with an expected $16.7bn in 2011, as compared to $13bn in 2010.

    “All the negative headlines from Europe and US, it even makes our market become a safe place for investment,” Damayanti said.

    Edwin Sinaga, the president of brokerage PT Financorporindo NusaOverall, told beyondbrics that investors still see Indonesia as one of the most attractive markets in the region.

    “Indonesia as one of the best growth [markets] in Asia, and the economic stability in Asia makes the region more attractive compared to other markets especially Europe and US,” Sinaga said. He said that based on sentiment the index could stay around the 4,000 level for a couple weeks ago.

    “We predict that level will be sustained for the next 1-2 months and the index will reach to 4,300 at the end of the year,” Sinaga said.

    The big question on everyone’s minds is of course can it continue and for how long. A rebound of developed economies, a fall in commodities prices or unforeseen political turbulence could send yet Jakarta into a tailspin.

    Source: http://blogs.ft.com/beyond-brics/2011/07/15/indonesia-the-new-safe-haven/


    Indonesian stocks: beautiful, but small

    May 5, 2011 3:38 pm
    by Josh Noble

    Indonesian growth in Q1 narrowly failed to meet expectations on Thursday, with the annualised rate of 6.5 per cent falling short of forecasts by just 0.1 per cent.

    But the equity market  keeps defying even the most bullish calls. So far this year, Indonesia is the region’s second best performing market (after South Korea), and has avoided much of the selling that has pulled markets across Asia into the red.

    Despite complaints of over-exuberance late last year, nagging inflation, and a clear blip at the turn of the year, the appetite for Indonesian stocks appears to be robust once more. The market, at Thursday’s close, sat less than 1 per cent off its all-time high – achieved (for the umpteenth time in the last six months) at the start of this week.

    It’s 14 per cent up on its January-February lows, when investors were spooked by concerns about inflation and valuations.

    So, have all the previous worries drifted away? Well no, not entirely.

    Bank Indonesia’s single rate hike – of 25bps in February – appears to have sent a signal that the central bank is not asleep at the wheel, and is willing to move – albeit in baby steps, and more slowly than many in the market would like.

    What’s more, with inflation across the globe driven by higher prices for commodities, of which Indonesia is a key  exporter – coal, palm oil, metals – tax revenue has been going up, easing some fears over the fiscal deficit.

    According to Standard Chartered, equity investors seem to be pretty positive on the Jakarta market, for a few reasons:

    There’s a strong correlation between GDP and corporate earnings – and growth looks healthy, at 6.5 per cent, but not frothy.

    The commodity component of the economy offers a strong backdrop to the main event – consumption, which makes up 60 per cent of GDP (eat that, China).

    Meanwhile, the banking sector – a focus for foreign investors who favour only a handful of big, liquid stocks – is one of the most profitable in the world, and still has strong growth prospects.

    So what about the price? The market currently trades at almost 18 times trailing earnings – higher than the known-for-being-expensive India. At price-to-book it’s exactly the same as the Sensex, at 3.10. But while the Jakarta market is up 7.7 per cent this year, India is down over 11 per cent.

    So has Indonesia replaced India as the first Asian port of call for emerging market investors?

    In terms of depth, the markets can’t really be compared. India’s is much deeper, and much more liquid, while it only takes a small amount of inflows (or outflows) to budge Jakarta.

    The Jakarta Index’s market capitalisation is just $380bn, smaller than the Malaysian stock market, a sniff higher than Chile’s, and a minnow compared to India – where stocks listed on the Bombay Stock Exchange alone have a market cap of over $1,400bn.

    Individuals aren’t yet picking Indonesia, though their asset managers may be doing a little more than toe-dipping. Investors hold $30bn in India-specific funds – for Indonesia, the figure is just $1.2bn, according to EPFR data.

    Meanwhile, despite the fact that foreign institutional investment into Indonesian equities this year has rocketed 260 per cent year-on-year – hitting $1.7bn – it’s still significantly below inflows into Taiwan, which fell almost 50 per cent over the same period to $2.3bn.

    So while Indonesia is in vogue, it remains a small, niche, semi-illiquid equity market, that looks to be years behind India in terms of development. As such, it’s probably not a market that’s wise to dip in and out of.

    Source: http://blogs.ft.com/beyond-brics/2011/05/05/indonesian-stocks-beautiful-but-small/


    Indonesia: time out, or time to get out?

    January 12, 2011 10:45 am
    by Josh Noble

    Emerging market investors – generally – enjoyed a pretty clear run in 2010, with Indonesia the star performer. But since the start of the year, the Jakarta market has been in a foul mood – sinking all the way back to levels last seen in September last year.

    Analysts – perhaps prompted in part by tetchy clients – are now trying to answer the key question – is this a blip, or a red flag?

    Citi’s Johanna Chua says that while conditions are a little troubling (i.e. rising inflation), once the central bank gets into tightening mode things should level out.

    Looking mainly at the rupiah (which has a clear impact on all rupiah-denominated assets), Chua says that currency weakness could persist for the rest of Q1, and possibly longer, but that within 6-12 months it should firm up. And there are four main reasons why.

    First, the central bank will catch up – Citi sees rates going up 75bps this year – starting in March, which should help combat some of the increasingly worrying inflation and help boost the currency by pushing up real rates.

    Second – Indonesia has large FX reserves it can deploy if needed to smooth currency ‘volatility’.

    Then there’s the simply fact that the economy looks robust – growth could hit 6.5per cent in 2011, while FDI is on the rise.

    Perhaps the most important point for emerging market investors is this:

    Fourth, we don’t think the EM story is over – inflows into EM asset class – equity, and maybe to a lesser extent, debt is expected to persist – Indonesia should continue to be a beneficiary of this after what we assume despite interim de-risking on inflation/Euro concerns.

    So perhaps – even without a rate hike – we’re currently tripping over the ‘cyclical speedbump’ that Morgan Stanley were looking for last month.

    The market gained almost 3 per cent on Wednesday – but it’ll take more than that to convince the less intrepid emerging market investors to stay put.

    Source: http://blogs.ft.com/beyond-brics/2011/01/12/indonesia-time-out-or-time-to-get-out/


    11 for 2011: Will Indonesia reach investment grade?

    January 10, 2011 2:24 pm
    Wellian Wiranto of HSBC

    Indonesian stocks suffered a dramatic 4 per cent tumble on Monday amid rising concern over inflation, but that should not distract attention from the underlying strength of southeast Asia’s largest economy.

    Since the world financial crisis, Indonesia has become a mainstream destination for more and more investors – and its improved profile is reflected in discussions over the country’s possible return to investment grade. It used to be a matter of ‘if’ the credit rating agencies would put the country back in the top league. Now it’s a question of ‘when’.

    One reason is that Indonesia has proved to be doggedly resilient, thanks partly to the robust domestic consumption of its 240m people.

    The country clocked respectable growth of 4.5 per cent in 2009, while its more export-dependent neighbours fell into recession. Growth is expected to have accelerated to 6.1 per cent in 2010.

    That helped to attract record portfolio inflows, with foreign ownership of Indonesian government bonds doubling from 15 per cent in the first quarter of 2009 to an all-time high of about 30 per cent in recent months.

    A rising expectation that the country will be re-rated has been a forceful pull factor, along with recognition of its abundant natural resources, increasingly affluent middle class, and relatively cheap labour.

    We expect Fitch – which currently has the country at one notch below investment grade – to upgrade Indonesian sovereign bonds in the second half of this year. S&P and Moody’s – which currently rate Indonesia at two notches below – will most likely follow suit in 2012.

    The sprawling archipelago is not free of weaknesses: it has poor infrastructure, lingering bureaucratic red tape and rigid labor laws – all of which make it a place where the adage that ‘patience is a virtue’ holds true.

    The wait is still on for Bank Indonesia to tackle the inflation concerns that might have been behind Monday’s share price falls – and strengthen its own credibility – by hiking the policy rate from the current record-low of 6.5 per cent, as we think it should.

    But all in all we are positive on Indonesia. It was the only country in the G20 with a declining debt-to-GDP ratio in 2009 – a trend that continued last year. Thanks to reduced government spending, its budget deficit for 2010 turned out to be 0.6 per cent of GDP, much lower than the 2.1 per cent expected at the start of the year.

    A combination of strong growth, low sovereign debt and an agreeable fiscal balance is a good thing in normal times. In this day and age it is a rarity, and it makes Indonesia more than eligible for a promotion.

    Wellian Wiranto is an Asian economist at HSBC in Singapore

    Source: http://blogs.ft.com/beyond-brics/2011/01/10/11-for-2011-will-indonesia-reach-investment-grade/

     
  • Virtual Chitchatting 5:10 PM on 2011/07/18 Permalink
    Tags: blowing the media, corrupted news, misleading information, news capitalised, talk is cheap, You-Know-Who   

    Peran Media Meledakkan Partai Demokrat Dari Dalam 

    Jakarta, Monday, 18 July 2011, 13:36:14

    Peran Media Meledakkan Partai Demokrat Dari Dalam

    Media massa di Indonesia sekarang sedang melakukan konser secara bersama di tempat terpisah dan di lain waktu dengan menyuarakan isi lagu yang sama, menyudutkan SBY. Perusahaan TV yang paling menyebalkan adalah TV-One. Banyak orang menyebutkan TV-One sebagai TV-O’on, TV bloon, stupid and silly TV network.

    Semenjak Karni Ilyas menakhodai jaringan Lativi, TV bekas milik A. Latief, pemilik Sarinah, semenjak itu pula semakin hancur reputasi TV-One. Simak saja bagaimana Karni Ilyas mengarahkan acara “Talk is cheap” setiap sore. Bener-bener acara crap, useless, misinforming well-informed and intellectual audiences. Ugh, really crap.

    Sekarang coba kita balik logikanya, bagaimana kalau kita meledakkan media massa? Gampang saja, cari pesaing terdekatnya. TV-One dengan Metro-TV. SCTV dengan Liputan 6-nya sudah mandul sejak berdirinya TV-One, dan yang terutama semenjak sinetron sesat diputar selama 24 jam sehari, 7 hari seminggu, 24/7. Demikian pula Indosiar setelah goyang ditinggal induk semangnya.

    RCTI dengan Harry Tanoesoedibyo sebagai nakhodanya mencoba berada di tengah-tengah. RCTI berkomplot dengan MNC-TV alias TPI dan Global-TV. Global-TV merupakan ujung tombak komplotan RCTI dalam bersaing dengan gerombolan Trans-TV. Trans-TV dari konglomerasi Para telah menguasai Carrefour dan Alfa Mart. Komplotan Para juga telah membuat produk sejenis dengan Dufan Ancol di Makassar dan Bandung.

    Mari kita lihat sisi profil dan kriminalitas dari para penggawa kelompok media. Siapa sih Karni Ilyas dulunya? Siapa sih A. Latief itu? Siapa sih yang namanya Tanoesoedibyo yang jadi buronan Interpol? RCTI itu dulunya punya Bimantara. Setelah dijual, Bimantara kembali membuat jaringan TV baru dengan nama, B-Channel, singkatan dari Bambang-Channel, alias Bimantara-Channel. B-Channel pasti nanti dijual juga. To the highest bidder, of-course.

    Bimantara dulu juga punya Satelindo, operator jaringan GSM, kemudian dijual ke Indosat. Bimantara dulu juga punya Fren, operator telepon CDMA, kemudian dijual ke Smart Telecom. Jadi, siapa itu orang-orang yang ada di dalam Bimantara? Kenyataan demikian mengingat penulis blog terhadap praktek-praktek yang dilakukan venture capitalist di Amerika Serikat. Angel investors.

    Gumaman penulis dibuat berdasarkan fakta dan kenyataan yang sedang terjadi di belahan dunia nun jauh di sana, tetapi sangat dekat di depan mata kita, di layar monitor komputer kita. Bagaimana kalau kita meledakkan media massa?

    Apa kata dunia tentang kejatuhan moghul media dunia, Rupert Murdoch:

    a.    Bye bye FOX news. Could not have happened sooner. I feel sorry for all those who for so many years have been mislead. Who is going to fund the Tea Party and Republicans now?

    b.    This is how the mafia works. With large amounts of cash, they infiltrate the government, law enforcement and the press. Murdoch took it one step further, he actually bought the press. With all the watchdogs bought off or scared, he was free to enlarge his criminal empire. Al Capone was in the minor leagues compared to this crime boss.

    c.    Wow. Can’t trust the government. Can’t trust the media. Can’t trust big business. Can’t trust the banking system. Can’t trust religeon anymore. Can’t trust the judicial system all the way up the the Supreme Court. Can’t trust federal law being upheld(border). Can’t trust elections since the Bush/Gore fiasco. Shoot. Kinda make me want to go over and punch my neighbor. You know. Just in case.

    d.   Quite hilarious that Murdoch’s own New York Post has muzzled itself from reporting on the biggest media scandal in years. Now that Derek Jeter has his 3,000th hit the Post will have to find something else to fill up its pages with. Time for shark attacks!

    e.    I knew the minute this story came out what the real intent was. A round about way to take down Fox News. One day we will all look back and see how all of the puzzle pieces came together. One day when we have lost most of the freedom our soldiers and veterans’ have died for, we will rue the day we celebrated the secret slaughter of a news corporation. It’s all fine and good when it’s something we disagree with. Wait until it goes against something you agree with or treasure, like your freedom to speak out, or freedom to own property, or freedom to have food in the grocery store, and value in your currency. We all know, weather we admit it or not, that many, if not all news organizations have shady deals going on to get the big story first. We are fools to think that this is where it will end. There are groups of people who have bought out everyone, including governments. These people have so much money from their capitalistic ventures, that they no longer find pleasure in wealth. They are after power and glory now. The Power to decide who stays rich and powerful and who’s poor and in bondage. History repeats itself and this “new” agenda to bring about a new world order where all will be taken care of, take from the rich and give to the poor, etc. happily ever after…it’s been done to death. Literally death. The death of millions when the power maniacs find out that it’s not working and people are revolting at the loss of freedom, and society is falling apart, and the food chain is broken, and there is suffering and starving……that’s when the genocide that is being erased from the history books comes back into the picture.

    f.     Fox News is going down in flames due to the illegal, corrupt, and pretty close to evil business practices of it’s leadership and all the right winger’s can do is threaten violence. Well isn’t that special.

    g.    OMG since all this atrocities has been brought to light… I am wondering if they had anything to do with 9/11, Princess Diana Death and other tragedies… Let’s face it, this is all a dog and pony show because they will never really go to jail…. I am just keeping it real…

    h.    murdoch-fox…credibility…gone, finished, none left, fin, zero, empty, nonexistent, absent, airy, baseless, blank, chimerical, dead, defunct, departed, dreamlike, dreamy, empty, ethereal, extinct, extinguished, fancied, few and far between, flimsy, gone, gossamery, groundless, hallucinatory, hypothetical, illusory, imaginary, imagined, immaterial, imponderable, insubstantial, legendary, lost, missing, mythical, negative, null, null and void, passed away, passed on, perished, shadowy, tenuous, ungrounded, unreal, unsubstantial, vacant, vague, vaporous, void, without foundation

    i.      So… the Wall Street Journal… owned by Murdoch – wants to blame the police for not investigating this more thoroughly… yet they don’t bother to mention that part of the problem is that the police and politicians (in UK) were afraid to rock the boat with the Murdoch owned News of the World lest they too become targets of the Murdoch Media Empire… I for one am glad to see Rupert Murdoch brought down a peg. Fox News – fair and balanced reporting for the Conservatives. FoxTV network – got it’s start catering to liberals with Married with Children and the Simpsons #$%$ off the conservatives)… and Rupert Murdoch laughing in between the Right and the Left taking both sides money…

    j.      It’s time to pound all these tabloids into bankruptcy with lawsuits

    k.    murdoch paid off reagan to destory free press in America

    l.      Well News Corpse, karma is a #$%$

    m.  I love watching the Facist Morons in the news……hey !..is Fox News tapping my phone …?


    Danny Kemp | AFP – 9 hrs ago
    Jakarta time is, 18.07.20111, 15.53

    Scotland Yard chief quits, Brooks arrested over hacking

    The country’s top police officer resigned Sunday and Rupert Murdoch’s former aide Rebekah Brooks was arrested as the phone hacking scandal finally tore into the heart of the British establishment.

    Metropolitan Police Commissioner Paul Stephenson said he was quitting due to speculation about his links to Murdoch’s empire and the force’s botched investigation into hacking at the now-defunct News of the World tabloid.

    His shock announcement came just hours after police arrested Brooks — who resigned on Friday as head of News International, Murdoch’s British newspaper arm — on suspicion of phone-hacking and bribing police.

    “I have taken this decision as a consequence of the ongoing speculation and accusations relating to the Met’s links with News International at a senior level,” Stephenson said in a hastily arranged televised statement.

    Prime Minister David Cameron called it “a very sad occasion for him”, adding “I wish him well for the future.”

    However, the police chief took a sideswipe at Cameron and his government during his resignation speech despite Home Secretary Theresa May’s insistence that she was “sincerely sorry” to see him go.

    Stephenson was linked to former News of the World deputy editor Neil Wallis in reports Sunday which said the police chief accepted a five-week stay earlier this year at a luxury health spa where Wallis was a PR consultant.

    The force, which reopened the investigation into hacking in January, six years after it first broke, is already facing questions about why it hired Wallis as an advisor two months after he quit the tabloid.

    Wallis was arrested last week.

    “Let me state clearly, I and the people who know me know that my integrity is completely intact,” Stephenson added. “I may wish we had done some things differently, but I will not lose sleep over my personal integrity.”

    Cameron meanwhile faced questions about his decision to invite his former media chief Andy Coulson, another ex-News of the World editor, to his country residence in March, two months after Coulson quit Downing Street.

    Cameron hired Coulson, who was arrested and bailed by police earlier this month, after the former editor had quit the tabloid over the scandal.

    Stephenson highlighted this act when defending his force’s decision to employ Wallis.

    “Unlike Mr Coulson, Mr Wallis had not resigned from News of the World or, to the best of my knowledge, been in any way associated with the original phone hacking investigation,” he said.

    The scandal first emerged when two people were convicted over phone hacking at the News of the World in 2006, but did not explode until July 4 when it emerged that one of the victims was a murdered teenager, Milly Dowler.

    The flame-haired Brooks, one of Murdoch’s closest lieutenants, was editor of the News of the World at the time that Dowler’s voicemail messages were hacked and deleted.

    Murdoch closed the paper last Sunday, starting a week of chaos in which he had to abandon his bid for control of pay-TV giant BSkyB and accept the resignations on Friday of both Brooks and Dow Jones chief Les Hinton, who had worked with him for 52 years.

    Confirming Brooks’ arrest on Sunday, her spokesman David Wilson said her detention “came as a surprise” after she attended an appointment at a London police station.

    He warned it could affect her planned testimony before British lawmakers on Tuesday over the spiralling scandal alongside Murdoch and his son James, the chairman of News International.

    “At the moment today’s events do somewhat change potentially her ability to attend the hearing. There will be discussions between her lawyers and the select committee over the next 24 to 36 hours,” Wilson told AFP.

    “The fact that she has been arrested clearly has implications and so it is by no means a certainty that she will be able to attend, despite wishing to,” he added.

    He said senior officers had told Brooks earlier in the week that she would not be arrested.

    Scotland Yard confirmed that a 43-year-old woman “was arrested by appointment at a London police station by officers” on Sunday and was in custody.

    It said she was held “in connection with allegations of corruption and phone hacking”.

    Brooks, 43, is the 10th person and most senior Murdoch aide to be arrested over the scandal so far. At a previous hearing in 2003 she admitted the paper had made payments to police.

    Source: http://news.yahoo.com/police-chief-quits-over-phone-hacking-scandal-184708233.html


    By Ujala Sehgal | The Atlantic Wire – 8 hrs ago
    Jakarta time is, 18.07.20111, 15.46

    From King Lear to Potter: A Guide to News Corp Literary Analogies

    The scandal surrounding News Corp. has taken on epic proportions. The cast of characters involved is fascinating and the plot turns ever more multifaceted. There are unseen twists, dark secrets, meteoric rises, and bitter tragedies. So it’s natural that writers and journalists, otherwise at a loss for a way in which to describe the dramatic fallout, are turning increasingly to literature. This is what they’ve come up with:

    William Shakespeare’s King Lear. Comparisons between Rupert Murdoch and King Lear, the paranoid tyrant who descended into madness as he held on to his power, have been circulating for years. Before the scandal broke, in a 2002 article by the Telegraph, Murdoch was King Lear (of course), Lachlan and James Murdoch were like Lear’s daughters Goneril and Regan, “maneuvering for preferment,” and Elisabeth Murdoch was “the Cordelia of the outfit,” for opting out of the race.

    But the King Lear comparisons have returned with a vengeance with this latest scandal. According to Kevin Myers at the Independent, there has been a reshuffling:  Murdoch “appears as a genial old Lear, rewarding the loyalty of his lovely daughter Cordelia: yes, Rebekah Brooks, who — miraculously — also resembles a winsome Ophelia, wide-eyed and floating red tresses. Next moment, she stalks the stone corridors like Lady Macbeth, garrotting sentries.” And for the rest, he foregoes Lear entirely, and plays fast and loose with Shakespeare’s other iconic roles:

    “And lo! Here comes David Cameron, who thinks he is Henry V at Agincourt, but in reality is a sleekly podgy Juliet in a schoolboy production at Eton, opposite a Romeo played with reptilian bravura by James Murdoch, Rupert’s son. Enter stage left that sinister buffoon Piers Morgan, half-Iago, half-clown, bladder in one hand, a freshly sharpened bodkin in the other.

    Overall, the scandal is best described as “a surreal Shakespearean composite, an Elsinore on acid.”

    J.K. Rowling’s Harry Potter Series. The New Republic deserves much credit for applying its Harry Potter analogy of the Murdoch scandal to cover all the major players, with a slideshow besides. Some of the highlights:

    Rupert Murdoch as Lord Voldemort
    Nick Davies as Harry Potter
    Rebekah Brooks as Bellatrix Lestrange
    David Cameron as Cornelius Fudge
    James Murdoch as Nagini

    And it goes on! It’s well worth looking through in its entirety.

    Charles Dickens’ A Christmas Carol. Not everyone is thrilled about the grandiose depiction of the scandal as a “Shakespearean Tragedy.” On Saturday’s Good Morning America on ABC, Correspondent Jeffrey Kofman said the story reminded him more like something out of Charles Dickens than the work of the Bard, particularly with regard to Murdoch’s recent full page apology ad, and apology to the family of Milly Dowler, the 13-year-old murder victim whose phone messages were hacked. Said Kofman:

    “As you could say quite appropriately it’s a contrition mission. You know, I was trying to figure out what analogy works here – is this Shakespearean, his fall? But, actually, it reminds me of A Christmas Carol when Ebenezer Scrooge comes and approaches Tiny Tim and tries to atone for his past sins.

    Well that’s a remarkably un-cynical way of looking at it! Perhaps Murdoch will take another page out of Dickens, and sacrifice himself in the scandal to save others as anti-hero Sidney Carton did in A Tale Of Two Cities, claiming, “It is a far, far better thing that I do, than I have ever done; it is a far, far better rest that I go to than I have ever known.” But unlikely.

    J.R. Tolkien’s The Lord of the Rings. If Harry Potter doesn’t cut it for you, others have compared the News Corp. scandal to the Lord of the Rings, with Rupert Murdoch as an evil “media sorcerer.” Charles Moore at the Telegraph writes:

    “If News International fails to get control of BSkyB, what sorcery can Mr Murdoch employ now? He finds himself in the position of Saruman in The Lord of the Rings. He has been exposed, and he is losing the battle for Middle Earth – or rather, Middle England.

    But blogger Stephen Deas saw in his alternative version of Lord of the Rings: “Rupert Murdoch as Sauron, or News International as the numberless hordes of the Nadir.” Though he added, “personally I get stuck when Hugh Grant becomes Frodo Baggins, or Nick Clegg becomes Druss the Legend, neither of which particularly work for me.”

    Source: http://www.theatlanticwire.com/entertainment/2011/07/potter-king-lear-guide-news-corp-literary-analogies/40073/


    Peter Preston
    The Observer, Sunday 17 July 2011

    News Corp saga is gripping: let’s soak up the family drama

    The resignations of Rebekah Brooks and now Les Hinton mean the News International saga is set to roll on


    Rupert Murdoch may have offered his protection but Rebekah Brooks’s resignation seemed inevitable. Photograph: Phil Noble/Reuters

    There is always a point, in any great hunting party, when you begin to feel a bit soppy about the fox. That point is probably upon us now. Rebekah Brooks’s resistance crumbles. James Murdoch papers Fleet Street with full-page ads saying “Sorry”. Les Hinton, old mate and old right-hand man, quits. MPs on the media select committee ring Tuesday in their diaries and lick their lips. High noon for Rupert, too? Two weeks ago he was the biggest media power on the planet. Now he’s just a poor old guy. Hubris: this is, in a classical sense, tragic. From Tamburlaine to King Lear in a fortnight.

    And that, if all the usual journalistic injunctions to fairness, balance and impartiality matter a scrap, ought to make us pause for a moment and say what nobody outside Wapping’s walls has said for a long time now. When Rupert Murdoch arrived in Britain over four decades ago and bought the News of the World, there was only one other bidder in the race: Robert Maxwell. When Rupert Murdoch moved fast to buy the Times and Sunday Times, there was only one bidder still interested: a Daily Mail consortium (which would probably have killed off the Thunderer in a trice).

    When Rupert Murdoch bought the New York Post (for a second time) it was him or oblivion for the Post. When he bought the Wall Street Journal from a rabble of a Bancroft family, he put up its circulation, changed it enough to win Sir Harold Evans’s approval, and (until last week) had former opponents to the bid publicly recanting. When, in the direst circumstances of personal economic crisis, he saved BSkyB from ruinous collapse, he achieved something that the effete panjandrums of British broadcasting could only gasp over.

    That’s a much-truncated list of good things you could say about Rupert Murdoch if BBC standards of fairness and balance swung into action now. They don’t, for a second, outweigh the vile wrongs recently revealed. They aren’t remotely an argument for forgiving and forgetting. But it’s crazy, amid a great wash of righteousness, to pretend they don’t exist. Without them, there would in all probability be no Times and maybe no Sunday Times either.

    Without them, to be frank, our politicians wouldn’t have needed to go crawling around summer parties and weddings offering obeisances. They paid him court because he was a mover, shaker and master builder. They drank his Pimms because they feared his reputation. Now, in a gust of revulsion, all that’s gone. And the question at the heart of the affair lies revealed. Simply: who’s in charge of this total debacle – a catastrophe of corporate governance and public relations that makes even Scotland Yard look good?

    Consider the twists and turns since the Guardian revealed how Milly Dowler’s mobile had been hacked. Who was in charge of the News of the World at the time? Rebekah Brooks. Rupert, off the cuff, says she’s staying as Wapping CEO. James kills the News of the World in a minute, but Brooks, hanging on, declines to follow. 200 journalists are losing their jobs: Rebekah isn’t.

    Enter Rupert in person, hugging Mrs Brooks. She’s not going (again). Is she, with Murdoch père et fils, heeding the summons by John Whittingdale’s select committee? She is, they aren’t. Then, 15 seconds later, they all are. The BSkyB bid is scrapped. Incredibly. Rupert tells his Wall Street Journal that only “minor mistakes” have been made and it’s all been handled “excellently”. Then Rebekah, the unsackable one, goes, and more crucially, Les Hinton, ex-laird of Wapping, current chieftain at Dow Jones, disappears too. Cancel my last announcement? No: bury it deep in a trench of chaos and utter confusion. Hinton’s departure leaves his great chum, boss and confidante in New York painfully exposed, with only a dissonant family ranged behind him. Which is the absolute bottom line on this unrolling disaster.

    One facile conclusion, thus far, sees a ruthless tycoon still moving bits around his global board, still fighting to maintain his family dominance of one of the world’s biggest media companies. But the reality is quite the opposite. It is of a monster enterprise monstering itself, of a family that can’t get a grip – on itself or dad; of a dynasty falling apart as shareholders splutter and investors turned chicken cross the road.

    Who appointed Rebekah Brooks and sustained her well beyond due departure date? Who believed, with Hinton, that the “rotten element” at the News of the World had been carved out? Who kept issuing statements that had to be trashed and kept manning cardboard barricades? Who is ultimately responsible for this shambles – not because he knew about the phone hacking, not because he bribed policemen, but because News Corp is his one-man show?

    These aren’t “minor mistakes”. These are the errors of an old, charismatic leader struggling to adjust in an empire riven by complexity and feuding. These are errors of structure as well as personality, not personality, that ought to give Wall Street the heebie-jeebies.

    Of course it matters what MPs find out on Tuesday. Of course it’s important to find the roots of the hacking culture and tear them up. Of course there are bitter lessons for press, police and politicians here as the stones are rolled away and we can see what lies beneath. But these are not the heart of the story now. That is still being played out in real time as a new TV executive takes charge of Wapping’s remaining newspapers, as big shareholders revolt – and the biggest shareholder of the lot confronts a life where his “friends” make their excuses and leave – and only a distraught, fractured family remains.

    Feeling sorry for the fox? Maybe it’s still too early to mix triumphalism with a little sadness. But tune in on Tuesday and see for yourself, because this is intensely human drama now. And the next head of News Corp will not be called Murdoch.

    Source: http://www.guardian.co.uk/media/2011/jul/17/les-hinton-rebekah-brooks-resignations-shake-news-corp


    JILL LAWLESS – Associated Press,
    ROBERT BARR – Associated Press | AP – 1 hr 49 mins ago

    WSJ publisher quits in phone-hacking scandal

    US businessman Les Hinton, CEO of Dow Jones & Company and publisher of the Wall Street Journal, arrives a house …

    LONDON (AP) — Rupert Murdoch accepted the resignations of The Wall Street Journal’s publisher and the chief of his British operations on Friday as the once-defiant media mogul struggled to control an escalating phone hacking scandal, offering apologies to the public and the family of a murdered schoolgirl.

    The scandal has knocked billions off the value of Murdoch’s News Corp., scuttled his ambitions to take control of a lucrative satellite TV company, withered his political power in Britain — and is threatening to destabilize his globe-spanning empire.

    The controversy claimed its first Murdoch executive in the United States as Les Hinton, chief executive of the Murdoch-owned Dow Jones & Co. and publisher of the Wall Street Journal, announced he was resigning with immediate effect.

    Murdoch’s British lieutenant, Rebekah Brooks, stepped down earlier Friday.

    Hinton, 67, has worked for Murdoch’s News Corp. for 52 years and is one of the media baron’s staunchest allies. He became head of Dow Jones in December 2007.

    He was chairman of Murdoch’s British newspaper arm during some of the years its staffers are alleged to have hacked cell phones, but testified to a parliamentary committee in 2009 that he had seen no evidence abuses had spread beyond a single jailed reporter, Clive Goodman.

    Hinton said Friday that “the pain caused to innocent people (by hacking) is unimaginable.”

    “That I was ignorant of what apparently happened is irrelevant, and in the circumstances I feel it is proper for me to resign from News Corp. and apologize to those hurt by the actions of News of the World,” he said.

    Murdoch said he accepted Hinton’s resignation with “much sadness.” It capped a difficult week for the embattled mogul.

    Just a day after asserting that News Corp. had made only “minor mistakes,” Murdoch issued an apology to run in Britain’s national newspapers for “serious wrongdoing” by the News of the World, which he shut down last week amid allegations of large-scale illegal hacking by its staff.

    “We are sorry for the serious wrongdoing that occurred. We are deeply sorry for the hurt suffered by the individuals affected. We regret not acting faster to sort things out,” said the full-page ad, signed by Murdoch and due to run in Saturday’s editions of Britain’s main national newspapers.

    Murdoch promised “further concrete steps to resolve these issues and make amends for the damage they have caused.”

    Murdoch also met the family of murdered schoolgirl Milly Dowler, whose phone was hacked by the News of the World in 2002. The revelation that journalists had accessed her phone in search of scoops inflamed the long-simmering scandal about illegal eavesdropping by the newspaper.

    The 80-year-old mogul emerged from the meeting at a London hotel to catcalls of “shame on you!” from hecklers. He said that “as founder of the company I was appalled to find out what had happened and I apologized.”

    Dowler family lawyer Mark Lewis said Murdoch appeared humbled and had offered “a heartfelt and what seemed to be a very sincere apology.”

    “I don’t think somebody could have held their head in their hands so many times and said that they were sorry,” Lewis said.

    Murdoch’s tone was dramatically different from an interview published Thursday in the Wall Street Journal — which is owned by News Corp. — in which he said the company had handled the crisis “extremely well in every way possible” and complained he was “getting annoyed” at all the negative headlines.

    The crisis claimed another senior scalp Friday as Brooks, chief executive of Murdoch’s British newspaper division, resigned.

    The media magnate had defended the 43-year-old Brooks in the face of demands she step down from British politicians — including her friend and neighbor, Prime Minister David Cameron. After previously refusing to accept her resignation, Murdoch made an abrupt switch as News Corp. struggled but failed to contain the crisis.

    Brooks said she was stepping aside because “my desire to remain on the bridge has made me a focal point of the debate.”

    “This is now detracting attention from all our honest endeavors to fix the problems of the past,” she said in an email to staff.

    Brooks said she would “concentrate on correcting the distortions and rebutting the allegations about my record as a journalist, an editor and executive.”

    A new chief executive untainted by the U.K. problems, Tom Mockridge, was installed to replace Brooks at News International, the British arm of Rupert Murdoch’s global News Corp. Mockridge, a 55-year-old New Zealander, joined News Corp. in 1991 and has been in charge of Sky Italia since 2003. Dow Jones President Todd Larsen will maintain his title but will temporarily be the top executive there.

    The moves came after News Corp. brought in Edelman Communications to help with public relations and lobbying — an admission, perhaps, that its attempts to manage the crisis have so far been a disaster.

    News Corp.’s critics say the company underestimated the public and political anger. Media analyst Claire Enders said the company had cast itself as a victim — “which is completely impossible for people here to respond to and is making things worse.”

    Brooks’ departure marks a reversal of fortune for one of Britain’s most powerful media executives, who rose from secretary to CEO during 22 years with News International.

    Critics said she should have gone long ago. She was editor of the News of the World between 2000 and 2003, when the paper’s employees allegedly hacked into 13-year-old Milly’s phone as police searched for her, potentially interfering with the police investigation.

    Brooks has always said she had no knowledge of phone hacking, though she did acknowledge in a 2003 appearance before lawmakers that her paper had paid police officers for information — an illegal practice that, along with hacking, is now the center of a criminal investigation.

    Brooks had been in charge of News International’s four — now three — British newspapers since 2007, following a four-year stint as editor of the market-leading daily tabloid, The Sun. Just a week ago, she faced 200 angry employees at the News of the World who had lost their jobs as she kept hers when Murdoch shut down the paper.

    When shareholders began to call for her to go, Brooks’ position became untenable. Saudi Prince Al-Waleed bin Talal Alsaud, the second-largest News Corp. stockholder, told the BBC on Thursday that if Brooks were found to be implicated in wrongdoing by the newspapers, “for sure she has to go.”

    Her resignation was greeted with relief by British politicians.

    Cameron, who had called for Brooks to step down, said she made “the right decision,” said the prime minister’s spokesman, Steve Field.

    Allegations emerged last week that the News of the World hacked not only celebrities, politicians and athletes but Dowler, the victims of London’s 2005 terrorist bombings and the families of dead British soldiers.

    The company first shut down the News of the World and then abandoned a bid to take control of British Sky Broadcasting in an effort to limit the damage to the greater News Corp. empire, which includes Fox News, the 20th Century Fox movie studio, the Wall Street Journal, the New York Post and the three remaining British newspapers — The Sun, The Times and The Sunday Times.

    Hinton has done much to build and steady the Murdoch empire in the United States, where there were fears Murdoch would damage the venerable Wall Street Journal brand.

    New projects, including a beefed-up New York section and the lifestyle magazine insert WSJ, helped the 122-year-old paper surpass USA Today as America’s top-selling daily during Hinton’s 3-year tenure.

    In a memo to staff Friday, Hinton defended Murdoch as a strong backer of Dow Jones, “allowing us to invest and expand as other media companies slashed costs.”

    Hinton, who was named to the AP board in April, had been scheduled to attend his first board meeting next week, but it now seems certain that his tenure will be brief.

    “We’ve just heard this news, but the AP board of directors is made up of current leaders of news companies,” said AP spokesman Paul Colford.

    Friday’s dual departures of two key executives show Murdoch is “trying to build a firewall between the past and the future of News Corp.,” said newspaper analyst Ken Doctor.

    It also suggests that Murdoch doesn’t want the Journal, one of the world’s most respected newspapers, to get tarred in a scandal involving the tawdry behavior of journalists at a British tabloid.

    Protecting the Journal’s reputation has become more important to Murdoch now that the media mogul’s political influence in Britain has been diminished. Doctor believes it’s likely News Corp. will sell all of its British newspapers.

    “He has lost his power in Britain and he is never going to get it back in this lifetime, so there is no longer a reason for him to own News International,” Doctor said. “The movie studio and cable TV is what’s really important to protect now.”

    The crisis is far from over.

    This week Cameron appointed a judge to conduct a sweeping inquiry into criminal activity at the paper and in the British media.

    British police have arrested nine people in their investigation of phone hacking and alleged bribery of police officers, and have uncovered a list of 3,700 names of potential victims. Next week Brooks, Murdoch and his son James face questions from a British parliamentary committee.

    Most worrying for the Murdochs are signs the crisis could spread to the United States, where the FBI has opened an inquiry into whether 9/11 victims or their families were targeted by News Corp. papers.

    News Corp.’s main, nonvoting stock, which has rallied in recent days after losses last week, increased 20 cents, or 1.3 percent, to close Friday at $15.64.
    ____

    Raphael G. Satter, Danica Kirka and Cassandra Vinograd in London, David Randall and Barbara Ortutay in New York, Michael Liedtke in San Francisco and Ryan Nakashima in Los Angeles contributed to this report.

    Source: http://news.yahoo.com/wsj-publisher-quits-phone-hacking-scandal-205855939.html


    Ben Quinn and  Lisa O’Carroll
    The Guardian, Saturday 16 July 2011

    Les Hinton: the rise and fall of Rupert Murdoch’s most trusted lieutenant

    A model of discretion, dedication and loyalty for over 50 years finally parts company with the media mogul and his empire


    Les Hinton, chief executive officer of Dow Jones, the publisher of the Wall Street Journal, resigned from his post over the NoW phone-hacking scandal. Photograph: Mark Lennihan/AP

    When he embarked on his media career as a teenager checking copy at Rupert Murdoch’s first paper, Australia’s Adelaide News, Les Hinton’s duties included fetching lunch for the future global media mogul. In a speech earlier this year, Hinton underlined his loyalty to the man he has spent more than 50 years serving when he quipped “If Rupert Murdoch asks me to get his lunch, I still will.”

    Tall, trim and debonair, with rimless glasses and waves of silver hair, Hinton has a reputation for being level-headed and insightful, and has won praise for balancing out some of the stormier personalities within the Murdoch empire.

    “He runs interference for Rupert,” said a source who knows both men. “He’s a very nice guy – congenial, easygoing and smart.” Hinton’s charm, not to mention his discretion as Murdoch’s most trusted lieutenant, are among the qualities that have been key in his rise through the ranks.

    A British citizen by birth who took US citizenship in 1985, Hinton was tapped to run News International in 1995 after pounding streets and working phones as a reporter for various Murdoch-owned newspapers, during which time he was injured while covering the Northern Ireland conflict.

    At the top of the News International hierarchy, he was equally at home with the celebrity culture of the tabloids as he was with spreadsheets and boardroom power plays.

    He was liked by staff, particularly by journalists, who felt he understood their trade, but he rarely courted publicity. Hinton’s motto was said to be: “The lower your profile, the longer your longevity in Rupert’s court.”

    It paid off. Few if any of Murdoch consiglieri can boast the career credentials listed in the press statement issued last night by News Corp following his resignation.

    It recounts how 12 years as executive chairman of NI were preceded by 20 years working in the US, first as a correspondent for the company’s newspapers in the UK and Australia and later in a series of senior management positions at News Corp’s publishing and television business units.

    Other postings have including being president and chief executive of News America Publishing, responsible for the News Corp’s US publishing operations, and chairman and chief executive of Fox Television stations.

    However, it was said to be with reluctance that the 67-year-old went to the US after News Corp acquired Dow Jones, publisher of the Wall Street Journal, for $5.6bn (£3.9bn) in 2007.

    Tasked with transforming the journal into the “Financial Times of America”, he was parachuted in to take over the running of Dow Jones and integrate it into Murdoch’s global media empire.

    In 2009, Hinton was the focus of persistent speculation that he would be elevated to the top of the News Corp pyramid after the departure of Peter Chernin, the company’s president and chief operating officer. In the end, Chase Carey succeeded Chermin.

    Characteristically, Hinton had laughed off those rumours, and a Telegraph reporter who interviewed him then couldn’t help but pick up the hint that Dow Jones was to be his last major executive job.

    Whether Hinton had been planning to call it a day even before the fall-out from the hacking affair might never be known. At the same time, it’s also hard to see Hinton, an admitted newspaper man at heart, being content to spend his retirement lounging in his elegant townhouse on Manhattan’s upper east side with his wife, Kath, a former aide to Gordon Brown.

    In the more immediate term, with MPs, police and (soon) a judge all seeking answers on what happened in the deep-carpeted executive offices of Wapping during Hinton’s reign there, it is unlikely that his departure from News Corp will shift him from the eye of the storm.

    Source: http://www.guardian.co.uk/media/2011/jul/16/les-hinton-resigns-rupert-murdoch


    Ed Pilkington in New York and Chris McGreal in Washington
    The Guardian, Saturday 16 July 2011

    Les Hinton forced out as scandal threatens Rupert Murdoch’s empire

    Lieutenant resigns as chief executive of Dow Jones in attempt to prevent American interests from being contaminated


    Les Hinton was chairman of News International from 1995 to 2007 before becoming chief executive of Dow Jones in New York. Photograph: Mark Lennihan/AP

    Les Hinton, one of Rupert Murdoch’s closest business associates and head of News International at the height of the News of the World’s phone hacking, resigned on Friday as chief executive of Dow Jones in New York in an attempt to prevent Murdoch’s American interests being contaminated by the British scandal.

    In his resignation letter to Murdoch, Hinton again insisted he had no knowledge of the illegal activities at the News of the World. “That I was ignorant of what apparently happened is irrelevant, and in the circumstances I feel it is proper for me to resign from News Corp and apologise to those hurt by the actions of the News of the World,” he said.

    Michael Wolff, biographer of Rupert Murdoch and editor of Adweek, said Hinton’s resignation took the phone-hacking scandal to another level. “One of Murdoch’s central executives in the US has been fired,” Wolff said. “This is yet another dramatic move designed to quell the rising tide of opprobrium against News Corporation, but the problem is it is just going to increase the opprobrium.”

    Hinton’s departure takes the phone-hacking scandal out of the confined territory of UK papers and takes it to the core of Murdoch’s empire in New York. The Wall Street Journal, which Hinton, as chief executive of Dow Jones, had published, was seen as the pinnacle of Murdoch’s lifetime career of media acquisitions.

    It is also significant because Hinton, a former journalist on the Sun who has worked for Murdoch for 50 years beginning as a teenage reporter in Australia, was one of the small, tight inner circle of Murdoch loyalists that for decades have been the driving force behind News Corporation’s expansion.

    The departure of Rebekah Brooks as chief executive of News International earlier on Friday appeared to expose Hinton who was chairman of the UK newspaper arm of Murdoch’s empire for 12 years until 2007 when he moved to Dow Jones which is owned by the parent company, News Corporation.

    Hinton has been accused of giving misleading information to parliament on two occasions, in 2007 and 2009, by saying there was no evidence of widespread malpractice within the company.

    It was Hinton who handled the aftermath of the arrest of the News of the World’s former royal editor Clive Goodman in 2006, by claiming that the phone hacking was limited to a single reporter and no executives were aware of it.

    With the spotlight on Brooks, Hinton managed to stay on the sidelines of the crisis. He made no comments and had not been seen in public since the hacking of Milly Dowler’s voicemail was revealed. “Hinton’s strategy has been to keep his head down,” Wolff said shortly before the resignation announcement. “But he can’t do that for much longer. This is a classic domino effect.”

    With Brooks gone, there were bound to be deeper questions about Hinton’s role, which threatened to embarrass Dow Jones and News Corporation at a time when US shareholders, politicians and pressure groups are asking whether former executives in the British arm of Murdoch’s company brought unethical practices across the Atlantic. Hinton’s name in particular was mentioned more frequently.

    Hinton was particularly susceptible to scrutiny because of his disputed testimony to parliament, which is likely to be revisited at the hearings on Tuesday at which Rupert Murdoch, his son James, and Brooks are expected to testify. In his resignation letter, Hinton rejected claims he had misled parliament.

    “When I left News International in December 2007, I believed that the rotten element at the News of the World had been eliminated; that important lessons had been learned; and that journalistic integrity was restored,” he said. “My testimonies before the Culture Media and Sport Select Committee were given honestly. When I appeared before the Committee in March 2007, I expressed the belief that Clive Goodman had acted alone, but made clear our investigation was continuing.

    “In September 2009, I told the Committee there had never been any evidence delivered to me that suggested the conduct had spread beyond one journalist. If others had evidence that wrongdoing went further, I was not told about it.”

    Claire Enders, a media analyst in London, said questions were bound to be asked about Hinton’s role: “How the culture emerged at News of the World while he was head of News International, and what if anything he knew about the 2007 report into its activities, will emerge.”

    So far parliament has given no indication that it wishes to recall Hinton to explain his earlier comments, but MPs have expressed their dissatisfaction with his appearances before them.

    Hinton’s departure appears to be a move to protect Murdoch’s larger business interests in the US from being drawn further into the News of the World scandal. News Corp is under scrutiny, with the FBI launching an investigation into whether victims of the 9/11 attacks might have been targeted by phone-hacking allegedly carried out at the request of News Corp journalists .

    Members of Congress from both major parties have warned of “severe” consequences if a report in the Daily Mirror – that the News of the World attempted to access the voicemails of victims of the al-Qaeda attacks or other Americans – is true.

    Six members of Congress, from both parties, have called for official inquiries into whether the illegal practices displayed by News of the World in the UK were ever repeated by News Corp’s print or other businesses within the US.

    They include senators who wrote to the US attorney general, Eric Holder, also asking whether Murdoch’s company broke anti-bribery legislation under the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. The senators referred to bribes by News of the World reporters to London police officers.

    “The reported allegations against News Corp are very serious, indicate a pattern of illegal activity and involve thousands of potential victims. It is important to ensure that no United States laws were broken and no US citizens were victimised,” the senators wrote.

    Murdoch said Hinton’s resignation was “a matter of much sadness”. He said: “Let me emphasise one point: News Corporation is not Rupert Murdoch. It is the collective creativity and effort of many thousands of people around the world, and few individuals have given more to this company than Les Hinton.”

    Source: http://www.guardian.co.uk/media/2011/jul/16/les-hinton-scandal-rupert-murdoch


    Pepih Nugraha | Kamis, 14 Juli 2011 | 12:46 WIB
    Media Massa

    Belajar dari Kematian News of the World


    AP Photo/Sang Tan. James Murdoch (kanan), pemimpin eksekutif News Corporation Eropa dan Asia, bersama Rebekah Brooks (tengah), pemimpin eksekutif News International, dan suaminya, Charlie Brooks (kiri), meninggalkan hotel di pusat kota London, Minggu (10/7). Hari itu, tabloid News of the World menerbitkan edisi terakhir setelah skandal penyadapan telepon.

    Satu media massa terkenal di dunia tutup beberapa hari lalu. News of The World namanya. Tabloid itu merupakan milik Rupert Murdoch yang dikenal sebagai bos media yang jaringannya sangat besar. Pemicunya, tabloid itu disangka melakukan penyadapan ilegal terhadap telepon beberapa orang atas suruhan eksekutif di media itu. Padahal, rekam jejak media itu bisa disebut mentereng. Kini, usai sudah kiprahnya.

    Demikian laporan pewarta warga Adian Saputra di social media Kompasiana. Berikut tulisan lengkapnya…

    Kompas edisi Rabu, 13 Juli 2011, dalam Tajuk Rencananya menulis soal edisi terakhir editorial media itu. “Kami menghargai standar tinggi, kami menuntut standar tinggi, tetapi saat ini kami tahu dengan sangat bersedih hati, selama periode beberapa tahun hingga tahun 2006, sejumlah orang yang bekerja untuk kami, atau atas nama kami, jatuh dengan memalukan di bawah standar tersebut. Mudahnya, kami tersesat. Telepon diretas, dan untuk itu, koran ini benar-benar menyesal.”

    Beberapa editor dan wartawan bakal menghadapi tuntutan lantaran tindakan ilegal mereka menyadap telepon. Salah satunya ialah Andy Coulson. Ia bakal membuat Perdana Menteri David Cameron kikuk. Sebab, Andy Coulson adalah Kepala Bagian Pers Cameron setelah mundur dari media itu sesaat setelah Cameron menjadi perdana menteri. Coulson sudah mundur pada Januari lalu sat kasus ini meruyak.

    Kejadian seperti kasus di atas membuktikan bahwa media bisa saja salah, baik berkenaan dengan tugas jurnalistiknya, maupun di luar itu. Dalam ranah bisnis, misalnya.

    Pers di luar negeri bahkan acap membuat edisi yang berisi permintaan maaf karena salah satu artikelnya mengandung kesalahan fatal.

    Majalah The New Republic pernah mengalami hal serupa. Ini majalah prestise. Di pesawat kepresidenan Amerika Serikat, Air Force One, pasti ada majalah ini. Oplahnya bukan yang terbesar, tapi seolah menjadi keunggulan bagi mereka yang sudah membacanya.

    Stephen Glass, wartawan muda majalah itu, banyak menulis feature dan artikel menarik lainnya. Tidak ada keluhan dari pembaca dan narasumber atas tulisan Glass. Hingga suatu waktu terjadi perubahan editor (setara pemimpin redaksi) di sana. Editor yang baru, Chuck, tak terlalu disenangi jurnalis lain. Tapi Chuck punya determinasi tinggi dan ketat dalam verifikasi.

    Suatu waktu wartawan majalah Forbes Digital dimarahi editornya karena tak menulis soal pertemuan para peretas (hacker) seperti yang ditulis Glass di The New Republic. Si wartawan bingung karena sama sekali tak mendengarnya. Usut punya usut, kejadian itu tak pernah ada. Glass berbohong dan menulis artikel hasil karangan. Dua editor, Forbes Digital dan The New Republic, kemudian sama-sama memverifikasi yang ditulis Glass.

    Chuck tegas. Glass mesti dikasih sanksi tegas. Tapi, kolega Glass di The New Republic awalnya tak sepakat. Mereka merasa Glass cuma korban. Akhirnya Chuck ambil langkah tegas. Semua tulisan Glass di majalah diverifikasi. Hasilnya mencengangkan, hampir 90 persen tulisan Glass adalah karangan. The New Republic lalu mengeluarkan edisi khusus permohonan maaf kepada pembaca yang selama ini ditipu oleh Glass. Stephen Glass pun dipecat.

    • Kita mesti jujur, di Indonesia, tradisi itu belum kuat. Saat ada kesalahan cetak nama narasumber saja, media kita abai dengan perbaikan. Bahkan, saat menulis kronologis kejadian saja, masih sering salah. Wujud paling mudah dilihat adalah contoh berikut ini. Cobalah ambil tiga koran lokal di daerah Anda. Baca satu berita yang sama, misalnya kriminalitas. Coba simak nama korban atau nama pelaku, hampir pasti berbeda. Bayangkan, hanya untuk urusan nama, belum yang lain.

    Media di Indonesia memang harus banyak belajar. Belajar profesional, belajar disiplin verifikasi, dan belajar rendah hati. Rendah hati? Ya, rendah hati. Bahkan, satu dari sembilan elemen jurnalisme yang diusung Bill Kovach dan Tom Rosensteil dalam buku Sembilan Elemen Jurnalisme, adalah rendah hati. Jadi wartawan tak menjadi insan yang sok, ditakuti, dan disegani. Wartawan adalah warga biasa yang bertugas sebagai pewarta. Dan dengan rendah hati juga seorang Bondan “Mak Nyus” Winarno mampu menginvestigasi kematian misterius geolog perusahaan tambang emas Kanada, BreX: de Guzman.

    De Guzman dicari banyak orang karena memberikan keterangan bahwa cadangan emas di Busang sangat besar. Imbasnya, harga saham BreX naik dan semua petinggi korporasi itu menikmati duit yang besar. Tidak terkecuali de Guzman. De Guzman ditemukan “mati” jatuh dari helikopter. Dan Bondan dengan kesungguhan bekerjanya akhirnya “membuktikan” bahwa Guzman belum mati. Ia hanyalah lenyap karena tak mau bertanggung jawab atas kisruh cadang emas di Busang.

    Dengan kerendahan hati, semua narasumber mau memberikan keterangan tanpa Bondan menyembunyikan diri status jurnalisnya dalam bekerja. Setiap akan mewawancarai narasumber, ujar penulis-sastrawan Linda Christanty, Bondan terang-terangan mengaku wartawan dan akan menulis buku soal kematian Guzman. Dan Bondan membuktikan dengan kerendahan hati, reportasenya itu selesai dengan judul buku: Sebungkah Emas di Kaki Pelangi. Sayang, buku itu tak pernah saya peroleh. Semasa itu direportase, zaman Presiden Suharto, karya jurnalistik itu dilarang edar karena menyangkut nama Menteri Pertambangan IB Sudjana.

    • Kita berharap media massa Indonesia semakin matang dan rendah hati dalam bekerja. Pengalaman News The World dan The New Republic bisa menjadi ibrah yang paling baik. Ini penting agar media kita semakin bermartabat. Paling tidak Pak Presiden Yudhoyono tak acap curhat soal perlakuan media kepadanya dan kepada partainya: Demokrat. Wallahualam bissawab.

    Sumber : Kompasiana
    Link: http://internasional.kompas.com/read/2011/07/14/12463536/Belajar.dari.Kematian.News.of.the.World


    Egidius Patnistik | Jumat, 15 Juli 2011 | 09:55 WIB

    SKANDAL MEDIA

    FBI Periksa Perusahaan Murdoch

    WASHINGTON, KOMPAS.com – Biro Penyelidikan Federal (FBI) AS melancarkan sebuah investigasi terhadap perusahaan Rupert Murdoch, News Corp, setelah ada laporan bahwa para karyawan perusahaan itu mungkin telah berusaha untuk menyadap percakapan telepon dan voice mail dari korban selamat, korban tewas serta keluarga korban peristiwa serangan teroris 11 September 2001, kata seorang penegak hukum federal kepada CNN, Kamis (14/7/2011) waktu setempat.

    “Kami mengetahui tuduhan-tuduhan itu dan sedang mendalaminya,” kata sumber itu, yang minta namanya tidak disebutkan karena sensitivitas penyelidikan tersebut. “Kami sedang mendalami siapa pun yang bertindak untuk atau atas nama News Corp, dari pimpinan puncak hingga ke tukang sapu,” untuk mengumpulkan informasi dan menentukan apakah telah terjadi pelanggaran hukum. Sumber itu mengatakan, karena penyelidikan baru saja dimulai, masih terlalu dini untuk mengatakan kapan wawancara pertama akan dilakukan. Yang pasti, kata dia, pemeriksaan tersebut merupakan sebuah “prioritas tinggi”.

    Peter T Raja, anggota parlemen Partai Republik dari wilayah New York, awal pekan ini, telah meminta Direktur FBI, Robert Mueller, untuk menyelidiki kemungkinan para wartawan yang bekerja untuk media milik Murdoch telah menyadap telepon korban dan kerabat korban peristiwa 11 September atau sering disebut 9/11 itu.

    Pihak News Corp, Kamis, mengatakan no comment terhadap penyelidikan FBI atau kemungkinan tentang rapat dengar pendapat dengan Kongres AS.

    Kekhawatiran adanya praktek penyadapan oleh kelompok media milik Murdoch di AS sebagaimana yang terungkap sudah dilakukan kelompok media itu di Inggris, tampaknya bisa terlacak dari sebuah laporan yang diterbitkan The Mirror, sebuah tabloid Inggris, Rabu. Tabloid itu mengutip “sebuah sumber” yang merujuk ke mantan perwira polisi yang sekarang bekerja sebagai penyelidik swasta. “Penyilidik itu dipakai oleh banyak wartawan di Amerika dan dia baru-baru ini mengatakan kepada saya bahwa ia telah diminta untuk menyadap data telepon pribadi korban 9/11,” kata sumber itu sebagai dilaporkan media tersebut.

    Sumber itu mengatakan kepada The Mirror bahwa permintaan tersebut datang dari News of the World, salah satu media milik Murdoch yang berada di pusat skandal penyadapan telepon di Inggris dan telah ditutup hari Minggu lalu. “Dia mengatakan bahwa para wartawan itu memintanya untuk mengakses catatan-catatan yang menunjukkan panggilan ke dan dari ponsel milik para korban dan keluarga mereka,” tulis tabloid tersebut.

    “Dugaan dia adalah bahwa mereka menginginkan informasi tersebut sehingga mereka bisa menyadap ke kotak suara yang relevan (untuk berita mereka), seperti yang terbukti telah mereka lakukan di Inggris.”

    Penyelidik swasta itu mengatakan ia mengabaikan pekerjaan itu. Dia tahu bagaimana tidak sensitifnya penelitian tersebut dan betapa buruknya dampak hal itu. Penyelidik itu mengatakan, para wartawan tersebut tampaknya sangat tertarik untuk mendapatkan catatan telepon dari para korban yang berasal dari Inggris.”

    Keluarga para korban serangan teroris itu berang atas kemungkinan para wartawan telah menyadap telepon korban. “Itu benar-benar tidak etis, tidak profesional dan pada dasarnya kriminal,” kata Jim Riches, pensiunan wakil kepala Departemen Kebakaran New York yang kehilangan seorang putranya dalam serangan itu sebagaimana dikutip CNN. Sally Regenhard, yang juga kehilangan seorang putranya dalam serangan itu, menyebut hal tersebut sebagai “sangat mengerikan bahwa hal privasi dan keamanan pribadi bisa dilanggar sedemikian dengan cara yang mengerikan.”

    Senator Partai Demokrat, Frank Lautenberg, dari New Jersey mengatakan, keluarga korban serangan 11 September telah “cukup menderita” dan menuntut jawaban.

    Tekanan untuk melakukan penyelidikan federal terhadap kerajaan media Murdoch bertambah ketika seorang anggota kunci komite pengawas DPR meminta Kongres untuk mendalami tuduhan bahwa salah satu dari perusahaan Murdoch yang berbasis di AS mungkin telah melanggar undang-undang anti-penyuapan serta sejumlah UU lainnya.

    News of the World, sebuah tabloid milik Murdoch di Inggris yang telah berusia 168 tahun dan terakhir beroplah 2,5 juta eksemplar, ditutup hari Minggu lalu di tengah tuduhan bahwa wartawannya secara ilegal menyadap pesan-pesan telepon milik korban pembunuhan, korban teroris, politisi dan selebriti.

    Sumber : CNN
    Link: http://internasional.kompas.com/read/2011/07/15/09552095/FBI.Periksa.Perusahaan.Murdoch


    Jimmy Hitipeuw | Minggu, 10 Juli 2011 | 05:49 WIB

    Newsweek

    Murdoch’s Watergate?


    Rupert Murdoch (AFP/Jemal Countess)

    KOMPAS.com – Skandal penyadapan yang mengguncang kerajaan media Rupert Murdoch bisa jadi hanya menurunkan kepercayaan publik terhadap pengaruh jurnalistik dari media terkemuka di dunia berbahasa Inggris itu.

    Namun, banyak dari kita akan terbelalak apabila mengetahui begitu dalam jurang kebobrokan kasus korupsi jurnalisme bernuansa politik yang dibangun Murdoch di bentangan Atlantik sehingga majalah Newsweek mempertanyakan apakah kasus ini dapat dikategorikan sebagai Murdoch’s Watergate.

    Ribuan telepon pribadi telah disadap terutama oleh orang-orang yang terlibat dalam pemberitaan harian News of the World. Kasus penyadapan ini dilakukan bahkan terhadap Pangeran William, aktor Hugh Grant hingga keluarga tentara Inggris yang tewas dalam pertempuran di Iraq serta Afghanistan.

    Kasus ini telah berdampak ke penangkapan Andy Coulson, mantan kepala humas Perdana Menteri David Cameron atas perannya dalam skandal penyadapan selama masih menjabat sebagai editor News of the World. Editor lainnya, Clive Goodman, juga diringkus untuk kedua kalinya karena terjerat kasus serupa.

    Diumumkannya rencana penutupan News of the World pada 7 Juli lalu telah mengakibatkan ratusan pekerjanya terancam kehilangan mata pencaharian. Selain itu, upaya Murdoch untuk mendapatkan pengaruh penuh di jaringan televisi kabel BSkyB menjadi runyam.

    Kegentingan ini berlangsung saat sejumlah dugaan penyuapan, penyadapan serta bentuk tindakan kriminal lainnya terbongkar termasuk penghapusan jutaan data surat elektronik untuk menghalangi investigasi yang dilakukan oleh polisi Inggris.

    Murdoch selama ini dikenal dengan sosoknya yang tidak mempunyai tandingan pengaruh dalam politik atau rival yang sepadan. Hampir setiap perdana menteri di Inggris sejak Harold Wilson pada era 1960an maupun pada 1970an menaruh hormat terhadap Murdoch dan bisnisnya yang tak tertandingi itu.

    Saat Murdoch menggelar jamuan pesta musim panas di Kensington Gardens pada 16 Juni lalu, Perdana Menteri Cameron dan istrinya, Sam, serta pemimpin Partai Buruh Ed Miliband serta anggota kabinet lainnya hadir.

    Mantan rekanan maupun mereka yang masih aktif termasuk penyusun biografi Murdoch menekankan salah satu ambisi terbesar raja media ini adalah mereplikasikan kekuatan budaya dan politik di AS. Ini dilakukannya dengan mengendarai New York Post yang tidak ditujukan untuk mendatangkan laba besar tetapi menancapkan pengaruh tidak hanya di dunia jurnalisme AS tetapi secara lebih luas di bidang kebudayaan.

    Sumber : Newsweek
    Link: http://internasional.kompas.com/read/2011/07/10/0549087/Murdoch.s.Watergate.

     
  • Virtual Chitchatting 12:16 PM on 2011/07/17 Permalink
    Tags: analysis methods, , , , bursa efek surabaya, business research, business study, financial performance, , market study, panel data, , research methods, stock price   

    Estimasi Persamaan Regresi pada Industri Perbankan di Indonesia: Suatu Analisa Kuantitatif Tingkat Lanjutan Penggunaan Metode Teknik Analisis Data Panel 

    Jakarta, 15 Juli 2011 10.45

    Estimasi Persamaan Regresi pada Industri Perbankan di Indonesia:

    Suatu Analisa Kuantitatif Tingkat Lanjutan Penggunaan Metode Teknik Analisis Data Panel

    oleh: Sando Sasako
    Lead Consultant
    Advanced Advocacy Plus


    This module is a template, role-model, and/or to make hypothetical analysis to the application of panel data research method on the banking industry in Indonesia. This document is made public internationally so anyone can access, retain, and learn how easily we can to analyse the panel data, i.e. both the cross-section data dan the time-series data. Should you have any queries, inquiries, objection, or whatsoever, kindly submit yours to the author. I thank you in advance.

    I would like to acknowledge to any one wholeheartedly and/or partially helping, disguised or not, in assisting this module available to the public. Copyrights infringements should be reported to the author or to file complaints to the initial writers so we can request the courtesy from theirs.

    I would also like to address anyone who made their documents available to the public, but protected, you are doing worthlessly. Any painstaking protection efforts to the digital documents would be knocked down, cracked easily in less than a second. Please be aware of it.

    Keywords: research methods, analysis methods, quantitative analysis, market research, market study, business study, business research, panel data, banking industry, bursa efek indonesia, bursa efek jakarta, bursa efek surabaya, stock price, financial performance.


    Tulisan ini dibuat sebagai template, role-model, analisis hipotetis terhadap aplikasi metode penelitian dan analisis kuantitatif terhadap data panel di industri perbankan di Indonesia.

    Step-by-step approach using EViews 7.1. is provided as is, ultimately as requested by many of mostly my desires and curiousity. Enjoy, please reseed. Emang torrent.


    Per Januari 2011, sebanyak 121 bank umum dengan 13.970 kantornya beroperasi di Indonesia. Jumlah bank tersebut tidak termasuk jumlah bank yang mengoperasikan unit syariah, bank syariahnya, dan BPR. Jumlah bank umum tersebut terdiri dari 4 bank pemerintah, 36 bank swasta devisa, 31 bank swasta non-devisa, 26 BPD, 14 bank campuran, dan 10 bank asing.

    Demi memverifikasi ceklis nama-nama bank yang dimaksud, yang masih aktif, belum ditutup, belum digabung ke bank lain atau lainnya, kami mengalami kesulitan yang cukup menjengkelkan. Pada saat ini, detik-detik ini, server Bank Indonesia sedang down, tidak bisa diakses. Beberapa jam yang lalu, kami bisa mengetahui bahwa laporan keuangan bank-bank umum per Mei 2011 sudah bisa diakses. Berikut ceklis nama-nama bank umum yang (pernah) ada di Indonesia.

    Bank Asing

    1. ABN Amro Bank
    2. American Express Bank Ltd
    3. Bank of America, NA
    4. Bank of China Limited
    5. Citibank NA
    6. Deutsche Bank AG
    7. JP Morgan Chase Bank, NA
    8. Standard Chartered Bank
    9. The Bangkok Bank Comp Ltd
    10. The Bank of Tokyo Mitsubishi UFJ Ltd
    11. The Hongkong & Shanghai BC

    Bank Campuran

    1. ANZ Panin Bank
    2. Bank Agris
    3. Bank BNP Paribas Indonesia
    4. Bank Capital Indonesia, Tbk
    5. Bank China Trust Indonesia
    6. Bank Commonwealth
    7. Bank Credit Agricole Indosuez
    8. Bank Dai-Ichi Kangyo Indonesia
    9. Bank DBS Indonesia
    10. Bank IBJ Indonesia
    11. Bank KEB Indonesia
    12. Bank Maybank Syariah Indonesia
    13. Bank Merincorp
    14. Bank Mizuho Indonesia
    15. Bank OCBC Indonesia
    16. Bank Paribas – BBD Indonesia
    17. Bank Rabobank Duta
    18. Bank Rabobank International Indonesia
    19. Bank Resona Perdania
    20. Bank Sakura Swadharma
    21. Bank Societe General Indonesia
    22. Bank Sumitomo Mitsui Indonesia
    23. Bank UFJ Indonesia
    24. Bank UOB Indonesia
    25. Bank Windu Kentjana International, Tbk
    26. Bank Woori Indonesia
    27. Ing Indonesia Bank
    28. Keppel Tat Lee Buana Bank
    29. Tokai Lippo Bank

    Bank Pemerintah

    1. Bank Ekspor Indonesia (Persero)
    2. Bank Mandiri (Persero), Tbk
    3. Bank Negara Indonesia (Persero) Tbk
    4. Bank Rakyat Indonesia (Persero), Tbk
    5. Bank Tabungan Negara (Persero), Tbk

    Bank Pembangunan Daerah

    1. Bank Aceh
    2. Bank DKI
    3. Bank Kalteng
    4. Bank Lampung
    5. Bank Nagari
    6. BPD Bali
    7. BPD Bengkulu
    8. BPD Jambi
    9. BPD Jawa Barat dan Banten
    10. BPD Jawa Tengah
    11. BPD Jawa Timur
    12. BPD Kalimantan Barat
    13. BPD Kalimantan Selatan
    14. BPD Kalimantan Timur
    15. BPD Maluku
    16. BPD Nusa Tenggara Barat
    17. BPD Nusa Tenggara Timur
    18. BPD Papua (d/h BPD Irian Jaya)
    19. BPD Riau Kepri
    20. BPD Sulawesi Selatan
    21. BPD Sulawesi Tengah
    22. BPD Sulawesi Tenggara
    23. BPD Sulawesi Utara
    24. BPD Sumatera Selatan dan Bangka Belitung
    25. BPD Sumatera Utara
    26. BPD Yogyakarta

    Bank Swasta Devisa

    1. Artamedia Bank
    2. Bank Agroniaga, Tbk
    3. Bank Antardaerah
    4. Bank Arta Niaga Kencana
    5. Bank Artha Graha
    6. Bank Artha Graha Internasional, Tbk
    7. Bank BNI Syariah
    8. Bank Bukopin
    9. Bank Bumi Arta
    10. Bank Central Asia Tbk
    11. Bank CIMB Niaga, Tbk
    12. Bank Dagang Bali
    13. Bank Danamon Indonesia Tbk
    14. Bank Danpac
    15. Bank Ekonomi Raharja, Tbk
    16. Bank Ganesha
    17. Bank Hagakita
    18. Bank Hana
    19. Bank Himpunan Saudara 1906, Tbk
    20. Bank ICB Bumiputera Tbk
    21. Bank ICBC Indonesia
    22. Bank IFI
    23. Bank Index Selindo
    24. Bank Internasional Indonesia Tbk
    25. Bank Kesawan Tbk
    26. Bank Lippo Tbk
    27. Bank Maspion Indonesia
    28. Bank Mayapada International Tbk
    29. Bank Mega, Tbk
    30. Bank Mestika Dharma
    31. Bank Metro Express
    32. Bank Muamalat Indonesia
    33. Bank Mutiara, Tbk
    34. Bank Nusantara Parahyangan,Tbk
    35. Bank OCBC NISP, Tbk
    36. Bank Permata Tbk
    37. Bank Pikko Tbk
    38. Bank Prasidha Utama
    39. Bank Sbi Indonesia
    40. Bank Sinarmas
    41. Bank Swadesi Tbk
    42. Bank Syariah Mandiri
    43. Bank Syariah Mega Indonesia
    44. Bank Unibank Tbk
    45. Bank Universal Tbk
    46. Bank Uob Buana, Tbk
    47. Bank Windu Kentjana
    48. Pan Indonesia Bank, Tbk
    49. Prima Express Bank

    Bank Swasta Non-Devisa

    1. Anglomas Internasional Bank
    2. Bank Andara
    3. Bank Artos Indonesia
    4. Bank Asiatic
    5. Bank Barclays Indonesia
    6. Bank BCA Syariah
    7. Bank Bisnis Internasional
    8. Bank BRI Syariah
    9. Bank Dipo International
    10. Bank Fama Internasional
    11. Bank Harda Internasional
    12. Bank Harmoni International
    13. Bank Ina Perdana
    14. Bank Jabar Banten Syariah
    15. Bank Jasa Jakarta
    16. Bank Kesejahteraan Ekonomi
    17. Bank Mayora
    18. Bank Mitraniaga
    19. Bank Multi Arta Sentosa
    20. Bank Panin Syariah
    21. Bank Patriot
    22. Bank Pundi Indonesia Tbk
    23. Bank Ratu
    24. Bank Royal Indonesia
    25. Bank Sahabat Purba Danarta
    26. Bank Sinar Harapan Bali
    27. Bank Syariah Bukopin
    28. Bank Tabungan Pensiunan Nasional
    29. Bank Victoria International, Tbk
    30. Bank Victoria Syariah
    31. Bank Yudha Bhakti
    32. Centratama Nasional Bank
    33. Global International Bank
    34. Liman International Bank
    35. Nationalnobu
    36. Prima Master Bank

    Analisis Keunggulan Daya Saing Industri Perbankan

    Arsitektur Perbankan Indonesia (API) diharapkan menjadi blue print sekaligus acuan bagi struktur industri perbankan Indonesia yang dianggap ideal bagi BI. Tujuan utama yang digembar-gemborkan adalah konsolidasi industri perbankan di Indonesia melalui mekanisme merger dan akuisisi atau lainnya. Ketentuan prinsipil yang ditegakkan adalah single presence policy. Ketentuan normatif yang harus dijalankan adalah Basel Core Principles (BCP).

    Struktur pasar persaingan dalam industri perbankan bisa dilihat berdasarkan besaran nominalnya yang terdapat dalam laporan keuangan seperti modal, aset, kredit, deposito, dan lainnya. Besaran relatifnya dapat dilihat pada indikator kinerja pasar, operasional, fisik, keuntungan, dan lainnya. Ukuran tingkat persaingan dapat dilihat pada tingkat konsentrasi menurut aset finansil, tingkat persaingan antar-bank dalam kredit dan simpanan, persaingan dalam bunga kredit dan bunga tabungan, serta keahlian dalam manajemen risiko finansil dan operasional.

    Kebijakan BI, yang bertujuan menciptakan kestabilan pada ketiga sistem sekaligus yakni, sistem perbankan, sistem keuangan, dan sistem pembayaran, berpotensi berdampak buruk pada persaingan dan efisiensi. Ketentuan modal minimum yang tinggi bagi bank merupakan salah satu bentuk barriers to entry dan menisbikan aspek efisiensi. Prinsip umum yang universal adalah agar suatu usaha (bank) bisa efisien, usaha (bank) tersebut tidak harus bermodal tinggi.

    Kebijakan BI di bulan Januari 2005 (Pakjan 2005) yang melonggarkan batasan BMPK (L3), dinilai sebagai insentif untuk mendorong (mempercepat) proses konsolidasi perbankan di Indonesia. Konsolidasi cenderung membuat suatu struktur pasar semakin terkonsentrasi, yang pada gilirannya membuat semakin tinggi prilaku (tidak sehat) dalam persaingan usaha yang memaksimalkan keuntungan.

    Salah satu dampak persaingan yang potensil adalah excessive risk taking guna memenangkan persaingan dan/atau supaya bisa bertahan hidup. Bentuk persaingan yang umum adalah pada harga (bunga) dan pada produk. Persaingan minimalisasi bunga kredit menurunkan peluang gagal bayar. Di sisi lain, interest spread yang rendah memaksa bank untuk bisa efisien. Bila tidak efisien, biaya overhead akan semakin menggerus keuntungan bank dan akhirnya pada modal bank.

    Persaingan harga (bunga) cenderung mengarah pada satu tingkat harga (kesepakatan). Kolusi harga biasa terjadi di pasar persaingan tidak sempurna (oligopolistik). Produk yang homogen memungkinkan terjadinya kartel harga secara terselubung.

    Pada persaingan produk, diferensiasi produk bertujuan membuat permintaan menjadi kurang elastis. Permintaan yang tidak elastis berpotensi meningkatkan biaya bagi konsumen bila mengalihkan permintaannya ke bank lain. Secara keseluruhan, prinsip yang dipakai adalah bersaing sehat atau potensi ketidakstabilan industri perbankan (trade-off).

    Bank dengan modal terbatas dapat diduga memiliki tingkat diferensiasi yang lebih rendah dibanding bank dengan modal yang lebih besar. Permintaan yang tidak elastis biasanya terdapat di pasar persaingan tidak sempurna dan cenderung monopolistik. Kekuatan monopolistik membuat konsumen tidak berdaya menentukan pilihan dan tidak bisa mengganti (mensubstitusi) produk monopoli tersebut, kecuali dengan opportunity cost yang tinggi.

    Diversifikasi produk (bank) cenderung merugikan konsumennya ketika bersifat mengikat (binding, tying in) dengan produk bank generik. Produk bank non-generik meliputi asuransi, kredit pembiayaan, sekuritas, L/C, B/G, dan lainnya.

    Tinjauan Filosofis tentang Harga Saham Bank

    Harga saham merupakan salah satu indikator kinerja suatu bank. Dinamika harga saham diyakini sebagai akibat faktor-faktor eksternal diluar kontrol manajemen, dan sebagian lainnya akibat keputusan internal yang spesifik ditetapkan manajemen dan biasanya sangat strategis bagi kesinambungan hidup usaha bank.

    Oleh karena itu, harga pasar yang tercipta biasanya tidak murni ditentukan oleh kekuatan permintaan dan penawaran. Invisible hands yang nyata bisa berbentuk beredarnya secara luas insider information yang sumir dan menciptakan insider trading yang penuh dengan riak kecil di pasar, gelombang tsunami, atau yang terburuk, market cornering, saham satu bank atau beberapa bank digoreng oleh beberapa market makers.

    Informasi merupakan dasar utama bagi pembeli dan/atau penjual saham. Informasi sekecil apapun bisa menimbulkan sentimen negatif atau positif terhadap harga saham secara individu, secara industri, ataupun secara keseluruhan pasar. Informasi yang didapat oleh investor biasanya langsung dikapitalisasi (price in, cash in).

    Jenis informasi yang bisa mempengaruhi prilaku permintaan investor terhadap harga saham bisa berupa kinerja dan potensi perusahaan dan industri terkait, kondisi politik dan pemerintahan (kebijakan, aturan, ketentuan), kondisi ekonomi makro, dan lainnya. Kondisi ekonomi makro yang menjadi faktor eksternal bisa mencakup harga minyak, PDB, inflasi, bunga, jumlah uang beredar, dan lainnya.

    Penetapan perlakuan terhadap harga saham di pasar yang bebas dan efisien tergantung preferensi manajemen yang menginginkan saham semakin likuid (baca: volatile) atau tidak. Semakin rendah harga saham, semakin rendah biaya transaksi dan biaya lainnya di pasar, semakin banyak peran retail investor. Potensi realised profit atau cut loss menjadi pilihan keniscayaan bagi investor.

    Sebaliknya, semakin tinggi harga saham, semakin besar biaya transaksi yang harus ditanggung retail investor. Hal ini tidak menjadi masalah bagi insitutional investors. Harga saham yang tinggi biasanya merefleksikan kecenderungan manajemen dan/atau pemegang kendali bank yang kurang menyukai tingginya frekuensi pergantian pemilik saham minoritas.

    Ketika harga saham diakui sebagai preferensi manajemen bank, menjadi suatu keniscayaan adanya variabel pengelolaan harga dan jumlah saham yang beredar, frekuensi dan volume saham yang diperdagangkan. Termasuk didalamnya berbagai indikator perusahaan pedagang efek dan/atau investor institusi yang terafiliasi dengan bank sebagai pemilik saham mereka, holding company, atau lainnya.

    Manajemen jumlah saham yang beredar bisa dilakukan dengan berbagai mekanisme rights issue, stock split, buy back, pengeluaran convertible securities seperti warrant, ESOP (employee stock option program), saham bonus, atau lainnya.

    Konsep Data Panel

    Beberapa nama lain dari data panel:

    1. Pooled data (pengumpulan data time-series dan cross-section).
    2. Kombinasi time-series dan cross-section.
    3. Data micropanel.
    4. Data longitudinal (studi satu variabel atau kelompok subjek menurut waktu).
    5. Analisis sejarah kejadian (event history analysis).
    6. Analisis kohort.

    Beberapa contoh data panel:

    1. Data perusahaan dalam satu industri.
    2. Statistik ekonomi makro.
    3. Pola prilaku suatu subjek dan/atau objek.

    Beberapa jenis data panel:

    1. Balanced panel, setiap unit observasi (cross-section) memiliki jumlah observasi (time series) yang sama,
    2. Unbalanced panel, setiap unit observasi (cross-section) memiliki jumlah observasi (time series) yang tidak sama.

    Beberapa keuntungan umum menggunakan data panel adalah bersifat lebih informatif, dan lebih banyak variasi variabel. Beberapa keuntungan teknis analisis estimasi menggunakan data panel:

    1. naiknya jumlah ukuran sampel dan/atau tingkat kepercayaan (df),
    2. mempelajari dinamika perubahan menurut waktu dan variabel,
    3. model prilaku yang lebih kompleks (heterogen),
    4. hasil estimasi regresi yang lebih baik dan lebih efisien, terutama kalau mengukur hanya satu sisi saja seperti murni cross-section atau murni timer-series.
    5. meminimkan bias penyamarataan (pengagregasian) variabel di seluruh periode.
    6. kolinieritas antar-variabel yang lebih rendah,
    7. lebih mengetahui efek tetap pada variabel individu,
    8. lebih mengetahui efek temporal.

    Beberapa kekurangan data panel terlihat pada masalah estimasi dan inferensi, yakni:

    1. variabel atau responden tidak bersifat acak (non-stokastik).
    2. pada masa observasi atau survey, satu atau beberapa variabel/responden enggan atau tidak mau melanjutkan sampai waktu atau batas yang telah ditentukan (attrition).
    3. tidak bisa digunakan pada variabel yang tidak berubah sepanjang waktu observasi seperti status jenis kelamin, ras, dan lainnya.
    4. masalah klasik pada data cross-section (heteroscedasticity),
    5. analisis cross-section berpotensi ketidakkonsistenan parameter regresi,
    6. analisis time-series berpotensi adanya otokorelasi antar observasi (masalah klasik time-series).
    7. korelasi-silang di unit-unit individu pada waktu yang sama (nilai error dianggap nol, yang berdampak pada standar error yang bias dan tidak konsisten, serta estimator menjadi tidak efisien).

    Kerangka Pemikiran

    Semua indikator kinerja keuangan bank bisa dijadikan variabel dependent (variabel Y), tergantung cara kita menentukan sudut pandang atau perspektif, variabel apa yang menjadi determinant-nya. Sudut pandang yang baik adalah yang bertumpu pada batu pijakan analisis yang kokoh. Penguasaan teori, terutama filosofi kausalitas, menjadi suatu hal yang mutlak.

    Tiga indikator umum yang biasa digunakan untuk mengukur kinerja perbankan adalah rentabilitas (π), likuiditas (λ), dan solvabilitas (ς). Indikator umum lainnya adalah yang mengukur tingkat kesulitan finansil (financial distress) suatu bank (δ), termasuk didalamnya indikator prediksi kebangkrutan. CAMEL atau EAGLES merupakan dua sistem atau pendekatan yang biasa dipakai untuk menilai kesehatan suatu bank.

    1. CAMEL merupakan singkatan dari Capital, Asset, Management, Earning, Liquidity.
    2. EAGLES merupakan singkatan dari Earning ability, Asset Quality, Growth, Liquidity, Equity, Strategic management.

    Pembentukan Model

    Berdasarkan tinjauan filosofis dan kerangka pemikiran diatas, secara matematis, hubungan diantara variabel kinerja bank tersebut dapat dirumuskan kedalam model hubungan sebagai berikut:

    ρ = f ( π, λ, ς, δ )

    Data dan Variabel

    Dari 121 bank umum yang ada di Indonesia per Januari 2011, hanya 31 bank yang bisa dijadikan objek penelitian. Ke-31 bank yang dimaksud terdiri dari:

    Kode

    Nama Bank

    Keterangan

    AGRO

    Bank Agroniaga Tbk.

    Company listing per 3 Desember 2007, 4 tahun setelah IPO per 8 Agustus 2003

    INPC

    Bank Artha Graha Internasional Tbk

    d/h Inter-Pacific Bank Tbk

    BBKP

    Bank Bukopin Tbk

    BNBA

    Bank Bumi Arta Tbk

    BACA

    Bank Capital Indonesia Tbk

    d/h Bank Credit Lyonnais Indo., IPO per 4 Okt. 2007

    BBCA

    Bank Central Asia Tbk

    BNGA

    Bank CIMB Niaga Tbk

    d/h Bank Niaga Tbk

    BDMN

    Bank Danamon Tbk

    BAEK

    Bank Ekonomi Raharja Tbk.

    SDRA

    Bank Himpunan Saudara 1906 Tbk

    BABP

    Bank ICB Bumiputera Tbk

    d/h Bank Bumiputera Indonesia Tbk

    BNII

    Bank International Indonesia Tbk

    BKSW

    Bank Kesawan Tbk

    BMRI

    Bank Mandiri (Persero) Tbk

    MAYA

    Bank Mayapada Tbk

    MEGA

    Bank Mega Tbk

    BCIC

    Bank Mutiara Tbk

    d/h Bank Century Tbk, Bank CIC International Tbk

    BBNI

    Bank Negara Indonesia Tbk

    BBNP

    Bank Nusantara Parahyangan Tbk

    NISP

    Bank OCBC NISP Tbk

    d/h Bank NISP Tbk

    PNBN

    Bank Pan Indonesia Tbk

    BNLI

    Bank Permata Tbk

    d/h Bank Bali Tbk

    BEKS

    Bank Pundi Indonesia Tbk

    d/h Bank Eksekutif International Tbk

    BBRI

    Bank Rakyat Indonesia Tbk

    BSIM

    Bank Sinarmas Tbk, PT

    BSWD

    Bank Swadesi Tbk

    BBTN

    Bank Tabungan Negara (Persero) Tbk

    BTPN

    Bank Tabungan Pensiunan N. Tbk

    BVIC

    Bank Victoria Int l. Tbk

    MCOR

    Bank Windu Kentjana Int l Tbk

    d/h Bank Multicor Tbk, IPO per 3 Juli 2007

    BJBR

    BPD Jawa Barat dan Banten Tbk

    Beberapa catatan tentang bank publik yang tidak bisa menjadi objek penelitian:

    1. Karena melakukan go private, menyusul terjadinya pergantian kepemilikan usaha.
      1. Bank Arta Niaga Kencana Tbk (ANKB).

    Sebanyak 83% saham Arta Niaga diakuisisi oleh Bank Commonwealth guna memperkuat posisi pasar di wilayah Jawa Timur. Per 31 Agustus 2007, saham Arta Niaga dihapus dari Bursa Efek Indonesia.

    Bank Commonwealth telah hadir di Indonesia sejak tahun 1990 dengan izin usaha sebagai Kantor Perwakilan dari Commonwealth Bank of Australia (CBA). Di tahun 1997, Bank Commonwealth membuat bank patungan dengan BII dengan nama BII Commonwealth. Nama bank patungan berubah menjadi Bank Commonwealth pada tahun 2000 seiring semakin besarnya porsi kepemilikan CBA di bank patungan tersebut.

    1. Bank UOB Buana Tbk (BBIA).

    Bank UOB Buana Tbk menjadi go private setelah Overseas Bank Limited (UOB) melalui UOBII (UOB Internasional Investment Private Ltd.) menjadi pemegang saham utama. Melalui penawaran tender, UOBII meningkatkan kepemilikan sahamnya menjadi sebesar 98,997%. Per 20 November 2008, saham UOB Buana dihapus dari Bursa Efek Indonesia.

    Bank UOB Buana berdiri pada tahun 1955 dengan nama Bank Buana Indonesia dan menjadi bank publik di tahun 2000. Anak perusahaan Bank Dunia, IFC, merupakan pemegang saham asing pertama setelah rights issue kedua di tahun 2003. UOBII menjadi pemegang saham terbesar kedua setelah Dasa Karsa di tahun 2004.

    Di tahun 2005, IFC melepaskan seluruh kepemilikan sahamnya, sementara di sisi lain, UOBII meningkatkan kepemilikan sahamnya menjadi 61,11%. Di tahun 2007, Bank Buana Indonesia Tbk berganti nama menjadi Bank UOB Buana Tbk. Setelah go private di tahun 2008, status Tbk efektif dihilangkan pada tahun 2009. Kebijakan single presence policy dari Bank Indonesia membuat UOB meleburkan usaha banknya yang lain, yakni Bank UOB Indonesia, ke dalam Bank UOB Buana di tahun 2010.

    1. Karena ditutup atau sejenisnya oleh pemerintah atas nama otoritas moneter atau otoritas fiskal.
    Tabel – Duapuluh tiga bank publik (dan 7 bank non-publik) yang tidak bisa menjadi objek penelitian karena ditutup dan/atau digabung ke bank lain.
    No. Kode Nama Bank Tanggal Efektif Ket. Sumber BEJ-1 b) Sumber BEJ-2 c)
    1. BDNI Bank Dagang Nas. Ind. 12.03.1999 1) p1 [historical/PENG-074_BEJ-2-4_c_0399.pdf] url 01.03.1999
    2. MDBN Bank Modern Tbk 12.03.1999 1) p2 [historical/PENG--074_BEJ-2-4_d_0399.pdf] url
    3. BNSY Bank Surya 12.03.1999 1) p1 [historical/PENG-074_BEJ-2-4_0399.pdf] url 01.03.1999
    4. BNUM Bank Umum Nasional 12.03.1999 1) p1 [historical/PENG-074_BEJ-2-4_b_0399.pdf] url 01.03.1999
    5. ARYA Bank Arya Panduarta 01.04.1999 1) p1 [historical/PENG-092_BEJ-2-4_e_0499.pdf] url 15.03.1999
    6. BARI Bank Bahari Tbk 01.04.1999 1) p1 [historical/PENG-092_BEJ-2-4_f_0499.pdf] url 15.03.1999
    7. BIRA Bank Indonesia Raya Tbk 01.04.1999 1) p1 [historical/PENG-092_BEJ-2-4_b_0499.pdf] url
    8. BNBM Bank Mashil Tbk 01.04.1999 1) p1 [historical/PENG-092_BEJ-2-4_d_0499.pdf] url 15.03.1999
    9. BNPS Bank Papan Sejahtera 01.04.1999 1) p1 [historical/PENG-092_BEJ-2-4_a_0499.pdf] url 15.03.1999
    10. BUSV Bank Umum Servitia 01.04.1999 1) p1 [historical/PENG-092_BEJ-2-4_c_0499.pdf] url 15.03.1999
    11. FCOR Ficorinvest Bank 01.04.1999 1) p2 [historical/PENG-092_BEJ_2-4_g_0499.pdf] url 01.09.1998
    12. IDVS Bank Indovest Tbk 26.04.1999 BBKU p2 [historical/PENG-241_BEJ-CAT_0799.pdf] url 26.04.1999
    13. PDFC Bank PDFCI 27.06.2000 d) p3 [historical/PENG-0003_BEJ-CAT_012000.PDF] url 04.01.2000
    14. BNTA Bank Tiara Asia 27.06.2000 d) p1 [historical/PENG-1075_BEJ-PEM_KI_07-2000.PDF] url 06.07.2000
    15. BDTA Bank Palapa Tbk 27.06.2000 d) e) p1 [historical/PENG-1039_BEJ-PEM_06-2000.PDF] url 06.07.2000
    16. TMBN Bank Tamara Tbk 27.06.2000 d) p3 [historical/PENG-01075_BEJ-PEM_KI_07-2000.PDF] url 06.07.2000
    17. RAMA Bank Rama Tbk 27.06.2000 d) p3 [historical/PENG-01039_BEJ-PEM_06-2000.PDF] url 06.07.2000
    18. Bank Nusa Nasional 27.06.2000 d)
    19. Bank Risjad Salim Int’l 27.06.2000 d)
    20. Bank Pos Nusantara 27.06.2000 d)
    21. Bank Jaya International 27.06.2000 d)
    22. UNBN United City Bank Tbk 29.10.2001 1) a) p3 [historical/PENG-532_BEJ-PEM_KI_01-2002.PDF] url
    23. BUNI Bank Universal Tbk 01.10.2002 e) p1 [historical/PENG-506_BEJ-EEM_09-2002.PDF] url 01.10.2002
    24. Bank Artamedia 01.10.2002 e)
    25. Bank Prima Express 01.10.2002 e)
    26. Bank Patriot 01.10.2002 e)
    27. BDPC Bank Danpac Tbk 15.12.2004 g) p1 [PENG-000647_BEJ-PSR_P_12-2004.PDF] url
    28. BNPK Bank Pikko Tbk 15.12.2004 g) p1 [PENG-00647_BEJ-PSJ_P_12-2004.PDF] url 15.12.2004
    29. BGIN Bank Global Intl Tbk 18.01.2005 i) p1 [PENG-001_BEJ-PSJ_DEL_01-2005.PDF] url
    30. LPBN Bank Lippo Tbk 01.11.2008 h) p2 [PENG-001_BEJ-PEM_DEL_03-2000.pdf] url
    Catatan:
    1)     Ditutup.a)     Dikuasai BPPN, Oktober 2000, karena memberikan kredit berlebihan ke perusahaan terkait RGM, APRIL, dan lainnya.b)     http://202.155.2.90/issuers.asp?cmd=delistedc)     http://202.155.2.84/listed/delist.asp?x=0&o=Delisting_Date&code=d)     Menjadi bagian Bank Danamon Tbk. e)     d/h Bank Duta Tbk.f)      Menjadi bagian Bank Permata Tbk.g)     Menjadi bagian Bank Century Tbk.h)     Menjadi bagian Bank CIMB Niaga Tbk.i)      Dicabut izin usahanya.

    Operasionalisasi Variabel

    Beberapa indikator rentabilitas yang mungkin:

    1. Net Interest Margin (NIM).
    2. Net Profit Margin (NPM).
    3. Operating Cost Ratio (OCR).
    4. Return on Asset (ROA).
    5. Return on Equity (ROE).

    Beberapa indikator likuiditas yang mungkin:

    1. Cash Ratio (CR).
    2. Loan to Asset Ratio (LAR).
    3. Loan to Deposit Ratio (LDR).
    4. Rasio kewajiban bersih call money (RCM).
    5. Reserved Requirement (RR).

    Beberapa indikator solvabilitas yang mungkin:

    1. Capital Adequacy Ratio (CAR).
    2. Debt to Equity Ratio (DER).
    3. Long-term Debt to Asset Ratio (LDAR).

    Beberapa indikator harga saham yang mungkin:

    1. Book/market equity (≈ book/price).
    2. DCF (Discounted Cash Flow).
    3. DDM (Dividend Discount Model).
    4. Deviden per saham (dividends per share).
    5. Dividend/price.
    6. Earnings to price ratio.
    7. EPS (earnings per share).
    8. Harga saham nominal.
    9. Kapitalisasi pasar.
    10. Nilai buku (book value).
    11. PBV (price/book value).
    12. PCF (price/cash flow).
    13. PDR (price/dividends).
    14. PER (price to earning ratio).

    Beberapa indikator kesulitan finansil yang mungkin:

    1. capital turnover,
    2. cash position,
    3. financial leverage,
    4. inventory turnover,
    5. rasio aktiva lancar terhadap kewajiban lancar (current assets / current liabilities).
    6. rasio arus kas terhadap total utang (cash flow / total debt).
    7. rasio arus kas terhadap utang jangka panjang (cash flow / long-term debt).
    8. rasio EBIT terhadap total aset (EBIT / total assets).*
    9. rasio kas terhadap kewajiban lancar (cash / current liabilities).
    10. rasio keuntungan bersih terhadap total aktiva (net income / total assets).
    11. rasio laba ditahan terhadap total aset (retained earnings / total assets).*
    12. rasio modal kerja terhadap penjualan (working capital / sales).
    13. rasio modal kerja terhadap total aset (working capital / total assets).*
    14. rasio nilai pasar dari saham terhadap nilai buku dari utang (market value of stock / book value of debt).*
    15. rasio penjualan terhadap total aset (sales / total assets).*
    16. rasio total utang terhadap total aset (total debt / total assets).
    17. receivables turnover.
    18. return on investment,
    19. short-term liquidity,

    Asumsi Klasik dalam Penaksiran (Estimasi) Model (Persamaan Regresi)

    Dalam menaksir model di atas, beberapa asumsi utama dalam menerapkan aplikasi metode OLS (ordinary least square), antara lain (Ghozali, 2001:43):

    1. Model bersifat linier, yakni dalam parameter.
    2. Variabel X diasumsikan bersifat non-stokastik, yakni dianggap tetap dalam sampel yang berulang.
    3. Nilai rata-rata kesalahan adalah nol, atau E (ui/Xi) = 0.
    4. Homoskedastisitas, yakni varians kesalahan sama untuk setiap periode (homo = sama, skedastisitas = sebaran), atau Var (ui/Xi) = s².
    5. Tidak ada otokorelasi di antara nilai kesalahan, yakni antara ui dan uj tidak ada korelasinya, atau Cov (ui, uj) = 0.
    6. Antara u dan X bersifat saling bebas, atau Cov (ui, Xi) = 0.
    7. Tidak ada multikolinieritas yang sempurna antar variabel bebas.
    8. Jumlah observasi (n atau N) harus lebih besar dari jumlah parameter yang diestimasi (jumlah variabel bebas).
    9. Adanya variabilitas dalam nilai X, yakni nilai X harus berbeda (tidak boleh sama semua).
    10. Model regresi telah dispesifikasi secara benar, yakni tidak ada bias (kesalahan) dalam spesifikasi model yang digunakan dalam melakukan analisa empiris.

    Teknik Analisis Data Panel

    Proses pengolahan dan penghitungan yang dilakukan dalam penelitian ini menggunakan program eviews. Objek penelitian yang bersifat time-series dan cross-section sekaligus, membuatnya disebut data panel. Ciri utama data panel adalah jumlah variabel yang lebih banyak daripada jumlah waktu observasi.

    Setidaknya ada 3 pendekatan yang bisa dilakukan dalam mengestimasi model data panel, yakni:

    1. pooled least square (PLS), dimana konstanta mengasumsikan kesamaan error di semua variabel individu (cross-section) dan periode (time-series).
    2. model efek tetap (FEM), dimana konstanta berisi error yang sama di semua variabel individu (cross-section) atau periode (time-series).
    3. model efek acak (REM), dimana variabel error berbeda di semua variabel individu (cross-section) dan/atau periode (time-series).
    Tabel – Perbandingan koefisien variabel menurut model uji dan analisis covarians
    Metode Uji Cov[miXit]=0 Cov[miXit]¹0
    Pooled OLS Konsisten Tidak Konsisten
    Random Effects Konsisten, efisien Tidak Konsisten
    Fixed Effects Konsisten Konsisten
    Sumber: Sri Yani Kusumastuti, Model Regresi Data Panel.

    Teknik Pemilihan Model Terbaik antara PLS dan FEM

    Penilaian model yang terbaik antara PLS dan FEM dibuat berdasarkan hasil uji Chow. Uji Chow mengasumsikan adanya heterogenitas karakteristik di setiap bank, yakni dengan hipotesa nol bahwa tidak ada heterogenitas individu dan hipotesa alternatifnya adalah bahwa terdapat heterogenitas pada cross section.

    H0   :  α1 = α2 = α3 = …. = αi, Common Effect

    Ha   :  α1 ≠ α2 ≠ α3 ≠ …. ≠ αi, Individual Effect

    Secara matematis, uji Chow bisa dilakukan dengan membandingkan antara nilai F-hitung dengan F-tabel. Bila F-hitung lebih kecil dari F-tabel, maka PLS merupakan model yang lebih baik dari model FEM. Sebaliknya, bila F-hitung lebih besar dari F-tabel, maka FEM merupakan model yang lebih baik dari model PLS.

    Ho = Model PLS lebih baik.

    Ha = Model FEM lebih baik.

    Ketika peluang F tidak signifikan, berarti cov(x,u)=0. Implikasinya adalah data panel akan menjadi lebih baik diestimasi dengan menggunakan model REM. Tujuannya adalah untuk mendapatkan nilai estimator yang tidak bias, konsisten, dan efisien.

    Teknik Pemilihan Model Terbaik antara FEM dan REM

    Pemilihan model terbaik antara FEM dan REM dapat dilakukan dengan membandingkan jumlah variabel (n) dengan banyaknya observasi (t). Cara kedua adalah dengan membandingkan korelasi antara nilai error dengan nilai variabel yang diobservasi cov(xit, ui).

    Ho: cov(xit, ui) = 0

    Model REM lebih baik;

    Pada estimasi model REM, koefisien setiap variabel diasumsikan bersifat acak dari populasi yang lebih besar dengan nilai rata-rata konstan. Estimasi dengan menggunakan model REM akan menghasilkan estimator yang efisien, konsisten, dan tidak bias; Estimator REM bersifat konsisten di hipotesis Ho dan tidak konsisten di hipotesis Ha.

    Ha:  cov(xit, ui) ≠ 0

    Model FEM lebih baik.

    FEM umumnya digunakan ketika ada korelasi antara koefisien estimasi setiap variabel (individual intercept) dan variabel bebasnya. Estimator hasil FEM bersifat konsisten kedua hipotesis (Ho dan Ha). Hasil FEM bisa membuat nilai estimator unbiased, consistent, tetapi relatif tidak efisien bila dibandingkan dengan hasil estimasi dengan REM.

    Cara ketiga adalah dengan menggunakan statistik hasil uji Hausman. Nilai χ² (Chi-Square) terdistribusi secara asimptot. Inferensinya adalah bila peluang χ² lebih dari 0,05, maka model REM adalah lebih baik dari model FEM. Sebaliknya, bila peluang χ² (Chi-Square) kurang dari (α) 0,05, maka model FEM adalah lebih baik dari model REM.

    Tabel – Beberapa kondisi dalam penetapan pemilihan model FEM atau REM
    Kondisi 1 Kondisi 2 Pemilihan model
    t > n FEM
    t < n tidak-acak, non-stokastik FEM
    acak, stokastik REM
    ei ≈ Xi (berkorelasi) FEM
    ei ≠ Xi (tidak berkorelasi) REM
    t < n asumsi REM terpenuhi estimator REM lebih baik dari FEM

    Pengujian Pelanggaran Asumsi Klasik dan Lainnya

    1. Uji Normalitas.
    2. Adanya heteroscedastisitas.
      1. Dengan mengaktifkan pilihan cross-section weights, EViews mengestimasi keberadaan cross-section heteroscedasticity dengan spesifikasi GLS.

    GLS (Generalized Least Squares) digunakan untuk berbagai pola korelasi diantara residu. Empat struktur varians dasar yang bisa diestimasi dengan metode GLS adalah:

    1)        cross-section specific heteroscedasticity,

    2)        period specific heteroscedasticity,

    3)        contemporaneous covariances, dan

    4)        between period covariances.

    1. Dengan mengaktifkan pilihan cross-section SUR, EViews mengestimasi dengan spesifikasi GLS sekaligus melakukan koreksi atas:

    1)      cross-section heteroscedasticity,

    2)      korelasi kontemporer.

    1. Dengan mengaktifkan pilihan period weights, EViews mengestimasi keberadaan period heteroscedasticity dengan spesifikasi GLS.
    1. Dengan mengaktifkan pilihan period SUR, EViews mengestimasi dengan spesifikasi GLS sekaligus melakukan koreksi atas:

    1)      period heteroscedasticity,

    2)      korelasi umum dari objek yang diobservasi pada data cross-section.

    1. Adanya otokorelasi.
      1. Keberadaan otokorelasi bisa diuji dengan metode Autocorrelation LM Test atau Portmanteau Autocorrelation Test.
      2. Korelogram mengilustrasikan otokorelasi dan otokorelasi parsial dari seri pertama di kelompok.
      3. Korelasi silang. Untuk melihat korelasi silang antar variabel, matriks korelasinya perlu dibuatkan.

    Matriks korelasi memperlihat nilai koefisien korelasi antar variabel. Bila nilai koefisien korelasi lebih besar dari 0,7, maka ada indikasi terjadinya multikolinieritas. Jika multikolinieritasnya menggangu, maka perlu dilakukan kalkulasi ulang terhadap variabel (tinkering). Indikasi multikolinieritas yang mengganggu adalah nilai R² tinggi sedangkan uji t tidak ada satupun variabel bebas yang signifikan atau banyak nilai uji t dari variabel bebas yang tidak signifikan.

    1. Adanya multikolinieritas (atau uji antar-variabel), dengan VIFs sebagai indikator, perimeter.

    VIFs (Variance Inflation Factors) merupakan metode pengukuran derajat kolinieritas antara berbagai regressor dalam satu persamaan. VIFs dihitung dari matriks varians-kovarians dari koefisien, pilihan standard error yang kuat wujud dalam VIFs.

    1. Uji spesifikasi model, ditandai dengan terciptanya blue, best linear unbiased estimator. Tiga metode yang biasa dipakai adalah:
      1. Nilai F-statistik.
      2. Uji (heteroscedastisitas) White dimana Ho menggarisbawahi pengujian asumsi bahwa (standard) error bersifat homoscedastis dan tidak tergantung pada regressors. Indikator (statistik) uji White adalah jumlah obervasi dikali R².
      3. Nilai LM-statistik, merupakan jumlah akar regresi tambahan dibagi 24. Nilai ini didistribusikan sebagai distribusi chi-squared dengan df sama dengan jumlah koefisien regresi (slope coefficients) tanpa konstanta dalam regresi tambahan.

    Nilai statistik yang tidak signifikan mengimplikasikan tidak adanya pelanggaran pada 3 kondisi tersebut.

    Pengujian Spesifik pada Metode Analisis Data Panel

    1. Uji unit root.

    Uji akar unit dilakukan untuk mengetahui apakah data stasioner atau tidak (stasioner = memiliki rata-rata dan varians yang konstan). Pengujian ini dilakukan per variabel. Analisis data time series memerlukan data yang stasioner agar terjadi kointegrasi.

    1. Uji kointegrasi.

    Uji kointegrasi dilakukan untuk mengetahui apakah ada hubungan jangka panjang atau tidak antara variabel bebas dengan variabel tidak bebas.

      1. Jika ada hubungan jangka panjang, maka harus digunakan model dinamis.
      2. Jika tidak ada hubungan jangka panjang, maka digunakan model OLS, GLS tepatnya, yakni model panel non-dinamis.

    Tahapan Estimasi Persamaan Regresi dengan EViews versi 7.1.

    A.  Metode Pooled Least Square

    1. Data panel biasanya dicirikan dengan jumlah kolom (atau variabel) yang lebih banyak dari jumlah baris (atau lama observasi). Akibatnya, mekanisme copy-paste pada Microsoft Excel 2007 atau 2010 tidak bisa dilakukan pada EViews. Atau karena sistem operasi yang dipakai penulis adalah (Windows XP) 32-bit? Oleh karena itu, data dari Microsoft Excel 2007 harus diekspor kedalam bentuk teks atau csv. Setelah data tersedia dalam bentuk teks atau csv, EViews bisa mengimpor data tersebut ke dalam sistem mereka.

    1. Organisasi data panel di Excel

    1)        Keterbatasan utama Excel 97-2003 adalah matriks data 256 x 65.536 (kolom x baris).

    Jumlah kolom yang tersedia adalah 256 (kolom IV), dan jumlah baris adalah 65.536.

    Angka 256 merupakan hasil dari 2 pangkat 8 (ditulis 2^8) atau 4^4 atau 16^2.

    Angka 65.536 merupakan hasil 2^10 atau 4^5 atau 32^2.

    2)        Matriks data pada Excel 2007 dan 2010 adalah 16.384 x 1.048.576 (kolom x baris).

    Jumlah kolom yang tersedia adalah 16.384 (kolom XFD), dan jumlah baris adalah 1.048.576.

    Angka 16.384 merupakan hasil dari 2^14 atau 4^7.

    Angka 1.048.576 merupakan hasil dari 2^20 atau 4^10 atau 16^5 atau 32^4.

    3)        Matriks data pada OpenOffice 3.1.0 adalah 1.024 x 65.536 (kolom x baris).

    Jumlah kolom yang tersedia adalah 1.024 (kolom AMJ), dan jumlah baris adalah 65.536.

    Angka 1.024 merupakan hasil 2^10 atau 4^5 atau 32^2.

    Angka 65.536 merupakan hasil 2^16 atau 4^8 atau 16^4.

    1. Data ditumpuk dan diurut menurut nama bank dan waktu (data stacked by cross-section).

    Kolom 1 adalah nama bank. EViews menyebutnya sebagai cross identifiers, dengan pengkodean “_bank01”. Tigapuluh satu dari 121 bank adalah bank publik yang harga sahamnya bisa terpantau secara periodik, dari waktu ke waktu.

    Kolom 2 adalah bulan laporan keuangan, dibuat dengan format YYYY-MM. Tujuhbelas bulan laporan keuangan bank tersedia selama periode observasi, yakni sejak Januari 2010 sampai Mei 2011.

    Kolom 3 dst adalah variabel yang diobservasi (misalnya X1 sampai X44).

    Duapuluh dua variabel bebas yang potensil diatas bisa divariasikan menjadi 44 variabel.

    1. Data ditumpuk dan diurut menurut waktu (data stacked by time-series).

    Kolom 1 adalah bulan laporan keuangan, dibuat dengan format YYYY-MM.

    Kolom 2 adalah nama bank, dibuat dengan kode “_bank01”.

    Kolom 3 dst adalah variabel yang diobservasi (misalnya X1 sampai X44).

    1. Data tidak ditumpuk tapi diurut menurut waktu (unstacked data).

    Kolom 1 adalah bulan laporan keuangan, dibuat dengan format YYYY-MM.

    Kolom 2 dst adalah variabel yang diobservasi (misalnya X1 sampai X44) dimana nama variabel diketik-sambung dengan kode _bank01 sehingga tertulis menjadi X1_bank01 sampai X44_bank31.

    Bila menggunakan cara data yang tidak ditumpuk, kolom yang tercipta adalah sebanyak 1.364, sebagai hasil kali dari 44 variabel bebas dan 31 bank publik.

    2. Setelah data berhasil diimpor kedalam EViews, blok semua variabel dengan menekan tombol Ctrl-A. kemudian pilih tab Object dan New Object.

    3. Pilih Pool dan tombol OK.

    4. EViews kemudian akan meminta masukan kode nama bank, disebut Cross Section Identifiers, yakni _bank01 sampai _bank31.

    5. Memulai langkah estimasi dengan memilih tab Proc dan Estimate.

    6. Pada menu Pool Estimation, tab Specification,

    1. Pada kolom isian di bawah frase “Dependent variable”, ketik inisial variabel dependent seperti yang telah dibuat di Excel diiringi dengan tanda “?”. Harga saham diindikasikan dengan variabel p.
    2. Dalam kotak “Regressors and AR () terms”, pada kolom isian di bawah frase “Common coefficients:”, ketik inisial variabel bebasnya, dimulai dari konstanta c yang tanpa tanda ?, ketik spasi sebagai pemisah, kemudian variabel bebas pertama x1?, ketik spasi sebagai pemisah, kemudian x2?, dan seterusnya sampai x44?.
    3. Dalam kotak “Estimation method”, di bawah frase “Fixed dan Random Effects”, pada kolom “Cross-section” dipilih “None”, pada kolom “Period” dipilih “None”.
    4. Dalam kotak “Estimation method”, di bawah frase “Weights”, pada kolom “Weights” dipilih “No weights”.
    5. Dalam kotak “Estimation settings”, pastikan metode yang dipakai adalah “LS – Least Squares (and AR)”, dan samplenya ada pada kurun waktu Januari 2010 sampai Mei 2011 (tertulis “2010m01 2011m05”).

    7. Pada menu Pool Estimation, tab Options,

    1. Pastikan “Coef covariance method” yang dipakai adalah “Ordinary”, dan
    2. “Coefficient name” yang tertulis adalah “C”.

    8. Hasil estimasi PLS berupa tabel berikut.

    Dependent Variable: P?

    Method: Pooled Least Squares

    Date: 07/16/11   Time: 04:56

    Sample: 2010M01 2011M05

    Included observations: 17

    banyak bulan obsevasi

    Cross-sections included: 30

    banyak bank minus 1

    Total pool (balanced) observations: 510

    = 17 x 30

    Variable

    Coefficient

    Std. Error

    t-Statistic

    Prob.  

    C

    X1?

    :

    :

    X44?

    R-squared

    Mean dependent var

    Adjusted R-squared

    S.D. dependent var

    S.E. of regression

    Akaike info criterion

    Sum squared resid

    Schwarz criterion

    Log likelihood

    Hannan-Quinn criter.

    F-statistic

    Durbin-Watson stat

    Prob(F-statistic)

    B.  Metode Fixed Effect Model

    Sebagai langkah kedua dalam estimasi persamaan regresi dengan metode Fixed Effects Model, tahapan yang harus diulang adalah dimulai dari tahapan nomor 5 pada Metode Pooled Least Square.

    5. Memulai langkah estimasi dengan memilih tab Proc dan Estimate.

    6. Pada menu Pool Estimation, tab Specification,

    1. Pada kolom isian di bawah frase “Dependent variable”, ketik inisial variabel dependent seperti yang telah dibuat di Excel diiringi dengan tanda “?”. Harga saham diindikasikan dengan variabel p.
    2. Dalam kotak “Regressors and AR () terms”, pada kolom isian di bawah frase “Common coefficients:”, ketik inisial variabel bebasnya, dimulai dari konstanta c yang tanpa tanda ?, ketik spasi sebagai pemisah, kemudian variabel bebas pertama x1?, ketik spasi sebagai pemisah, kemudian x2?, dan seterusnya sampai x44?.
    3. Dalam kotak “Estimation method”, di bawah frase “Fixed dan Random Effects”, pada kolom “Cross-section” dipilih “Fixed”, pada kolom “Period” dipilih “Fixed”.
    4. Dalam kotak “Estimation method”, di bawah frase “Weights”, pada kolom “Weights” dipilih “No weights”.
    5. Dalam kotak “Estimation settings”, pastikan metode yang dipakai adalah “LS – Least Squares (and AR)”, dan samplenya ada pada kurun waktu Januari 2010 sampai Mei 2011 (tertulis “2010m01 2011m05”).

    7. Hasil estimasi metode FEM berupa tabel berikut.

    Dependent Variable: P?

    Method: Pooled Least Squares

    Date: 07/16/11   Time: 04:56

    Sample: 2010M01 2011M05

    Included observations: 17

    banyak bulan obsevasi

    Cross-sections included: 30

    banyak bank minus 1

    Total pool (balanced) observations: 510

    = 17 x 30

    Variable

    Coefficient

    Std. Error

    t-Statistic

    Prob.  

    C

    X1?

    :

    :

    X44?

    Fixed Effects (Cross)

     

     

     

     

    _BANK01–C

    :

    :

    _BANK31–C

    Fixed Effects (Period)

     

    2010M01–C

    :

    :

    2011M05–C

    Effects Specification

    Cross-section fixed (dummy variables)

     

    Period fixed (dummy variables)

    R-squared

    Mean dependent var

    Adjusted R-squared

    S.D. dependent var

    S.E. of regression

    Akaike info criterion

    Sum squared resid

    Schwarz criterion

    Log likelihood

    Hannan-Quinn criter.

    F-statistic

    Durbin-Watson stat

    Prob(F-statistic)

    C.  Metode Random Effect Model

    Sebagai langkah ketiga dalam estimasi persamaan regresi dengan metode Random Effects Model, tahapan yang harus diulang adalah dimulai dari tahapan nomor 5 pada Metode Pooled Least Square.

    5. Memulai langkah estimasi dengan memilih tab Proc dan Estimate.

    6. Pada menu Pool Estimation, tab Specification,

    1. Pada kolom isian di bawah frase “Dependent variable”, ketik inisial variabel dependent seperti yang telah dibuat di Excel diiringi dengan tanda “?”. Harga saham diindikasikan dengan variabel p.
    2. Dalam kotak “Regressors and AR () terms”, pada kolom isian di bawah frase “Common coefficients:”, ketik inisial variabel bebasnya, dimulai dari konstanta c yang tanpa tanda ?, ketik spasi sebagai pemisah, kemudian variabel bebas pertama x1?, ketik spasi sebagai pemisah, kemudian x2?, dan seterusnya sampai x44?.
    3. Dalam kotak “Estimation method”, di bawah frase “Fixed dan Random Effects”, pada kolom “Cross-section” dipilih “Fixed”, pada kolom “Period” dipilih “Random”.
    4. Dalam kotak “Estimation settings”, pastikan metode yang dipakai adalah “LS – Least Squares (and AR)”, dan samplenya ada pada kurun waktu Januari 2010 sampai Mei 2011 (tertulis “2010m01 2011m05”).

    7. Hasil estimasi metode REM berupa tabel berikut.

    Dependent Variable: P?

    Method: Pooled EGLS (Period random effects)

    Date: 07/16/11   Time: 04:56

    Sample: 2010M01 2011M05

    Included observations: 17

    banyak bulan obsevasi

    Cross-sections included: 30

    banyak bank minus 1

    Total pool (balanced) observations: 510

    = 17 x 30

    Swamy and Arora estimator of component variances

    Variable

    Coefficient

    Std. Error

    t-Statistic

    Prob.  

    C

    X1?

    :

    :

    X44?

    Fixed Effects (Cross)

     

     

     

     

    _BANK01–C

    :

    :

    _BANK31–C

    Random Effects (Period)

     

    2010M01–C

    :

    :

    2011M05–C

    Effects Specification

     

    S.D.

    Rho

    Cross-section fixed (dummy variables)
    Period random
    Idiosyncratic random

    Weighted Statistics

    R-squared

    Mean dependent var

    Adjusted R-squared

    S.D. dependent var

    S.E. of regression

    Sum squared resid

    F-statistic

    Durbin-Watson stat

    Prob(F-statistic)

     

    Unweighted Statistics

    R-squared

     

    Mean dependent var

     

    Sum squared resid

     

    Durbin-Watson stat

     

    Analisis Hasil Regresi

    Interpretasi Hasil Estimasi – Pooled Least Square

    Empatpuluh empat variabel bebas dalam persamaan yang ingin diestimasi –yakni … variabel likuiditas, … variabel rentabilitas, … variabel solvabilitas, dan … variabel kesulitan finansil– secara bersama-sama memiliki pengaruh yang signifikan terhadap pembentukan variabel terikat harga saham dari spesifikasi atau rasio …. Hal ini ditunjukkan dengan nilai Fstat (…) yang lebih besar dari nilai Ftabel (df=n-k,k) (5%=…) (); atau nilai signifikansi Fstat (0,000) yang lebih kecil dari nilai kepercayaan (α=0,05).

    Adjusted R2 yang bernilai … diartikan bahwa keempatpuluh-empat variabel bebas tersebut hanya mampu menjelaskan prilaku harga saham dari spesifikasi atau rasio … sebesar …%. Dengan kata lain, model pada persamaan bukanlah model yang bersifat goodness of fit. Indikasi awal terlihat pada grafik setiap variabel yang tidak berjalan searah, khususnya sesuai pergerakan waktu. Selain itu, periode observasi yang jelas bersifat siklikal, yakni berdasarkan periode waktu bulanan.

    Dari empatpuluh empat variabel bebas dalam persamaan yang ingin diestimasi, variabel likuiditas, … variabel rentabilitas, … variabel solvabilitas, … variabel kesulitan finansil, dan konstanta masing-masingnya memiliki pengaruh yang signifikan terhadap pembentukan variabel terikat harga saham dari spesifikasi atau rasio … pada α=5%.

    Sebanyak … variabel yang dimaksud adalah …. Per definitif, variabel yang dimaksud adalah ….

    Tabel – Bentuk hubungan dan pengali signifikan terhadap harga saham pada metode PLS

    Variabel

    Koefisien atau pengali terhadap harga saham

    Hubungan

    x1…

    – / +

    – / +

    x44…

    – / +

    Interpretasi Hasil Estimasi – Fixed Effect Model (FEM)

    Empatpuluh empat variabel bebas dalam persamaan yang ingin diestimasi –yakni … variabel likuiditas, … variabel rentabilitas, … variabel solvabilitas, dan … variabel kesulitan finansil– secara bersama-sama memiliki pengaruh yang signifikan terhadap pembentukan variabel terikat harga saham dari spesifikasi atau rasio …. Hal ini ditunjukkan dengan nilai Fstat (…) yang lebih besar dari nilai Ftabel (df=n-k,k) (5%=…) (); atau nilai signifikansi Fstat (0,000) yang lebih kecil dari nilai kepercayaan (α=0,05).

    Adjusted R2 yang bernilai … diartikan bahwa keempatpuluh-empat variabel bebas tersebut mampu menjelaskan prilaku harga saham dari spesifikasi atau rasio … sebesar …%. Dengan kata lain, model pada persamaan adalah model yang bersifat goodness of fit.

    Dari empatpuluh empat variabel bebas dalam persamaan yang ingin diestimasi, variabel likuiditas, … variabel rentabilitas, … variabel solvabilitas, … variabel kesulitan finansil, dan konstanta masing-masingnya memiliki pengaruh yang signifikan terhadap pembentukan variabel terikat harga saham dari spesifikasi atau rasio … pada α=5%.

    Sebanyak … variabel yang dimaksud adalah …. Per definitif, variabel yang dimaksud adalah ….

    Tabel – Bentuk hubungan dan pengali signifikan terhadap harga saham pada metode FEM

    Variabel

    Koefisien atau pengali terhadap harga saham

    Hubungan

    x1…

    – / +

    – / +

    x44…

    – / +

    Interpretasi Hasil Estimasi – Random Effect Model (REM)

    Empatpuluh empat variabel bebas dalam persamaan yang ingin diestimasi –yakni … variabel likuiditas, … variabel rentabilitas, … variabel solvabilitas, dan … variabel kesulitan finansil– secara bersama-sama memiliki pengaruh yang signifikan terhadap pembentukan variabel terikat harga saham dari spesifikasi atau rasio …. Hal ini ditunjukkan dengan nilai Fstat (…) yang lebih besar dari nilai Ftabel (df=n-k,k) (5%=…) (); atau nilai signifikansi Fstat (0,000) yang lebih kecil dari nilai kepercayaan (α=0,05).

    Adjusted R2 yang bernilai … diartikan bahwa keempatpuluh-empat variabel bebas tersebut mampu menjelaskan prilaku harga saham dari spesifikasi atau rasio … sebesar …%. Dengan kata lain, model pada persamaan adalah model yang bersifat goodness of fit.

    Dari empatpuluh empat variabel bebas dalam persamaan yang ingin diestimasi, variabel likuiditas, … variabel rentabilitas, … variabel solvabilitas, … variabel kesulitan finansil, dan konstanta masing-masingnya memiliki pengaruh yang signifikan terhadap pembentukan variabel terikat harga saham dari spesifikasi atau rasio … pada α=5%.

    Sebanyak … variabel yang dimaksud adalah …. Per definitif, variabel yang dimaksud adalah ….

    Tabel – Bentuk hubungan dan pengali signifikan terhadap harga saham pada metode REM

    Variabel

    Koefisien atau pengali terhadap harga saham

    Hubungan

    x1…

    – / +

    – / +

    x44…

    – / +

    Pada α=10%, … variabel lainnya yang memiliki pengaruh yang signifikan terhadap pembentukan variabel terikat harga saham dari spesifikasi atau rasio … adalah …. Per definitif, … variabel yang dimaksud adalah ….

    Pemilihan Model PLS dan FEM

    Pemilihan model yang lebih baik antara PLS dan FEM dapat ditentukan dengan uji Chow. Bila F-hitung lebih besar dari F-tabel, maka Ho (yang menyatakan model PLS adalah lebih baik dari FEM) ditolak dan Ha (yang menyatakan model FEM adalah lebih baik dari PLS)  diterima.

    Mengacu pada nilai F-tabel (0,05: …) = …, yang lebih kecil dari F-hitung, maka Ho ditolak, dan Ha diterima. Hal ini berarti model FEM adalah lebih baik dari PLS.

    Pemilihan Model FEM dan REM – Uji Hausman

    Pemilihan model yang lebih baik antara FEM dan REM dapat ditentukan dengan uji Hausman. Inferensinya adalah bila peluang χ² (Chi-Square) lebih dari 0,05, maka model REM adalah lebih baik dari model FEM. Sebaliknya, bila peluang χ² (Chi-Square) kurang dari (α) 0,05, maka model FEM adalah lebih baik dari model REM.

    Ho = Model REM lebih baik.

    Ha = Model FEM lebih baik.

    Memulai langkah Uji Hausman dilakukan dengan memilih tab View, Fixed/Random Effect Testing, dan Correlated Random Effects – Hausman Test.

    Hasil Uji Hausman berupa tabel berikut.

    Correlated Random Effects – Hausman Test Period random effects test equation:
    Pool: POOL01 Dependent Variable: P?
    Test period random effects Method: Panel Least Squares
    Test Summary Chi-Sq. Stat.

    Chi-Sq. d.f.

    Prob. 

    Sample: 2010M01 2011M05
    Period random

    44

    Included observations: 17
    Cross-sections included: 30
    Period random effects test comparisons: Total pool (balanced) observations: 510

    Variable

    Fixed  

    Random 

    Var(Diff.) 

    Prob. 

    Variable

    Coefficient

    Std. Error

    t-Statistic

    Prob.  

    C

    X1?

    X1?

    :

    :

    :

    :

    X44?

    X44?

    Effects Specification

    Cross-section fixed (dummy variables)
    Period fixed (dummy variables)
    R-squared

        Mean dependent var

    Adjusted R-squared

        S.D. dependent var

    S.E. of regression

        Akaike info criterion

    Sum squared resid

        Schwarz criterion

    Log likelihood

        Hannan-Quinn criter.

    F-statistic

        Durbin-Watson stat

    Prob(F-statistic)

    Mengacu pada nilai peluang χ² (Chi-Square), yang lebih kecil dari 0,05, maka Ho ditolak, dan Ha diterima. Hal ini berarti model FEM adalah lebih baik dari REM.

    Kesimpulan

    Berdasarkan uji Hausman, model FEM adalah lebih baik dari model REM. Berdasarkan uji Chow, model FEM juga lebih baik dari model PLS. Demikian pula pada nilai statistik F dan adjusted R2. Pembandingan nilai statistik F dan adjusted R2 pada ketiga model estimasi (PLS, FEM, REM), memperliharkan nilai adjusted R2 tertinggi terjadi pada model FEM.

    Tabel – Pembandingan nilai F dan adjusted R2  pada α=5% pada 3 model estimasi

    Model

    F

    sig

    Adj R2

    GOF

    Efek Variabel, sig Å

    Efek Variabel, sig –

    FEM

    ü

    ü

    REM

    ü

    ü

    PLS

    ü

    x

    Memasukkan hasil estimasti pada model FEM kepada model persamaan yang ingin diestimasi, maka hasil persamaan yang diestimasi dapat dibuat ke dalam persamaan berikut:

    p =…              ….x1          + ….x2       ….              + …x44

    t    …                …               …                …               …

    ρ  …                …               …                …               …

    R²                    =  …

    Adjusted R²    =  …

    F-stat               =  …

    ρ (F-stat)         =  …

    D-W                =  …

    Pada model FEM, hanya … variabel yang signifikan memberikan efek negatif, yakni …. Pada dua model lainnya, jumlah variabel yang signifikan memberikan pengaruh negatif adalah lebih banyak, yakni … pada REM dan … pada PLS.

    Pada tabel hasil regresi dengan menggunakan metode FEM, variabel dan koefisien FE pada cross, nilai … hanya terpaut lebih rendah … dari harga rata-rata saham Bank … setiap akhir bulannya, atau lebih rendah …% dari nilai aktualnya (…).

    Hal ini diartikan, ketika semua variabel bebas bernilai nol, maka harga rata-rata saham tertinggi alami ada pada saham Bank … (_BANK#–C) dengan nilai sebesar … (jumlah antara konstanta dengan koefisien BANK#—C, yakni … dan …).

    Tabel – Hasil regresi dengan menggunakan metode Fixed Effect, variabel dan koefisien FE pada cross

    Variable

    Coefficient

    C + cross

    p_2010001

    p_201105

    p_rerata akhir_bl

    C

     

    _BANKRUJUK–C

    _BANK01–C

    :

    :

    _BANK31–C

    Sebaliknya, ketika semua variabel bebas bernilai nol, maka harga rata-rata saham terendah alami ada pada saham Bank … (_BANK##–C) dengan nilai sebesar … (jumlah antara konstanta dengan koefisien _BANK##—C, yakni … dan …). Nilai … terpaut jauh lebih rendah … dari harga rata-rata saham Bank … setiap akhir bulannya, atau lebih rendah …% dari nilai aktualnya (…).

    Pada tabel hasil regresi dengan menggunakan metode FEM, variabel dan koefisien FE pada period, nilai … terpaut lebih rendah … dari harga rata-rata saham rata-rata pada akhir bulan …, atau lebih rendah …% dari nilai aktualnya (…).

    Hal ini diartikan, ketika semua variabel bebas bernilai nol, maka harga rata-rata saham tertinggi alami terjadi pada bulan … dengan nilai sebesar … (jumlah antara konstanta dengan koefisien 20..M..–C, yakni … dan …).

    Sebaliknya, ketika semua variabel bebas bernilai nol, maka harga rata-rata saham terendah alami terjadi pada akhir bulan … dengan nilai sebesar … (jumlah antara konstanta dengan koefisien 20…M..–C, yakni … dan …). Nilai … terpaut jauh lebih rendah … dari harga rata-rata saham pada akhir bulan …, atau lebih rendah …% dari nilai aktualnya (…).

    Tabel – Hasil regresi dengan menggunakan metode Fixed Effect, variabel dan koefisien FE pada period

    Variabel

    koefisien

    C + period

    p_min

    p_max

    p_rerata

    C

    20…M…–C
    :
    :
    20…M…–C

    References:

    panel data EViews 7 Users Guide II, Quantitative Micro Software, EViews 7 User’s Guide II, Irvine CA, April 2010.

    Yenny Sugiarti dan Suyanto, Pengaruh Informasi Keuangan (Book Value, Earnings Per Share) terhadap Harga Saham Perusahaan Perbankan, Akuntansi dan Teknologi Informasi, Vol.6, No.2, Nov.2007, hal.79-92. The original link. Download the file: 62077992.

    I Gusti Ngurah Agung, Time Series Data Analysis Using EViews, Wiley, Singapore, 2009.

    Nicholas R. Noble, EViews User’s Guide, Quantitative Micro Software, Irvine CA, Feb. 2011.

    Quantitative Micro Software, EViews 7 Command and Programming Reference, Irvine CA, April 2010.

    Quantitative Micro Software, EViews 7 Getting Started, Irvine CA, April 2010.

    Quantitative Micro Software, EViews 7 Object Reference, Irvine CA, April 2010.

    Quantitative Micro Software, EViews 7 User’s Guide I, Irvine CA, April 2010.

    Quantitative Micro Software, EViews 7 User’s Guide II, Irvine CA, April 2010.

    Quantitative Micro Software, EViews 7.1 Supplement, Irvine CA, April 2010.

    Richard Startz, EViews Illustrated for Version 7, ed.2, Quantitative Micro Software, Irvine CA, 2009.

    Roy Batchelor, EViews Tutorial: Cointegration and error correction, City University Business School, London & ESCP, Paris, 2000.

     
  • Virtual Chitchatting 1:49 PM on 2011/06/30 Permalink  

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  • Virtual Chitchatting 8:41 PM on 2011/05/24 Permalink
    Tags: Achmad Albar, Anne Sinclair, Arnold Schwarzenegger, Balzac, blue-collar, blue-collar crimes, conflict management, cost-effective, Dominique Strauss-Kahn, Dorian Gray, dunia ini tidak selebar daun kelor, economies of production scale, , Gaudissart, guerilla maneuvres, Hugh Grant, human expectations, human management, , human perceptions, human sensations, , Joseph Brooks, Jude Law, l'exploitation de l'homme par l'homme, Maria Shriver, pariah, , playing duck, relationship management, Ricardo Gelael, Rini S. Bono, Ruhut Sitompul, selfish-egoism, shark bait, Silvio Berlusconi, the world is not your oyster,   

    the world is not your oyster. dunia ini tidak selebar daun kelor.

    you donot live under a shell. the shell you live is not as wide as one merunggai leaf. there is plenty opportunity to find a lover.

    by Sando Sasako

    Jakarta, 24 May 2011

    those two sentences have been spinning in my head for a couple of days. in this life, you cannot win all the games, neither you shall loose in every games you played. yet, the opposites are unpleasant. if every body wins, they shall show you their friendly faces, otherwise they shall express their hostile attitudes nor irritating behaviours. still, it is very much likely with the faces of any coin, head you lose, tail i win. (the same thing, actually, ;p).

    in any relationship, you cannot expect it shall go the drain, straight, and run smoothly. more likely, the road that you take shall get bumpy, winding, even more that many long roads can lead you to the dead ends. i have written in this blog, what kinds of conflict management that we should take as there exists some kind of impasse or stalemate. the problems right now are not the deals that broken, but the relationships that can not be expected to go the way it used to be. we have to go on with our lives, our separate lives. a pity and what a waste that such relationships we cannot hold, maintain, and endure. yet, c’est la vie. that’s life. you can not expect every thing and every one shall follow the way you lead, direct, and ask to.

    it is the human management, managing human relations. the human factor that is not easy to tackle, cope. you must be aware of that, each in every second while you are interacting with people. their sensation and their perceptions. and more to it, their expectations. the common grounds are to understand and comprehend the human needs and human wants as have been defined very well by Maslow and his counterparts, or to say his followers. argh, why is it so hard to deal with humans? so many errors are to happen easily, just like the existing electronic gadgets that have been manufactured in nearly non-humane working environments. they used to call it by the economies of production scale.

    l’exploitation de l’homme par l’homme

    such an epitome once was depicted by de Balzac (1799–1850) within his multi-volume collection of interlinked novels and stories depicting French society in the period of the Restoration and the July Monarchy (1815–1848). Balzac captured the scenes from provincial life (scènes de la vie de province). the theme was Parisians in the Country (Les Parisiens en province). the novel was titled by The Illustrious Gaudissart (L’Illustre Gaudissart, 1834).

    C’est dans L’Illustre Gaudissart, publié en 1837, que le romancier met ces propos dans la bouche de Gaudissart : « L’exploitation de l’homme par l’homme aurait dû cesser, Monsieur, du jour où Christ, je ne dis pas Jésus-Christ, je dis Christ, est venu proclamer l’égalité des hommes devant Dieu. Mais cette égalité n’a-t-elle pas été jusqu’à présent la plus déplorable chimère ? Or, Saint-Simon est le complément du Christ. Christ a fait son temps […]. Il a fait son temps contre le libéralisme. Maintenant, il y a quelque chose de plus fort en avant de nous, c’est la nouvelle foi […] une coordination sociale qui fasse que chacun reçoive équitablement son salaire social suivant son œuvre, et ne soit plus exploité par des individus qui, sans capacité, font travailler tous au profit d’un seul. »

    http://www.esprit-et-vie.com/article.php3?id_article=1604

    by studying the electronics industry and its embedded high techonology usage and appliances, we can be sure that the practices of l’exploitation de l’homme par l’homme do exist and inevitable. it also applies to any industrial goods manufactured and/or tailored in China. as they offer the most efficient production network which is highly horisontal, they also offer the number one cheapest labours in the world. so you can imagine, how low quality products they are producing. how not-very-reliable their products shall be. easy to break. and the most disappointing parts are their products are not worth repaired, or to say the least, no serviceability. once it broke, you should toss it to the scum bag and the thrash can. ugh crappy scrap.

    individually speaking, the usual words are cost-effective. neither jargons prevail and reveal the position of individuals exposed to such choices in any decision-making process. when it is just a penny, they’d prefer to decline and play it safe. otherwise, they shall play the duck role, below any existing radar, rules and regulations, conducting guerilla maneuvres, from one hotel lobby to another, and as well, from one hotel suite to another.

    some people play high, by renting an exclusive and deluxe suite of a 5-star hotel, just to show that they are worth, highly profiled, and so on. but as the fair market price of the deal is brought to them, they shall decline and insist upon the first business term that set before. say the first business term is IDR 15,000 for a t. page set in 2 spaces, 1-inch margins, font-sized 12. the prevailing market price is IDR 35,000 to IDR 50,000 a page, with the same terms and conditions. the negotiated price is IDR 25,000 a page.

    while my usual business term is IDR 1,500,000 per 10 pages of g-w skill, or IDR 150,000 per working page. the fee offered is a tenth of my business terms. i usually ask the down payment, at least 30% of the total amount. how can i perform to such a task?

    if you just offered the business to any people doing the translations, or a bunch of it, they shall hunt you down like a shark sniffing the spelt blood in thousands of meters. no chit-chat, no confirmation on the business terms, they shall just simply ask, where is it? how rude they are. and they are the same. they behave the same. they communicate the similar way.

    a blue-collar. a pariah. you can compare them like the nightly creatures, beast at its very basic nature, when civilisation havenot settled. or has the civilisation been ended these days? no norms, no ethics, no self-aligning position. just the the selfish egoism. there is only I, you donot exist, you donot prevail, you arenot valid to be taken account.

    blue-collars vs white-collars

    blue-collars are the people who brought things to life practical and humanely as possible. the problems are not their output, but about the treatments they have been receiving at work, after work, and post-work. they have been treated inhumanely as a man can value their works. blue-collars are replaceable in any time and any place. their presence are monitored and scuritinised by seconds. amazing, how exploitation de l’homme par l’homme takes place just right before your eyes. you are experiencing yourselves, everyday, every second, every step you made, every breathe you take. look around you. routine jobs must be paid as minimum as they can be. regular jobs can be paid accordingly. specific jobs, uncommon, and very special are highly paid and appreciated. it is in the name of money. the capitalism works at its best.

    white collars can be distinguished into two categories, that is the one that can be fired and the one that cannot be fired, but have a firing power indefinitively. the most recent examples of fired white collars are Dominique Strauss-Kahn and Arnold Schwarzenegger. Strauss-Kahn is a bureaucratic and a politic figure. he has been notorious with his internal French Connexxxions. here are some facts. he is a wife-swapping clubber. Anne Sinclair is his third wife. and then, it was Piroska Nagy in 2008, a Hungarian economist and a junior colleague at the IMF. in 2002, Tristane Banon, a French journalist and writer, was about to be raped by Strauss-Kahn. Radio France urged its employees to take exceptional security measures in order not to awaken the beast. in order to guarantee the safety of personnel, female workers must wear long, dark, unrevealing clothes that are anti-sex. high heels, leather pants and chic lingerie are banned. the head of information, who will greet DSK, will wear a burqa.

    the second figure that was fired from his wife is the governator Arnold Schwarzenegger. the event was amazingly made public right not long after his terms in office expired in January 2011. as a niece to a former US President, Shriver is a political dynasty. the political step was seen obvious as the couple had their 25th wedding anniversary, on last 26 April 2011. about a month before the anniversary, Shriver wrote on her facebook page that she was going through a transition in her life. her father, Sargent Shriver, deceased in January 2011. this event reminds me of Achmad Albar that was left by Rini S. Bono, right after his father in law died. Rini then got ‘together’ with the ‘convicted villain’ goro and gelael owner, Ricardo Gelael.

    yet arnie shall weather the storms as many did the extramarital affairs before. the badly damaged from a prostitution scandal, Eliot Spitzer is now hosting “In the Arena” on CNN. Jude Law’s image wasn’t derailed after his affair with his children’s former nanny. Hugh Grant eventually shook off his arrest with a prostitute. look at arnie’s phony friendliness pictures at his wedding, a retarded smiling grimace; as he received a political kiss from Shriver in the podium; and the grinning smile as being applauded. the last one reminds me the foolish Raja Minyak dari Medan, Ruhut Sitompul. both have similar idiotic smiles, donot they?

    another type of white collar is the one that cannot be fired but have a firing power. Silvio Berlusconi is another one of them you can call. is he a playboy? no, i’d say, according to my knowledge. then how we should define a playboy? well, playing pigeon-holing is a very fucking waste of time doing it. now you classify it as a. as info was about to be updated, then you shall classify it as b. confusing the very bases of classifying things. we can simply classify the playboy in his pure meanings as he is doing it for pleasure, not by any other power such as money, and no other motives in the background in seducing the opposite sex. so, we can simply point Dorian Gray as the legendary playboy, shall we? what was he doing in the end? finding someone who has been messing his mind in his entire life. to that end, can we put arnie as the aging and maturing playboy? we are supposed to. how do you tell about Joseph Brooks, the writer of You Light Up My Life?

    redefining the blue-collar

    a blue-collar is a part of a working class society. the typical work is manual and waged hourly. it may be skilled or unskilled.  lesser requirement for formal academic education. the jobs used to require strength. the work conditions can be strenuous or hazardous, or three-Ds for Dirty, Demanding, and Dangerous. the typical economic sectors are manufacturing, mining, building and construction trades, mechanical work, repair and operations maintenance or technical installation, restaurant, bar. durable clothing that can be dirty, soiled, or scrapped at work. the jobs may be represented by trade unions or regulated by state/provincial and/or federal/national statutes.

    on the other hand, the typical economic sector for the whiter-collars are the service sector, the jobs are non-manual labour, often in an office, customer interactions, entertainment, retail and outside sales, and the like. again, like the wasted pigeon-holing efforts, the distinction is becoming more blurred.

    the typical regions for blue-collars were Pittsburgh, Allentown and western parts of Pennsylvania; Ohio; the mill towns and cities of Southeastern Massachussetts; Detroit; Midwest and Western New York. the cities predominantly were in the manual labour and manufacturing sectors until de-industrialisation began in the 1960s. Cleveland, Ohio; Detroit, Michigan; Buffalo, New York; Niagara Falls, New York and Saint Louis, Missouri, have fallen on hard times, with many blue-collar workers out of a job, and populations slowly decreasing each year. these cities, which formerly boomed with industry, have high unemployment rates and issues with poverty and urban blight. however, many of these cities have begun revitalizing their downtowns, and have become cities of professional business.

    the blue-collar crimes

    the International Conference of Labour Statisticians (ILO) defines the unemployed as persons without work, were currently available for work, and were seeking work. yet, the relationship between overall unemployment and crime is inconsistent. the significance of unemployment will vary depending on its duration, social assessments of blame, previous experience of steady employment, perception of future prospects, comparison with other groups, disadvantaged ethnic groups, etc. hence, there is likely to be a causal relationship between relative deprivation and crime, particularly where unemployment is perceived as unjust and hopeless by comparison with the lot of other groups.

    the delinquency study in Philadelphia found that unemployment exerts a rather immediate effect on criminal involvement, while criminal involvement exerts a more long-range effect on unemployment. what this and other empirical research demonstrates is that crime-rates, especially for property offences, were higher during periods of unemployment than of employment. this suggests that holding constant other variables, the same youths commit more crimes while unemployed. This is not surprising since unemployment provides an incentive to commit offences and erodes the social controls which would otherwise encourage conformity. on the other hand, the criminal justice system was failing.

    a very wrongfully positivistic view came from Cantor and Land (1985) which found a negative association for unemployment and property crime in the United States. they argued that unemployment decreases the opportunity for property crime since it reflects a general slowdown in production and consumption activities and it increases the ability to guard property due to a greater concentration of time at home.

    conservatism alleges the failure of state agencies charged with the task of socialisation to instil self-discipline and moral values resulting in permissiveness, a lack of conformity, and liberalisation. the “evidence” that there are new affluent criminals allows populist politicians to deny any link between inner-city deprivation and crime. The Left avoids the issue of morality and crime which denies earlier work in Marxist criminology linking crime and the culture of egoism stimulated by economic advance under capitalism as a more amorally materialistic culture emerges. as Durkheim asserted, moral education cannot be effective in an economically unjust society.

    thus, additional research is required, using a more complex model of crime and control to include variables such as
    1. opportunities or incentives relative to a country’s standard of living,
    2. potential punishment,
    3. chance of being caught,
    4. law enforcement efforts and expenditures on theft and property crime relative to other crimes,
    5. size of the country’s criminal population,
    6. education levels,
    7. the media.
    8. other socio-economic factors.

    crime is a substantial element in media news reporting. the media plays significant role in the social construction of “hot spots” or dangerous places within a city. media research is now determining whether the coverage of crime is spatially representative of where crime occurs, or disproportionately presents crime as occurring in certain areas of a city, thereby skewing public perceptions and the political response.

    Jakarta, 19 May 2011 05:06:34

    http://beta.news.yahoo.com/schwarzeneggers-comeback-track-despite-scandal-202659982.html

    Schwarzenegger’s comeback on track despite scandal

    By JAKE COYLE – AP Entertainment Writer | AP – 1 hour 32 minutes ago

    Arnold Schwarzenegger’s return to showbiz has succeeded in one way: He’s a hit in late-night.

    The former California governor has been preparing a return to Hollywood, but becoming a punch line wasn’t on the agenda. Yet that’s exactly what’s happened since Schwarzenegger acknowledged Tuesday that he had fathered a child of a longtime household staff member more than a decade ago. The revelation followed last week’s separation of Schwarzenegger and his wife of 25 years, Maria Shriver.

    Everyone has lined up with their Schwarzenegger impression and puns on movie titles like “Twins” and “True Lies.” Schwarzenegger has long been a source of parody, but these revelations threaten to sully the generally positive image he’s created over decades of moviemaking and seven years in government.

    Many believe Schwarzenegger — who had been positioning himself as a highly paid speaker and green energy advocate — is politically relegated to John Edwards oblivion. Showbiz, however, can be forgiving of even the most appalling indiscretions. But the 63-year-old Schwarzenegger may have made rejuvenating his dormant movie career more challenging.

    It doesn’t help that the first project Schwarzenegger announced after leaving office in January was a children’s cartoon, to be globally distributed by a company called Your Family Entertainment.

    “The Governator” is a planned animated TV series, which is also to be spun into a comic book, video game and movie. It’s a production of famed comic book author Stan Lee’s Pow! Entertainment, Archie Comics and A2 Entertainment, and while it already has international deals, it doesn’t yet have a U.S. network home. Schwarzenegger touted it at a press conference in Cannes and in an Entertainment Weekly cover story.

    The show, in which he voices a superhero character, is to draw heavily from Schwarzenegger’s personal life. At one point, Schwarzenegger said that Shriver was to voice a character, too, but those plans were scuttled.

    Last week, Lee said Schwarzenegger’s separation merely meant that the series will now include “a lot of girls having crushes on our hero.”

    “A2′s ‘Governator’ animated series and its lore is fictional and stands on its merits,” Andy Heyward, co-president of A2 Entertainment, said in a statement. “The series stands on its own and is going forward as such.”

    He added: “Of course we wish the family the best in this challenging time.”

    Release is scheduled for late 2012.

    Schwarzenegger told The Associated Press last month that his focus was now on show business, that “entertainment is the important thing right now.” He’s found Hollywood eager to welcome back an actor whose films have grossed more than $1.6 billion domestically, and whose international fame is greater than most A-list stars.

    On the big screen, the most anticipation will fall on Schwarzenegger returning to arguably his most famous role: the cyborg in the “Terminator” films. 2009′s “Terminator Salvation” attempted to reboot the franchise without him (Sam Worthington played the part) and made $125 million domestically, plus $246 million internationally.

    The franchise is now being resuscitated for two more films. A package featuring Schwarzenegger as star, Justin Lin (“Fast Five”) as director and Robert Cort producing was reportedly bought by Annapurna Films last week.

    Annapurna Films declined to comment.

    Schwarzenegger is also to star as a horse trainer in the planned drama “Cry Macho.” It’s scheduled to begin shooting in August, with Brad Furman (“The Lincoln Lawyer”) directing a script based on the 1975 novel by N. Richard Nash.

    For his rebooted movie career, veteran publicist Howard Bragman says the scandal is “a non-issue.”

    “Moviegoing audiences have seen a lot worse from celebrities,” says Bragman. “The moviegoing audience tends to be younger males, and they just don’t care.”

    Schwarzenegger has generally drawn largely male audiences. Female viewers are seen as more likely to boycott a performer who has betrayed his wife.

    “Probably shouldn’t try to do a romantic comedy right away,” Bragman says. “But I don’t see any reason Arnold can’t have a much better movie career than he had a political career.”

    Though action films have generally favored the young, recent box office history suggests aging stars can be quite bankable. “Red,” which starred Bruce Willis and Helen Mirren, earned more than $90 million domestically last year. Sylvester Stallone’s “The Expendables” did even better, taking in $103 million domestically and an additional $171 million internationally.

    The last time Schwarzenegger starred in a film was 2003′s “Terminator 3: Rise of the Machines.” He’s also made a handful of cameos, including in “The Expendables.”

    As bad as Schwarzenegger’s image may be at the moment, many have recovered from seeming disaster. Though badly damaged from a prostitution scandal, Eliot Spitzer is now hosting “In the Arena” on CNN. Jude Law’s image wasn’t derailed after his affair with his children’s former nanny. Hugh Grant eventually shook off his arrest with a prostitute.

    And it will likely be a year or more before any of his projects in development see the light of day. The landscape could be very different for Schwarzenegger by then — so long as further skeletons aren’t revealed.

    Jakarta, 10 May 2011 22:59:48

    http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20110510/ap_en_mo/us_schwarzenegger_shriver_separation

    Schwarzenegger, Shriver separating after 25 years

    By MICHAEL R. BLOOD, AP Political Writer – 21 mins ago

    LOS ANGELES – It was a storybook marriage in 1986 on a spring weekend on Cape Cod that united a princess of an American political dynasty, Maria Shriver, and the gap-toothed muscle-clad movie star famous enough to be known by one name, Arnold.

    In many ways, it was a pairing of opposites: Her uncle was a U.S. president; his father was an Austrian policeman. She was the rising star of a network TV news show; he was the pot-puffing star of “Pumping Iron.” He was a Republican with a soft spot for Richard Nixon; her family was a pillar in the nation’s Democratic establishment.

    Former California Gov. Arnold Schwarzenegger and Shriver announced their separation late Monday, cleaving a sometimes-turbulent 25-year relationship after “a time of great personal and professional transition for each of us,” the couple said in a joint statement.

    The breakup comes about four months after Schwarzenegger ended a bumpy, two-term run as California governor, a job his wife never wanted him to pursue. Since then, Schwarzenegger, 63, has been fashioning a role as an international advocate for green energy, giving speeches and lining up work in Hollywood. Shriver, 55, has guested-edited an edition of Oprah Winfrey’s magazine but also talked about the stress of changing roles after serving as California’s first lady.

    The joint statement said the two were working on the future of their relationship while living apart and they would continue to parent their four children — Katherine, 21, Christina, 19, Patrick, 17, and Christopher, 13.

    “After a great deal of thought, reflection, discussion, and prayer, we came to this decision together,” the statement said.

    Shriver moved out of the couple’s gated estate in the Los Angeles neighborhood of Brentwood, but they remain on speaking terms. They had brunch with their children on Mother’s Day in a tony restaurant in Santa Monica, and met privately on their wedding anniversary last month.

    Prior to the announcement, there were hints of a rift. The former governor tweeted frequently during his recent travels to Brazil, Nigeria and France, but Shriver was not mentioned in his online updates from the road. Shriver, also active on social networks, posted three updates on her Twitter page on the day of their 25th wedding anniversary, April 26, but did not mention the milestone.

    About a month before the anniversary, Shriver wrote on her Facebook page that she was going through a transition in her life.

    “As you know, transitions are not easy. I’d love to get your advice on how you’ve handled transitions in your own life,” she said in a video posted on YouTube.

    “It’s so stressful to not know what you’re doing next. People ask you what are you doing and then they can’t believe that you don’t know what you’re doing,” she said.

    Schwarzenegger has often said that Shriver, who is keenly attuned to the risks of a life in politics, initially was very upset about his plan to run for governor. But when Schwarzenegger announced his decision on “The Tonight Show with Jay Leno” in August 2003, he said his wife stood by his decision.

    During Schwarzenegger’s time in office, Shriver and the couple’s children never moved to Sacramento, preferring their secluded estate a few miles from the Pacific Ocean. Schwarzenegger never settled in Sacramento, choosing instead to commute by private jet between his home and the state capitol.

    Schwarzenegger and Shriver long presented a gilded partnership that crossed politics, Hollywood and media. They are known for charitable work, and he also founded a committee with New York Mayor Michael Bloomberg and Pennsylvania Gov. Ed Rendell to encourage road, bridge and other infrastructure development.

    Shriver, the daughter of the late Eunice Kennedy Shriver, left her job as an NBC News correspondent after Schwarzenegger took office.

    In a May 2009 commencement speech at the University of Southern California, Schwarzenegger alluded to the powerful influence Shriver had on his life. He said when people ask him the secret to success, “I say, number one, come to America. Number two, work your butt off. And number three, marry a Kennedy.”

    As the state’s first lady, Shriver ran an annual women’s conference that attracted a long list of business, political and entertainment luminaries, along with an audience of thousands. She also was credited with overhauling the California Museum in downtown Sacramento, and, with Schwarzenegger, starting the California Hall of Fame.

    In 2007, Shriver said she wouldn’t resume a TV news career after the media circus surrounding Anna Nicole Smith’s accidental drug overdose.

    “It was then that I knew that the TV news business had changed and so had I,” she said at the time. In a 2009 interview with The Associated Press, she said “I’m too much of a free spirit” to consider running for elective office.

    Shriver stood by her husband during his campaign after the Los Angeles Times reported accusations that he had a history of groping women; Schwarzenegger later said he “behaved badly sometimes.”

    The breakup comes months after the death of Shriver’s father, Peace Corps founder and former vice presidential candidate Sargent Shriver, in January.

    ___

    Associated Press writer Daisy Nguyen contributed to this report.

    Jakarta, 23 May 2011 02:47:48

    http://beta.news.yahoo.com/songwriter-brooks-apparently-kills-himself-nyc-183459290.html

    Songwriter Brooks apparently kills himself in NYC

    By COLLEEN LONG – Associated Press | AP – 12 minutes ago

    Joseph Brooks, the Academy Award-winning songwriter of “You Light Up My Life” who was awaiting trial on charges of sexually assaulting more than a dozen women, was found dead Sunday of an apparent suicide in his Manhattan apartment, police said.

    Brooks, 73, was discovered in his Upper East Side apartment around 12:30 p.m. by a friend with whom he had planned to have lunch, police spokesman Paul Browne said. It was not immediately clear how long his body had been there. The apartment door was left unlocked, police said.

    Brooks’ death comes five months after his son was arrested in an unrelated, high-profile case. The son was charged with murdering his fashion designer girlfriend, whose body was found in December in an overflowing bathtub at a swank hotel in SoHo.

    The elder Brooks was discovered slumped over on a couch in the den, fully-clothed, with a plastic dry-cleaning bag around his head and a towel wrapped around his neck, Browne said. A hose attached to a helium tank was hooked up to the bag, he said.

    According to police, Brooks told the doorman at his apartment that a friend was meeting him for lunch and had permission to enter the building. Police believe Brooks left the apartment unlocked so his friend could find him.

    The medical examiner will perform an autopsy to determine the cause of death. Police said a rambling, three-page suicide note was found that included complaints about his health. They did not elaborate.

    Brooks suffered a stroke in 2008, and his lawyer had said the songwriter’s health was deteriorating during the court case. He appeared gaunt and shuffled slowly as he came to recent court dates.

    Helium is difficult to detect in an autopsy. Using it to commit suicide is outlined in a best-selling suicide manual by British author Derek Humphry.

    Brooks was awaiting trial on allegations that he molested women who were lured to his apartment for supposed acting auditions. He pleaded not guilty.

    Brooks’ lawyer and Manhattan prosecutors had no immediate comment about Brooks’ death.

    Brooks won the Academy Award for best original song for the 1977 Debby Boone ballad “You Light Up My Life” and directed a movie of the same name. It is about a comedian who has a one-night stand with a director. Brooks also won a Grammy for the song.

    He pleaded not guilty in 2009 to rape, sexual abuse and other charges in the attacks on 13 women. His trial date had not been set.

    Prosecutors say he lured most of the women to his apartment through an online ad offering auditions for a movie role, then sexually assaulted them after making them drink apparently drugged wine as part of an “acting exercise.”

    Brooks’ son, Nicholas, is charged with murder in the death of his girlfriend, Peruvian-American swimsuit designer Sylvie Cachay. She was found dead, half-clothed and face-up, in a tub at the Soho House, an elite club and hotel, after water began leaking through to the floor below. The 24-year-old had little contact with his father in recent years, authorities have said.

    Nicholas Brooks has pleaded not guilty and is being held without bail at the Rikers Island jail complex.

    ___

    Associated Press writer Jennifer Peltz contributed to this report.

     
  • Virtual Chitchatting 11:36 AM on 2011/05/22 Permalink
    Tags: A Fallen Candidate, Benjamin Brafman, Bill Clinton, Carla Bruni, Christine Lagarde, consensual, David Beckham, Dominique Gaston André Strauss-Kahn, Dominique Strauss-Khan, , Francois Mitterrand, Gallic Bernard Madoff, IMF, indiscretions, Irma Nici, Jeffrey Shapiro, Kristin Davis, le grand séducteur, Lionel Jospin, Madam Manhattan, Mario Blejer, Michael Bloomberg, Nicolas Sarkozy, , Rikers Island, smear campaign, the Great Seducer, Timothy Geithner, , Victoria Beckham   

    The Sexual Calamity of Great Seducer Dominique Strauss-Kahn 

    20110521    Christine Lagarde, Calon Kuat Bos Baru IMF
    20110520    Media frenzy surrounding Strauss-Khan shocks French
    20110520    Strauss-Kahn was an animal to my girls, claims infamous Manhattan madam
    20110520    Strauss-Kahn Buas terhadap Pekerja Seks
    20110520    Strauss-Kahn Sudah Sering Menggunakan Jasa Mucikari
    20110520    Strauss-Kahn Wild on Sex Workers
    20110519    Strauss-Khan Used NY Escort Service: Madam
    20110519    Dominique Strauss-Kahn and the French Anti-Semitism Myth
    20110519    The Strauss-Kahn Conspiracy Firestorm
    20110519    Strauss-Kahn quits as IMF chief as infamous Manhattan madam claims he paid her $2,500 for her escort girls
    20110518    IMF’s Strauss-Khan may use ‘consensual sex’ as lawsuit defense
    20110518    The Strauss-Kahn conspiracy?
    20110518    They say about Strauss-Khan’s …
    20110517    All eyes on Dominique Strauss-Kahn for his turn in the dock
    20110517    Penangkapan Strauss-Khan Picu Ketidakpastian Pembicaraan Utang Eropa
    20110516    Dominique Strauss-Kahn Free on $1 Million Bail
    20110516    The Strauss-Khan embarrassment and the eurozone
    20110516    Strauss Khan Kelelahan, Istri Beri Dukungan
    20110515    I.M.F. Names New Leader
    20110515    Dominique Strauss-Kahn’s sex arrest could end presidential hopes
    20110509    Dominique Strauss-Khan in sex book claims
    20100930    7 Fakta Kebohongan Irma Nici Soal Beckham
    20100922    Irma Nici, David Beckham’s Mistress? Prostitute Tells All (PICTURE)
    20081023    How Jewish is Dominique Strauss-Kahn?

    http://news.id.msn.com/okezone/sci-tech/article.aspx?cp-documentid=4858565

    Christine Lagarde, Calon Kuat Bos Baru IMF

    By wagustian, okezone.com, Updated: 5/21/2011 12:05 PM
    Menteri Keuangan Prancis Christine Lagarde muncul sebagai pilihan Eropa untuk memimpin IMF. Dengan majunya Lagarde ini, calon asal Turki Kemal Dervis otomatis menjadi tersingkir.

    WASHINGTON – Menteri Keuangan Prancis Christine Lagarde muncul sebagai pilihan Eropa untuk memimpin IMF. Dengan majunya Lagarde ini, calon asal Turki Kemal Dervis otomatis menjadi tersingkir.

    IMF sendiri telah dipimpin oleh orang Eropa sejak tahun 1946. Analis menyebut Lagarde berpeluang besar untuk menggantikan Dominique Strauss-Kahn sebagai managing director IMF, setelah Strauss-Kahn mengundurkan diri untuk menghadapi kasus kekerasan seksual di New York.

    Lagarde praktis bisa ikut sebagai kandidat Uni Eropa untuk menggantikan Dominique Strauss-Kahn sebagai Direktur Pelaksana IMF. “Dia front runner pada tahap ini, namun lomba belum dimulai,” kata mantan ekonom IMF Michael Mussa, yang sekarang di Peterson Institute for International Economics seperti dikutip dari Reuters, Sabtu (21/5/2011).

    Sementara itu ekonom Turki yang sangat dihormati dan juga mantan Kepala Program Pembangunan PBB Kemal Dervis dikesampingkan pencalonannya dengan majunya Lagarde ini. Padahal Dervis telah diterima secara luas dan dianggap sebagai kandidat yang baik untuk negara berkembang dan Uni Eropa.

    “Saya belum, dan tidak akan menjadi seorang calon. Saya sepenuhnya terlibat dalam, senang dengan, dan terfokus pada kerja global saya di Brookings Institution dan berharap untuk melanjutkan penelitian saya dan kerja kebijakan, termasuk bekerja di Turki,” ia mengatakan dalam sebuah pernyataannya.

    Muncul kekuatan ekonomi negara berkembang seperti China, India dan Brasil yang menyerukan untuk mengakhiri dominasi Eropa pada posisi kunci di IMF. IMF sendiri akan memilih pengganti Strauss-Kahn sebagai managing director IMF yang baru pada 30 Juni 2011 mendatang.

    http://www.euronews.net/2011/05/20/media-frenzy-surrounding-strauss-khan-shocks-french/

    Media frenzy surrounding Strauss-Khan shocks French

    20/05 01:53 CET

    The media frenzy surrounding the arrest and subsequent indictment for sex offences of Dominique Strauss-Khan has taken even hard-nosed French journalists by surprise.

    The French have been particularly upset by pictures of the accused in handcuffs, something illegal in French crime reporting.

    Marc de Chalvron is French journalist outside the courthouse:

    “Seen from France this is something incredible, just a week ago this man was favourite to become the new president and now we see him in these terrible pictures. Even for ordinary French citizens, we are just not used to it. The French still don’t understand what is happening.”

    The media circus will soon be packing up and leaving their temporary home outside the Centre Street Court in Lower Manhattan, but they will be back in droves when Strauss-Kahn returns for his next apperance on June 6.

    Copyright © 2011 euronews

    Tags: IMF – Media – The Strauss-Kahn case – USA

    http://m.dailymail.co.uk/mobile/news/article.html?articleID=1388748

    Strauss-Kahn was an animal to my girls, claims infamous Manhattan madam

    Last updated at 8:27 AM, 20 May 2011
    New sex claims from madam linked to Eliot Spitzer. Vice girl said he was ‘rough’ and ‘aggressive’

    Dominique Strauss-Kahn paid for prostitutes, only for them to complain that he ‘behaved like an animal’, one of America’s most infamous madams claims. Kristin Davis, who claims to have had dozens of celebrities among the 10,000 clients on her books, said Strauss-Kahn used her Wicked Models escort agency twice in 2006. She told the Daily Mail that he was introduced to her by Irma Nici, a Bosnian prostitute who said he had been one of her clients in Paris.

    Nici has previously made headlines by claiming she had had an affair with David Beckham – allegations that the footballer denied. Strauss-Kahn was running for the French presidency and had not yet taken over the IMF when he allegedly used Wicked Models’ services. Davis, nicknamed ‘the Manhattan Madam’, said her records showed he first called her in January 2006 to request a fresh-faced ‘all-American’ girl, and paid $2,500 (£1,500) in cash for two hours with her in a hotel room. But the girl came back complaining that he had been aggressive and she did not want to see him again. Davis sent him a second escort, a Brazilian girl, in September 2006 when Strauss-Kahn was in New York for a conference hosted by Bill Clinton. The second prostitute echoed the first girl’s complaints and ‘told me not to send any more girls to him’, Davis said, adding: ‘Strauss-Kahn was rough and aggressive.

    However he maintained a certain level of decorum because he was dealing with an agency. ‘The girls said he was pushy, overly grabby and forceful. He did not rape anyone. However, at $1,000 or more an hour, we expected the clients to behave like gentlemen, not animals.’ She said she had spoken out about Strauss-Kahn because of allegations that he violently attacked a New York hotel maid, claims he denies. ‘I have spent three years protecting the men on my client list. However, I will no longer protect those that abuse women,’ she said. In 2008, Davis was jailed after admitting running a prostitution business, and served four months at the Rikers Island prison where Strauss-Kahn has been held. After release she claimed to have quit the sex industry and ran for office in New York but failed to be elected.

    http://internasional.kompas.com/read/2011/05/20/16395765/StraussKahn.Buas.terhadap.Pekerja.Seks

    Strauss-Kahn Buas terhadap Pekerja Seks

    Egidius Patnistik | Jumat, 20 Mei 2011 | 16:39 WIB

    Dailymail
    Irma Nici, perempuan pekerja seks asal Bosnia, mengaku bahwa mantan direktur pelaksana IMF, Dominique Strauss-Kahn, sering menggunakan jasanya ketika di Paris, Perancis.

    NEW YORK, KOMPAS.com — Dominique Strauss-Kahn suka membayar jasa pekerja seks. Namun, kata Kristin Davis, seorang germo terkenal di Amerika, para pekerja seks tersebut mengeluh bahwa mantan Direktur Pelaksana Dana Moneter Internasional (IMF) itu berperilaku buas.

    Davis, yang mengaku mempunyai puluhan selebriti di antara 10.000 klien pada daftarnya, mengatakan, Strauss-Kahn menggunakan jasa gadis dari Wicked Models, agensi miliknya, dua kali pada tahun 2006. Sang germo kepada Daily Mail, Jumat (20/5/2011), mengatakan, dia diperkenalkan kepada Strauss Khan oleh Irma Nici, seorang pekerja seks Bosnia, yang mengatakan bahwa Strauss-Kahn telah menjadi salah satu kliennya di Paris. Nici sebelumnya menjadi berita utama ketika menyatakan bahwa dirinya telah berselingkuh dengan David Beckham, sebuah tuduhan yang dibantah oleh pemain sepak bola tersebut.

    Strauss-Kahn telah berniat untuk mencalonkan diri jadi presiden Perancis dan telah menjabat sebagai Direktur Pelaksana IMF ketika ia diduga menggunakan jasa Wicked Models.

    Davis, yang dijuluki “Madam Manhattan” itu, mengatakan, catatannya menunjukkan bahwa Strauss-Kahn pertama kali meneleponnya pada Januari 2006 untuk meminta seorang “gadis khas Amerika” berwajah segar dan membayar 2.500 dollar AS (setara Rp 21,3 juta) secara tunai untuk layanan selama dua jam di sebuah kamar hotel. Namun, gadis itu kembali dengan keluhan bahwa Strauss-Kahn agresif dan gadis itu tidak mau melayaninya lagi.

    Davis lalu mengirimi seorang pekerja seks kedua, seorang gadis Brasil, pada September 2006, ketika Strauss-Kahn berada di New York untuk konferensi yang diselenggarakan oleh Bill Clinton. Pekerja seks yang kedua mengeluhkan hal yang sama dengan yang dikeluhkan oleh gadis pertama dan “mengatakan kepada saya untuk tidak mengirim gadis lagi kepadanya (Strauss-Kahn)”. Davis menambahkan, “Strauss-Kahn kasar dan agresif.”

    “Gadis-gadis itu mengatakan ia suka memaksa, terlalu menuntut, dan kasar. Dia tidak memerkosa seseorang. Namun, dengan bayaran 1.000 dollar atau lebih per jam, kami berharap klien berperilaku seperti gentleman, bukan seperti binatang.”

    Ia mengatakan, ia mengungkapkan apa yang ia tahu tentang Strauss-Kahn karena munculnya tuduhan bahwa dia menyerang seorang pelayan kamar hotel di New York, tetapi Strauss-Kahn membantahnya. “Saya sudah tiga tahun melindungi orang-orang dalam daftar klien saya. Namun, saya tidak akan lagi melindungi mereka yang melecehkan perempuan,” katanya.

    Tahun 2008, Davis dipenjara setelah mengakui bahwa ia menjalankan sebuah bisnis prostitusi. Ia mendekam selama empat bulan di penjara Pulau Rikers, di mana Strauss-Kahn juga telah ditahan sebelum akhirnya dibebaskan dengan uang jaminan senilai 6 miliar dollar, tetapi tetap diawasi ketat selama 24 jam. Bahkan, kakinya dipasangi monitor elektrik dan tempatnya menginap dipasangi kamera video dan alarm demi mencegahnya agar tidak kabur ke negaranya, Perancis.

    http://modelmagz.com/news/latest-news/strauss%11kahn-sudah-sering-menggunakan-jasa-mucikari.html

    Strauss-Kahn Sudah Sering Menggunakan Jasa Mucikari

    Ternyata Dominique Strauss-Kahn kenal gembong germo yang anak buahnya sering digunakan jasanya oleh para selebriti. Germo bernama  Kristin Davis asal Amerika mengaku, anak buahnya juga sering digunakan oleh Strauss. Namun , lanjut Davis,  mantan direktur pelaksana Dana Moneter Internasional (IMF) itu berperilaku buas dalam urusan ranjang alias seks menyimpang.

    Kristin Davis yang dijuluki ‘Madam Manhattan’ mengaku memiliki pelanggan puluhan selebriti, dan 10.000 klien. Termasuk Strauss  yang sering menggunakan jasa PSK dari Wicked Models, agensi miliknya. Staruss pernah menggunakan jasa anak buahnya dua kali pada tahun 2006.

    Davis kepada Daily Mail, Jumat (20/05) mengatakan, dirinya diperkenalkan dengan Strauss Khan oleh Irma Nici, PSK asal Bosnia, dan  mengatakan bahwa Strauss telah menjadi salah satu kliennya di Paris, Perancis.

    Nici sendiri bukan nama atau wajah baru di dunia bisnis esek-esek. Ia sebelumnya pernah jadi berita ketika mengaku berselingkuh  pesepakbola David Beckham. Namun tuduhan itu dibantah oleh pemain sepakbola flamboyan tersebut.

    Menurut Davis, Strauss pertama kali telpon diriya Januari 2006. Ia  meminta di order ‘gadis khas Amerika’ berwajah fresh, dan berani membayar 2.500 dollar AS (sekitar Rp 21.3 juta) dengan tunai. Uang sebesar itu  untuk layanan selama dua jam di sebuah hotel. Namun gadis yang dikirim Davis mengeluh,  Strauss agresif dan anak buahnya itu tidak mau melayaninya lagi.

    Lalu Davis mengirim gadis lain ketika Staruss meminta lagi pada September 2006. Ia mengirim gadis asal Brasil. Ketika itu Strauss berada di New York untuk konferensi yang dihajat oleh Bill Clinton. PSK kedua  itu juga mengeluhkan hal yang sama. Gadis itu mengatakan untuk tidak mengirim dirinya lagi kepada  Strauss.

    “Gadis-gadisku mengaku  Staruss suka memaksa dan  kasar. Dia suka memperlakukan PSK dengan memperkosanya. Kami berharap dengan bayaran 1.000 dollar per jam, klien berperilaku gentlemen, bukan seperti binatang,” kata Davis.

    Davis sendiri pernah dipenjara setelah mengakui telah menjalankan bisnis esek-esek.. Ia empat bulan masuk  penjara Pulau Rikers,  penjara dimana Strauss-Kahn juga telah ditahan,  sebelum akhirnya dibebaskan dengan jaminan 6 miliar dollar. Namun  kaki Staruss dipasang monitor elektrik dan tempat menginapnya dipasang kamera  CCTV serta alarm, demi mencegahnya tidak kabur ke negaranya, Perancis.  Atau ia melakukan tindak bubuh diri.

    Sebenarnya Strauss-Kahn berniat untuk mencalonkan diri jadi presiden Perancis. Namun cita-citanya itu kini kandas. Kalau pelecehan seksual yang dilakukan tak terbongkar, rakyat Perancis yang kasihan, mereka akan memiliki Presiden dengan perilaku seks meyimpang.

    http://peacemadia.blogspot.com/2011/05/strauss-kahn-wild-on-sex-workers.html

    Strauss-Kahn Wild on Sex Workers

    Friday, May 20, 2011

    NEW YORK – Dominique Strauss-Kahn like to pay for the services of sex workers. However, says Kristin Davis, a famous pimp in the U.S., sex workers are complaining that the former Managing Director of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) that predatory behavior.

    Davis, who claimed to have dozens of celebrity at between 10,000 clients on his list, saying, Strauss-Kahn’s use of her Wicked Models service, his agency, twice in 2006. The pimp told the Daily Mail, Friday (05/20/2011), said he was introduced to Irma Strauss Khan by Nici, a sex worker Bosnia, who said that Strauss-Kahn has become one of his clients in Paris. Nici previously made headlines when it claimed that he had an affair with David Beckham, an accusation denied by the football players.

    Strauss-Kahn had been intending to run for president of France and has served as Executive Director of the IMF when he was allegedly using the service Wicked Models.

    Davis, who was nicknamed “Manhattan Madam”, said his notes showed that Strauss-Kahn was first called him in January 2006 to ask for a “typical American girl” fresh-faced and pay 2500 U.S. dollars in cash for service for two hours in a hotel room. However, the girl returned with a complaint that Strauss-Kahn aggressive and she did not want to serve him anymore.

    Davis then sent a second sex worker, a Brazilian girl, in September 2006, when Strauss-Kahn was in New York for a conference hosted by Bill Clinton. Sex workers who both complain about the same as those complained of by the first girl and “told me not to send her back to him (Strauss-Kahn).” Davis added, “Strauss-Kahn rude and aggressive.”

    “The girls said he was overbearing, too demanding, and rude. He did not rape someone. However, for a fee of 1000 dollars or more per hour, we expect the client to behave like a gentleman, not like animals.”

    He said, he revealed what he knew about Strauss-Kahn as the emergence of allegations that he attacked a hotel chambermaid in New York, but Strauss-Kahn denied this. “I have three years to protect the people in my client list. However, I will no longer protect those who harass women,” she said.

    In 2008, Davis was imprisoned after admitting that he had run a prostitution business. He served four months in Rikers Island prison, where Strauss-Kahn also been detained before being freed on bail amounting to 6 billion dollars, but still closely monitored for 24 hours. In fact, his legs fitted with an electric monitor and where to stay fitted with video cameras and alarms to prevent it fled to his country, France.

    http://m.ibtimes.com/dominique-strauss-khan-escort-prostitute-148499.html

    Strauss-Khan Used NY Escort Service: Madam

    May 19, 2011 10:44 AM EDT

    Dominique Strauss-Kahn, the disgraced former chief of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) now facing sexual assault charges, was a frequent customer of a notorious Manhattan escort service, according to reports. Former madam Kristin Davis, whose escort service also catered to the former governor of New York, Eliot Spitzer, told media that she provided prostitutes for Strauss-Khan in 2006 when he was running for France’s presidential nomination as a Socialist. At that time, Strauss-Khan was not head of the IMF.

    Reportedly, one of her girls griped about his “aggressive” behavior. “He was a client of my agency,” she told The Daily Telegraph newspaper of Britain. “When men abuse women I’m no longer going to protect their identities”. Davis, who has alleged to have large pool of well-known clients, claimed that Strauss-Khan would call her directly and paid $1200 in cash for two-hour sessions in New York hotels. “He wanted an ‘All-American girl’, with a fresh face, from the mid-West,” she said. “A girl in January 2006 complained he was rough and angry, and said she didn’t want to see him again”.

    Davis also alleged that in September 2006, when Strauss-Kahn arrived in New York to attend a conference hosted by former US President Bill Clinton, she provided the Frenchman with a Brazilian prostitute, who later complained that “he was rough.” Davis has herself served prison time for running a prostitution ring. She even ran for New York governor last year. The Times of London reported that Strauss-Khan was referred to the New York escort service by a Bosnian prostitute in Paris named Irma Nici. She told the Daily Mail: “Strauss-Kahn was rough and aggressive, however he maintained a certain level of decorum because he was dealing with an agency. The girls said he was pushy, overly grabby and forceful. He did not rape anyone. However, at $1,000 or more an hour, we expected the clients to behave like gentlemen, not animals.”

    Nici added: “I have spent three years protecting the men on my client list – however, I will no longer protect those that abuse women.” Separately, there are now other reports that Strauss-Khan sexually assaulted another hotel maid in Mexico. In a book called “DSK: Secrets of a presidential contender” written by a female author using the pseudonym Cassandre, the alleged incident occurred in recent years when Strauss-Khan made an official visit to Mexico.

    http://www.thedailybeast.com/blogs-and-stories/2011-05-19/dominique-strauss-kahn-and-the-french-anti-semitism-myth/

    Dominique Strauss-Kahn and the French Anti-Semitism Myth

    May 19, 2011 | 11:08pm
    by Eric Alterman
    Although Dominique Strauss-Kahn fits the stereotype of rich, leftist, Jewish banker preying on the poor and getting ethnic support from notable friends, there have been few anti-Jewish attacks on him in France, showing that claims of an anti-Semitism epidemic in the country are overblown, writes Eric Alterman.

    It’s an anti-Semite’s dream and a nervous Jew’s nightmare. Imagine: Dominique Strauss-Kahn, an extremely wealthy international French Jewish banker—married to a media star and famous for his extravagant lifestyle and leftist politics—enjoying a $3,000 New York hotel suite allegedly violently rapes a poor, powerless, devout Muslim maid from West Africa and expects to fly home to Paris (first class, of course) as if nothing happened.

    From top left: AP Photos; Getty Images (2); AP Photos; Getty Images (2)

    To make matters worse, who leaps to his defense but yet another high-living leftist French Jewish intellectual, Bernard-Henri Lévy, who insists, in one of the oddest professions of class solidarity ever issued, “I hold it against the American judge who, by delivering him to the crowd of photo hounds, pretended to take him for a subject of justice like any other.” Though to be fair, for sheer oddness Lévy is matched, if not topped, by the “I am Spartacus”-style statement by the right-wing Jewish financial pundit Ben Stein, who insists that Mr. Strauss-Kahn must be innocent because, “People who commit crimes tend to be criminals, for example. Can anyone tell me any economists who have been convicted of violent sex crimes? Can anyone tell me of any heads of nonprofit international economic entities who have ever been charged and convicted of violent sexual crimes?” whereas many hotel maids are “complete lunatics, stealing airline tickets…stealing money…throwing away important papers, stealing medications…” And this is perhaps not even his craziest point. There’s this one too: “[T]his is a case about the hatred of the have-nots for the haves, and that’s what it’s all about. A man pays $3,000 a night for a hotel room? He’s got to be guilty of something. Bring out the guillotine.” And beyond the Lévy and Klein comments, did I mention that Strauss-Kahn has hired an extremely expensive orthodox Jewish lawyer?

    All of this is primo fodder for anyone wanting to lob anti-Jewish comments in DSK’s direction, or even issue anti-Semitic broadsides about Jews inevitably rising to the defense of one of their own, regardless of the circumstances. And much of the criticism would be expected to come from France. For more than a decade now, we’ve been hearing about an alleged epidemic of anti-Semitism all across the Western world, but nowhere more than in Europe—and in Europe, nowhere more than in France. It was not so long ago that the American Jewish Congress called for a boycott of the Cannes Film Festival and a halt to organized Jewish tours of France to protest French anti-Semitism. Ed Koch wanted an American boycott of all French products. Israel’s ambassador to France at the time, Nissim Zvili, insisted that French Jews were so “afraid of anti-Semitic attacks that many of them are thinking of emigrating,” Ariel Sharon, then prime minister of Israel, warned them to flee their nation to escape “the wildest anti-Semitism.”

    Strauss-Kahn’s religion has proven relevant to only two types of people: Neo-Nazis and Ann Coulter.

    There was some dissent from this view at the time. “France is not more anti-Semitic than America,” argued Roger Cukierman, then the head of the Representative Council of the Jewish Institutions of France (CRIF). He called on U.S. Jewish organizations to stop interfering in the affairs of French Jews, and suggested that the attacks on Jewish institutions at the time were the result of a fringe section of France’s six million-strong Muslim community. (France has 600,000 Jews, the largest number outside the U.S and Israel. Cukierman thought the violence was a direct result of Israel’s reaction to the Palestinian intifada.

    If ever there was a time that French anti-Semitism were going to rear its head, Mr. Strauss-Kahn has all but issued an engraved invitation. Indeed, it’s hard to think of a single anti-Semitic stereotype that he does not exemplify. Think about it. Jewish banker: check. Jewish cosmopolitan globalist running shadowy financial institution that nobody quite understands: check. Jewish leftist: check. Jewish sex maniac: check. Jewish predator on the poor and powerless: check. Jewish rich guy with beautiful wife in powerful media job: check. Jew with Jewish lawyer: check. Jew with famous Jewish friends in the media defending him purely on the basis of personal and ethnic ties, with no apparent concern as to whether he’s innocent or guilty: check.

    And yet this card-carrying Mosaic member of the “caviar left”, with his $3,000 hotel suites and $3,500 suits and million-dollar apartments, etc., together with all of these stereotypical “Jewish” flaws named above was somehow the leading candidate to become France’s next president. (Help me: Has the United States ever had a Jewish president?)

    Ironically, almost all the conspiracy theories floating around France for this historic upheaval in the nation’s political future have centered not around Jews, but around President Sarkozy’s interest in upending the candidacy of the man most likely to replace him. Marc Knobel, a researcher at CRIF, told a reporter he could find no significant mentions of Strauss-Kahn’s Judaism in the aftermath of his dramatic arrest. In fact the opposite was true. “[E]verybody knew he was Jewish, and that didn’t prevent him from being the most popular candidate in France,” added CRIF’s president, Richard Prasquier. “And that says something about France. Today we find it completely normal that a Jew can become president.”

    As it happens, Strauss-Kahn’s religion has proven relevant, really, to only two types of people: Neo Nazis and Ann Coulter, (though this might be a distinction without a difference).

    What can one say to all of this except “Vive La France?” How about “We’re sorry.”

    Eric Alterman is a Distinguished Professor of English and journalism at Brooklyn College and the CUNY Graduate School of Journalism, a senior fellow of the Center for American Progress and media columnist for The Nation. His most recent book is Kabuki Democracy: The System vs. Barack Obama.

    For inquiries, please contact The Daily Beast at editorial@thedailybeast.com.

    http://www.thedailybeast.com/blogs-and-stories/2011-05-19/dominique-strauss-kahn-and-nicolas-sarkozy-conspiracy-theory-firestorm/

    The Strauss-Kahn Conspiracy Firestorm

    May 19, 2011 | 9:55am
    by Tracy McNicoll

    Did French President Nicolas Sarkozy set up Dominique Strauss-Kahn to sideline his top opponent? Is First Lady Carla Bruni pregnant just to boost his popularity? Tracy McNicoll reports from Paris. Plus, the latest news on Strauss-Kahn.

    As politicians go, French President Nicolas Sarkozy looks to be having a good week. An especially good week. A sell-the-movie-rights, surreal reversal of fortune, I was lost and now I see especially good week. And this is a desperately unpopular president who, without overstating it, has yet to have a good week this decade. With exactly a year to go before France’s next president is inaugurated, Sarkozy’s most formidable obstacle to re-election, a rival many believed would declare his candidacy as early as next week, looks very suddenly and emphatically out of the way. And as one of Sarkozy’s most influential critics quipped, Dominique Strauss-Kahn facing charges of attempted rape on a New York hotel maid makes the long-embattled president look “almost normal.” High praise. What’s more, First Lady Carla Bruni, is pregnant, Sarkozy’s father told a German newspaper. More blessed normalcy? Not so fast, say the French. Let the conspiracy theories fly.

    Mike Segar, Reuters / Landov; Jacques Demarthon, AFP / Getty Images

    As Strauss-Kahn languishes on Rikers Island, his brilliant career allegedly upended by his appendage, the French are calling conspiracy on the whole affair. A new poll shows a full 57 percent smell “a plot” (only 32 percent don’t) as the disgraced head of the IMF and erstwhile Socialist Party frontrunner for France’s 2012 presidential election is due before a grand jury on Friday. The poll doesn’t ask “a plot by whom?” Armchair conspiracy theorists have narrowed it down to French right-wingers, French left-wingers, or IMF rivals. Even Strauss-Kahn’s room number at the Sofitel, 2806, has counted as a clue: The Socialist primaries open on June 28.

    The French press has been criticized abroad for keeping Strauss-Kahn’s alleged peccadilloes under wraps. But there was enough out there, in dinner-party gossip and the odd book or article, to feed the impression that DSK’s reputation as a grand séducteur could one day be his downfall. Still, the nefarious undertone was, with local media legendarily discreet and the public presumed not to care, if he didn’t jump, he would be pushed.

    Even Strauss-Kahn’s room number at the Sofitel, 2806, has counted as a clue: The Socialist primaries open on June 28.

    In DSK-Sarkozy: Le Duel, a “comparative biography” of both men released last year, authors Alexandre Kara and Philippe Martinat relate a surreal encounter in a Pittsburgh toilet. As the story goes, before a bank of urinals at the G20 summit in 2009, Strauss-Kahn called Sarkozy out on rumors the president’s cronies would circulate compromising photos of the IMF chief if he ran against Sarkozy for the presidency in 2012. Sarkozy’s friends had reportedly been talking up salacious photos for years, since Strauss-Kahn’s failed attempt to get the Socialist Party nomination for the 2007 presidential election.

    Indeed, while the French may question Sarkozy’s talents for governance (his approval ratings have hovered around 30), he is ascribed a Machiavellian forte for electioneering. Just as Strauss-Kahn critics joked that his zipper could be his undoing, Sarkozy cynics bet on a baby. Since the president wed supermodel-turned-popstar Carla Bruni in 2008, skeptics joked that if he hit rock bottom politically and a second term was on the line, a presidential pregnancy was guaranteed. Never mind that the first lady in question is 43. Pregnancy rumors last month had the tweetosphere competing on wit. One Web critic suggested the baby be christened Plancom, a name that sounds no better with a Parisian accent and is French slang for “marketing op.”

    In fact, Sarkozy was the first French politician to make a show of his private life and remains the exception. In 2002, he was famously photographed for the glossy Paris Match with his son Louis, then 5, playing under his Interior Ministry desk, evidently riffing on the legendary Kennedy photo. And so the pitter-patter of new little feet were to be put to campaign megaphones outside the Elysée Palace, as if a bashful père’s glassy-eyed joy and showy coochy-coos could accomplish what kissing other peoples’ babies could not.

    Both scenarios—DSK’s eventual coup de grâce, Carla’s finger-snap pregnancy—made the rounds for years, as Sarkozy’s popularity plummeted and Strauss-Kahn’s rose, before making headlines 72 hours apart. More fuel for the conspiratorial fire?

    Of course, with Strauss-Kahn’s arrest dominating coverage, the baby news didn’t make the front pages as it would have weeks ago. If Bruni’s pregnancy is the product of dastardly calculation (and, let’s face it, with the parents-to-be aged 56 and 43, it’s a lot of trouble to go to just to pull in the soccer-mom vote), it hasn’t been aired showily yet. The Elysée Palace, somewhat ironically, declined to comment on a private matter. Instead, the child’s grandparents supplied the news to press outside France. Sarkozy’s Hungarian father Pal told the German daily Bild, while Bruni-Sarkozy’s Italian mother told La Stampa.

    In any case, when Agence France Presse surveyed political analysts on the potential for a baby bounce, it wasn’t clear Sarkozy would get it. One pollster said a showy pregnancy could just “annoy people.” Media sociologist Dominique Wolton suggested, “If, by some misfortune, the Elysée develops a [media] strategy around the pregnancy, it will be perceived as star-ification and an Americanization of public life.” Wolton tutted, “One must not take the French to be idiots.”

    So between a rape case most believe was a honey trap, and a pregnancy Sarkozy’s compatriots will bristle at hearing about, Machiavellian intrigue would hardly have been worth it, n’est-ce pas?

    Tracy McNicoll is Newsweek’s Paris Correspondent. She has been covering Western Europe for the magazine since 2002.

    For inquiries, please contact The Daily Beast at editorial@thedailybeast.com.

    http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1388447/Dominique-Strauss-Kahn-quits-IMF-chief-Kristin-Davis-claims-paid-2-500-escort-girls.html

    Strauss-Kahn quits as IMF chief as infamous Manhattan madam claims he paid her $2,500 for her escort girls

    By Daily Mail Reporter
    Last updated at 1:57 PM on 19th May 2011
    New sex claims from madam linked to Eliot Spitzer
    ‘Sex assault victim’ testifies before grand jury
    Bail hearing to be held for IMF boss today
    DSK mugshot released by NYPD
    Lawyers ask for $1million cash bail
    He would be on 24-hour house arrest with electronic tag

    Head of the IMF Dominique Strauss-Kahn sensationally quit his post today, amid claims that he paid an infamous brothel madam $2,500 for escort girls. Kristin Davis, 35, claimed the IMF chief used the services of Wicked Models twice in 2006. The Frenchman, who was not in the IMF post at the time, was believed to have been referred to the brothel owner by Irma Nici, a Bosnian prostitute who had been living in Paris, according to The Times newspaper. Ms Nici – also linked with Davis’s most famous client, the former New York governor Eliot Spitzer – recently claimed to have slept with David Beckham. The footballer denies the allegation. Mr Spitzer, who is now an anchor for CNN, was forced to resign from the role in 2008 when the scandal was made public.

    Escorts: Kristin Davis, 35, claims the IMF chief used the services of her Wicked Models agency twice in 2006

    According to The Times, Strauss-Kahn – who is currently on remand in New York accused of the attempted rape of a hotel chambermaid – called Davis in the third week of January 2006 to request an ‘all American’ girl, and paid £1,500 ($2,400) for two hours with her. ‘He paid in cash’, she was quoted as saying. ‘The first girl I sent to him said he was aggressive and didn’t want to be back with him again.’

    STRAUSS-KAHN’S LETTER IN FULL
    Ladies and Gentlemen of the Board:
    It is with infinite sadness that I feel compelled today to present to the Executive Board my resignation from my post of Managing Director of the IMF.
    I think at this time first of my wife – whom I love more than anything – of my children, of my family, of my friends.
    I think also of my colleagues at the Fund; together we have accomplished such great things over the last three years and more.
    To all, I want to say that I deny with the greatest possible firmness all of the allegations that have been made against me.
    I want to protect this institution which I have served with honor and devotion, and especially – especially – I want to devote all my strength, all my time, and all my energy to proving my innocence.

    Dominique Strauss-Kahn

    In his letter of resignation released by the IMF, Strauss-Kahn said: ‘I deny with the greatest possible firmness all of the allegations that have been made against me,’ Speaking about her alleged liaison with the IMF boss, Ms Nici told the Daily Mail: ‘Strauss-Kahn was rough and aggressive, however he maintained a certain level of decorum because he was dealing with an agency. ‘The girls said he was pushy, overly grabby and forceful. He did not rape anyone. However, at $1,000 or more an hour, we expected the clients to behave like gentlemen, not animals.’ She said she had spoken out about him because of the new allegations that he violently attacked a New York hotel maid. ‘I have spent three years protecting the men on my client list – however, I will no longer protect those that abuse women,’ she added.

    Davis sent him a second escort, a Brazilian girl, in September 2006 who made no complaint about Strauss-Kahn’s behaviour. The economist was in New York at the time for a conference arranged by Bill Clinton. Davis was later jailed for prostitution offences, spending five months at the Rikers Island prison where Strauss-Kahn is currently being held. She last year procured 23,000 signatures in support of her candidacy as an independent challenger for New York Governor to Andrew Cuomo – the incumbent.

    Dominique Strauss-Kahn’s booking photo, released on an NYPD prisoner movement slip

    IMF officials have been urging Strauss-Kahn to stand down as head of the global finance body but admit it is difficult to communicate with him as he is in prison. The IMF’s head is traditionally a European but developing countries were pushing for a change even before this scandal erupted. Candidates and their supporters in various countries are now vying for the post, including former Prime Minister Gordon Brown. Mr Brown is the fourth favourite – at 8/1 – for the post with the bookmaker William Hill. He comes behind Axel Weber, the German Bundesbank president; Montek Singh Ahluwalia, an Indian civil servant; and the favourite – Kemal Dervis, the former Turkish finance minister. Others who have been touted include the French finance minister Christine Lagarde and Josef Ackermann, the Swiss chief of Deutsche Bank. Meanwhile, in grainy black and white, the mugshot of one of the world’s most powerful men was released by the NYPD last night.

    Dominique Strauss-Kahn’s mouth is set in the image, his gaze averted. He appears to be wearing a jacket and a light-coloured shirt. The booking photo was found in a prisoner movement slip released by the NYPD today, as it emerged his lawyers are asking for him to be released on a $1million cash bail. A bail hearing is set to be held for the IMF chief today, court officials have said. Defence lawyers want him released on $1 million cash bail and placed under 24-hour home detention with electronic monitoring, court papers showed. Strauss-Kahn’s state-wide criminal justice system code (NYSID) number is 09132366L. The document emerged as the hotel maid who has accused Strauss-Khan of a vicious sex attack was set to testify in front of a grand jury.


    Resignation: A copy of the letter Strauss-Kahn sent to the IMF in which he says he wants to devote all his energies to proving his innocence


    Part of the system: The image was included on this prisoner movement slip released by NYPD today


    Hitting back: Jeffrey Shapiro, the lawyer for the hotel maid said the woman will testify against the IMF boss before a grand jury

    Jeffrey Shapiro, the lawyer acting for the woman, said his client will say ‘there was nothing consensual’ about the assault that allegedly took place at New York’s Sofitel Hotel on Saturday. The line coupled with new physical evidence is thought to be an effort to quash Strauss-Khan’s likely line of defence, that the maid did consent to sex. It also emerged today that just one hour after Strauss-Kahn left the Times Square hotel at 12.30pm on Saturday, hotel staff phoned police about the attack.

    Meanwhile NYPD investigators are DNA-testing samples of fluid they found in the $3,000-a-night suite that Strauss-Khan had been staying in. The maid showed them where she had spat after the Frenchman allegedly forced her to perform oral sex, according to CBS News. Police also say they have checked information from the suite door’s electronic card reader which indicates the woman came into the room but didn’t shut the door, as is hotel policy. This proves the maid was in the room to work, not have consensual sex, investigators told the news station.

    Described as a ‘good Muslim’ by a close friend the maid was an asylum seeker from Guinea – one of the poorest countries in Africa. She was granted asylum, according to lawyer Mr Shapiro, and netted the job at the prestigious Sofitel in order to support her now 15-year-old teen daughter. If she had been earning Guinea’s average annual wage of $1,000, it would have taken her three years to stay just one night in the suite where the alleged attack took place.

    Mr Shapiro said yesterday that the maid had no idea there was a man inside the suite she went into clean or that he was a famous French politician. She was now ‘alone in the world’ after her life had been ‘turned upside down’ by the alleged attack,’ he said. ‘She can’t go home, she can’t go back to work. This has been nothing short of a cataclysmic event in her life,’ he added. He also dismissed suggestions by Strauss-Khan’s legal team that the woman had made up charges or is trying to cover up a consensual encounter.


    Denied: Strauss-Khan, right, was denied $1million bail offered by his lawyer Benjamin Brafman, left, at his arraignment hearing this week


    International coverage: Mr Shapiro said the maid felt she was ‘alone in the world’ and that her life had been ‘turned upside down’ since the allegations emerged

    ‘This is nothing other than a physical, sexual assault by this man on this young woman,’ he said. ‘What (Strauss-Kahn) might be able to get away with in some countries, he can’t here in this country.’
    Strauss-Khan has denied all of the charges against him, which include sex abuse, a criminal sex act, unlawful imprisonment and forcible touching. His lawyer Benjamin Brafman said he is confident his client will be exonerated once all the physical evidence is collected at his arraignment on Monday.

    Strauss-Khan is currently on suicide watch at Rikers Island prison where he is being held without bail after a judge turned down a $1million offer at the hearing in Manhattan’s Criminal Court. Norman Seabrook, president of the correction officers union, said Strauss-Kahn did or said something during a mental health evaluation that concerned doctors, and he is being monitored day and night. A law enforcement official, speaking on condition of anonymity because of the sensitivity of prisoner medical information, said Strauss-Kahn had not tried to harm himself. Because he is such a high profile person Strauss-Khan has been placed in a cell on his own at the notorious prison complex. Meanwhile calls for the 62-year-old to step down as head of the powerful International Monetary Fund, intensified with U.S. Treasury Secretary Timothy Geithner saying Strauss-Kahn ‘is obviously not in a position to run’ the agency.

    People: David Beckham, Bill Clinton, Andrew Cuomo, Dominique Strauss-Kahn, Gordon Brown Places: Paris, France, Guinea, Africa Organisations: International Monetary Fund

    http://www.digitaljournal.com/article/306874

    IMF’s Strauss-Khan may use ‘consensual sex’ as lawsuit defense

    May 18, 2011 by ■ Leo Reyes – comments
    The legal defense of International Monetary Fund (IMF) Chief Strauss-Khan may claim consensual sex as possible defense in his sexual assault case involving a woman hotel housekeeper who claimed she was attacked by the 62-year-old head of the IMF.
    “The woman, 32, a widowed immigrant from Guinea who was granted asylum seven years ago, has not been publicly identified by the authorities in New York and has made no public statements about what prosecutors say was an attack by Mr. Strauss-Kahn, 62, a Frenchman, as she prepared to clean his hotel room on Saturday,” nytimes.com reports
    The hotel housekeeper has not been identified and remained in seclusion in an apparent move by authorities to protect her privacy. She has also been in hiding from media apparently on instruction from her lawyer.
    “And as she remained in seclusion, there were suggestions that Mr. Strauss-Kahn, a powerful, wealthy politician who was widely regarded as a strong candidate to run against the French president, Nicolas Sarkozy, next year, would put forward a defense that any sex would have been consensual” the report added.
    In last Monday’s hearing, Benjamin Brafman, the defendant’s lawyer told a judge he believed the “forensic evidence” was “not consistent with forcible encounter.”
    The statement triggered a strongly-worded reaction from the woman’s lawyer Jeffrey Shapiro, dismissing any suggestion the housekeeper had consented to have sex with the defendant.
    Shapiro described his role as trying to help her sort out her life and to explain the legal proceedings to her.
    “She wants to remain anonymous because she’s very much afraid that something could happen to her physically, she feels very threatened by this,” he said of all the global attention on the case.
    The IMF Chief was arrested Saturday at the Kennedy International Airport while on board a commercial aircraft that was about to take off.
    Strauss-Khan is currently detained at the New York’s Rikers Island jail.

    http://www.globalpost.com/dispatch/news/regions/europe/france/110518/strauss-kahn-conspiracy

    The Strauss-Kahn conspiracy?

    A survey finds that most French think Dominique Strauss-Kahn is the victim of a plot.
    David CaseMay 18, 2011 18:55

    BOSTON — To Americans, Dominique Strauss-Kahn might appear hopelessly shamed. Formerly the chief of the International Monetary Fund and frontrunner in the 2012 French presidential election, he is now the disgraced cover boy for the NY Post, while occupying a Rikers Island prison cell, accused of sexually assaulting a hotel chambermaid.

    And what about the French? Their empathy apparently still lies with the charismatic, high-flying politician.

    Fifty-seven percent of French think Strauss-Kahn is the victim of a plot, according to a poll by CSA (in French) conducted on May 16 and released today. When only members of Strauss-Kahn’s socialist party were counted, the number rose to 70 percent.

    Less than a third of the people surveyed were persuaded that the alleged victim was beyond suspicion. Only 32 percent indicated that DSK, as he’s known, “probably” or “certainly” was not set up. Eleven percent declined to respond or indicated that they were uncertain.

    “It is noteworthy that regardless of education level, the responses were similar,” CSA stated.

    The midtown Manhattan Sofitel, where International Monetary Fund Managing Director Dominique Strauss-Kahn allegedly sexually assaulted a hotel employee. (Monika Graff/Getty Images)

    “I think it is humiliating, but if you don’t want to do the perp walk, don’t do the crime.”
    ~New York Mayor Michael Bloomberg

    Respondents indicated that the politician most likely to benefit from the scandal was the current president, Nicholas Sarkozy, a conservative whose popularity has waned in recent months. The next most likely to gain was Martine Le Pen, the daughter of extreme-right nationalist firebrand Jean-Marie Le Pen.

    The poll surveyed a representative sample of 1,007 men and women nationwide. It found that 54 percent of French people still believe that the Socialist Party has a chance of winning the presidency in 2012.

    In the context of the U.S. legal system, how likely is it that a woman falsely accuses her attacker? “By every academic estimate, we’re talking about a range of 2 percent to 8 percent — absolutely no different from any other crime,” writes Susan Estrich, a rape survivor and professor of law and political science at the University of Southern California.

    Law enforcement officials are generally very careful to screen allegations before making charges, Estrich said in an email to GlobalPost. Virtually every police and prosecutor’s office in the U.S. has a special victims unit, where accusers are typically scrutinized to see if they can hold up under cross-examination. Many legitimate cases are not winnable, she pointed out. “The big criticism one hears is not that the police and prosecutors do too little screening, but too much; that often, they choose not to bring cases they believe to be meritorious because of their concern that juries will not convict.”

    Estrich noted that there are exceptions to this rigorous scrutiny, such as the case involving the Duke lacrosse team, where a prosecutor brought an illegitimate case, apparently to exploit racial politics in the midst of his reelection campaign.

    In Strauss-Kahn’s case, the chambermaid’s lawyer, Jeffrey Shapiro, indicated that “she had no idea who [Strauss Kahn] was in the world until approximately the next day.” Shapiro identified her as a 32-year-old single mother caring for a 15-year-old daughter, a woman from Guinea, in West Africa, with little education, who had been in the United States for about seven years.

    “She’s done what she’s been asked to do. She feels it’s her responsibility to tell the truth, and this has come at great cost to her. Not only has she given up her personal life, but she feels she’s in physical danger,” Shapiro added. Any notion that she was involved in some form of conspiracy is “ridiculous.”

    The New York Post reported today that the woman lives in a Bronx apartment rented exclusively for adults with HIV or AIDS.

    As far as the French are concerned, it’s not only Strauss-Kahn who is on trial. It’s also the American customs of justice.

    For example, Le Monde reports that the French are outraged by the “perp walk” — the common practice of marching the accused into court, handcuffed and surrounded by police, through a scrum of photographers. This is alien to French sensibilities, given that it essentially punishes someone still presumed innocent, by tarnishing their reputation prior to trial. The practice of allowing cameras in court has angered many as well. In France, it is a crime to show photos of a handcuffed person before conviction.

    French politicians “consider these images of Strauss-Kahn, which the left qualifies as media assassination, to be scandalous,” according to a Le Monde article titled “Perp walk: anti French?” Former French justice minister Elisabeth Guigou called the practice “a brutality, a violence, of an incredible cruelty, and I’m happy that we don’t have the same judiciary system,” the NY Times reports.

    On Tuesday, New York Mayor Michael Bloomberg defended the practice.

    “I think it is humiliating, but if you don’t want to do the perp walk, don’t do the crime.” He added that it was sad when someone subject to the perp walk was later revealed to be innocent.

    http://www.democraticunderground.com/discuss/duboard.php?az=view_all&address=439×1132395

    They say about Strauss-Khan’s …

    20110518
    news story. It is all her side. We haven’t heard anything from him. The woman’s story may be true, but Le Monde points to some discrepancies and questions.

    Strauss-Kahn’s wife, Ann Sinclair, is reported to be headed to the US. She is one of France’s most popular television personalities. She has a lot of public relations expertise and may be able to present his side of the story. I’m willing to wait to form my opinion. The facts the woman tells are just not entirely credible to me. There are things she is presenting so as to change the picture a bit and others she is leaving out. That is my feeling.

    Strauss-Kahn may have a reputation for sexual escapades. But then no one has a bigger one than Berlusconi. And Sarkozy himself was two-timing his wife. Who knows how he conducts himself with hotel maids? Let’s wait this out. DU has become one big hate-fest against this Strauss-Kahn, although no one knows what, if any, defense he will present. This is hate-Strauss-Kahn frenzy is just crazy. I remember seeing a similar reaction when the accusations were made against Blagojevich. Blagojevich was not a saint, but the claims against him were extremely exaggerated and most of them could not be proved. he is a special, rich, powerful, french man that is the great seducer. then the men will wink, nudge adn giggle that women know their place again

    Strauss-Kahn is a Socialist with a capital “S” but most of the media are reluctant to identify him as such. He was staying in a $3000 suite & has a reputation for being a Bill Clinton hound dog. Should make for an interesting news cycle.

    The maid did not put her card through the key ID on the door of the suite. She claims that another hotel employee was in the suite picking up things when she entered, and that he told her that no one was in the suite. She may have opened one of the doors in the suite without knocking because she thought the place was empty.
    And lots of people have personal reasons, personal interests for destroying Strauss-Kahn at this point in history. His wife was a supporter of Pierre Mendez. He and his wife are very popular and very committed to their socialist party. That is a possible motivation for a set-up. I have read that 57% of the French polled think this was a set-up.
    “…lawyers for Strauss-Kahn said they were surprised her face was “not very seductive,” the French tabloid France-Soir interviewed a limo driver who works with the hotel, who said the housekeeper “was a very pretty woman in her thirties, with big breasts and a beautiful rear.”” “beautiful rear” usually means a caboose not in conformity with the rest of the body.
    What surprised me is people determining whether there is truth to the allegations of rape based on the maid’s looks.

    Joseph Stiglitz was talking about this guy moving the IMF in a progressive direction. If that is true that would create all kinds of powerful enemies for this guy. The kind of enemies that would set this man up. It also bothers me that Julian Assange was also accused of rape and like this case the charges moved along very quickly. I was shocked today to see that there was already a grand jury on this case. Usually in rape cases or sexual assault the wheels of justice move very slowly.

    He’s not yet been tried, let alone convicted and, like all such crimes, this one needs to be investigated. He may have enemies, but I doubt that many are Mexican or African maids…He’s also been accused of rape or attempted rape by a French journalist whose family he had known (and liked) for quite some time.
    “I was shocked today to see that there was already a grand jury on this case. Usually in rape cases or sexual assault the wheels of justice move very slowly”. Actually, this may be a fortunate occurrence for him…Would you rather he sit in Rikers for a long time?

    …from arraignment. I don’t know what’s so controversial about that. This sounds like the “it was fast to get arraigned” argument even when arraignment averages under 24 hours in New York. It’s weird, but yeah, the criminal system moves fast when it comes to putting people behind bars. Now the trial? Max time is 6 months unless there are requested delays (for fact finding, etc), and oh boy this will have so many delays it’ll be funny. No trial happens in the alloted statutory time.

    BJ. You have to be one horny wacko to want it that way.
    Oral contact means he attempted but failed to get much sucking – still sexual assault

    I heard he turned a newt into a toad.
    he’s no better than the worst of street thugs…If he didn’t have a high priced hotel room, he’d jump her in an alley.

    “Why didn’t she just bite him”? Um, because because she was terrified?

    Easy enough to say “she should have bit his dick off” but consider how things would have gone for her in such a scenario. Likely he wouldn’t have said “wow, you’ve shown me the error of my ways. I apologize for any inconvenience, now could you please escort me to a hospital?”

    Did he actually have sex with her or just feel her up?
    …Ummm..Yes, I had “consensual” intercourse with this maid, but only “consensual” feel ups with that maid?….I don’t think so.
    Not saying she is lying. But how the heck do you make someone suck your dick?

    You shouldn’t find it odd. I can see him forcing it in her mouth. But the act of actually sucking it to completion no less seems odd unless he had a gun to her head. But as someone said above the threat of being sent to her country could have made her comply as well. I suppose it’s also possible that she just held her mouth open while he forcefully penetrated it. The article doesn’t tell us enough.
    But I wouldn’t know. I’ve never had to force anyone to do it. But I’m skeptical about this situation

    Now I understand your “skepticism”…You’re male. “But the act of actually sucking it to completion no less seems odd unless he had a gun to her head”. First of all, the details, like “completion” etc, are unknown and not even reported but by virtue of their greater strength, men in a violent encounter they initiate, are always “holding a gun” to a woman’s head….He doesn’t need a weapon…He IS a weapon by virtue of his physical power…Hell, if he had her in a choke hold he could have broken her neck, or threatened to.
    “I’ve never had to force anyone to do it”…You’ve never “had to force” anyone, huh?… The fact is, Thrill, no sex act should be a question of “force”..No one “has” to, or, as a point of law, in fact, is “allowed” to force anyone into a sex act ..And your framing it that way makes me a little “skeptical” of you.

    Deponent states that deponent is informed by an individual known to the District Attorney’s office that defendant
    1) shut the door to the above location and prevented informant from leaving the above location;
    2) grabbed informant’s breasts without consent;
    3) attempted to pull down informant’s pantyhose and forcibly grabbed informant’s vaginal area;
    4) forcibly made contact with his penis and informant’s mouth twice; and
    5) was able to accomplish the above acts by using actual physical force.

    believe it or not, most women who are being threaten, especially with bodily harm, do unwillingly comply. Thats why she told her superiors right after it happened. She is a immigrate probably on a visa or green card to work in the U.S. Naturally a lot of men, especially in one particular party, the party who is waging war on women, are blaming the victim. Heck, she has no money but he is very rich. I can see her being paid off, where she will probably go back to her home country. If being said she didn’t who he was. Nevertheless, this will probably haunt her the best of her life.
    In short, money talks.

    http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2011/may/17/dominique-strauss-kahn-court-appearance

    All eyes on Dominique Strauss-Kahn for his turn in the dock

    IMF chief queues up with his cellmates before facing judge in packed Manhattan courtroom
    Dominic Rushe, The Guardian, Tuesday 17 May 2011

    Dominique Strauss-Kahn, centre, with his laywer Benjamin Brafman, left, during the arraignment in New York. Photograph: Getty Images

    There was a gasp from spectators when Dominique Strauss-Kahn was finally led into room 130 of the Manhattan criminal court. It wasn’t as if his appearance was unexpected. An international assembly of journalists had packed the narrow benches for the better part of a day waiting for the 62-year-old IMF boss. It was just that he looked so out of place.

    Reporters stood and half crouched to get a better look before being ordered to sit down as Strauss-Kahn was brought in from a backroom in handcuffs. The French presidential candidate and alleged sex offender sat on a bench at the back of the room. He seemed to be trying to shrink himself into the corner as he waited his turn before the judge.

    The proceedings started with a retinal scan, a relatively new procedure that is done in the court room. Strauss-Kahn’s cellmates lined up to have their pictures taken first. Some squinted, some widened their eyes as if in shock, some smiled, others looked defiant, one had to lift her long fringe out of the way as the cameraman moved in for her closeup. Strauss-Kahn stared into the lens looking angry, embarrassed and lost.

    Looking a little like a Gallic Bernard Madoff, Strauss-Kahn wore a black mac and trousers. They would have appeared smart if they didn’t look like he had slept in them. There was little evidence of the flair and charisma that led to him being known as “the great seducer”.

    Despite his slept-in appearance, DSK was still better dressed than his fellow prisoners. Most were 30-plus years younger than him, black or Latino, wearing baggy jeans and T-shirts and carrying baseball caps. All of the other middle-aged white guys in court were wearing uniforms or scribbling in notebooks. They were free to leave whenever they liked.

    Most of the accused were on drug charges. Many were sent home on bail, one with a fine of $75, another with a few days’ community service. There were moments of humour. One man accused of drug possession was found with a batch of glassine bags – the packaging of choice for drug merchants. He said he used them to collect buttons.

    Every seat was taken and no standing was allowed. Relatives of the accused were unable to find a perch, the accused themselves were told to wait in the corridor for their paperwork. Outside the room an international press pack lobbied for entry until eventually the authorities caved and allowed a few to line the walls.

    Many of the journalists had spent the better part of Sunday waiting for Strauss-Kahn’s arraignment and were clearly outstaying their welcome as far as some of the court police were concerned. “Do they think we should do their jobs for them?” said one when asked, again, what the judge’s name was.

    Her name is Melissa Jackson, supervising judge for New York county’s criminal court. Jackson has overseen many high-profile cases. Earlier this month she imprisoned two men who allegedly plotted to blow up New York synagogues and possibly the Empire State Building. She is not a woman to be messed with. Jackson once got in to an altercation with rapper, and notorious diva, Foxy Brown. Brown had assaulted a neighbour with her Blackberry. “Counsel, she has gum in her mouth,” Jackson told Brown’s lawyer. The rapper stuck out her tongue to prove she didn’t and soon found herself handcuffed to a bench. Brown got feisty with her would be jailers and refused to apologise until Jackson waved the threat of an extra 30-days in jail before her lawyer.

    Strauss-Kahn stood quietly, head bowed as his lawyer, Benjamin Brafman, tried to keep him out of jail. Brafman, too, is used to high-profile cases; his former charges have included Sean “P Diddy” Combs and Michael Jackson.

    But even he looked distracted as a battery of cameramen was allowed in court to take yet more photos Strauss-Kahn is unlikely to be putting on his mantle. Every step of his downfall seems to have been presented as a photo opportunity.

    In the end Strauss-Kahn’s appearance in Manhattan criminal court lasted all of 30 minutes, but it capped a two-day odyssey through the bowels of New York’s criminal system.

    After his arrest late on Saturday he was held in a cell in a special victims’ unit in East Harlem as an ever growing press pack waited outside.

    He was then placed in a police lineup and identified by his alleged victim, who was escorted from the building beneath a blanket. Strauss-Kahn was to have been in court on Sunday but that was delayed by medical and forensic examinations. Late on Sunday, he was brought out of his Harlem cell in handcuffs to be dazzled by flashbulbs, the “perp-walk” familiar to high-profile suspects and loved by prosecutors and the press.

    After all the waiting his first appearance in court brought gasps from the audience. Having failed in his bid for temporary freedom Strauss-Kahn kept his back to the crowd. Then he was led away again, shoulders hunched, to a room at the back of the court where prison bars were clearly visible.

    • This article was amended on 17 May 2011. The original said that [Melissa] Jackson waived the threat of an extra 30-days in jail before a lawyer. This has been corrected.

    http://www.tempointeraktif.com/hg/bisnis/2011/05/17/brk,20110517-334937,id.html

    Penangkapan Strauss-Khan Picu Ketidakpastian Pembicaraan Utang Eropa   

    Selasa, 17 Mei 2011 | 15:33 WIB
    PAN PYLAS | ASSOCIATED PRESS | ADITYA BUDIMAN

    TEMPO Interaktif, London – Penangkapan Direktur IMF Dominique Strauss-Kahn disinyalir akan memicu ketidakpastian mengenai krisis utang di Eropa. Strauss yang pernah menjabat Menteri Keuangan Prancis merupakan sosok yang mampu memahami isu ekonomi dan rumitnya situasi politik di Eropa. Dia juga seorang yang dikenal luas dalam upaya mengatasi persoalan serikat mata uang. Absennya Strauss-Khan akan menambah kekhawatiran dalam jangka panjang mengenai kapasitas IMF untuk membantu Eropa.

    “Ini seperti kehilangan nakhoda kapal yang berpengalaman, di saat kapal memasuki wilayah yang belum dikenal,” kata Kepala Analisis IHS Global Insight Jan Randolph.

    Sementara itu, pasar melihat penangkapan Strauss-Khan tidak akan berpengaruh banyak terhadap pertemuan tingkat menteri keuangan Eropa. Negara-negara Eropa telah menyetujui pinjaman terhadap Portugal sebesar US$ 111 miliar, sementara bantuan sebesar US$ 156 untuk Yunani masih dalam tahap pembicaraan.

    Seperti diberitakan sebelumnya, Direktur IMF sebelumnya, Dominique Strauss-Kahn, ditahan karena dugaan kekerasan seksual terhadap petugas kebersihan di Hotel Sofitel New York. Dia ditangkap saat akan terbang ke Paris, Sabtu 14 Mei 2011 lalu. Padahal, Strauss-Kahn dijadwalkan akan bertemu Kanselir Angela Merkel pada Ahad dan para menteri keuangan wilayah Eropa hari Senin dan Selasa untuk membahas persoalan utang negara-negara Eropa.

    Menurut Senior Strategis BGC Partners Howard Wheeldon, Strauss memiliki kemampuan mengatasi persoalan politik dan diplomasi yang cenderung dogmatis saat ini. “Untuk saat ini kehilangan dia merupakan sesuatu yang berat meski dalam pengamatan saya hal itu bisa diatasi,” ujar Wheeldon.

    http://www.thedailybeast.com/blogs-and-stories/2011-05-16/dominique-stauss-kahn-to-be-arraigned-monday-in-new-york/?om_rid=DzVRRW&om_mid=_BN1BU6B8bQBfab

    Dominique Strauss-Kahn Free on $1 Million Bail

    May 16, 2011 | 1:49am
    by The Daily Beast
    Former IMF chief Dominque Strauss-Kahn has been indicted by a grand jury on unknown charges related to the sexual-assault incident, but was granted release on $1 million bail and a promise to stay under house arrest. Read the latest updates below. Plus:
    Cheryl Thomas says Strauss-Kahn’s case is already a victory for the U.S. legal system.
    Mansfield Frazier to Strauss-Kahn: Don’t flee prison.
    DSK arrest leaves his French supporters in despair, Paris-based writer Nina Sutton reports. “Money, women, and my Jewishness,” DSK said were his liabilities with French voters. “Yes, I love women, so what?”
    Michelle Goldberg on the narcissists defending Strauss-Kahn.
    Bernard-Henri Lévy defends his friend: Don’t assume he’s guilty! (Plus, read Laila Lalami’s satire of Lévy’s column here.)
    Former TV producer Joe Halderman, who was also jailed at Rikers Island after he pleaded guilty to blackmailing David Letterman, describes the IMF chief’s new life under lockdown.
    The Dish’s Andrew Sullivan on the false moral certainty of defending Strauss-Kahn.

    Strauss-Kahn Indicted, but Free on Bail

    During a bail hearing in Manhattan Thursday afternoon, Dominque Strauss-Kahn was indicted by a grand jury on unkown charges related to allegations of sexual assault. He was, however, freed on a $1 million bail. As part of the bail agreement, Strauss-Kahn, 62, will be under 24-hour house arrested and will be watched by an armed guard at all times as well as electronically monitored. Strauss-Kahn’s wife and daughter were present at the hearing. The economist, who has been accused of several crimes against a hotel maid including rape, has maintained his innocence.

    Madam: Strauss-Kahn Paid for Sex

    The hits keep coming. Kristin Davis—the self-proclaimed former madam famous for allegedly supplying escorts to former New York governor Eliot Spitzer—says Dominique Strauss-Kahn also used her services. Strauss-Kahn, who was head of the International Monetary Fund until resigning Wednesday, is being held in New York on charges including attempted rape. Davis says that in January 2006, before he took the IMF gig, Strauss-Kahn shelled out $2,400 for two hours with an “all-American girl.” She also claims that Strauss-Kahn again requested a prostitute during a September 2006 trip to New York for a conference organized by Bill Clinton.

    Strauss-Kahn: I Quit

    It must have been hard running the International Monetary Fund from Rikers Island. Dominique Strauss-Kahn has resigned from his post as managing director of the IMF, effective immediately. In a letter addressed to the IMF’s board, the embattled French economist said he was quitting “with infinite sadness,” but still denied “with the greatest possible firmness all of the allegations that have been made against me.” He continued: “I want to protect the institution which I have served with honor and devotion.” Read the full statement here.

    Lagarde Favored as New IMF Head

    Even before his official resignation, the race to replace Dominique Strauss-Kahn at the helm of the International Monetary Fund had already begun. French Finance Minister Christine Lagarde is considered the favorite to take over Strauss-Kahn’s spot as he battles charges of sexual assault. The former head of a Chicago law firm who lived in the U.S. for 25 years, Lagarde is favored by Europeans who desperately want to keep the post—they have controlled the IMF since it was created in the 1940s. Although one of the biggest drawbacks for Lagarde is her nationality—she is French, like Strauss-Kahn—many applaud the idea of a woman being one of the most powerful people in the world. “What’s happened with Strauss-Kahn underscores how great it would be to have a woman in the role,” said former IMF chief economist Kenneth S. Rogoff.

    Police Look for DNA in Hotel Carpet

    Police cut out a piece of carpet from a hotel room to look for DNA evidence in the attempted rape case against IMF chief Dominique Strauss-Kahn. Officials say that the carpet may contain Strauss-Kahn’s semen spat onto the carpet after forced oral sex, which would back up the accuser’s story. Defense lawyers for Strauss-Kahn have said that they believe forensic evidence “will not be consistent with a forcible encounter.” Police also planned to examine the accuser’s key card to see if it had been used to enter the room, and how long she was there. NYC Police Commissioner Raymond Kelly said detectives had established the accuser’s credibility. He said, “One of the things they’re trained to look for, and what was reported to me early on, was that the complainant was credible.”

    Allegation: Strauss-Kahn Assaulted Maid in Mexico

    It just keeps getting worse for IMF head Dominique Strauss-Kahn, who’s being held in New York on charges including attempted rape. In addition to Tristane Banon, a French journalist who in 2007 claimed Strauss-Kahn had sexually assaulted her, a Mexican newspaper reports that he allegedly assaulted a maid in Mexico, too, although the incident was never reported. The report is based on a book on Strauss-Kahn, and says that the assault happened during a working trip to Mexico. In addition, it alleges that Strauss-Kahn sexually assaulted another 14 women.

    The Narcissists Defending DSK

    The aftermath of the Dominique Strauss-Kahn scandal puts the discreet French approach to the private lives of celebrities and public figures in a different light, says The Daily Beast’s Michelle Goldberg. In the case of Strauss-Kahn, the apologist view that the IMF chief should be treated as innocent by American justice officials only enables powerful men to prey on powerless women. She blasts French philosopher Bernard-Henri Levy and his “monstrous sense of entitlement,” for a piece he wrote for The Daily Beast in which he defends the IMF chief. Goldberg argues that the U.S. criminal system is doing exactly what it should do—treating Strauss-Kahn in the same manner it would treat anyone. But the American media is not without blame: Goldberg criticizes the U.S. for glomming onto the story of Arnold Schwarzenegger’s out-of-wedlock child, while letting his history of sexual harassment have little negative effect on his life in Hollywood and politics.

    The Bernard-Henri Lévy Controversy

    In a story published on The Daily Beast, prominent French philosopher Bernard-Henri Lévy lamented that Strauss-Kahn has already been tried and convicted in the court of public opinion, and expressed anger that he was thrown under the bus by his fellow French politicians, who branded him a “scoundrel.” One particular passage in Lévy’s story has caused controversy in the media:

    I do not know—but, on the other hand, it would be nice to know, and without delay—how a chambermaid could have walked in alone, contrary to the habitual practice of most of New York’s grand hotels of sending a “cleaning brigade” of two people, into the room of one of the most closely watched figures on the planet.

    By questioning the accuser’s account of the event, The Washington Post claimed that Lévy was transferring blame to the victim, writing, “The French philosopher seems to suggest the possibility that the chambermaid made a mistake by going to the hotel room alone. What a quick attempt to cast suspicion on a possible rape victim.” The Post’s Melissa Bell ultimately wrote that his entire piece “smacks of sexism.”

    Critics continue to pile on. The Daily Beast’s Laila Lalami wrote a satire of Lévy’s column. “I do not know what actually happened Monday, the day before yesterday, inside the head of Bernard-Henri Lévy,” Lalami writes. “I am troubled by a public figure, modestly termed ‘a leading French intellectual,’ meaning that he gets to decide who should be held responsible for alleged sex crimes.”

    French Supporters in Despair

    Dominique Strauss-Kahn is the man many French citizens hoped would rid them of the despised President Nicolas Sarkozy. Paris-based writer Nina Sutton describes the despair of those DSK supporters—and their suspicions that he may have gotten caught in a honey trap.

    The Maid, the Author, and the Student

    The Daily Beast’s Christopher Dickey pinpointed three women who will prove vital in Dominique Strauss-Kahn’s attempted rape case. First, the alleged victim, who is believed to be a 33-year-old African immigrant and single mother who, according to Sofitel management, worked at the hotel for three years and was an exemplary employee. Some accounts claim she is Muslim and normally wears a headscarf, and, while lawyers for Strauss-Kahn said they were surprised her face was “not very seductive,” the French tabloid France-Soir interviewed a limo driver who works with the hotel, who said the housekeeper “was a very pretty woman in her thirties, with big breasts and a beautiful rear.” The second woman is Tristane Banon, who was a fledgling 22-year-old writer interviewing celebrities for her book Admitted Mistakes, back in 2002, when she alleged Strauss-Kahn sexually assaulted her. She talked about the incident on a French talk show called 93, rue du Faubourg Saint-Honoré in 2007, saying, “It went very badly with [bleep],” half laughing as she compared him to a “rutting chimpanzee.” And last but not least, there is Camille Strauss-Kahn—the daughter of Strauss-Kahn who has been studying at Columbia University. Although her lunch with her father on Saturday after the rape may not prove to be an alibi, a source close to the former IMF chief’s lawyers maintains that his calm demeanor during the meal was “not really the behavior of a man who has just tried to rape someone.” Banon’s lawyers say she is now preparing to file a complaint, while Camille may be put on the stand.

    Locked Up at Rikers Island

    Before it was eventually granted, Strauss-Kahn’s request for $1 million bail was denied by a New York judge on Monday, who then sent the prominent French politician to the Rikers Island prison near La Guardia Airport in New York City. Strauss-Kahn pleaded not guilty to the seven charges. He faces up to 25 years in prison on the charges, but Strauss-Kahn and his team said they are ready to fight. Joe Halderman, a former TV producer who was locked up at Rikers for attempting to blackmail David Letterman, describes what the IMF chief is in for.

    Lawyers: He’s Got an Alibi

    The plot thickens. Lawyers for Dominique Strauss-Kahn say they have an alibi for the International Monetary Fund chief, according to a French radio station. The lawyers say Strauss-Kahn was having lunch with his daughter at the time when a hotel maid says he chased her down a corridor, forced her into a room, and attempted to rape her. The lawyers say they have material evidence and witnesses, and that Strauss-Kahn will plead not guilty. Strauss-Kahn was arrested minutes before his Paris-bound flight was scheduled to take off from JFK, threatening a scandalous end to the career of the IMF managing director and presumed opponent of Nicholas Sarkozy in the upcoming French presidential elections.

    The Other Legal Complaint

    And the other shoe drops: the lawyer of a French woman who says that Strauss-Kahn sexually assaulted her in 2002 said Monday that the woman would like to file a legal complaint. Tristane Banon reportedly felt “pressured” not to press charges by her own mother after the initial event, but the recent allegations against Strauss-Kahn have persuaded her to do so now. “She knows she’ll be heard and she knows she’ll be taken seriously,” her lawyer said.

    Anne Mansouret, a local official of France’s Socialist Party, claims Strauss-Kahn had attacked her daughter, who is goddaughter to Strauss-Kahn’s second wife, back in 2002, according to The Guardian. Banon interviewed Strauss-Kahn in 2002, and in 2007 described him in a TV program as “a rutting chimpanzee” who had to be fought off by Banon. “It finished badly … very violently … I kicked him,” Banon said. “When we were fighting, I mentioned the word ‘rape’ to make him afraid, but it didn’t have any effect. I managed to get out.””

    Banon’s mother discouraged her from pressing charges, citing the close links between the two families, and believing that the “otherwise warm” man’s actions were out of character. “Today I am sorry to have discouraged my daughter from complaining. I bear a heavy responsibility,” Mansouret said.

    The Real Crisis at IMF

    Dominique Strauss-Kahn’s perp walk certainly didn’t help his reputation, but it may have hurt the IMF’s more. Daniel Stone on what the monetary fund really does—and why the scandal could end up seriously damaging Europe’s economy. Read it here.

    Hotel Security Tricked Stauss-Kahn Into Giving His Location

    Early reports about the arrest mentioned that Strauss-Kahn had left behind a cell phone that helped give him up. Now we know how: after leaving the hotel, he called and inquired about his missing phone, The Wall Street Journal reports. Hotel security lied and told Strauss-Kahn they had the phone and asked for a location where they could meet him to return it. When Strauss-Kahn told them he was at JFK airport, they tipped off the police, who swooped in and made the arrest.

    IMF Appoints John Lipsky as Acting Director

    On Sunday afternoon, the IMF named John Lipsky its acting managing director while Stauss-Kahn was being held in New York. Lipsky was the IMF’s first deputy managing director, so his promotion falls in line with IMF procedures, according to an IMF spokesman. A former banker at JP Morgan, Lipsky had been overseeing the logistics of the Greek economy’s bailout. He also worked as an executive of the U.S. Treasury.

    The Affair That Started the Talk

    In 2008 Strauss-Kahn admitted to an affair was with Piroska Nagy, a Hungarian economist who then worked in the African division of the IMF. According to her husband, Kahn seduced her at the World Economic Forum in Davos, and the two began an extramarital affair. In January 2008, Nagy’s husband discovered emails that gave the cheating pair away, and their adultery became a minor international scandal. Kahn apologized publicly for what he called “a serious error in judgment,” and was investigated by the IMF for allegedly pressuring Nagy to resign from the IMF once the affair ended and using his influence to guarantee her a better salary at her new job. He was eventually cleared of wrongdoing, but the affair led the French Sunday paper Le Journal de Dimache, for which his wife wrote at the time, to dub him le grand seducteur.

    Nagy later said, “I was not prepared for the advances of the IMF director general. I didn’t know what to do … I felt damned if I do, damned if I don’t.” Nagy left her job at the IMF after the affair, and claimed that Strauss-Kahn had “without question” used his higher standing to seduce her.

    A Fallen Candidate

    Strauss-Kahn was also expected to challenge Nicolas Sarkozy as the Socialist candidate for the French presidency. According to a poll for a Parisian newspaper, just prior to the charges the IMF chief was receiving 41 percent of the vote for his party; and with Nicholas Sarkozy’s approval ratings at a record low, stood a great chance at unseating the French president, according to The Guardian. Just last week, Strauss-Kahn claimed to be a victim of a “smear campaign” orchestrated by Sarkozy as details emerged in the French press of his allegedly luxurious lifestyle, including exorbitantly expensive suits.

    For inquiries, please contact The Daily Beast at editorial@thedailybeast.com.

    http://blogs.telegraph.co.uk/news/peteroborne/100088207/the-strauss-khan-embarrassment-and-the-eurozone/

    The Strauss-Khan embarrassment and the eurozone

    By Peter Oborne
    Daily Telegraph
    Last updated: May 16th, 2011

    Arrested in New York: Strauss-Khan (Photo: EPA)

    The arrest of IMF chief Dominique Strauss-Khan following allegations that he tried to molest a New York chambermaid is being portrayed as a massive stroke of good fortune for French president Nicholas Sarkozy, whose most plausible opponent has been destroyed overnight.

    But the bigger significance of Strauss-Kahn’s embarrassment concerns the eurozone. I have just received a fascinating email from my friend Max King noting that for several months it has been glaringly obvious that there is a contradiction between Strauss-Kahn’s presidential ambitions and his role as head of the IMF.

    It must have been very hard for Strauss-Kahn to be a disinterested participant on the bail-out of European economies. Under him the IMF has been extremely quick to come to the rescue of Greece, Portugal and Ireland. It has shared the extremely controversial EU analysis that bail-outs have been the answer, rather than bankruptcy or even devaluation and therefore exit from the eurozone.

    So the question is this: has the EU sequestered the resources which is supposed to be to sort out the finances of developing economies for its own purposes, handing the bill to the US, UK , Japan and others? What is to prevent it doubling the facility? Regardless of the chambermaid accusations in the US, does Strauss-Kahn’s nationality and political ambitions make him hopelessly compromised to play an independent role in a global institution?

    Meanwhile Max has a suggestion for Strauss-Kahn’s replacement: “Paul Martin. He was Minister of Finance of Canada in the 1990s and saved Canada from bankruptcy. As a Canadian, he will be regarded as a genuine independent who has earned global respect. As PM from 2003-6 he clearly has the stature. He left politics in 2008. At 73, he is a bit old. But so was Reagan.”

    Tags: Dominique Strauss-Kahn, IMF, Nicholas Sarkozy, Paul Martin

    http://economy.okezone.com/read/2011/05/16/213/457539/strauss-khan-kelelahan-istri-beri-dukungan

    Strauss Khan Kelelahan, Istri Beri Dukungan

    Yuni Astutik – Okezone
    Senin, 16 Mei 2011 11:53 wib

    Dominique Strauss-Kahn. Foto: AP

    NEW YORK – Reputasi Dominique Strauss-Kahn dengan wanita yang dijuluki “si penggoda besar” nampaknya bisa mengubah statusnya sebagai pemimpin Internasional Monetary Fund (IMF).

    Status pencalonan dirinya sebagai presiden Prancis tahun depan bisa sirna, sesaat tudingan kekerasan seksual di sebuah kamar hotel dihembuskan kepadanya.

    Tuduhan ini pun bisa menghancurkan kesempatannya dalam pemilihan presiden yang mulai memanas. Di mana dakwaan yang dilayangkan kepadanya ditunda hingga Senin ini. Pengacara Strauss-Kahn, William Taylor, saat ini sedang melakukan pengujian terhadap dakwaan tersebut.

    “Klien kami bersedia menyetujui pemeriksaan ilmiah dan forensik. Strauss nampak lelah. Namun dipastikan ia dalam keadaan baik-baik saja,” ungkap Taylor dikutip dari Associated Press (AP), Senin (16/5/2011).

    Pengacara kedua Strauss-Khan, Benjamin Brafman menyatakan bahwa kliennya akan mengaku tidak bersalah. “Dia berniat dengan penuh semangat membela tuduhan tersebut dan menyangkal melakukan kesalahan apapun,” jelas Benjamin.

    Sebenarnya, bagaimana awal mula kejadian ini? Strauss-Kahn yang berusia 62 tahun ini ditangkap kurang dari empat jam setelah kabar kekerasan tersebut tersiar. Dirinya ditangkap saat akan menaiki penerbangan Air France kelas pertama dari Prancis, Paris, yang ketika itu pesawat baru saja meninggalkan bandara Internasional John F Kennedy.

    Tidak diketahui untuk apa kunjungannya saat itu ke New York. IMF diketahui memang berbasis di Washington DC, dan saat itu dirinya harus segera melakukan pertemuan dengan Kanselir Jerman Angela Merkel.

    Adapun kisah tuduhan kekerasan tersebut terjadi tatkala pelayan hotel (32 tahun), masuk ke dalam kamar Strauss. Sang pelayan meyakini bila kamar tersebut kosong saat dirinya masuk. Namun tiba-tiba Straus muncul dari kamar mandi tanpa busana, dan langsung saja berlari untuk mengejarnya dan menariknya ke kamar tidur.

    Wanita tersebut berusaha menolak dan melawan, namun kemudian Strauss memaksa dan menyeretnya ke kamar mandi. Akhirnya wanita tersebut mampu membebaskan diri, dan lolos dari ruangan tersebut lalu akhirnya melapor kepada staf hotel tentang apa yang terjadi.

    Strauss sendiri sudah lenyap saat detektif tiba di tempat kejadian. Dia hanya meninggalkan sebuah ponsel dalam ruangan tersebut. “Dia nampak keluar dari ruangan tersebut dengan terburu-buru,” terang juru bicara Departemen Kepolisian, Paul J Browne.

    Sementara itu, istri Strauss-Kahn, Anne Sinclair mengaku tidak mempercayai apa yang tengah menimpa suaminya. “Saya tidak percaya untuk satu detik tuduhan diajukan terhadap suami saya. Saya tidak meragukan suami saya, dan saya yakin dia tidak berasalah,” paparnya.

    Sedangkan putrinya, Stephanie Plou yang saat ini tengah sekolah dan mengambil jurusan sastra menyatakan hal tersebut mungkin saja akan menjadi yang terbaik. “Ini mungkin harus terungkap suatu hari. Lebih baik sekarang daripada ketika dia seandainya sudah menjadi presiden,” tutur Plou.

    Karir Strauss-Kahn diawali menjadi Menteri Industri Prancis dan Menteri Keuangan pada 1990-an. Dia pun dipersiapkan Prancis untuk mengamankan euro dan menjinakkan defisit. Dia menjabat sebagai kepala IMF pada November 2007. IMF merupakan lembaga donor untuk 187 negara, yang memberikan bantuan dalam bentuk pinjaman.

    Seperti diketahui, IMF memegang peranan penting dalam upaya untuk mengendalikan krisis utang Eropa, di mana Strauss-Kahn menjadi orang nomor satu di dalamnya.
    (ade)

    http://www.nytimes.com/2011/05/16/nyregion/imf-names-replacement-as-chief-awaits-arraignment.html?_r=1

    I.M.F. Names New Leader

    By AL BAKER and STEVEN ERLANGER
    Published: May 15, 2011

    William K. Rashbaum and Colin Moynihan contributed reporting.
    This article has been revised to reflect the following correction: Correction: May 15, 2011
    An earlier version of this article misstated the year of Dominique Strauss-Kahn’s marriage to Anne Sinclair. It is 1991, not 1995.

    Hours after its chief, Dominique Strauss-Kahn, was arrested in connection with the alleged sexual attack of a maid at a Midtown Manhattan hotel, the International Monetary Fund on Sunday named John Lipsky as acting managing director.

    Robert Galbraith/Reuters        Yuri Gripas/Reuters
    John Lipsky will step in to replace Dominique Strauss-Kahn as director of the I.M.F.    Dominique Strauss-Kahn

    Mr. Lipsky, the I.M.F.’s first deputy managing director, is a former U.S. Treasury executive and onetime banker at JP Morgan. William Murray, an I.M.F. spokesman, said that Mr. Lipsky, who has been overseeing the logistics of the bailout of the Greek economy, would meet with members of the I.M.F. board in Washington later in the day, according to Reuters.

    “In line with standard I.M.F. procedures, John Lipsky, first deputy managing director, is acting managing director while the M.D. is not in D.C.,” Mr. Murray said in a statement. “Mr. Lipsky will chair the informal Board session today.”

    Mr. Strauss-Kahn, 62, was awaiting arraignment on Sunday evening in Manhattan. The New York Police Department formally arrested him at 2:15 that morning “on charges of criminal sexual act, attempted rape, and an unlawful imprisonment in connection with a sexual assault on a 32-year-old chambermaid in the luxury suite of a Midtown Manhattan hotel yesterday” about 1 p.m., Deputy Commissioner Paul J. Browne, the department’s chief spokesman, said.

    Meanwhile, the woman who told the police she was sexually attacked by Mr. Strauss-Kahn picked him out of a police lineup Sunday. After making the identification, she left in a police van amid a gaggle of reporters.

    Reached by telephone, Benjamin Brafman, a lawyer, said he would be representing Mr. Strauss-Kahn with William Taylor, a lawyer in Washington.

    Early Sunday morning, Mr. Brafman said that his client “will plead not guilty.”

    Mr. Strauss-Kahn was widely expected to become the Socialist candidate for the French presidency, was apprehended by detectives of the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey in the first-class section of the jetliner, and immediately turned over to detectives from the Midtown South Precinct, officials said.

    Mr. Strauss-Kahn, a former French finance minister, had been expected to declare his candidacy soon, after three and a half years as the leader of the fund, which is based in Washington. He was considered by many to have done a good job in a period of intense global economic strain, when the institution itself had become vital to the smooth running of the world and the European economy.

    His apprehension came at about 4:40 p.m. at Kennedy Airport, when two detectives of the Port Authority suddenly boarded Air France Flight 23, as the plane idled at the departure gate, said John P. L. Kelly, a spokesman for the agency.

    “It was 10 minutes before its scheduled departure,” Mr. Kelly said. “They were just about to close the doors.”

    Mr. Kelly said that Mr. Strauss-Kahn was traveling alone and that he was not handcuffed during the apprehension.

    “He complied with the detectives’ directions,” Mr. Kelly said.

    The Port Authority officers were acting on information from the Police Department, whose detectives had been investigating the assault of a female employee of Sofitel New York, at 45 West 44th Street, near Times Square. Working quickly, the city detectives learned he had boarded a flight at Kennedy Airport to leave the country.

    Though Mr. Strauss-Kahn received generally high marks for his stewardship of the fund, his reputation was tarnished in 2008 by an affair with a Hungarian economist who was a subordinate there. The fund decided to stand by him despite concluding that he had shown poor judgment in the affair. Mr. Strauss-Kahn issued an apology to I.M.F. employees and to his wife, Anne Sinclair, an American-born French journalist, who he married in 1991.

    In his statement then, Mr. Strauss-Kahn said, “I am grateful that the board has confirmed that there was no abuse of authority on my part, but I accept that this incident represents a serious error of judgment.” The economist, Piroska Nagy, left the fund as part of a buyout of nearly 600 employees instituted by Mr. Strauss-Kahn to cut costs.

    In the New York case, Mr. Browne said that it was about 1 p.m. on Saturday when the maid, a 32-year-old woman, entered Mr. Strauss-Kahn’s suite — Room 2806 — believing it was unoccupied. Mr. Browne said that the suite, which cost $3,000 a night, had a foyer, a conference room, a living room and a bedroom, and that Mr. Strauss-Khan had checked in on Friday.

    As she was in the foyer, “he came out of the bathroom, fully naked, and attempted to sexually assault her,” Mr. Browne said, adding, “He grabs her, according to her account, and pulls her into the bedroom and onto the bed.” He locked the door to the suite, Mr. Browne said.

    “She fights him off, and he then drags her down the hallway to the bathroom, where he sexually assaults her a second time,” Mr. Browne added.

    At some point during the assault, the woman broke free, Mr. Browne said, and “she fled, reported it to other hotel personnel, who called 911.” He added, “When the police arrived, he was not there.” Mr. Browne said Mr. Strauss-Kahn appeared to have left in a hurry. In the room, investigators found his cellphone, which he had left behind, and one law enforcement official said that the investigation uncovered forensic evidence that would contain DNA.

    Allison Joyce/Reuters
    William Taylor, left, and Benjamin Brafman, the lawyers for Dominique Strauss-Kahn, left theSpecial Victims Unit headquarters in New York on Sunday.

    Mr. Browne added, “We learned that he was on an Air France plane,” and the plane was held at the gate, where Mr. Strauss-Kahn was taken into custody. Later Saturday night, Mr. Browne said Mr. Strauss-Kahn was in a police holding cell.

    Mr. Browne said the city’s Emergency Medical Service took the maid to Roosevelt Hospital for what Mr. Browne described as treatment for “minor injuries.”

    No matter the outcome of Saturday’s episode, it will most likely throw the French political world into turmoil and the Socialist Party into an embarrassed confusion.

    Mr. Strauss-Kahn, a leading member of the party, has been considered the front-runner for the next presidential election in France in May 2012. Opinion polls have shown him to be the Socialists’ most popular candidate and running well ahead of the incumbent, Nicolas Sarkozy, who leads the center-right party.

    France has been waiting for Mr. Strauss-Kahn to decide whether to run for his party’s nomination in a series of primaries, which would mean giving up his post at the fund.

    The view in France was that if Mr. Strauss-Kahn wanted to run, he would have to make his intentions clear early this summer, and most politicians and analysts have been predicting that he would not be able to resist the chance to run the country.

    Mr. Strauss-Kahn contested for the nomination five years ago, losing to Ségolène Royal, who ultimately lost a second-round runoff to Mr. Sarkozy. Mr. Sarkozy then arranged for Mr. Strauss-Kahn to get the I.M.F. job, partly to remove a popular rival from France’s political landscape.

    Mr. Strauss-Kahn was the French minister of economy under the Socialist prime minister Lionel Jospin, from 1997 to 1999, and he has also been a professor of economics at the Paris Institute of Political Studies.

    In 1995, he was elected mayor of Sarcelles, a poor suburb of Paris.

    The couple are known to enjoy the finer things in life, and Mr. Strauss-Kahn has sometimes been attacked for being a “caviar leftist.”

    Recently Mr. Strauss-Kahn and his wife were photographed entering an expensive Porsche in Paris belonging to one of their friends. The image of a Socialist with Porsche tastes was quickly picked up by the news media, especially the newspapers that generally support Mr. Sarkozy.

    http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2011/may/15/dominique-strauss-kahn-sex-arrest

    Dominique Strauss-Kahn’s sex arrest could end presidential hopes

    France may have a habit of turning a blind eye to its leaders’ sexual indiscretions, but the IMF chief’s arrest could end that
    Kim Willsher in Paris
    guardian.co.uk, Sunday 15 May 2011 11.47 BST

    Dominique Strauss-Kahn last week claimed he was the victim of a smear campaign by Nicolas Sarkozy. Photograph: Nicholas Kamm/AFP/Getty Images

    This time next year Dominique Strauss-Kahn might well have been president of France: the 62-year-old was by far the most popular Socialist candidate and was seen as the only man who could unseat Nicolas Sarkozy.

    Of the half a dozen candidates expected to run for the Socialist party nomination , he was the obvious frontrunner. A poll for the Parisien newspaper on Sunday gave him 41% of votes among card-carrying members of his party, way ahead of former party secretary François Hollande.

    And with Sarkozy’s popularity at a record low “DSK”, as he is known, was well on track to getting his hands on the keys of the Elysée Palace in the two-round presidential election in April and May.

    Friends and supporters had warned him the fight would be dirty. Last week he claimed to be the victim of a “smear campaign” orchestrated by Sarkozy to damage him after details emerged of his luxury lifestyle. Questions about his wealth were prompted by photographs of him climbing into a friend’s £87,000 Porsche outside his £3.5m Paris home. In a separate case, DSK is suing France Soir over a report alleging he had spent up to $35,000 (£22,000) on suits, an allegation he denies.

    His supporters said the affair was mere mud-slinging by members of the ruling right, but then DSK has never needed anyone else to orchestrate potentially damaging incidents.

    His reputation for sexual indiscretions appears to be well-established.

    In 2008, he had a well-documented affair with Piroska Nagy, a Hungarian economist and a junior colleague at the IMF. He was forced to publicly apologise for “an error of judgment” but was cleared of abusing his position.

    DSK insisted the relationship was consensual, but after his wife, the French journalist Anne Sinclair, described it as a “one-night stand”, an indignant Nagy wrote to investigators looking into the affair.

    “In spite of my long professional life I was not prepared for the advances of the IMF Director General. I didn’t know what to do … I felt damned if I do, damned if I don’t,” she wrote. “After a while I made the serious mistake of being drawn into a brief affair.”

    Nagy, who left her job at the IMF after the affair, hinted at harassment of female staff and said that for her it was “without question”, her boss had used his position to get to her.

    Sinclair, Strauss-Kahn’s third wife, told French journalists she forgave her husband: “We love each other as much as before,” she said.

    In 2009, the radio satirist Stephane Guillon dedicated his morning comedy slot on France Inter to DSK’s “obsession with females”.

    “Exceptional security measures have been taken here at Radio France in order not to awaken the beast … In order to guarantee the safety of personnel, female workers must wear long, dark, unrevealing clothes that are anti-sex. High heels, leather pants and chic lingerie are banned. The head of information, who will greet DSK, will wear a burqa.

    “Dark corners like the toilets, car park, some cupboards, have been momentarily closed off.” He added: “But no panic. We have put bromide in his coffee … and we have two cameras, the usual one on the table and a second under it.”

    DSK was not amused, and accused Guillon of “nastiness” when he was interviewed shortly afterwards.

    Agnes Poirier, a French journalist based in London, wrote in the Guardian that DSK was “a womaniser of great charisma, intelligence and charm … For better or worse, his behaviour is part of our culture.”

    France’s only socialist president, François Mitterrand, famously led a secret double life with a mistress and child installed a stone’s throw from the Elysée Palace. His successor, the right-of-centre president Jacques Chirac, was nicknamed “three-minute-shower-included” by his staff for his philandering, as was revealed in a book by his chauffeur of 25 years, Jean-Claude Laumont.

    But rumours of their indiscretions did not stop either man being elected for a second term in office and, until now, had not ruled out DSK from standing for the highest office in France.

    Leading members of the Socialist party have refused to comment on the allegations, rightly pointing out that like any other suspect DSK has the right of presumed innocence until found guilty.

    The voters may decide otherwise. Jacques Attali, former adviser to Mitterrand, told French radio that he considered DSK’s presidential election hopes were finished. “He is pleading not guilty and he may well be not guilty … but he can’t be a candidate,” Attali said.

    http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/europe/france/7701145/Dominique-Strauss-Khan-in-sex-book-claims.html

    Dominique Strauss-Khan in sex book claims

    Dominique Strauss-Kahn, the head of the International Monetary Fund is an incorrigible seducer whose weakness for women could fatally scupper his presidential ambitions, a new book has claimed.

    Dominique Strauss-Kahn with his wife Anne Sinclair. Photo: REUTERS/Jean-Philippe Arles
    Henry Samuel in Paris 9:44PM BST 09 May 2010

    The leader French Socialist and former finance minister is considered perhaps the only politician in a position to beat President Nicolas Sarkozy should he run against him in elections in 2012. But according to the book – said to be written by a close female aide – his penchant for the opposite sex could knock him out of the race even before it starts.

    The book claims the 61-year-old Mr Strauss-Kahn – married to Anne Sinclair, a famous French TV presenter – has had a string of extra-marital affairs and that photographs exist of him coming out of a wife-swapping club.

    Frédéric Lefebvre, a Sarkozy adviser, boasted in 2007 that he had seen photographs of DSK, as the French call him that would wreck any presidential bid. “He wouldn’t last a week,” Mr Lefebvre said. “We’ll circulate them.” The book, Secrets of a Presidential Contender, is by an anonymous French author calling herself Cassandre, and who claims to be in DSK’s inner circle of advisers.

    She writes: “He is always on the hunt for new women.

    “He is a pleasure seeker. Like all great political animals, he has trouble controlling himself.

    “His eye for women is sharp as a laser. When he enters a cafe, an office or any public place, the ritual is the same.

    “He does a little survey, turning his head almost imperceptibly to the left, then to the right, while carrying on talking. It lasts only a few seconds, just enough time to evaluate his chances.

    “After identifying his prey, he bombards them with text messages, usually with the opening salvo ‘I want you’.

    “He is direct and makes no concessions.”

    Mr Sarkozy – not known for his monastic tendencies – is even said to have warned DSK about his weakness for women before he left to run the IMF in New York.

    “Over there they don’t joke about this sort of thing. Your life will be passed under a magnifying glass. Avoid taking the lift alone with interns.

    France cannot permit a scandal,” the president is quoted as warning him.

    But within weeks, DSK was accused of showing favouritism to Piroska Nagy, a Hungarian economist in the fund’s Africa department, with whom he had conducted a brief affair.

    One of DSK’s advisers is said to have exclaimed: “But you’ve only been here a month!”

    Mrs Nagy later declared: “I believe that man (DSK) has a problem.” His wife forgave him on her blog and he was cleared of any wrongdoing.

    However, the author claims the IMF affair may only be the tip of the iceberg, quoting French actress Danielle Evenou as saying: “Who hasn’t been cornered by Dominique Strauss-Kahn?” She tells of another female Socialist MP who claims she makes sure she is never alone in a room with him.

    Tristane Banon, a writer, claims she had to fend Mr Strauss-Kahn off with kicks and punches when he invited her to a meeting in a room furnished with a double bed and a television.

    When he turned up for a radio interview in France last year, the house comedian advised female staff to wear long garments to avoid “awakening the beast”.

    Some French commentators suggest DSK approved the book to pre-empt any further revelations as he considers entering the presidential race.

    A recent poll suggested he would win the Socialist party’s presidential primaries and go on to narrowly beat Mr Sarkozy in a run-off.

    But Manuel Valls, a fellow Socialist, is quoted in the book as saying: “Even in a country so famously relaxed about adultery, this women business could bring him down in mid-flight.”

    http://showbiz.vivanews.com/news/read/180298-7-fakta-kebohongan-irma-nici-soal-beckham

    7 Fakta Kebohongan Irma Nici Soal Beckham

    Kamis, 30 September 2010, 00:31 WIB
    Finalia Kodrati

    (nydailynews.com)

    David Beckham yakin akan menang melawan pelacur yang mengaku-ngaku bercinta dengannya.
    VIVAnews – Pesepakbola David Beckham merasa sedang berada di atas angin. Ia merasa apa yang ditudingkan terhadap pelacur bernama Irma Nici sebagai pembohong benar adanya. Ia merasa yakin pernyataan Irma Nici yang mengaku telah tidur dengannya hanyalah pengakuan palsu belaka. Beckham makin yakin dengan kebohongan yang dilakukan Irma Nici karena ia memiliki bukti-bukti kuat yang bisa membantah pengakuan pelacur berdarah Bosnia. Apa saja bukti-bukti itu?
    1. Irma mengatakan ia bercinta dengan Beckham di hotel Manhattan Le parker Meridien Hotel pada Agustus 2007. Tetapi, salah seorang karyawan hotel mengaku tak pernah tahu Beckham ataupun wanita itu mengunjungi hotelnya. “Saya tahu kalau ada Beckham meskipun itu kalau dia hanya minum-minum saja. Kami sudah mengecek nama ia ataupun wanita itu tetapi tidak ada,” kata senior manajer hotel tersebut seperti dikutip dari News of the World, Kamis 30 September 2010. Dan yang paling mengejutkan adalah Irma tidak yakin dengan tanggal pertemuan mereka.
    2. Irma mengungkapkan jika ia dikenalkan Beckham oleh temannya. Tetapi, Irma tak mau menyebutkan nama temannya tersebut.
    3. Irma mengaku sudah bercinta dengan pria yang akrab disapa Becks ini beberapa kali. lalu, ia mengundang teman wanitanya untuk melakukan threesome dengan Beckham. Tapi, Irma menolak untuk mempublikasikan nama temannya itu. Ia hanya mengatakan nama gadis itu adalah Jess. Davis, seorang germo itu mengatakan wanita itu tak akan pernah muncul. “Ia tak akan pernah keluar,” ucap Davis.
    4. Irma mengatakan jika dirinya mendapat panggilan dari hotel Manhattan atas nama Beckham. Tapi, ketika ditekan, ia tidak bisa membuktikannya. Ia beralibi jika ia telah kehilangan password untuk akses internet ke akun ponselnya. Dan ia mengakui ia tidak memiliki dokumentasi. Ini aneh, karena selama ini wanita itu selalu bilang mencatat secara rinci semua kliennya.
    5. Saat diminta untuk menunjukkan bukti imigrasinya kalau ia benar ke Amerika Serikat untuk bertemu dengan Beckham di New York, Irma tidak memiliki dokumen itu. Ia mengklaim tasnya hilang karena dicuri.
    6. Irma juga pernah mengungkapkan jika ia pernah melakukan hubungan intim dengan Beckham di London. Lagi-lagi, Irma tak bisa membuktikannya karena penerimaan kartu kredit yang menunjukkan ia ada di sana tidak tersedia.
    7. Ia menolak melakukan tes detektor kebohongan. Alasannya ia khawatir polisi berkesempatan untuk menyatakan dirinya adalah seorang pelacur walaupun ia telah mengakuinya di media cetak. (pet)

    http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2010/09/22/irma-nici-david-beckham-_n_734603.html

    Irma Nici, David Beckham’s Mistress? Prostitute Tells All (PICTURE)

    First Posted: 09-22-10 09:38 AM   |   Updated: 09-22-10 01:51 PM

    Irma Nici, a 26-year-old former prostitute, claims to have carried on a steamy affair with soccer superstar David Beckham, In Touch reports. The brunette beauty tells the magazine that Beckham agreed to pay her $10,000 for one night of passion. After an hour of foreplay, Nici says the two had sex for 15 minutes. Nici claims the sex was “nothing freaky,” and she rates Beckham’s lovemaking as a 7.5 out of 10. Scroll down for more from In Touch, including a picture of Nici, and check out the magazine’s latest issue for even more details.

    In a worldwide exclusive interview with In Touch, Irma Nici, a former high-class call girl, claims she’s slept with the world’s most famous soccer star, David Beckham, five times in 2007 and spills every dirty detail of their affair. “It was a high,” Irma, 26, tells In Touch. “All of these women dream of being with him, and I got to hook up with him. It was very exciting.”

    Irma claims that after agreeing on a price of $10,000 to stay the night, the two spent the next hour engaged in steamy foreplay. Irma says she then “whipped out” a condom and the two had sex for 15 minutes, but it was “nothing freaky,” she remembers. “He was very gentle and kind.” On a scale of 1 to 10, Irma rates David a 7½ as a lover. “He knew what he was doing.” She also recalls that David used lotion from the hotel bathroom to pleasure himself. “It was perfumed, so it kind of burned him!”

    During their initial sexual encounter, David even opened up about wife of 11 years, Victoria. Irma says that David told her he preferred Victoria’s old curvier body. “He was saying that he liked her body more before,” she says. David also revealed to Irma that he is “more of a butt man than a breast man.”

    For more of In Touch’s exclusive cover story about Beckham’s affair, pick up the latest copy of In Touch, on newsstands now. UPDATE: Beckham’s rep denies the charge and says, “We are taking legal action against the magazine.”

    http://www.thejc.com/dominique-strauss-kahn/7260/how-jewish-dominique-strauss-kahn

    How Jewish is Dominique Strauss-Kahn?

    October 23, 2008. Last updated: 10:52am, May 18 2011

    Dominique Strauss-Kahn, the French head of the International Monetary Fund, has hit the headlines not over the way he is dealing with the world’s ailing finances, but rather because he has been embroiled in a fling with a subordinate. We thought it was worth checking that there was definitely nothing Jewish about him.
    For:

    Sacre bleu – according to our team of halachic researchers, Strauss-Kahn is half-Ashkenazi, half-Sephardi, but completely Jewish by birth. He has associated himself with the fight against antisemitism – he was MP for Sarcelles, an area with France’s highest density of Jews, and said: “Antisemitism in our country is growing and it would be wrong not to see it.” His wife, Ann Sinclair, is also Jewish. Strauss-Kahn follows in a tradition of Jewish bosses of international financial institutions becoming embroiled in scandal… No, stop, we’re really not going to go there. Not helpful to the Jews. So we won’t even mention the trouble Paul Wolfowitz had at the World Bank last year.
    Against:

    Not a huge amount here, we’re afraid. His girlfriend, Piroska Nagy, does not seem to be Jewish, although you do not get a higher score for having a Yiddishe mistress anyway. Kahn sounds a bit Indian – sorry, we’re scraping the bottom of the barrel here.
    Verdict:

    Il est un Juif.

    So we say he is 89% Jewish
    Strauss is innocent, OK
    Far-right strengthened by Strauss-Kahn assault arrest
    No sympathy for Dominique Strauss-Kahn from Michael Bloomberg

    Dominique Strauss-Kahn
    The 10th Managing Director of the International Monetary Fund
    In office: 1 November 2007 – 18 May 2011

    Dominique Gaston André Strauss-Kahn (French pronunciation; born 25 April 1949), often referred to in the media as DSK,[2][3] is a French economist, lawyer, and politician, and a member of the French Socialist Party. Strauss-Kahn became the Managing Director of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) on 28 September 2007 and served in that role until his resignation on 18 May 2011.

    He is a full professor of economics at the Paris Institute for Political Studies (“Sciences Po”). Strauss-Kahn was Minister of Economy and Finance from 1997 to 1999 as part of Lionel Jospin’s “Plural Left” government. He belongs to the right wing of the PS (which is on the center-left of French politics) and sought the nomination in the primaries to the Socialist presidential candidacy for the 2007 election, but he was defeated by Ségolène Royal in November 2006.

    In May 2011, Strauss-Kahn was arrested in New York City and charged with the sexual assault of a maid who was cleaning his Sofitel hotel suite. Strauss-Kahn has not yet entered a plea, but denied all charges. He was later released on US$1 million bail.

    Minister for Industry (1991–1993)
    In 1991, he was nominated by Mitterrand to be Junior Minister for Industry and Foreign Trade in Édith Cresson’s social-democrat government.

    Minister for Economics, Finances and Industry (1997–1999)
    In 1997, Prime Minister Lionel Jospin (PS) appointed Strauss-Kahn as Minister for Economics, Finance and Industry, making him one of the most influential ministers in his Plural Left government.

    Allegations of sexual misconduct
    In 2007, Tristane Banon, a French journalist and writer, accused Strauss-Kahn of attempting to rape her in 2002, but she did not press charges. As of 17 May 2011, mainstream media were reporting that Banon was preparing to file a legal complaint relating to the alleged attack.
    In 2008, the IMF Board appointed an independent investigator following allegations that Strauss-Kahn had had an affair with a subordinate, Piroska Nagy, who was married at the time to economist Mario Blejer. Nagy alleged that Strauss-Kahn had used his position to coerce her into the affair. She was later made redundant and Strauss-Kahn assisted her in getting a new job. The IMF board issued the findings of the investigation; while noting that the affair was “regrettable and reflected a serious error of judgment on the part of the managing director”, the board cleared Strauss-Kahn of harassment, favoritism or abuse of power, and indicated that he would remain in his post.[42][43] Strauss-Kahn issued a public apology for the affair. Le Journal du Dimanche dubbed him “le grand séducteur” (the Great Seducer).

     
  • Virtual Chitchatting 12:11 AM on 2011/05/05 Permalink
    Tags: , cost leadership, differentiation, , , marketing mix, memenangkan persaing, menang bersaing, product mix, product strategy, , strategic thinking   

    Don’t we play the game to win the competition? 

    Winning A Relationship or Just Another Game to Win?

    by Sando Sasako
    Lead Consultant
    Advanced Advocacy Plus

    Jakarta, 4 May 2011

    In every relationship, there must a trade-off situation of loose and tight and in-between. The differences between one party with the other(s) are used to be called as conflict. The interactions between one party to other party(ies) and their characteriestics is defined as social.

    As a concept, social is referred to attitudes, orientations, or behaviours in terms of interests, intentions, or needs of other party(ies). Whike the social role takes place in defining the ideas or principles such as social reality, social justice, social constructivism, and social capital. The implication of marking a status as social is realised as a social process.

    Politically speaking, the word ‘social’ is frequently used by the political opponents of the ruling party as a discourse that the existing government is not committed and not-well functioned properly to serve and provide the social needs, redistribute the state’s resources to improve the welfare of the society as a whole. It can be used to increase the social cohesion. Or vice versa.

    As a course, the social functions and roles depends highly on its structural forming elements such as the norms, customs or conventions, traditions, and intitutions. Farthermore, the discussion over the term ‘social’ will be best and easy to comprehend as we get to know more about the meanings and/or the roles of how the ‘social’ functions.

    In other words, who and what to function socially? The question of who will be best answered if we refer to the individual human, the human society, and the state. The question of what will be best answered if we refer to one aspect of human life or the many aspects at once. They are used to be called as ipoleksosbud-hankam (ideology, politics, economy, social, culture, defense, security).

    A relationship is merely indifferent with a game. You can loose a relationship or you can win one. You can loose a game or you can win one. You can not always win the game. Neither you shall loose in every game you play. It is just like a turning wheel. Once it was up, it is sure to go down the drain. It was down to turn up again. It is dynamic. Be sure of that. The dynamics of life and in life.

    The polars. Try to get used to think between the polars and in-between. It can keep your head straight and clear and the perspectives that you incline and intend to.

    To win THE relationship, or you can read THE GAME, you have got to have the full understandingness of the terms of your relationship, objectively. Where do you want to take your relationships? As is, as it is, or differently? There shall be tugs of war of interests, intentions, or needs. These three things are the social terms.

    The individual social terms can be best described as the individual human needs and wants. Maslow had defined it in the past and been improved perfectly by his students, including me. Maslow differentiate the human needs between the basic needs and the cognitive needs that more advanced, that is expressions, feelings, and aesthetics.

    The five basic human needs comprises of:

    1. The needs in basic physiology to survive in life such as salary, food, clothes, settlement.
    2. The needs in security such as working environment that free from threats of firing, comforting family lives that free from violence verbally or physically for instance.
    3. The needs to be loved and caressed, and vice versa.
    4. The needs to be appreciated and honoured, and vice versa.
    5. The needs to self-actualisation.

    The individual convictions as another form of perception and expectation are the resultante of the developments of one’s socio-culture, situational, and lifetime experiences. The conviction can be realised as prejudices in the beginning and transformed into discrimination practices. Another form of individual conviction is the ethnocentrism such as chauvinism to one certain tribe.

    The alteration of conviction is good if it towards the open mind and willingness to ease the hearts. Human thinks, based on his perceptions. Human feels, based on her sensations. Balancing the two opposite and polarised orientations requires sufficient experiences and wisdoms in life. Eventually, you have to take the side.

    For every relationships, there shall be disagreements. The point to take is agree to disagree. Clashes and conflicts can stem from any minor and/or major viewpoints and perspectives. Each perspectives can be assessed directly, which one is more demanding the rights to be fulfilled or which one is more defensing THE rights that has been fulfilled.

    Likewise the game. Playing the game fairly amongst the players requires some degree of mutual understandingness. It is called by rules of the game. The rule in one place can be very different in another place. Players can be familiar or merely complete strangers or just incognito. They follow and comply to the common grounds which is called by the game theories.

    The leading player used to dictate the basic rules of the game. They used to name the terms in the first place as they have secured the leading position. The new players used to ask the rules of the game in the first place. This is to know how they can conduct maneuvers, mend the rules, bend the rules, or to seek alternative cheat codes.

    Prizes, rewards, or the similar things collected by the winner from any game is measurable. In any relationship, the prize is hardly measurable, but in terms of perceived appreciations, compassions, loves, caresses.

    Bagan:                  Hierarki Kebutuhan Manusia dan Design Concern
    Sumber:                John Lang, Urban Design: The American Experience, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1994

    Entrepreneurs donot have to be necessarily new player

    Successful enterpreneurs are not necessarily a new player in town or in any game. Instead, they are living and breathing the game, with the game, and in the game. As they are much aware how to defeat the game and win the game, they shall play nicely and neatly. The open competitions reveal that the situation and condition is fierce enough. Unable to survive the game, with the game, and in game, usually has triggered some mechanisms to expel you and kick you out of the game right on the spot.

    How long for Steve Jobs and Dell learnt to beat their competitors to the ground? Almost they spent no time. To the industry they entered, they were new. But, please look closely to what extent they spent their daily activities before they began their successful works, setting new rules of the game. They were there long enough to beat down their competitors.

    Pendidikan Kewirausahaan bukan untuk Semua Orang

    Sifatnya yang strategis membuat pendidikan kewirausahaan bukanlah untuk semua orang. Seorang wirausaha memiliki keahlian intelijensi bagaimana memanfaatkan permintaan yang laten dan potensial. Dia memiliki kemampuan taktis menyiasati pasar input dan output dan mampu bergerak lincah diantara kedua pasar. Pasar yang sangat dinamis dan sangat menuntut bisa membuat sang wirausaha sangat stres dan terdepresi di saat yang bersamaan. If you cannot handle such conditions, be ready to be institutionalised, mentally. Kesian deh loe.

    Studi kewirausahaan bukanlah sesuatu yang mudah dan sederhana serta instan. Anda datang ke kelas, mengikuti pendidikan, pelatihan, praktek, pemagangan, then, voila, setelah selesai semua materi atau modul selesai “disampaikan”di kelas, anda langsung mandapat cap, stempel, sebagai seorang wirausaha. Gini hari, masih ada yang senaif itu?

    Seorang wirausaha bukanlah seorang sarjana. Pendidikan kewirausahaan bukanlah pendidikan akademis ‘saat ini’ yang bisa dengan mudah memberi stempel mahasiswa tamat kuliah terlahir sebagai seorang sarjana. It is not that simple. Semua orang berhak mendefinisikan apa dan bagaimana seorang wirausaha.

    But the truth is not out there. It is inside, embedded as they say, in one’s mind, thoughts, feelings, manners, behaviours. So, where it is to start? The childhood. PAUD, they say, Pendidikan Anak Usia Dini. Bisakah pendidikan kewirausahaan dipelajari dan diterapkan pada usia dewasa? Bisa. Tetapi, kalau tidak digerakkan dari dalam, upaya itu akan menjadi sia-sia dan mubazir. Kenapa?

    Orang dewasa telah memiliki persepsi dan rasa tersendiri terhadap aksi dan reaksi dalam berkomunikasi. Masih banyak orang menilai segala sesuatu dari kulit luarnya saja. Coba lihat dan cerna apa yang dikatakan orang yang duduk, berdiri, bertetangga di sebelah anda? Apakah dasar yang menjadi penilaian mereka? Kebanyakan, sebatas kulit.

    That is to say, according to their senses, and then perceptions. Coba hayati sekali lagi. Anda akan bergumam sendiri terhadap penilaian mereka dan pandangan mereka terhadap dan atas suatu hal, persoalan, permasalahan, realita dalam hidup. Anda kemudian akan bersikap, if that’s the way it is, so be it. We have our separate ways in life and of life. I have to stay away from you. There shall be a distance. Manenggang, kecek urang. We can’t be together. We can’t be closer than we used to be. Au voir.

    Kewirausahaan sebagai Pendidikan Strategi Produk

    Banyak literatur dan modul serta aplikasi yang diajarkan di ruang-ruang kuliah menyamakan pendidikan kewirausahaan sebagai pendidikan menjual produk secara tradisional. Identifikasi peluang usaha kebanyakan dilakukan atas dasar modal sekecil-kecilnya dan ketrampilan sangat dasar seperti memasak, dan segala macam aktivitas kehidupan ekonomi tradisional. Sangat menyedihkan.

    Pemikiran kebanyakan penulis yang sangat terkooptasi dengan hal-hal yang sudah biasa ada di pasar dan sudah dilakukan orang di sekeliling kita. Dangkal, cetek, dan very skin-deep analysis. Terobosan hanya bisa dilakukan oleh orang-orang yang kreatif dan inovatif dalam berpikir dan bertindak, serta berani keluar dari cangkang siput atau kura-kura, atau yang terburuk, cangkang kerang.

    Banyak produk kreatif dan inovatif dibuat serta dipasarkan dengan harga super premium, berkali-kali lipat dari harga produk generik. Panci teflon dijual dengan harga satu juta rupiah? Tahukah anda, berapa harga franco panci teflon tersebut? Kurang dari seratus ribu rupiah! Berapa keuntungan kotor sang pemasar? Hampir sembilan kali lipat biaya produksinya!

    How come? Sang pemasar berhasil melakukan dua hal sekaligus, seperti yang diajarkan Michael Porter di tahun 1985, yakni dua sumber keunggulan kompetitif, yaitu kepemimpinan biaya terkecil (cost leadership) dan diferensiasi. Porter bukanlah seorang ahli pemasaran, melainkan seorang ahli ekonomi industri. Demikian pula halnya Steve Jobs, Dell, dan ribuan orang kreatif dan inovatif lainnya di dunia; mereka bukanlah orang teoritisi dan praktisi pemasaran.

    Teoritisi dan praktisi pemasaran banyak berperan layaknya tukang kecap dan tukang obat di pinggir-pinggir jalan. Mereka berkoar-koar bahwa untuk pergi ke Roma, hanya ada satu jalan, yakni jalan dan cara yang mereka tawarkan. Mereka sangat mengagung-agungkan istilah-istilah yang mereka kembangkan sendiri, yang pada dasarnya adalah sama dan memiliki fungsi generik yang sama, kecuali nama, merek, dan label, seperti top brand, super brand.

    Mereka akan sangat memegang teguh prinsip diferensiasi Shakespeare, what’s in a name? A name is everyting. A brand is everything. Biasalah, tukang kecap. Mereka doyan menciptakan fad, ilusi, sesuatu yang ambigu dan tidak nyata, kecuali dalam pikiran mereka sendiri yang mereka paksakan ke pemilik merek dan penikmat iklan, atau calon korban iklan?

    Pernahkah anda berpikir, siapakah sebenarnya tukang kecap nomor satu di dunia? Unilever. Coba simak tayangan iklan di segala media massa. Unilever sangat diagung-agungkan para raja media. Hampir 90% iklan yang tayang di televisi adalah produk-produk dan merek-merek yang dimiliki Unilever. Hal ini sudah dilakukan Unilever sejak kali pertama berdiri dan wujud di Inggris, pada akhir abad ke-19. Life sucks. Kalau orang LG bilang, Life is Good, for our profiteering companies, but not for our product users!

    Strategi produk yang biasanya dipakai para pemasar adalah berbagai konsep yang dimulai dengan huruf P seperti product, packaging, pricing, positioning, placement, promotion, people, process, physical evidence, dan lainnya. Ada yang keukeuh menggunakan istilah 3-P, 4-P, 6-P, dan lainnya. Ada satu P yang terlupakan, paint my s! Mereka demen menyebutnya dengan istilah marketing mix, product mix, dan berbagai mixer lainnya.

    Keunggulan Bersaing

    Dalam wikipedia, keunggulan kompetitif didefinisikan sebagai keunggulan strategis yang dimiliki satu entitas bisnis dibandingkan entitas pesaingnya dalam satu industri kompetitif. Menurut Dess, Lumpkin, dan Taylor (2005), satu keunggulan kompetitif wujud ketika satu perusahaan memiliki satu produk atau jasa yang dipersepsikan konsumen di pasar tertentu lebih baik dari pesaingnya.

    Menurut Ehmke (2008), satu keunggulan kompetitif merupakan satu keunggulan yang didapat dari persaingan dengan menawarkan pelanggan nilai lebih, melalui harga yang lebih murah atau dengan memberikan manfaat dan layanan tambahan yang membuat harga produk bisa dinaikkan.

    Keuntungan yang lebih tinggi memungkin usaha untuk bisa tetap bertahan hidup, usaha berkelanjutan, serta berhasil dalam jangka panjang. Keunggulan kompetitif bisa memperkuat dan menempatkan satu usaha menjadi lebih superior kinerjanya dibandingkan dengan para pesaingnya.

    Teori keunggulan kompetitif pertama kali diusung Michael Porter di tahun 1985 sebagai respon atas kritikan terhadap teori keunggulan komparatif yang dijelaskan David Ricardo pada tahun 1817. Ricardo mendorong negara-negara untuk berspesialisasi mengekspor barang primer dan bahan baku dan terjebak sebagai negara berupah rendah akibat nilai tukar perdagangan (terms of trade).

    Di sisi lain, Porter berpendapat bahwa negara dan perusahaan seharusnya membuat kebijakan yang menciptakan barang berkualitas tinggi agar bisa dijual dengan harga mahal di pasaran. Di tingkat negara, pertumbuhan produktivitas seharusnya menjadi fokus strategi nasional.

    Tabel – 1. Strategy and Sources of Competitive Advantage
    Strategy / Advantage Cost Leadership Differentiation
    Cost Leadership Yes No
    Differentiation No Yes
    Focus Yes Yes
    Sumber: Euromed Marseille Ecole de Management, Porter and Competitive Advantage

    Koreksi teori keunggulan kompetitif terdapat pada usulan maksimalisasi skala ekonomis pada produksi barang dan jasa yang bisa dijual pada harga premium. Prinsip dasar keunggulan kompetitif terletak pada buruh murah yang tersebar di mana-mana dan sumber daya alam tidaklah diperlukan bagi perekonomian.

    Upaya maksimalisasi dapat dilakukan dengan memberikan atribut kepada produk yang bisa bersaing dan mengungguli pesaingnya pada masa kini dan nanti (pesaing potensil). Produk yang kompetitif dicirikan memiliki beberapa bentuk kepemimpinan di pasar seperti pada biaya dan kemampuan diferensiasi menciptakan produk dengan sifat permintaan tidak elastis (monopolistik).

    Beberapa atribut yang umum mencakup:

    1. akses terhadap sumber daya alam yang berkualitas tinggi tapi relatif murah,
    2. akses terhadap sumber daya manusia yang sangat ahli dan terlatih tapi relatif murah,
    3. akses terhadap sumber daya teknologi produksi yang memberikan peningkatan produktivitas dan efisiensi kerja seperti kemampuan robotik dan teknologi informasi.

    Dengan kata lain, sumber daya perusahaan, strategi usaha, dan/atau kemampuan perusahaan diharapkan mampu menciptakan keunggulan kompetitif. Strategi bisnis merupakan perangkat yang mampu memanipulasi sumber daya alam dan manusia serta menciptakan keunggulan kompetitif yang berkesinambungan. Sumber daya perusahaan dan kemampuan merupakan bahan terciptanya kompetensi distinctives. Kompetensi ini memudahkan inovasi, efisiensi, mutu, dan respon pelanggan.

    Bagan – 1.            Model Keunggulan Kompetitif
    Sumber:                QuickMBA.com, Competitive Advantage.

    Beberapa bentuk sumber daya perusahaan bagi keunggulan kompetitif, menurut QuickMBA.com, terdiri dari:

    1. paten dan merek dagang.
    2. Kecukupan cara (proprietary know-how).
    3. Sudah memiliki basis pelanggan.
    4. Reputasi perusahaan.
    5. Ekuitas merek.

    Salah satu indikator utama satu perusahaan telah mencapai dan memiliki keunggulan kompetitif adalah terjaganya tingkat keuntungan yang lebih tinggi dari pesaingnya dan dari rata-rata industri. Keuntungan superior didapat dari biaya produksi yang (jauh) lebih rendah dibandingkan perusahaan pesaing sejenis atau rata-rata industri.

    Keunggulan bersaing bisa berbentuk terimplementasinya strategi penciptaan nilai secara berkesinambungan. Nilai yang dimaksud bisa berupa manfaat yang dirasakan lebih besar dari produk pesaing dan/atau biaya produksi yang lebih rendah di tingkat perusahaan atau di tingkat saluran distribusinya.

    Keunggulan biaya dan diferensiasi nilai dikenal sebagai keunggulan posisi perusahaan yang menjadi pemimpin pasar di salah satu atau kedua aspek tersebut. Di sisi perusahaan, nilai yang diciptakan adalah berasal dari serangkaian aktivitas perusahaan, yang diidentifikasi Porter sebagai rantai nilai (value chain) dalam aktivitas upstream dan downstream.


    Bagan – 2.            Rantai nilai generik
    Sumber:                Michael E. Porter, Competitive Advantage, hal.37.

    Di tingkat konsumen, atribut produk harus dilihat dan dianggap pelanggannya sebagai produk penting yang harus dibeli dan tidak bisa digantikan produk pesaing. Oleh karena itu, pasar atau segmen produk harus bersifat unik, sempit (niche), dan fokus. Menurut Euromed Marseille Ecole de Management, strategi fokus memungkin perusahaan untuk beroperasi di 2 kepemimpinan pasar, yakni dalam hal biaya dan diferensiasi.

    Bagan – 3.            Rantai nilai untuk produsen penjiplak
    Sumber:                Michael E. Porter, Competitive Advantage, hal.47

    Pemilihan strategi dan keunggulan kompetitif pada aspek biaya membuat perusahaan sangat menekankan pentingnya sistem kontrol, pencapaian skala ekonomis, dan eksploitasi kurva pembelajaran. Melalui teknologi sistem informasi, kontrol dilakukan terhadap aspek penjadwalan, optimisasi, pengukuran, dan koordinasi seluruh prilaku aktivitas.

    Five Forces

    Bagan – 4.            Elemen Struktur Industri
    Sumber:                Michael E. Porter, Competitive Advantage, hal.6.

    Kerangka analisis keunggulan kompetitif Porter berangkat dari pemikirannya pada aspek analisis industri dan strategi bisnis dalam perspektif ilmu ekonomi (organisasi) industri. Porter berpendapat bahwa intensitas persaingan dan daya tarik pasar sangat ditentukan oleh 5 kekuatan, yakni daya tawar pemasok, daya tawar pelanggan, ancaman pemain baru, ancaman produk substitusi, dan intensitas persaingan dalam satu industri.

    Kritik terhadap Teori Porter

    Menurut Dess, Lumpkin, dan Taylor (2005), sudut pandang Porter yang berdasarkan pada teori ekonomi industri, membuatnya rawan terhadap kritikan dari sudut pandang yang lain, yakni kewirausahaan yang mengagung-agungkan kemampuan inovasi bisa menembus pasar yang sudah jenuh. Sejumlah elemen dari stuktur industri diakui Porter bisa mempengaruhi 5 kekuatan tersebut. Faktor-faktor tersebutlah yang mempengaruhi mempengaruhi keunggulan kompetitif.

    Dess, Lumpkin, dan Taylor memang mengakui 5 kekuatan tersebut sebagai ukuran kemampuan suatu usaha untuk bisa sukses di suatu pasar. Mereka menekankan pendapat bahwa kekuatan setiap unsur tidak sama di setiap situasi dan di setiap industri. Beberapa penjelasan:

    1. Di pasar output, kekuatan pembeli mempengaruhi harga yang bisa dibebankan perusahaan, seperti halnya ancaman substitusi.
    2. Di pasar input, kekuatan pembeli dapat mempengaruhi biaya dan investasi, karena pembeli yang berkuasa menuntut layanan yang berbiaya tinggi (costly).
    3. Di pasar input, kekuatan pemasok menentukan biaya bahan baku dan input lainnya.
    4. Intensitas persaingan mempengaruhi harga seperti halnya biaya bersaing di bidang-bidang seperti pabrik, pengembangan produk, pengiklanan, dan tenaga sales.
    5. Ancaman masuk ke pasar menempatkan batasan atas harga dan bentuk investasi yang dipersyaratkan dalam rangka menghalangi pesaing masuk ke pasar.

    Daya inovasi wirausaha bisa terbangkitkan ketika sang wirausahawan mengenali dan memahami kekuatan dasar (underlying forces) dari bentuk dan tekanan persaingan. Kekuatan yang mana yang mendominasi persaingan industri tergantung kondisi tertentu. Bersamaan dengan itu, mereka bisa menilai peluang pasar atau ancaman yang dihadapi usahanya. Disinilah tantangan bagi wirausahawan untuk bisa mengembangkan keunggulan kompetitifnya dengan memanfaatkan dan menempatkan posisinya di pasar.

    Dua mitos yang sering dihadapi wirausahawan dalam rangka menciptakan keunggulan kompetitif, yakni:

    1. Peluang usaha yang paling baik sudah pergi.
    2. Usaha kecil tidak bisa bersaing dengan baik dengan perusahaan besar.

    Dari sudut pandang lain, perusahaan yang sudah ada, baik besar ataupun kecil, pada umumnya tidak menyambut baik pesaing. Perusahaan yang sudah mapan pasti akan memerisai dirinya dari pesaing prospektif dan terhadap pesaing yang sudah ada. Sebagai konsekuensinya, sebagai pesaing baru, wirausahawan harus bisa melihat celah. Celah yang dimaksud adalah keunggulan kompetitif yang strategis guna menerobos masuk ke pasar dan/atau aktivitas perdagangan dengan pola yang sudah mapan.

    Porter sendiri sudah mafhum dengan cacat pemikiran strategis menyangkut situasi persaingan yang dihadapi wirausahawan. Beberapa cacat yang dimaksud:

    1. Memiliki keunggulan kompetitif yang tidak riel. Imitasi pesaing bersifat sukar dan berisiko dan merefleksikan kurangnya keunggulan kompetitif.
    2. Mengejar keunggulan bersaing yang tidak bisa berkesinambungan. Wirausahawan harus yakin bahwa keunggulan kompetitif tidak bisa secepatnya diimitasi.
    3. Salah membaca daya tarik industri. Industri yang paling atraktif bisa jadi bukanlah industri yang bisa cepat tumbuh atau paling mewah.

    Sumber Keunggulan Kompetitif

    Menurut Ehmke (2008), arti pentingnya keunggulan kompetitif menjadi aktual ketika semua produk ‘terlihat’ homogen, sedikit terdiferensiasi, dan sangat dipengaruhi oleh tingkat harga. Pemenang persaingan langsung dapat dilihat pada produsen yang paling efisien dalam biaya dan volume produksi yang tinggi.

    Preferensi konsumen yang beralih pada produk dengan ciri yang lebih spesifik atau layanan khusus menciptakan peluang diferensiasi produk yang signifikan terasa bagi konsumen. Harga produk tersebut tidak melulu tergantung pada biaya dan volume, melainkan pada:

    1. Mutu premium.
    2. Diferensiasi pada proses produksi dan/atau hasil produksi seperti organik, alami, atau buatan manusia.
    3. Komponen poduksi dengan nilai tambah seperti rasa, sudah diproses, sudah diseleksi, atau lainnya.

    Menurut Gupta (2009), beberapa atribut penting dari perusahaan diakui sebagai sumber atau determinan keunggulan kompetitif:

    1. Kelangkaan, nilai, ketidakmampuan ditiru, ketidakmampuan disubstitusi.
    2. Sumber daya potensil yang penting dalam hal finansil, fisik, hukum, manusia, organisasi, informasi, dan rasional.
    3. Kemampuan mengembangkan kompetensi inti yang superior dengan mengkombinasikan keahlian dan sumber daya.
    4. Serangkaian kapabilitas dinamis, kemampuan memiliki dan mengalokasikan serta meningkatkan (upgrade) sumber daya yang berbeda (distinctive).
    5. Hak kekayaan intelektual, rahasia dagang, basis data, budaya organisasi, dan lainnya.
    6. Kapabilitas etika.
    7. Reputasi perusahaann.
    8. Diversitas tempat kerja.
    9. Filantropi perusahaan (CSR).

    Menurut Ehmke (2008), beberapa strategi potensil bagi diferensiasi:

    1. Fitur dan manfaat produk. Beberapa ciri produk yang unik dan diinginkan meliputi gaya, kemasan (handling), rasa, komposisi bermutu, nyaman, metode produksi (alami atau organik, buatan tangan atau pabrik), sertifikasi, dan seterusnya.
    2. Lokasi.
    3. Staf.
    4. Prosedur kerja.
    5. Harga.
    6. Program insentif pelanggan.
    7. Garansi dan jaminan.
    8. Merek.
    9. Niat baik (goodwill).
    10. Nilai tambah produk/jasa.
    11. Perpanjangan atau ekstensi masa kerja.
    12. Lapisan tanah, gedung, lokasi, dan tata letak (landscape).
    13. Air, akses terhadap sumber daya (irigasi), dan tanah basah.
    14. Cuaca.
    15. Tanaman dan hewan.
    16. Organisasi dan aliansi.
    17. Pengalaman pelanggan.
    18. Mutu.

    Dalam perjalanannya, keunggulan kompetitif membutuhkan proses evaluasi yang dijalankan secara konsisten dan terus-menerus. Objek evaluasi mencakup sumber daya, tujuan usaha, cara masuk ke pasar dan diterima pasar, serta pesaing. Tujuan usaha adalah sesuatu yang harus bisa dicapai, spesifik, dan realistis.

    Keuntungan Keunggulan Komparatif

    Menurut Pearce dan Robinson (2007: 233), keberhasilan suatu usaha wujud karena adanya keunggulan relatif bila dibandingkan pesaingnya. Dua sumber utama keunggulan kompetitif adalah struktur biaya usaha dan kemampuannya mendiferensiasi usaha dari pesaingnya.

    Kepemilikan satu atau kedua keunggulan kompetitif biasanya menikmati profitabilitas diatas rata-rata dalam industrinya. Usaha yang tidak memiliki keunggulan kompetitif, salah satu atau keduanya, biasanya maksimal hanya menikmati keuntungan rata-rata industri atau dibawah rata-rata industri.[1]

    Bentuk keuntungan kepemilikan 2 sumber keunggulan komparatif pada satu waktu adalah tingkat profitabilitas yang paling tinggi dibanding pesaingnya dan secara rata-rata industri. Pemilihan strategi prioritas bertumpu pada tingkat keuntungan yang lebih superior dibanding pesaingnya. Di tingkat produk, pemilihan strategi usaha seharusnya berbasis pada aktivitas kompetensi inti dan rantai nilai yang bisa melestarikan kedua keunggulan kompetitif secara simultan.

    Kepemimpinan Biaya sebagai Keunggulan Kompetitif

    Menurut National Correctional Industries Association (2007), keunggulan kompetitif bisa diartikan sebagai satu kondisi dimana perusahaan bisa untung lebih banyak, lebih lama (long term), daripada pesaingnya. Keunggulan yang dimaksud adalah berupa kemampuan memenangkan usaha dan tetap membuat keuntungan. Di sisi lain, penurunan harga bukanlah praktek keunggulan biaya, melainkan mengurangi keuntungan.

    Dua jenis keunggulan kompetitif adalah kepemimpinan biaya dan diferensiasi. Beberapa cara mendapatkan keunggulan biaya:

    1. Memberikan manfaat yang sama dengan pesaing lainnya pada harga yang sama, tetapi pada biaya yang lebih rendah. Di sisi lain, pengurangan biaya bisa berhasil bila persepsi nilai tidak berubah.
    2. Kumulasi biaya (seluruh aktivitas yang menciptakan nilai produk) lebig kecil dari pesaing.
    3. Struktur biaya lebih rendah yang dibuat dari awal (built-in).
    4. Pesaing tidak mudah menduplikasi.
    5. Bisa terkait dengan perlengkapan, bahan baku, jaringan (linkages), pembelajaran, operasi, lokasi, proses, distribusi, dan volume.

    Buruh murah merupakan keunggulan biaya terbesar. Pertumbuhan produktivitas (jumlah output yang lebih banyak per jam) telah membuat biaya buruh menempati porsi yang lebih kecil dari biaya produk. Rasio biaya buruh terhadap harga merupakan salah satu bentuk keunggulan kompetitif. Beberapa bentuk keunggulan kompetitif lainnya mencakup tahan lama, layanan, reputasi, fungsionalitas, dan kemudahan pembelian.

    Menurut Pearce dan Robinson (2007: 234-237), strategi biaya rendah merupakan strategi usaha yang mencari cara membangun keunggulan kompetitif jangka panjang dengan menekankan dan menyempurnakan aktivitas rantai nilai yang bisa dicapai dengan tingkat biaya secara substansil dibawah pesaingnya yang mana bisa disamakan pada basis kesinambungan. Hal ini bisa berdampak pada persaingan harga yang lebih rendah dari pesaingnya dan usahanya bisa tetap berjalan.

    Keberhasilan usaha berdasarkan kepemimpinan biaya mensyaratkan usaha yang mampu menyediakan produk atau jasa pada biaya lebih rendah dari yang dilakukan pesaingnya. Dan keunggulan biaya tersebut harus berkesinambungan. Beberapa keahlian dan sumber daya yang membidani kepemimpinan biaya:

    1. Kesinambungan investasi modal dan akses terhadap modal.
    2. Keahlian rekayasa proses.
    3. Pengawasan ketat pada kegiatan teknis inti atau buruh.
    4. Produk atau jasa yang dirancang demi kemudahan produksi atau penyampaian (delivery).
    5. Sistem distribusi berbiaya rendah.

    Berdasarkan keahlian dan sumber daya tersebut, suatu usaha harus bisa menyelesaikan satu atau lebih banyak aktivitas dalam aktivitas rantai nilainya (mendapatkan bahan baku, mengolahnya menjadi produk, memasarkan produk, dan mendistribusikan produk atau mendukung aktivitas) dengan sikap yang lebih cost-effective dari pada pesaingnya atau usaha tersebut harus bisa mengkonfigurasi-ulang rantai nilainya demi mencapai keunggulan biaya.

    Beberapa persyaratan organisasi guna mendukung dan memelihara aktivitas kepemimpinan biaya:

    1. Kontrol ketat atas biaya.
    2. Laporan kontrol yang rutin dan terinci.
    3. Berorientasi pada perbaikan yang kontinyu dan benchmarking.
    4. Terstrukturnya organisasi dan tanggung jawab.
    5. Insentif berbasis ketepatan pemenuhan target kuantitatif yang ketat.

    Bagan – 5.            Contoh-contoh cara usaha mencapai keunggulan kompetitif melalui kepemimpinan biaya.
    Sumber:                Michael Porter, On Competition, HBS Press, 1998; dalam John A. Pearce II dan Richard B. Robinson, Jr., Strategic Management, hal.236.

    Beberapa aktivitas berbiaya rendah yang bisa dilestarikan dan memberikan satu atau beberapa keunggulan relatif terhadap kekuatan industri kunci seharusnya menjadi basis kunci bagi strategi kompetitif usaha, antara lain:

    1. Keunggulan biaya rendah yang mengurangi kesamaan tekanan penetapan harga dari pembeli.
    2. Keunggulan biaya rendah yang wujud dan berkesinambungan bisa mendorong pesaing ke wilayah lain, mengurangi persaingan harga.
    3. Pendatang baru, yang bersaing dalam hal harga dan tanpa pengalaman untuk mereplikasi setiap keunggulan biaya, harus berhadapan pemimpin biaya yang sudah mapan.
    4. Keunggulan biaya rendah seharusnya mengurangi daya tarik produk pengganti.
    5. Marjin yang lebih tinggi membolehkan produsen berbiaya rendah menahan kenaikan biaya pemasok dan sering mendapatkan kesetiaan pemasok sepanjang waktu.
    6. Banyak aktivitas yang menghemat biaya mudah diduplikasi.
    7. Kepemimpinan biaya eksklusif bisa menjadi perangkap.
    8. Pemotongan biaya yang obsesif bisa mengecilkan keunggulan kompetitif lainnya yang melibatkan atribut kunci daripada produk.
    9. Perbedaan biaya sering menurun sepanjang waktu.

    Diferensiasi sebagai Keunggulan Kompetitif

    Keunggulan diferensiasi wujud ketika manfaat yang diberikan lebih besar dari pesaingnya. Dengan manfaat yang lebih besar, produsen bisa memberikan harga yang lebih tinggi. Dalam prosesnya, diferensiasi merupakan proses menciptakan perbedaan di benak konsumen, antara satu produsen dengan pesaing lainnya.

    Beberapa bentuk diferensiasi yang dirasakan konsumen mencakup rasa yang lebih baik, menciptakan kesan lebih muda, memberikan jaminan yang lebih baik. Kesemua produk tersebut berpotensi menurunkan biaya dalam jangka lebih panjang. Keunggulan diferensiasi bisa bekerja bila konsumen mempercayai adanya diferensiasi atau tahu kenyataannya. Mengklaim adanya diferensiasi tidak membuatnya jadi nyata.

    Semakin tinggi tingkat diferensiasi yang dilakukan, semakin jauh persaingan dalam bentuk harga. Konsumen hanya akan menerima informasi yang mereka sudah tahu atau percaya. Produk atau perusahaan anda sudah menempati ruang dalam pikirran konsumen.

    Menurut Pearce dan Robinson (2007: 237-239), diferensiasi merupakan strategi usaha yang mencari cara membangun keunggulan kompetitif dengan produk atau jasanya dengan menjadikannya ‘berbeda’ dari produk saingannya berdasarkan fitur, kinerja, dan faktor lain yang tidak langsung berhubungan dengan biaya dan harga. Perbedaan hanya satu yang susah untuk diciptakan dan/atau sukar dikopi atau diimitasi.

    Strategi diferensiasi mensyaratkan usaha yang memiliki keunggulan kompetitif yang membisakan usaha menyediakan pembeli sesuatu yang unik bernilai. Strategi diferensiasi yang berhasil membisakan usaha menyediakan produk atau jasa yang dipersepsikan bernilai lebih tinggi bagi pembeli pada ‘biaya yang berbeda’ dibawah ‘premi nilai’bagi pembeli.

    Dengan kata lain, pembeli merasakan tambahan biaya saat membeli produk atau jasa yang dinilai lebih rendah nilainya dari produk atau jasa bila dibandingkan dengan berbagai pilihan alternatif lainnya. Diferensiasi biasanya timbul dari satu atau banyak aktivitas dalam rantai nilai yang menciptakan nilai unik dan penting bagi pembeli.

    Satu usaha dapat melakukan diferensiasi dengan menunjukkan kinerja aktivitas nilai yang ada atau mengkonfigurasi-ulang dengan cara yang unik. Dan kesinambungan diferensiasi tergantung dua hal, yakni kelanjutan persepsi nilai yang tinggi di mata pembeli dan kurangnya imitasi dari pesaingnya.

    Beberapa keahlian dan sumber daya kunci guna membangun strategi berbasis diferensiasi melalui penciptaan basis keunggulan kompetitif yang berkelanjutan dan mendasar, antara lain:

    1. Kemampuan pemasaran yang kuat.
    2. Rekayasa produk.
    3. Bakat dan kemampuan kreatif.
    4. Kemampuan yang kuat dalam riset dasar.
    5. Reputasi perusahaan dalam hal kepemimpinan mutu dan teknis.
    6. Tradisi yang panjang di industri atau kombinasi yang unik pada keahlian dari usaha lain.
    7. Kerjasama yang kuat dari saluran (pemasaran).
    8. Kerjasama yang kuat dari pemasok komponen utama dari produk atau jasa.

    Bagan – 6.            Contoh-contoh cara suatu usaha (terhadap aktivitas rantai nilai) mencapai keunggulan kompetitif melalui diferensiasi.
    Sumber:                Michael Porter, On Competition, HBS Press, 1998; dalam John A. Pearce II dan Richard B. Robinson, Jr., Strategic Management, hal.238.Beberapa persyaratan organisasi guna mendukung dan memelihara aktivitas aktivitas diferensiasi:

    1. Koordinasi yang kuat antara fungsi-fungsi litbang, pengembangan produk, dan pemasaran.
    2. Pengukuran dan insentif subjektif, daripada pengukuran kuantitatif.
    3. Berbagai fasilitas guna menarik buruh berkeahlian tinggi, ilmuwan, dan orang kreatif.
    4. Tradisi kedekatan terhadap pelanggan kunci.
    5. Beberapa personil yang ahli di bidang penjualan dan operasi, teknis dan pemasaran.

    Beberapa aktivitas, yang menyediakan satu atau lebih banyak peluang relatif terhadap kekuatan-kekuatan industri yang pokok, seharusnya menjadi basis aspek diferensiasi dari strategi usaha yang kompetitif:

    1. Rivalry is reduced when a business successfully differentiates itself.
    2. Buyers are less sensitive to prices for effectively differentiated products.
    3. Brand loyalty is hard for new entrants to overcome.

    Managers examining differentiation-based advantages must take potential risks into account as they commit their business to these advantages. Some of the more common ways risks arise are the followings:

    1. Imitation narrows perceived differentiation, rendering differentiation meaningless.
    2. Technological changes that nullify past investments or learning.
    3. The cost difference between low-cost competitors and the differentiated business becomes too great for differentiation to hold brand loyalty.

    Kecepatan sebagai Keunggulan Kompetitif

    Speed-based strategies, or rapid responses to customer requests or market and technological changes, have become a major source of competitive advantage for numerous firms in today’s intensely competitive global economy. Speed is certainly a form of differentiation, but it is more than that. Speed involves:

    1. the availability of a rapid response to a customer by providing current products quicker,
    2. accelerating new-product development or improvement,
    3. quickly adjusting production processes, and
    4. making decisions quickly.

    While low cost and differentiation may provide important competitive advantages, managers in tomorrow’s successful companies will base their strategies on creating speed-based competitive advantages.

    This strategy has been adopted widely by Welch as he transformed a fading GE into one of Wall Street’s best performers over the past 25 years. Below are his words in A CEO Who Can’t Be Cloned, BusinessWeek, 17.09.2001:

    Speed is really the driving force that everyone is after. Faster products, faster product cycles to market. Better response time to customers … Satisfying customers, getting faster communications, moving with more agility, all these things are easier when one is small. And these are all characteristics one needs in a fast-moving global environment.

    Speed-based strategies are business strategies built around functional capabilities and activities that allow the company to meet customer needs directly or indirectly more rapidly than its main competitors.

    Speed-based competitive advantages can be created around several activities:

    1. Customer responsiveness.
    2. Product development cycles.
    3. Product or service improvements.
    4. Speed in delivery or distribution.
    5. Information sharing and technology.

    Some required skills and resources to foster speed:

    1. Process engineering skills.
    2. Excellent inbound and outbound logistics.
    3. Technical people in sales and customer service.
    4. High levels of automation.
    5. Corporate reputation for quality or technical leadership.
    6. Flexible manufacturing capabilities.
    7. Strong downstream partners.
    8. Strong cooperation from suppliers of major components of the product or service.

    Some organisational requirements to support and sustain rapid response activities:

    1. Strong coordination among functions in R&D, product development, and marketing.
    2. Major emphasis on customer satisfaction in incentive programs.
    3. Strong delegation to operating personnel.
    4. Tradition of closeness to key customers.
    5. Some personnel skilled in sales and operations – technical and marketing.
    6. Empowered customer service personnel.

    These rapid response capabilities create competitive advantages in several ways:

    1. They create a way to lessen rivalry because they had availability of something that a rival may not have.
    2. It can allow the business to charge buyers more, engender loyalty, or otherwise enhance the business’s position relative to its buyers.
    3. Particularly where impressive customer response is involved, businesses can generate supplier cooperation and concessions because their business ultimately benefits from increased revenue.
    4. Finally, substitute products and new entrants find themselves trying to keep up with the rapid changes rather than introducing them.

    While the notion of speed-based competitive advantage is exciting, it has risks managers must consider:

    1. First, speeding up activities that haven’t been conducted in a fashion that prioritises rapid responses should only be done after considerable attention to training, reorganisation, and/or reengineering.
    2. Second, some industries –stable, mature ones that have very minimal levels of change– may not offer much advantage to the firm that introduces some forms of rapid response. Customers in such settings may prefer the slower pace or the lower costs currently available, or they may have long time frames in purchasing such that speed is not that important to them.

    Skala Kecil dan Fokus terhadap Pasar sebagai Keunggulan Kompetitif

    Market focus is a generic strategy that applies a differentiation strategy approach, or a low-cost strategy approach, or a combination – and does solely in a narrow (or ‘focused’) market niche rather trying to do so across the broader market. The narrow focus may be geographically defined or defined by product type features, or target customer type, or some combination of these.

    Small companies, at least the better ones, usually thrive because they serve narrow market niches. This is usually called market focus, the extent to which a business concentrates on a narrowly defined market. It usually is differentiating the product and its sales force, achieving low costs in promotion and delivery, and making rapid, immediate response to any owner request its normal practice.

    Some capabilities were created, along with resources, and value chain activities that achieved differentiation, low-costm and rapid response competitive advantages within the niche market that would be hard for other firms, particularly mass market-oriented firms, to replicate.

    Focus lets a business ‘learn’ its target customers –their needs, special considerations they want accommodated– and establish personal relationships in ways that ‘differentiate’ the smaller firm or make it more valuable to the target customer. Low costs can also be achieved, filling niche needs on a buyer’s operations that larger rivals either do not want to bother with or cannot do as cost effectively.

    Cost advantage often centers around the high level of customised service the focused, smaller business can provide. And perhaps the greatest competitive weapon that can arise is rapid response. With enhanced knowledge of its customers and intricacies of their operations, the small, focused company builds up organisational knowledge about timing-sensitive ways to work with a customer. Often the needs of that narrow set of customers represent a large part of the small, focused business’s revenues.

    The risk of focus is that you attract major competitors who have waited for your business to prove the market. Likewise, the publicly traded companies built around focus strategies become takeover targets for large firms seeking to fill out a product portfolio. And perhaps the greatest risk of all is slipping into the illusion that it is focus itself, and not some special form of low cost, differentiation, or rapid response, that is creating the business’s success.

    Managers evaluating opportunities to build competitive advantage should link strategies to resources, capabilitiesm and value chain activities that exploit low cost, differentiation, and rapid response competitive advantages. When advantageous, they should consider ways to use focus to leverage these advantages.

    One way business managers can enhance their likelihood of identifying these opportunities is to consider several different ‘generic’ industry environments from the perspective of the typical value chain activities most often linked to sustained competitive advantages in those unique industry situations.

    Pilihan Strategis Meraih Keunggulan Kompetitif menurut Tahapan Evolusi Industri

    1. Industri yang sedang tumbuh (emerging).
    2. Industri yang sedang berkembang (growing).
    3. Industri yang sudah dewasa (mature).
    4. Industri yang sedang menurun (declining).
    5. Industri yang terfragmen.
    6. Industri yang mendunia.
    7. Pemilihan berdasarkan matriks.
    8. Pemilihan berdasarkan cluster.
    9. Pemilihan antara diversifikasi atau integrasi.

    [1] Hasil dua studi empiris memperlihatkan kecenderungan tersebut, yakni:

    1. R.B. Robinson dan J.A. Pearce, “Planned Patterns of Strategic Behavior and Their Relationship to Business Unit Performance,” Strategic Management Journal, 9, No.1, 1988, hal.43-60.
    2. G.G. Dess dan G.T. Lumpkin, Emerging Issues in Strategy Process Research, dalam Handbook of Strategic Management, M.A. Hitt, R.E. Freeman, dan J.S. Harrison (eds), Blackwell, Oxford, 2001, hal.3-34.
     
  • Virtual Chitchatting 11:25 PM on 2011/05/04 Permalink  

    The Personal Bites 

    The Personal Bite

    Jakarta, 4 May 2011

    This is to comemmorate the passing away of my father, 18 months ago, which was born in Bukittinggi, on 3 May 1938. The usual conflict of interest between him, deployed in Biak in 1980/1981, with the XVII territorial commander (Kodam XVII Cendrawasih).

    As my father declined to comply with the territorial military bureaucracy that took time to be realised, he requested immediate additional military personells and equipments to the army headquarter in Jakarta. The resemblance and similarity name with the commander in chief at that time, the famous and legendary General M. Yusuf, Menhankam/Pangab, made his requests was quickly responsed and approved.

    This effort had been irritating the people in charge in Biak. My father was alleged to neglect the chain of command for any military supports and backups. As you may know, any soldier deemed to disobey to the ‘direct’ command, must be degraded. As my father realised such things were ridiculous and out of ‘patriotic’, he somehow spreaded the news that he was treated impatriotically.

    As a result, Santosa was replaced by his lower and junior fellow officer Meliala. He was reassigned to some kind of non-job military staff, training assistant to the army employees, not the military personnel, nor in the military schools. To be precise, Brigjen C.I. Santosa was the XVII territorial commander during the period of 1978-1982 and succeeded by Colonel R.K. Sembiring Meliala commanding for the period of 1982-1985.

    The XVII territorial was established by the name of West Irian (1 May 1963) and Cendrawasih (17 May 1963). As of 27 September 1984, both the XVII territorial and XV territorial/Pattimura were to be liquidated and merged into the VIII territorial/Trikora, officially on 8 May 1985. The demerger took place 14 years later to its original name and state, Pattimura territorial in Maluku and Trikora the XVII territorial in Jayapura (12 May 1999). As of 26 September 2007, the name was changed to the XVII territorial/Cendrawasih. Georger Toisuta was the XVII territorial commander for the period of 2005-2006.

    The army also deployed Kopasandha (RPKAD) intelligent officers to abduct the OPM people during 1983-1984. The prominent OPM Arnold Ap was assasinated by Kopassus. Such oppresions ultimately succeeded in decreasing the resistances efforts.

    Such personal bites were not told by my father, but by my mother. I was wondering how could he choose to quit the army in 1984. He also declined to be assigned to East Kalimantan, the oil-rich region.

    In Jakarta, the notorious 12.09.1984 event was remembered by L Benny Murdani and Try Sutrisno sat on the top of tanks, commanding the armies to shoot Amir Biki’s followers. Murdani was the commander in chief (Menhankam/Pangan). Sutrisno was the V territorial commander (Pangdam Jaya). Amir Biki was the shooting target. The prime cause triggering such event was as a military personnel came in to a mosque using his shoes and declined to let it loose outisde the mosque.

    The soldier was Hermanu. A moslem that inclined to side with his military institution and the state. He splashed the moral suasion for women to wear hijab with sewer and warned such pamphlet to be taken out from the wall. As he learnt that his order was not taken into account, he entered the mosque with a pistol in his hand and swaying it in the air. He was a babinsa, a pariah in the military rank, educated until the second grade in junior high school.

    On 10 September 1984, two days after his action tearing down the pamphlet, he was abducted to the nearest RW office to take responsible of his kafir actions. But the dialogue didnot run well. The arrogant military personell attitude was against the heightened emotions of local moslems. Hermanu’s motorbike was lit to fire.

    The abducters and the lighters were kidnapped by the military persnonels. Amir Biki set the ultimatum to the authorities to release the prisoners up to 23.00, otherwise the local china people would be slaughtered. Bothered of being molested religiously, moslems were gathered up igniting some kind of uprising against the tyrant military. The tight social cohesion amongst the Tanjung Priok society invaded a military office in Tanjung Priok (Kodim). They became martyrs, like the flying ants reaching for the flame just to burn them with fire in vain.

    So what was the connection between my father and Murdani-Sutrisno? There was NP. His last post was the military public relation officer (Kapuspen ABRI) with the rank of Brigjen. I recalled clearly in my head that there was a picture of NP, Murdani, and Sutrisno sitting together on the ladder of a building’s porch. They were discussing in a merely friendly manner.

    What surprised me enough and how friendly he was with my father, was as he came to our house, asking to meet and talk with my father. According to my knowledge and perception, he was wondering how my father quit the army while he was about to rocket in the military office.

    His modest appearance was shown indirectly to me as he took a seat next to my right side at a mosque in our housing complex. Why on earth he took a side next to me that time? I am not sure that he was doing it on purpose. As me and her daughter was acquainted and were the same schools from kindergarten to senior high school. We spent 12 years of in the same 4 schools, that is TK IKKH, SD IKKH, SMPN 88, and SMAN 78. But we were classmates only twice, that is on the sixth grade and the ninth grade in 2 schools.

    She loves to add another surname. In the past, N was her surname. At present, she uses M as her surname, standing for Medise. After all this time, we are complete strangers one another. Last time I called her, after about 20 years not communicating with each other, she still could remember my name and associate it with ‘our’ housing where we resided.

    2011-05-04 20:50:45 PM

    The reason of quitting the army was hardly to be questioned and answered directly. ‘The’ senior citizen must be treated as is. Though I was trying to comprehend it by myself, it came to light as he passed away. It is in the name to picture the father figure that he created in his life as my father.

    He was raised by his mother and along with 1 big bother and 2 elder sisters in law. Much respect was given lately to his sister in law, Rahimah binti Hidayat. She passed away on 2 May 2009, a day before my father to celebrate his 71-st birthday. Upon her 3-rd month funeral, he whispered softly from a distance that he was and intended to be buried next to his ’ka Ima’ grave. Alhamdulillah, his wishes was granted by the Almighty. He followed her step to the other side of the world on 31-st October 2009, barely 6 months later.

    My father has another sister-in-law from the same father in Lubuk Sikaping. She is maktuo Syamsinar, living in Durian Tinggi, Lubuk Sikaping. She has been blinded the last time I met her in July 2009. A pity and condolences was given to her grandchildren-in-law along with her son. Her great-grandson-in-law died not long after I went back to Jakarta, asthma, not treated sufficiently. His mother followed thru.

    Living without a father figure and being some kind of godfather to the migrated guys from the village was another thing. Providing shelters to the sons and daughter of Amir Hamzah from the first day of his marriage with my mother. Setting our house as the home for Cubadaklilin’s migrated boys. There were 4 tables serving to play domino cards. The occurrences were not once.

    During his sick day, I came to the house, visiting. There came 4 guys in 1970’s to 1980’s. They were Indra ‘Da Wi’ Wijaya, Erizal ‘Eri Pendek’ Sabirin, Celi, and Zainir ‘Si Niang’ Tanjung. Back to the deventies and eigthies. Thirty to forty years ago. Those were the days. How happy my father was. I thank you guys, deeply. Bringing the good old memories to my father’s remembrance, to my papa. God bless you guys. My father was old enough and tired of his aging sick and lung cancer.

    Like any other betting game, he put all of his stakes into his relationship as a husband and a father. He did not win fortune. He did not win fame and famous. He did win the passions and the loves of the left ones. Many of my friends during my childhood, voluntariry without being asked and paid, served as the guardians and voor raiders during the trip to the Karet Bivak cemetery. I thank you folks, deeply.

    It was an appreciation, an honour. So many came to visit you that Saturday night. So many came to take you to the cemetery at the next day and stayed for a while. Da Murni, Ni Murni, Maktuo Meidar, and me were the last persons leaving the grave. You were the last great man ever present and alive of your kind and your generation. We shall not see the abundant relatives and acquaintances showing the respects that you had earned and generated.

    I thank you, pa, for being there with me, seeing me and watching me growing, educated, graduated, getting married, having a daughter and a son. You love to see the pictures taken in my camera. What were you trying to see, pa? You wanted to see my life thorugh my eyes, moments captured by my digital cameras. You cared, pa. You were.

    You win the game, pa.
    You win the well-respected relationships and appreciation.
    Even as you are not around here, any more.

    Rest in peace, pa.

    for whatever is worth and was worst, still you are the best. hoping to see you again, soon enough.

     
  • Virtual Chitchatting 11:41 PM on 2011/04/09 Permalink  

    Indonesian Citibank is under fire 

    My comment:

    Siapa menabur angin, dia akan menuai badai.

    Siapa yang memulai bisnis kartu kredit di Indonesia? Siapa yang memulai bisnis outsourced debt collecting company? Siapa yang memulai gold client membershipness?

    Prestis tinggi dan segala atributnya membuat citibank, secara internal, kedodoran atau corrupted inside. pernah ngambil duit bergepok-gepok dari citibank? pasti ada duit kurang seratus ribu-dua ratus ribus. dari sekian milyar rupiah, tentu tidak berasa bagi penarik duit. dampaknya …. bagi teller penerima duit dari citibank, dia harus nombokin. begitulah jahatnya citibank dan karyawannya.

    Sumber: inilah.com, http://ekonomi.inilah.com/read/detail/1393982/bi-internal-citibank-bermasalah

    BI: Internal Citibank Bermasalah

    Oleh: Tio Sukanto
    Ekonomi – Rabu, 6 April 2011 | 16:41 WIB

    INILAH.COM, Jakarta – Gubernur Bank Indonesia Darmin Nasution memastikan internal kontrol Citibank bermasalah, terkait kasus yang menimpa Citibank belakangan ini.

    Beberapa masalah internal tersebut di antaranya tidak bekerjanya supervisi atasan, tidak adanya rotasi karyawan, kontrol utang yang tidak sesuai prosedur dan tidak bekerjanya proses informasi kepada nasabah. “Saya kira itulah yang mendasari kenapa peristiwa ini bisa terjadi,” ungkap Darmin, saat rapat kerja dengan Komisi XI, di Gedung DPR, Jakarta, Rabu (6/4).

    Terkait kasus ini Bank Indonesia (BI) telah mengambil tindakan dengan memanggil manajemen citibank, agar segera melakukan pembinan kepada bank untuk menyelesaikan masalah. “BI telah supervisor action, kita sudah melakukan pemanggilan terhadap chief country officer agar mereka menyampaikan surat pembinaan kepada bank untuk menyelesaikan masalah ini tanpa merugikan nasabah,” beber dia. [cms]

    Sumber: Republika.co.id, http://id.berita.yahoo.com/bi-tegur-bank-yang-gunakan-debt-collector-20110401-031624-309.html

    BI Tegur Bank yang Gunakan Debt Collector

    Republika – Jum, 1 Apr 2011 17.16 WIB

    REPUBLIKA.CO.ID, JAKARTA – Bank Indonesia (BI) menegur sejumlah bank dan penerbit kartu kredit yang menggunakan jasa debt collector saat menagih tunggakan kredit. BI belum bisa mengatur atau menetapkan kode etik untuk mengawal kegiatan operasional penagihan tunggakan oleh debt collector.

    Deputi Gubernur BI, Budi Rochadi menyatakan, BI sudah mengumpulkan para penerbit kartu kredit dan industri perbankan. “Kamis sudah panggil mereka hari ini dan sudah kita imbau untuk tidak lagi menggunakan jasa debt collector,” ujarnya, Jumat (1/4).

    BI pun mengimbau agar para penagih tidak menggunakan tindakan kriminal saat melakukan penagihan. “Kekerasan dan teror itu tidak boleh, jika ada maka itu tindak kriminal,” tuturnya.

    Sebelumnya, seorang nasabah kartu kredit Citibank yang juga Sekjen Partai Persatuan Bangsa, Irzen Octa, meninggal di depan kantor bank itu. Ia datang untuk menyelesaikan utang kartu kreditnya.

    Polisi menemukan jejak kekerasan dalam kematiannya. Kapolres Jakarta Selatan, Kombes Gatot Edy Purnomo, mengatakan hal itu terungkap dari hasil visum sementara. “Ada memar di kelopak mata,” kata dia di Mapolres Jakarta Selatan, Jumat (1/4).

    Irzen diduga dianaiaya oleh dua orang debt collector dan seorang karyawan bank yang kini dijadikan tersangka.

    Sumber: Kompas, http://bisniskeuangan.kompas.com/read/2011/04/08/21200125/Penerbitan.CC.Citibank.Dibekukan

    Penerbitan CC Citibank Dibekukan

    Ester Meryana | Inggried | Jumat, 8 April 2011 | 21:20 WIB

    JAKARTA, KOMPAS.com – Desakan Komisi XI DPR untuk membekukan penerbitan kartu kredit Citibank yang baru sebagai salah satu hasil keputusan rapat, telah dilakukan oleh Bank Indonesia.

    “Apa yang disarankan atau direkomendasikan oleh DPR ini, sebagian sudah dilakukan. Misalnya, pembekuan (penerbitan) kartu kredit, mulai kemarin sebenarnya,” jelas Deputi Gubernur Senior BI Budi Rohadi, usai pembacaan kesimpulan oleh pimpinan Rapat Achsanul Qosasi, di DPR, Jumat ( 8/4/2011 ).

    Pembekuan penerbitan kartu kredit ini merupakan salah satu dari 12 poin kesimpulan yang dihasilkan oleh Komisi XI, yang untuk ini telah dibentuk tim perumus, yang terdiri dari Maruarar Sirait, Meutia Hafid, Andi Timo Pangeran, dan Maiasakh Johan.

    Sebelumnya, BI telah memberhentikan sementara penambahan nasabah Citi Gold oleh Citibank.

    Dalam kesimpulannya, DPR juga mendesak BI untuk mencabut, merevisi, dan menyempurnakan PBI No. 11/11 /PBI/ 2009 , dan SE No. 11/10 /DSAP, mengenai tata cara pelaksanaan penagihan atas tunggakan yang diragukan dan macet kepada pihak ketiga.

    Namun, terkait pencabutan tersebut, Budi menyatakan peraturan itu belum dan tidak akan dicabut. “Enggak, enggak dicabut, itu bagus kok dicabut,” jelas Budi.

    Selain itu, Komisi XI akan melakukan revisi terhadap UU tentang Perbankan dan UU tentang Bank Indonesia pada masa sidang IV mendatang.

    Secara keseluruhan, Komisi XI menyatakan kekecewaan atas ketidakpatuhan dan kelalaian Citibank terhadap instruksi BI. Komisi XI juga menilai BI tidak tegas dalam melakukan pengawasan.

    Baik BI maupun Citibank NA Indonesia diminta melapor pelaksanaan keputusan ini kepada Komisi XI, dalam waktu satu bulan sejak keputusan dikeluarkan. Keputusan ini juga akan diteruskan kepada Presiden RI, Duta Besar AS untuk Indonesia, hingga pimpinan Kantor Pusat Citibank di AS.

    Sumber: inilah.com, http://ekonomi.inilah.com/read/detail/1393962/bi-larang-citibank-jual-citigold

    BI Larang Citibank Jual Citigold

    Gubernur Bank Indonesia Darmin Nasution – inilah.com/Agus Priatna
    Oleh: Mardiyah Nugrahani
    Ekonomi – Rabu, 6 April 2011 | 16:35 WIB

    INILAH.COM, Jakarta – Gubernur Bank Indonesia Darmin Nasution menyatakan secara tegas melarang pihak Citibank menambah nasabah baru untuk layanan Ciiygold sampai kasus pembobolan dana nasabah Citibank oleh Malinda Dee selesai.

    “Secara tegas Bank Indonesia melarang pihak Citibank untuk menambah nasabah baru di layanan Citigold sampai proses penyelidikan kasus Malinda selesai” katanya dalam rapat bersama Komisi XI DPR di Gedung DPR, Rabu (6/4).

    Menurutnya, larangan yang dimaksudkan tersebut sebagai antisipasi agar tidak terjadi lagi kasus pembobolan seperti yang dilakukan oleh mantan Relationship Manager Citigold Malinda Dee. “Kami (Bank Indonesia) telah melakukan pemanggilan Country Chief Officer atau (CCO) dan pejabat yang terkait untuk menyampaikan surat pembinaan dan menyelesaikan masalah tersebut dengan sebaik mungkin tanpa merugikan nasabah, serta langkah perbaikan internal kontrol yakni dengan menghentikan nasabah baru untuk produk Citygold,” papar Darmin.

    Darmin menambahkan,untuk kasus pembobolan dana nasabah yang dilakukan oleh Malinda Dee dipicu oleh lemahnya pengawasan internal pihak bank serta kurangnya pengawasan ketat dari dari para petinggi di lingkup internal tersebut. “Hal ini terjadi karena tidak adanya rotasi apa yang seharusnya dilakukan oleh karyawan, oleh sebabnya kontrol bagi para kayawan tidak sesuai dengan prosedur maka peluang pembobolan pun semakin terbuka,” katanya.

    Ia menambahkan tersedianya formulir atau blanko kosong yang memberikan kesempatan untuk menggunakannya.

    Proses penghentian nasabah baru untuk layanan Citigold ini akan dilakukan sampai proses penyelidikan dari Bank Indonesia selesai. Hal ini merupakan dampak dari kasus pembobolan dana nasabah Citibank yang dilakukan oleh mantan relation manager yang belakangan menggegerkan masyarakat. [cms]

    Sumber: Kompas, http://cetak.kompas.com/read/2011/04/08/0311194/dpr.minta.penagih.utang.sebaiknya.karyawan.bank

    PERBANKAN

    DPR Minta Penagih Utang Sebaiknya Karyawan Bank

    Jakarta, Kompas – Komisi XI Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat merekomendasikan agar penagih utang tak lagi ditangani oleh perusahaan penyedia jasa tenaga kontrak lepas. Penagih utang sebaiknya karyawan perbankan di bawah manajemen bank yang bersangkutan.

    ”Dengan posisi demikian, kalau nasabah dirugikan, bisa menuntut balik. Kalau sekarang kan tidak bisa karena ada di bawah perusahaan outsourcing (tenaga kontrak lepas),” ujar Ketua Komisi XI Emir Moeis (Fraksi PDI-P) di Jakarta, Kamis (7/4).

    Menurut Emir, Bank Indonesia harus mengubah Peraturan Bank Indonesia ataupun Surat Edaran Bank Indonesia yang memperbolehkan penggunaan pihak ketiga dalam penagihan kartu kredit. PBI Nomor 11/11/2009 dan SE Nomor 11/10/DASP tahun 2009 menyebutkan, penagihan menggunakan pihak ketiga hanya bisa dilakukan apabila kualitas tagihan kartu kredit dalam kategori kolektibilitas diragukan atau macet.

    Komisi XI juga menyebutkan agar Citibank dijatuhi sanksi tegas apabila hasil penyidikan kepolisian membuktikan adanya kesalahan atau pidana yang mengakibatkan tewasnya Irzen Octa. Kepada kepolisian, Komisi XI meminta agar perkara tewasnya Irzen disidik hingga tuntas. Bahkan, apabila ada dugaan keterkaitan manajemen Citibank juga harus ditelusuri hingga tuntas.

    Ketua Komisi Penanganan Pengaduan Badan Perlindungan Konsumen Nasional (BPKN) Gunarto di Jakarta, Kamis, juga mendesak BI untuk melarang perbankan menggunakan jasa penagih utang. Larangan diberlakukan sampai ada undang-undang yang secara khusus mengatur jasa penagih utang.

    Kepala Biro Humas Bank Indonesia Difi Ahmad Johansyah menjelaskan, BI akan mengaudit manajemen kartu kredit Citibank. Namun, soal rekomendasi Komisi XI, Difi menolak berkomentar. Ia beralasan, BI akan menunggu lebih dulu rekomendasi secara tertulis.

    Country Corporate Affairs Head Citi Indonesia Ditta Amahorseya, melalui surat elektronik, membenarkan, pihaknya sudah menerima surat BI untuk menghentikan sementara penambahan nasabah baru kartu kredit.

    (IDR/ENY)

    Sumber: Kompas, http://cetak.kompas.com/read/2011/04/08/02330265/polisi.periksa.manajemen.bank

    Polisi Periksa Manajemen Bank

    Jakarta, Kompas – Polisi mulai intensif memeriksa manajemen Citibank dalam kasus tewasnya Irzen Octa (50). Kendati saat ini masih berstatus sebagai saksi, tidak tertutup kemungkinan manajemen Citibank bisa berubah menjadi tersangka.

    ”Sikap polisi tidak berubah. Kalau dalam pengembangan penyelidikan ternyata manajemen Citibank terlibat, mereka bisa jadi tersangka,” kata Kepala Polda Metro Jaya Inspektur Jenderal Sutarman, Kamis (7/4).

    Irzen tewas di ruang negosiasi Kantor Citibank Cabang Menara Jamsostek, Jalan Gatot Subroto, Mampang Prapatan, 29 Maret lalu, saat mengurus tagihan kartu kreditnya yang membengkak dan bernegosiasi dengan penagih utang Citibank.

    Menurut Kepala Subbagian Humas Polres Metro Jakarta Selatan Ajun Komisaris Aswin, sudah ada sembilan saksi yang diperiksa, termasuk manajemen Citibank, seperti accounting, supervisor collection direct staff, dan karyawan direct staff.

    Adapun hasil visum, menurut Sutarman, belum menyebutkan penyebab kematian Irzen. ”Akan ada visum lanjutan dan penjelasan pakar yang membantu polisi menjelaskan penyebab kematian korban,” ujarnya.

    Kemarin, Polres Metro Jakarta Selatan mengajukan permohonan pengujian laboratorium lanjutan tersebut. ”Laporan pemeriksaan jasad yang ada sekarang merupakan laporan pemeriksaan sementara. Untuk menentukan penyebab pasti meninggalnya korban, dokter forensik merekomendasikan dilakukan uji laboratorium,” kata Aswin.

    Hasil laporan pemeriksaan sementara jenazah Irzen tertanggal 29 Maret 2011, antara lain, menyebutkan, terdapat luka lecet pada sekat hidung bagian luar, pendarahan di bawah selaput keras otak, dan memar di batang otak serta keluar darah pada lubang hidung.

    Pengacara keluarga Irzen, Ficky Fiher Achmad dari Kantor Pengacara OC Kaligis, terus mengawal penyelidikan kasus ini. ”Jangan sampai hasil final pemeriksaan kontradiktif dengan hasil laporan sementara. Di laporan sementara jelas tertulis luka lecet di hidung akibat kekerasan benda tumpul,” tuturnya.

    Menurut Ficky, pihaknya juga akan mengirim surat kepada Kepala Polda Metro Jaya dan Kepala Polri agar segera menahan tersangka B. Alasannya, saat ini Polres Metro Jakarta Selatan telah menetapkan empat tersangka, yaitu A, D, H, dan B. Namun, B belum ditahan.

    Ia juga akan menuntut Citibank bertanggung jawab karena korban merupakan nasabah Citibank dan meninggal di kantor Citibank saat memenuhi panggilan bank tersebut.

    Metode forensik

    Guru Besar Ilmu Forensik Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Indonesia Prof Herkutanto secara umum menjelaskan, ketika seseorang meninggal secara mendadak dan tidak diharapkan, akan dicari penyebab di tiga sistem utama tubuh, yaitu sistem jantung dan pembuluh darah, sistem pernapasan, serta sistem susunan saraf pusat. Lalu, dicek apakah ada rudapaksa (trauma) atau akibat penyakit.

    Pada seseorang yang meninggal karena pembuluh darah otaknya pecah, akan diperiksa apakah hal itu disebabkan penyakit atau dibuat pecah. Pembuluh darah bisa dibuat pecah oleh kekerasan, tetapi harus dengan kekuatan besar karena pembuluh darah otak dilindungi berlapis.

    Pecahnya pembuluh darah secara spontan tanpa kekerasan bisa akibat dinding pembuluh darah tipis (aneurisma) atau tekanan darah yang membesar mendadak. Tekanan darah dapat meningkat mendadak jika orang merasakan situasi bahaya atau tekanan psikis yang menimbulkan reaksi melawan atau menghindar. ”Situasi seperti ini pada orang-orang tertentu yang sudah memiliki riwayat penyakit bisa menimbulkan pecahnya pembuluh darah,” kata Herkutanto.

    (NEL/WIN/ATK)

    Sumber: Kompas, http://cetak.kompas.com/read/2011/04/08/02492287/tajuk.rencana

    TAJUK RENCANA

    Tercorengnya Citra Perbankan

    Beberapa hari ini perhatian masyarakat tersita oleh heboh kasus Citibank. Dua kasus serius membelit bank asal Amerika Serikat ini.

    Kasus pertama adalah tewasnya salah satu nasabah kartu kredit Citibank yang diduga dianiaya penagih utang di kantor collection Citibank. Kasus ini menyangkut tindak pidana karena menyebabkan melayangnya nyawa seseorang. Kasus kedua, pembobolan dana nasabah oleh Senior Relationship Manager Citibank, MD. Belakangan, kuat dugaan kasus ini mengarah ke kejahatan pencucian uang.

    Kasus ini beriringan dengan terungkapnya sejumlah kasus pembobolan bank BUMN—Bank Mandiri, BRI, dan BNI—yang di antaranya juga melibatkan orang dalam di level pejabat tinggi yang terjadi beberapa tahun lalu.

    Saat ini ada kekhawatiran, kasus MD ini hanya akan bermuara pada penyelesaian di ranah perdata dan akan ada upaya untuk menutupi karena sudah menyangkut mereka, yang dalam istilah kepolisian, ”nasabah kakap, yakni para bos dan pejabat tinggi”. Jika ini yang terjadi, hukum sudah diperjualbelikan, tak akan ada efek jera, serta kian merusak citra perbankan dan kepercayaan masyarakat.

    Sangat mencurigakan, dari puluhan miliar rupiah yang diduga dicuri MD, bagaimana mungkin tak ada seorang pun yang melapor sebagai korban jika bukan karena memang mereka tak ingin identitasnya terkuak, termasuk juga jumlah simpanan mereka dan asal-usul uang tersebut?

    Kasus ini memunculkan pertanyaan di masyarakat. Bagaimana mungkin bank sekaliber Citibank tak mampu mengendus praktik kejahatan oleh pegawainya yang sudah berlangsung tahunan dan melibatkan nilai uang yang sangat besar. Begitu burukkah mekanisme kontrol internal bank-bank itu dan pengawasan BI? Kurang ketat apa regulasi perbankan kita? Jika lebih karena faktor manusia, bagaimana masyarakat bisa diyakinkan dana yang dipercayakan ke bank aman?

    Dalam kasus kartu kredit, mungkin saja benar pernyataan BI, ada kekurangpahaman nasabah soal kartu kredit. Persoalannya, kenapa BI sebagai otoritas membiarkan praktik-praktik bank penerbit kartu kredit yang mengelabui nasabah yang tak paham soal kartu kredit?

    Lebih-lebih, ada kesan tutup mata atau kurang tegasnya BI, Perbanas, atau asosiasi penerbit kartu kredit terkait penagihan, terutama yang melibatkan penagih utang dan penggunaan teror, intimidasi, bahkan kekerasan yang berujung pada kematian nasabah pemegang kartu.

    Keluhan soal kekerasan dan intimidasi sangat banyak, tetapi tak pernah terdengar ada tindakan atau upaya penertiban terhadap bank, penerbit kartu kredit, atau pihak penagih utang itu sendiri, sampai akhirnya terjadi tragedi seperti ini. Sangat disesalkan praktik-praktik kekerasan dibiarkan begitu marak menguasai perbankan kita.

    Tak kalah penting, jangan sampai perbankan jadi tempat persembunyian hasil kejahatan dan hasil merampok uang negara. Jika terbukti ada pencucian uang, harus ada ketegasan terhadap pengelola bank, termasuk bank asing.

    Sumber: Kompas, http://cetak.kompas.com/read/2011/04/08/02291915/malinda.dijerat.dengan.pasal.pencucian.uang

    PEMBOBOLAN BANK

    Malinda Dijerat dengan Pasal Pencucian Uang

    Jakarta, Kompas – Mantan Senior Relationship Manager Citibank Inong Malinda Dee ternyata tak cuma diduga melakukan pelanggaran terhadap Undang-Undang Perbankan. Ia juga dijerat dengan UU Nomor 25 Tahun 2003 tentang Tindak Pidana Pencucian Uang.

    Kepastian Malinda diduga terlibat dua tindak pidana itu tertuang dalam surat pemberitahuan dimulainya penyidikan (SPDP) dari Polri kepada Kejaksaan Agung. Dalam SPDP disebutkan, Malinda menjadi tersangka terkait dugaan pelanggaran terhadap Pasal 49 Ayat (1) dan (2) UU Nomor 7 Tahun 1992 yang diubah dengan UU Nomor 10 Tahun 1998 tentang Perbankan dan Pasal 6 UU Tindak Pidana Pencucian Uang.

    Menurut Kepala Pusat Penerangan Hukum Kejagung Noor Rachmad, Kamis (7/4) di Jakarta, SPDP untuk Malinda itu tertanggal 25 Maret 2011. Namun, Kejagung baru menerimanya dari Polri pada 4 April 2011.

    Dalam kasus Malinda, menurut Noor, kejaksaan menunggu hasil penyidikan polisi. Jika lengkap, kejaksaan akan melimpahkannya ke pengadilan.

    Secara terpisah, Kepala Divisi Humas Polri Inspektur Jenderal Anton Bachrul Alam di Jakarta, Kamis, menyatakan, kepolisian merencanakan menelusuri data nasabah Citibank yang ditangani Malinda dalam dugaan penggelapan dan pencucian uang dana nasabah. Namun, penyidik masih fokus menelusuri aliran dana dari tiga nasabah Citibank yang diduga dipindahkan tersangka.

    ”Kami berkoordinasi dengan Citibank. Data itu ada di Citibank. Yang kami perlukan mudah-mudahan diberikan,” katanya.

    Namun, Kamis, polisi menunda rekonstruksi terkait prosedur transfer dana nasabah Citibank di Badan Reserse Kriminal Polri. Rekonstruksi itu dilakukan untuk melihat dugaan penyimpangan pentransferan dana yang dilakukan tersangka. Polisi masih melanjutkan pemeriksaan terhadap kepala teller berinisial N.

    Seorang nasabah Citigold private banking, yang juga klien Malinda dan tak ingin disebutkan namanya, mengakui, kemungkinan terjadinya pembobolan dana nasabah dan pencucian uang dalam praktik private banking memang besar. Nasabah private banking memercayai customer relations dari bank yang membantunya sehingga bisa mengalihkan dana karena sejumlah formulir sudah ditandatangani nasabah.

    Nasabah Citigold itu mengakui pula, customer relations pernah menawarkan produk investasi yang tak sepenuhnya terkait dengan bank. ”Ditawarkan pula produk Citibank di Asia Pasifik, terutama produk investasi dari Citibank Singapura,” katanya.

    Rekomendasi DPR

    Secara terpisah, Komisi XI DPR dalam rekomendasinya, seperti disampaikan Ketua Komisi XI Emir Moeis, Kamis di Jakarta, meminta Gubernur Bank Indonesia Darmin Nasution mengevaluasi kinerja Deputi Gubernur BI Bidang Pengawasan Halim Alamsyah dan pengawasan BI. Evaluasi itu terkait kasus pembobolan bank yang terjadi di Citibank yang seharusnya menjadi perhatian pengawasan BI.

    ”Rekomendasi ini mengikat. Jika tidak dijalankan, kami bisa menegur BI,” kata Emir. Komisi XI DPR telah memanggil Citibank, BI, dan Polri dalam rapat kerja pada Selasa-Rabu lalu. Dalam raker, sejumlah anggota Komisi XI DPR mempertanyakan pengawasan BI sehingga dugaan pembobolan dana nasabah Citibank oleh Malinda bisa terjadi.

    Menurut Emir, Komisi XI belum bisa memberikan banyak rekomendasi terkait kasus pembobolan dana nasabah karena masih menunggu hasil penyidikan Polri dan data dari Pusat Pelaporan dan Analisis Transaksi Keuangan. ”Kami meminta polisi menjalankan penyidikan dahulu, terutama untuk melihat ada atau tidak kemungkinan pencucian uang dalam kasus ini,” ujarnya.

    Kepala Biro Humas BI Difi Ahmad Johansyah mengatakan, BI menghentikan penghimpunan nasabah baru Citigold, layanan nasabah kelas premium Citibank. Meskipun demikian, layanan untuk nasabah lama tetap dibuka.

    Menurut Country Corporate Affairs Head Citi Indonesia Ditta Amahorseya, Citibank menerima surat dari BI untuk menghentikan sementara penambahan nasabah baru Citigold.

    Presiden Direktur PT Sarwahita Global Management (SGM) Andrea Peresthu menjelaskan, Malinda pernah jadi pemegang 20 persen saham perusahaan itu. Namun, sejak 1 Februari 2011 Malinda mengundurkan diri.

    Andrea menambahkan, Wakil Gubernur Lembaga Ketahanan Nasional Rio Mendung Thalieb juga menjadi pemegang saham PT SGM. PT SGM diduga menerima dana dari Malinda.

    (faj/fer/idr/tra)

    Sumber: Kompas, http://cetak.kompas.com/read/2011/04/08/04111248/malinda.dan.mitos.perbankan

    Malinda dan Mitos Perbankan

    Christianto Wibisono

    Skandal penggelapan dana nasabah Citibank oleh Malinda Dee membuktikan bahwa mitos kejayaan dan profesionalisme Citibank rapuh.

    Terdapat keterkaitan tiga isu utama dunia: pencucian uang oleh para koruptor melalui perbankan global; eksploitasi dana haram—plus sebagian dana halal—nasabah oleh eksekutif perbankan yang dicemplungkan ke dalam kasino derivatif global yang tak aman; serta kegagalan pemerintah ataupun otoritas global mengarahkan dana perbankan untuk pembangunan sektor riil.

    Pembobolan Citibank oleh Malinda, penggelapan oleh Bernie Madoff, serta skandal spekulasi dan manipulasi valas Nick Leeson dan Dicky Iskandardinata yang membangkrutkan Barings dan Bank Duta harus kita pahami sebagai modus dan gejala universal.

    Sampai di mana otoritas moneter suatu negara-bangsa dan otoritas moneter global bisa membenahi penyakit ini dalam konteks yang lebih struktural untuk menciptakan arsitektur keuangan global yang bertanggung jawab, transparan, dan bermanfaat bagi kebutuhan dunia akan pembangunan sektor riil? Perlu aliran dana guna meningkatkan kesejahteraan manusia secara lebih mangkus.

    Laba terbesar

    Anthony Sampson dalam buku The Money Lenders, mengutip pernyataan Walter Wriston, petinggi Citibank kurun 1970-an, menyatakan, keuntungan terbesar Citibank diraup dari cabang Jakarta. Ketika bank itu buka cabang pada 1967, modal setornya hanya 1 juta dollar AS. Modal itu pasti hanya dipakai untuk beli atau sewa kantor. Lalu, perusahaan AS yang berinvestasi di Indonesia menjadi nasabah, disusul oleh masyarakat perusahaan dan perorangan Indonesia. Nah, dengan modal reputasi dan kepercayaan terhadap Citibank itu, cabang Jakarta—satu satunya di Indonesia—jadi juara penyetor untung bagi Citibank global.

    Wartawan Vincent Lingga pernah mengeluh, tabungannya selama 30 tahun sebagai wartawan terkuras habis karena dibelikan produk keuangan Lehman Brothers yang dibiarkan bangkrut oleh Presiden Bush dan memicu krisis keuangan AS dan global pada 2008. Vincent membeli produk derivatif itu oleh bujukan pegawai Citibank. Bandingkan dengan Robert Tantular dan Bank Century yang menjual sekuritas Antaboga.

    Arsitektur keuangan global era 1980-an memang didominasi produk derivatif yang sangat tak terkait dengan sektor riil. Dana yang berputar triliunan dollar AS di rekening antarbank sedunia, milik pelbagai perusahaan dan nasabah kakap koruptor ataupun konglomerat sejati, sebagian besar justru tak pernah menyentuh sektor riil, seperti infrastruktur.

    Karena itulah Wapres AS Joseph Biden mengusulkan pembentukan Bank Infrastruktur AS karena prasarana jalan dan jembatan serta perkeretaapian di AS kumuh dan lamban seperti Dunia Ketiga.

    Direktur Pengelolaan IMF Dominique Strauss-Kahn, Selasa lalu di Washington DC, menyatakan bahwa perbankan dan sistem moneter dunia harus segera menggebrak sektor riil pembangunan infrastruktur serta kebutuhan pangan, energi, dan pemenuhan kebutuhan primer masyarakat, seperti pendidikan dan kesehatan. Semua itu memerlukan kebijakan agar dana yang terhimpun pada sistem moneter global bisa dimanfaatkan dan diinvestasikan di sektor riil jangka menengah-panjang dan bukan sekadar dikonsumsi atau dispekulasikan dalam kasino derivatif global.

    Gertak sambal

    Anggota DPR dengan galak mengancam akan mencabut izin Citibank. Saya rasa tak semudah gertak sambal antarkoalisi atau partai sempalan. Soalnya, pemilik Citibank itu adalah konsorsium global yang melibatkan Pemerintah AS (36 persen), Pemerintah Singapura melalui BUMN GSIC (11,1 persen), Kuwait Investment Authority (6 persen), Abu Dhabi Investment Authority (4,9 persen), dan Kingdom Holding Company Arab Saudi pimpinan Pangeran Al Waleed bin Talal.

    Jadi, Citibank merupakan wajah perusahaan transnasional, multinasional, dan global yang tak didominasi satu kelompok pun. Ia konsorsium multilateral.

    Bagaimana menyelesaikan dan menghukum masalah Citibank ini? Praktik Malinda pasti bukan hanya terjadi di Citibank. Bisa terjadi di bank BUMN dan bank milik konglomerat kita. Jadi, otoritas moneter global, regional, dan nasional harus waspada, seperti kata Dominique Strauss- Kahn yang akan mencalonkan diri sebagai presiden dalam pemilihan di Perancis.

    Segala praktik campur aduk spekulasi dan manipulasi derivatif harus diawasi ketat oleh otoritas moneter. Akumulasi dana—baik halal maupun haram (dari aliran pencucian uang diktator dan koruptor)—sedunia seyogianya disalurkan bagi investasi sektor riil, infrastruktur, dan peningkatan kesejahteraan masyarakat.

    Mumpung ada dosa kolektif Obama, Al Waleed, dan Ho Ching (pemegang saham Citibank mewakili GSIC), usul pembentukan Bank Pembangunan Infrastruktur baik di AS oleh Wapres Biden maupun di Indonesia oleh Kadin bisa segera direalisasi. Pemerintah bisa bernegosiasi atas dasar terobosan pemikiran membangun arsitektur keuangan global yang bertanggung jawab, transparan, dan bermanfaat bagi kualitas hidup manusia.

    Pengarahan dana perbankan dari sektor derivatif ke sektor riil harus digerakkan otoritas moneter global. Sekarang kesempatan bagi otoritas global dan G-20 memperlihatkan wibawa mengatasi praktik skandal model Leeson, Madoff, dan Malinda. Jika tidak, Malindagate bisa terulang di mana, kapan, dan oleh bank apa saja.

    KPK mesti turun tangan menelusuri rekening terkait Malinda sebab sebagian pasti ada unsur korupsinya. Hukum karma bagi koruptor yang rekeningnya digelapkan Malinda: Anda merampok dana negara dan rakyat, aparat penegak hukum mungkin tak bisa mengejar, tetapi Anda disikat Malinda. Itulah tangan siluman karma.

    Christianto Wibisono

    CEO Global Nexus Institute

     
  • Virtual Chitchatting 11:13 PM on 2011/04/09 Permalink
    Tags: bug's life, pest strike   

    Populasi ulat bulu yang berlebihan dinilai mengganggu kehidupan manusia 

    Bagaimana kalau dinilai sebaliknya, populasi manusia yang berlebihan, dinilai … ;p

    My comment:

    ulat bulu, tikus, dan segala macam makhluk yang berlebihan ada di muka bumi dianggap manusia sebagai hama.

    coba kalau dibalik, manusia yang jumlahnya milyaran dinilai berlebihan ada di muka bumi, maka manusia dianggap … ;p

    kalau kulit kita kena bulu dari ulat bulu, kulit badan kita jadi memerah kegatelan, pengen digaruk aja bawaannya.

    kalau mata kita ngeliat tikus di rumah, atau diselokan, mata kita jadi memerah, pengen ngebunuh si tikus aja maunya. kalau tikus kantor…., kalau tikus negara….

    coba kita nilai media apa menyajikan apa. yang menang: mediaindonesia. kenapa? karena dia menyajikan solusi. kompas hanya menceritakan sensasi yang dirasa penulis dan editornya. okezone hanya memberitakan ‘fakta’ yang sumir, tidak melihat kausalitas. republika hanya menampilkan berita basi, politisasi anggaran pembasmian tikus. apa hubungan stringer dengan tikus berdasi di pest control efforts di new york?

    the next epitome is setiap saat dunia ini berada dalam kesetimbangan dan keseimbangan. seperti ban pada roda yang berjalan, kadang di bawah, kadang di atas, kadang kena panas, kadang kena hujan.

    singkatnya, bumi beserta isinya itu merupakan makhluk hidup yang spesifik. dia akan membalikkan sesuatu yang sudah terbalik, kembali ke kondisi asalnya, tetapi tidak ke titik asal.

    the earth is moving, just like us. we have to move our lives to the next step. we had said goodbye to the dead, to the undead, to the loved ones once, and promised, till we meet again, in the afterlife. rest in peace, pa. i miss you.

    Sumber: mediaindonesia.com, Rabu, 06 April 2011 07:53 WIB, http://www.mediaindonesia.com/read/2011/04/06/215741/289/101/Wabah-Ulat-Bulu-akibat-Predator-Berkurang

    Wabah Ulat Bulu akibat Predator Berkurang

    Penulis : Bagus Suryo

    MALANG–MICOM: Wabah ulat bulu yang menyerang perkebunan mangga di Probolinggo dan kini meluas ke daerah sekitarnya sebagai akibat dari semakin berkurang populasi predator burung liar pemakan ulat.

    Chairman ProFauna Indonesia Rosek Nursahid, menyatakan, populasi predator pemakan ulat seperti Burung Prenjak, Jalak dan Cinenen berkurang cukup signifikan hingga mencapai 80 persen dari populasi sebelumnya.

    “Perburuan liar yang dilakukan secara besar-besaran sebagai komoditas perdagangan menjadikan populasi burung liar pemakan ulat ini menurun drastis, sehingga ulat-ulat tersebut bisa berkembangbiak dengan leluasa karena musuh utamanya sudah tidak ada,” tegasnya, Rabu (6/4).

    Di wilayah Malang sendiri terutama di Kecamatan Pujon dan kawasan Malang selatan, katanya, populasi predator berupa burung liar pemakan ulat (serangga) tersebut juga sudah hampir hampir punah.

    Menurut dia, jika proses perburuan burung pemakan serangga ini dilakukan secara besar-besaran dan terus menerus akan memicu terjadinya bencana ekologi. Akibatnya, akan terjadi ledakan populasi kupu-kupu dan ulat di luar kendali.

    Oleh karena itu, tegasnya, kalau warga di wilayah Malang Raya ini tidak ingin terjadi wabah ulat di daerahnya, maka masyarakat harus menghentikan berburu burung pemakan serangga tersebut. Biarkan burung-burung tersebut hidup di alam bebas agar rantai ekosistem tetap berjalan normal.

    Sebelumnya Kepala Laboratorium Hama, Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Brawijaya (UB) Dr Ir Totok Himawan mengimbau agar masyarakat khususnya petani di wilayah Malang Raya dan sekitarnya tidak perlu khawatir akan serangan ulat bulu yang kini mewabah di Probolinggo.

    Sampai sejauh ini ulat bulu hanya menyerang tanaman mangga saja dan tidak akan menyerang tanaman lain, seperti padi, sayur, bunga serta berbagai jenis buah lainnya.

    Apalagi, lanjutnya, sekarang juga sudah dilakukan penyemprotan insektisida atau sejenis cairan “Lamda Sihalotrim” sampai beberapa kali, sehingga kondisinya sudah jauh berkurang.”Petani tidak perlu khawatir, karena kemungkinan meluas hingga ke wilayah Malang dan sekitarnya itu sangat kecil,” tegasnya.

    Hujan yang terus menerus mengakibatkan musuh alami ulat bulu, yakni sejenis predator bernama “Braconid” dan “Apanteles” tidak mampu bertahan hidup. Sehingga, musuh alami itu tidak bisa mengontrol populasi ulat bulu yang semakin banyak, dan berkembangbiak dengan cepat, bahkan menyebar ke lingkungan penduduk.

    Sementara Kepala Dinas Pertanian Kota Malang Ninik Suryantini mengimbau agar masyarakat terutama petani lebih waspada.

    “Untuk wilayah Kota Malang yang rentan terhadap perkembangbiakan ulat bulu adalah Kecamatan Lowokwaru, Kedungkandang, dan Sukun,” katanya menambahkan. (Ant/OL-12)

    Sumber: kompas.com, 8 April 2011, http://cetak.kompas.com/read/2011/04/08/03254453/ulat.bulu.bikin.ngeri.dan.gatal

    HAMA

    Ulat Bulu Bikin Ngeri dan Gatal

    KOMPAS/DAHLIA IRAWATI
    Inilah ulat bulu yang menyerang lima kecamatan di Kabupaten Probolinggo sejak Kamis (31/3). Ulat tersebut menjadi hama pengganggu baik untuk pohon mangga atau kesehatan kulit masyarakat setempat.

    Ny Imam Hudoyo (68) merasa ngeri. Seumur hidupnya, ibu empat anak dan nenek delapan cucu, baru kali ini melihat ribuan ulat bulu berwarna coklat kehitaman yang bergerombol dan berjatuhan dari atas pohon asam yang berada di pinggiran jalan di Kompleks Perumahan Kaplingan, Jalan Hayam Wuruk, Kabupaten Jombang, Jawa Timur.

    Lebih ngeri lagi ulat bulu itu lalu bergerak merangsak masuk rumahnya, tempat penjemuran pakaian dan warung makan Dinar Kartika, miliknya. ”Baru kali ini saya melihat ribuan ulat bulu yang berjatuhan dan beterbangan dari pohon sampai menempel di dinding rumah dan jemuran pakaian, ”kata Ny Imam Hudoyo, Kamis (7/4).

    Ribuan ulat bulu berwarna coklat kehitaman yang bersarang di pohon-pohon asam itu, awal mula diketahui setelah petugas PLN Jombang menebang pohon tersebut karena mengganggu jaringan kabel listrik, Senin (4/4). Beberapa warga mengaku, kalau tersenggol ulat bulu bisa menimbulkan gatal, panas, kulit memerah, dan bentol-bentol.

    Jika ulat menempel di pakaian yang dijemur mau tidak mau harus dicuci ulang. Ini untuk mencegah gatal di sekujur tubuh. Bahkan, sampai sekarang pun bulu-bulu ulat yang terbawa angin dan menempel di kulit tubuh masih terasa gatal. ”Walaupun ulatnya sudah mati, tapi bulu-bulunya bisa terbang terbawa angin yang menyebabkan gatal,” kata Rika (41).

    Ribuan ulat bulu berwarna coklat kehitaman yang hanya bersarang di pohon asam. Adapun pepohonan lain tidak ditempati.

    Awalnya jutaan ulat bulu menyerbu wilayah Kabupaten Probolinggo yang berjarak sekitar 150 kilometer arah timur Jombang, akhir Maret lalu. Ulat berwarna warni menyerang 49 desa di tujuh kecamatan, yakni Kecamatan Tegalsiwalan, Bantaran, Leces, Sumberasih, Tongas, Dringu, dan Wonomerto.

    Makhluk melata itu menyerang pohon mangga hingga dedaunnya meranggas. Dari sana, ulat itu masuk rumah, merambat sampai tempat tidur, piring makan, pakaian yang digantung.

    Beberapa sekolah dasar sampai diliburkan untuk menghindari siswanya dari ulat bulu. Ada pula warga yang mengungsikan bayinya. Tak sedikit pula yang menderita mual karena tak tahan melihat jutaan ulat bulu saat jatuh dari pohon karena tertiup angin.

    Yang paling diserang memang pohon mangga. Ratusan ribu pohon mangga menjadi meranggas sehingga musim panen mangga akan mundur dan produktivitas jadi turun karena kesuburan pohon membutuhkan asupan fotosintesis. Probolinggo merupakan sentra mangga terbesar di Jatim. Mangga dan produk olahan berbasis mangga seperti sirup, dan keripik diekspor.

    Dari Probolinggo ulat bulu diduga juga terus bermigrasi ke wilayah tetangganya, Kabupaten Pasuruan, seperti yang terjadi di Desa Nguling, Kecamatan Nguling, dan beberapa desa di Kecamatan Winongan. Di Pasuruan penyebaran ulat bulu bisa dilokalisasi karena petugas Dinas Pertanian melakukan penyemprotan pestisida. Muhammad Ihwan, Kepala Dinas Pertanian Kabupaten Pasuruan, mengatakan, tidak ada lagi perluasan serangan ulat bulu di Pasuruan. ”Bahkan ulat bulu yang ada sudah tertangani dan mulai banyak yang mati,” katanya.

    ”Ulat yang tersisa tinggal sedikit, mungkin hanya terlihat satu hingga lima ekor saja di batang pohon bagian bawah itu,” ujar Margono (65), warga RT 3 RW 12 Dusun Pandean, Desa Nguling.

    Pohon mangga milik Margono itu sudah disemprot pestisida dan insektisida. ”Rupanya penyemprotan itu efektif, sehingga paling hanya tersisa sedikit ulat bulu,” katanya.

    Kepala Laboratorium Hama Jurusan Hama dan Penyakit Tanaman Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Brawijaya, Malang, Totok Himawan, mengatakan, cuaca jadi faktor pendukung merebaknya ulat bulu hingga menjadi semacam hama.

    ”Yang utama menurut saya adalah karena pemangsa alami ulat bulu ini, seperti sejenis tawon, populasinya berkurang akibat terkena hujan hampir sepanjang tahun. Akibat berkurangnya populasi pemangsa alaminya, maka ulat bulu berkembang tanpa kontrol dan menjadi hama. Padahal sebelum-sebelumnya ulat bulu ini bukanlah hama pengganggu,” kata Toto.

    Hama pengganggu

    Sementara itu, pakar Entomologi (ilmu tentang serangga) Universitas Gadjah Mada, Suputa, menilai ledakan populasi ulat bulu di Probolinggo terjadi karena makin berkurangnya faktor pembatas dan naiknya temperatur udara. Meski demikian, kejadian ini bukanlah fenomena baru. ”Kasus serupa pernah terjadi di Thailand tahun 2003 lalu dengan sasaran yang sama, yaitu pohon mangga,” ujarnya.

    Saat ini, banyak musuh alami ulat bulu yang hilang seperti burung dan lalat. Perburuan burung yang tak terkendali mengakibatkan berkurangnya populasi burung-burung pemangsa ulat. Faktor pembatas lain yaitu parasitoid berupa larva lalat yang tumbuh di dalam larva ulat bulu mati kerena pemanfaatan insektisida kimia yang berlebihan.

    Dua spesies

    Dari hasil penelitian diperkirakan, menetasnya telur ulat bulu di Probolinggo pada 17 Januari 2011. Larva ulat bulu mulai menyerang 1 Februari 2011 hingga pertengahan Maret 2011. Lalu, mulai 16 Maret 2011, larva memasuki fase kepompong. Setelah itu ulat bulu ini tidak berubah menjadi kupu-kupu, tapi ngengat yang merupakan jenis hewan nokturnal (beraktivitas pada malam hari). Kasus ini perlu dibasmi. (DIA/TIF/ABK)

    Sumber: okezone.com, Kamis, 7 April 2011 10:00 wib, http://news.okezone.com/read/2011/04/07/338/443372/ratusan-ulat-bulu-di-jatiasih-disemprot-insektisida

    Ratusan Ulat Bulu di Jatiasih Disemprot Insektisida

    Foto: Tedi Suteja/Global TV

    BEKASI – Petugas dari Dinas Ekonomi Rakyat terpaksa melakukan penyemprotan insektisida terhadap ratusan ulat bulu yang ada di TK Quantum yang terletak di Jatiasih, Kota Bekasi. Penyemprotan untuk mengantisipasi penyebaran ulat bulu ke rumah penduduk.

    Berdasarkan pantauan penyemprotan dilakukan di ruang bermain dan ruang baca TK Quantum disamping semak belukar. Tidak hanya itu saja, sejumlah pohon juga ditebang dan kemudian dibakar oleh warga.

    Salah satu petugas Dinas Ekonomi Rakyat Kota Bekasi, Toyib mengatakan penyemprotan untuk menghindari penyebaran ulat bulu yang meluas.

    “Ulat bulu ini jenis grayak yaitu jenis ulat bulu yang suka makan tanaman kacang dan jika terkena akan menyebabkan gatal,”katanya, Kamis (7/4/2011).

    Keberadaan ulat bulu ini lanjut Toyib disebebakan karena adanya penetasan kupu-kupu yang kemudian didukung adanya semak belukar dekat sekolah.

    “Ulat bulu ini akibat penetasan kupu-kupu dan juga semak belukar yang tidak dirawat,”ungkapnya.

    Sementara itu Wulan salah satu guru TK Quantum mengatakan sampai saat ini muridnya masih diliburkan untuk menghindari gatal-gatal.

    “Agar tidak gatal, tadi juga karena ada penyemprotan jadi diliburkan dulu,”ujarnya.

    (Tedi Suteja/Global/crl)

    Sumber: okezone.com, Rabu, 6 April 2011 12:07 wib, http://news.okezone.com/read/2011/04/06/340/443006/waduh-ulat-bulu-di-kendal-menyebar-ke-3-kecamatan

    Waduh… Ulat Bulu di Kendal Menyebar ke 3 Kecamatan

    Nugroho Setyabudi – Okezone

    Ulat yang menyerang Kecamatan Leces, Probolinggo, Jatim. (Dok: Sun TV)

    KENDAL- Wabah ulat bulu seakan tidak terkontrol di sejumlah wilayah. Setelah di Probolinggo, Pasuruan, dan Jombang, kini ulat bulu yang menyerang warga Kendal meluas hingga ke tiga kecamatan.

    Staf Dinas Kabupaten Kendal Sudoyo mengatakan jika sebelumnya hanya satu desa, kini ada sekira tiga desa di kecamatan yang berbeda.

    “Desa Bugangin Kecamatan Kendal Kota, Desa Dempel Rejo Kecamatan Ngampel, dan Desa Blorok Kecamatan Brangsong,” kata Sudoyo di sela penyemprotan hama ulat bulu, Rabu (6/4/2011).

    Di Desa Bugangin, ulat bulu yang menyerang Kantor Pemadam Kebakaran Kabupaten Kendal berjumlah ribuan.

    “Ulat tersebut menyerang pohon angsana kali pertama ditemukan, lalu kepala dinas memerintahkan kami menebang pohon itu. Setelah ditebang ulat bulu kemudian seperti pindah ke pohon mangga dan sejumlah bangunan milik Dinas Pemadam Kebakaran,” ungkap Muhamad Hafid, anggota Pemadam Kebakaran saat ditemui terpisah.

    Selain menebang pohon, petugas juga membakar pohon agar ulat mati. Namun hal ini kemudian dihentikan karena membahayakan.

    Staf Dinas Pertanian Bagian Pengendali Organisme Pengganggu Tanaman dan Pengamat Hama Penyakit, Jumhono membenarkan tentang keberadaan ulat bulu itu.

    “Masa atau kondisi cuaca seperti ini sangat menguntungkan bagi serangga, karena mereka akan menghasilkan telur yang jumlahnya semakin banyak. Pada kasus ini kupu-kupu adalah penyebab banyaknya ulat bulu ini,” jelas Jumhono saat ditanya mengapa serangan ulat bulu begitu banyak terjadi belakangan ini.

    Selain dibakar atau disemprot dengan pestisida dan insektisida, perkembang biakan ulat sebetulnya dapat diminalisir dengan cara alami.

    “Kami serahkan saja kepada predator ulat yang akan dengan otomatis memakan ulat. Sayangnya kini banyak burung yang diburu oleh warga, jika ini diteruskan maka akan mengganggu keseimbangan ekosistem. Burung pipit atau gereja merupakan burung predator pemakan ulat,” tambah Jumhono.

    Diharap dengan penanggulangan secara dini ini, maka penyebaran akan dapat diminimalisir.
    (kem)

    Sumber: okezone.com, Selasa, 5 April 2011 21:02 wib, http://news.okezone.com/read/2011/04/05/340/442712/peneliti-ipb-ulat-bulu-di-probolinggo-jenis-baru

    Ulat Bulu Serang Probolinggo

    Peneliti IPB: Ulat Bulu di Probolinggo Jenis Baru

    Ulat bulu memenuhi rumah di Desa Sumber Kedawung 4, Leces. (Dok: Sun TV)

    PROBOLINGGO- Peneliti Institut Pertanian Bogor (IPB) meneliti fenomena serangan ulat bulu di Probolinggo, Jawa Timur. Dari hasil analisa sementara, ulat bulu di Probolinggo merupakan jenis terbaru dan belum pernah ada sebelumnya di kabupaten itu.

    Tim yang terdiri dari dua orang, Selasa siang tadi mengambil sampel kepompong dan kupu-kupu untuk diteliti di laboratorium IPB.

    Sampel tersebut diambil di tiga lokasi yakni di Kecamatan Wonoasih, Bantaran, dan Leces.

    Aunu Rauf, Guru Besar Ilmu Hama Tanaman IPB, menjelaskan berdasarkan pemeriksaan sampel sementara, diketahui jenis ulat bulu ini lymantria marginanta, bukan jenis desgiria inclusa.

    Untuk kasus Probolinggo, kata Rauf, lymantria marginanta tidak pernah dijumpai sebelumnya.

    Secara fisik, jenis lymantria marginanta lebih besar dan bulu di kepala menjorok ke atas sebanyak dua buah. Bulu dari ulat ini bagi yang alergi bisa menyebabkan gatal-gatal.

    Ulat jenis ini menyerang pohon mangga dan mengakibatkan mangga tidak berbuah atau tertunda. Daun mangga gundul dan tidak bisa melakukan fotosintesis.

    Penyebaran ulat karena kupu kupu yang terbang ke lokasi lain kemudian bertelur hingga mencapai ribuan jumlahnya. Karena satu induk kupu-kupu betina bisa bertelur hingga 300 butir, tergantung musim dan cuaca.

    Diakuinya untuk saat ini sudah jarang ditemui ulat karena sudah memasuki fase kepompong dan kemudian menjadi kupu-kupu lagi.

    Sehingga hama ulat di Probolinggo masih kemungkinan dijumpai hingga 3-4 bulan ke depan.

    Cara pembasmian ulat ini dengan cara melakukan penyemprotan insekisida, namun bila penyemprotan berlebihan bisa mengakibatkan hewan pengendali ulat atau hymenoptera akan mati juga. Sehingga populasi ulat semakin tidak terkendali.

    (Hana Purwadi/RCTI/ton)

    Sumber: Republika – Kam, 7 Apr 2011 08.08 WIB, http://id.berita.yahoo.com/tikus-serbu-york-butuh-1-5-juta-dolar-20110406-180801-146.html

    Tikus Serbu New York, Butuh 1,5 Juta Dolar Biaya Mengusirnya Deh..

    REPUBLIKA.CO.ID,NEW YORK–Tentu saja tak seorang pun suka tikus, kata seorang pejabat kota pada Selasa (5/4), saat ia meminta 1,5 juta dolar AS disediakan pada anggaran untuk membantu menangani apa yang ia sebut masalah tikus yang mengerikan di Manhattan, Amerika Serikat.

    Melihat hewan kecil perusak mengobrak-abrik jalan-jalan dan saluran terowongan bawah tanah adalah pemandangan yang tak menyenangkan buat wisatawan, kata Presiden Manhattan Borough Scott Stringer. “Mereka tak mau datang ke sini dan menikmati liburan bersama tikus New York City,” kata Stringer kepada Reuters.

    Stringer, yang menuntut disediakannya uang untuk menangani tikus di dalam anggaran Departemen Kesehatan kota tersebut, mengatakan pengurangan dana memaksa pemutusan hubungan kerja dengan 57 pekerja Pest Control. Hasilnya adalah peningkatan 1,5 persen keluhan selama satu tahun belakangan dan kerugian terhadap daya tarik pariwisata New York City, katanya.

    Itu juga jadi masalah keselamatan masyarakat. “Buat saya, ini tak bisa diterima baik sebab hewan pengerat sangat berbahaya bagi anak-anak dan kualitas hidup kota ini,” kata Stringer. Ia menyatakan pemotongan “tak masuk akal” sebab program pengendalian hama di kota itu mengumpulkan sebanyak 6 juta dolar AS dari denda setiap tahun dari para pemilik gedung karena pelanggaran kesehatan yang berkaitan dengan hama.

    “Mengapa kalian membuat pemotongan dana buat program yang sesungguhnya menghasilkan uang buat kota ini?” kata Stringer. Jika pemotongan tak diubah dan kekuatan pengendali hama dibendung, maka masalah pengendalian tikus akan bertambah parah, katanya.

    Namun wanita jurubicara Departemen Kesehatan kota tersebut Susan Craig mengatakan pemutusan hubungan kerja “tak memiliki dampak pada kestabilan lembaga itu untuk menanggapi keluhan mengenai tikus”.

    Kota tersebut telah menyesuaikan diri dengan pemotongan anggaran dengan melakukan pengendalian hama secara lebih menyeluruh, yaitu pembersihan lingkungan hidup –yang berbeda dengan tanggapan keluhan perorangan, katanya.

    “Pendekatan baru kami telah memungkinkan kami untuk jadi lebih baik dalam menemukan masalah tikus, lebih baik dalam memberi tahu pemilik gedung mengenai perkembangan biakan hama dan lebih baik dalam memperoleh properti yang saling berdekatan untuk menangani masalah tikus secara serentak,” katanya.

     
  • Virtual Chitchatting 12:04 AM on 2011/04/07 Permalink
    Tags: comparative advantage, , competitive strategy, keunggulan bersaing, keunggulan komparatif, kompetisi, manajemen strategis, persaingan, strategi bersaing, strategi manajemen,   

    Marketing people, practitioners and professors, donot know how to define competitive advantages 

    My comment:

    Orang marketing, baik praktisi maupun teorisi, sama-sama tukang kecap yang nggak pernah tahu dan mau tahu apa dan bagaimana kecap itu sendiri.

    Dari sekian ratus megabyte file sampah yang berhubungan dengan competitive advantage, tak ada satu pun yang mendefinisikan apa itu competitive advantage (keunggulan bersaing). dan bagaimana hubungannya dengan comparative advantage (keunggulan komparatif), competitive strategy (strategi bersaing), strategic management (manajemen strategis), apa itu kompetitif dan kompetisi (persaingan), apa yang dijadikan persaingan….

    Tukang kecap, tukang obat, sama aja. Mereka itu tak ubahnya tukang jual jigong.

    Ada sih yang sudah buat definisi tentang strategi bersaing, seperti Anne Lukkarila dan Katri Pitko, Strategic Management, tapi koq kayaknya kurang ngegigit gitu.

    dengan kata lain, mereka menganggap semua orang sudah tahu apa itu arti ‘keunggulan bersaing’. Naif bangetkah? terlalu taken for granted. duuhh….., basi banget nih profesor dan profesi tukang kecap.

    btw, siapa sih tukang kecap nomor satu di indonesia sekarang ini? dia suka lempar batu dan suka ngumpetin udang di atas peyek.

    aha, nugraha besoes yang tidak besus. gile, 20 tahun jadi sekjen pssi, sekarang nyembah-nyembah ke agum gumelar, atau ngemis-ngemis?

    bagaimana kabar si udin yang sangat kental dengan super-kasus cengkeh BPPC, Dekopin, mantan napi, setelah dipecat VIVA Cosmetics? Dempul lagi tuh muka supaya bisa tampil lagi di media massa…

    eh, kok ngomongin politik sih…

    Kutipan Istilah Competitive Advantage

    Kevin Lane Keller, Building Strong Brands: Three Models for Developing and Implementing Brand Plans, Tuck School of Business, Dartmouth College, 12.11.2008.

    Three models of branding are presented to help guide managerial efforts:

    1. Brand Positioning: Describes how to guide integrated marketing to maximize competitive advantages.
    2. Brand Resonance: Describes how to create intense, actively loyal relationships with customers.
    3. Brand Value Chain: Describes how to trace the value creation process to better understand the financial impact of marketing expenditures and investments.

    Three Tools to Facilitate Brand Planning

    Holistic marketing requires careful planning and implementation. To help guide these efforts, three models of increasing scope are presented:

    1. brand positioning model describes how to guide integrated marketing to maximize competitive advantages;
    2. brand resonance model describes how to create intense, activity loyalty relationships with customers; and
    3. brand value chain model describes how to trace the value creation process to better understand the financial impact of marketing expenditures and investments.

    The Four Components of a Superior Competitive Positioning

    1. Competitive frames of reference
      1. Nature of competition
      2. Target market
    2. Develop unique brand points-of-difference (POD’s)
      1. Desirable to consumer
      2. Deliverable by the brand
      3. Differentiating from competitors
    3. Establish shared brand points-of-parity(POP’s)
      1. Negate competitor points-of-difference
      2. Demonstrate category credentials
    4. Brand mantras
      1. Short 3-to-5 word phrases that capture key POD’s & the irrefutable essence or spirit of the brand.

    Points-of-difference

    1. Distinctive taste profile
    2. Optimistic view of life
    3. Classic, iconic symbolism & imagery

    Points-of-parity

    1. Contemporary, up-to-date
    2. Refreshing flavor

    Brand slogan: “Side of Life”

    Identifying & Choosing POP’s & POD’s

    1. Desirable? (consumer perspective)
      1. Personally relevant
      2. Believable & credible
    1. Deliverable? (firm perspective)
      1. Feasible
      2. Profitable
      3. Pre-emptive, defensible & difficult to attack
    1. Differentiating? (competitive perspective)
      1. Distinctive & superior
      2. Sustainable

    Janelle Barlow and Paul Stewart, Branded Customer Service: The New Competitive Edge, Berrett-Koehler, San Francisco, Oct.2004.

    Janelle Barlow and Paul Stewart show that delivering on-brand service—service that supports and extends a company’s brand— can provide enormous competitive advantage.

    Brennan Davis, The MarketForensics System, Management Sciences Group, 29.09.2004.

    Brand strategy, brand score-card, brand competitiveness

    Menurut Davis, keunggulan strategis (strategic advantage) merupakan satu kondisi keseimbangan dimana tiga elemen, yakni merek, konsumen, dan pasar, cocok bersama. Penyesuaian (alignment) yang lebih baik membuat keunggulan strategis semakin lebih besar, yakni dengan tercapainya tujuan peningkatan nilai. Nilai hanya akan tercipta dalam jangka panjang ketika pertumbuhan bersifat berkesinambungan.

    Keunggulan strategis bisa dinyatakan dalam ukuran kekuatan merek (brand power) atau kekuatan sinyal (signal strength), kecocokan merek-konsumen, dan kecocokan merek-pasar. Ukuran kekuatan merek bisa dilihat pada kecocokan merek-konsumen, kecocokan merek-pasar, dan kecocokan konsumen-pasar. Sementara kekuatan sinyal merupakan kombinasi hasil (return) empat upaya branding dalam bentuk pengalaman, mutu, imagery, dan identitas.

    Di sisi lain, pada akhir 1980-an, sumber keunggulan bersaing (competitive advantage) dan pendapatan masa depan (future earnings) terletak pada upaya pembangunan merek (brand-building) sebagai aset (brand assets) dan modal (brand equity). Pada pertengahan tahun 1990-an, berkembang pemikiran bahwa lebih murah mempertahankan pelanggan yang sudah ada, ketimbang bersaing untuk mendapatkan pelanggan baru (customer equity).[1]


    [1] M.J. Xavier, The fall of traditional brand management: Making way for CRM and business equity; Dean, Academy for Management Excellence, Chennai, India.

    Christian Blümelhuber, Advanced Marketing, Université Libre de Bruxelles, 07.11.2005.

    Bagi perusahaan, beberapa manfaat branding:

    1. Source of sustainable competitive advantage

    ” Differentiation

    ” Price premiums

    ” Channel power

    ” Increased effectiveness of marketing programs

    ” Increased efficiency of marketing programs

    1. Scale and scope economies in customer acquisition and retention

    ” Encourages trial of new products, cross sales

    1. Asset with market value
    2. Employee attraction/retention

    Points of Parity vs Points of Difference

    PoP:  No reason why not

    may be shared with other brands (Schema, Expectation, Must-be dimension) to be a credible and legitimate offering

    Competitive PoP´s

    PoD: Competitive advantage

    Reason-why

    Brandon Westling, Building Brand Equity in the Wine Industry, Wine Sales and Marketing Consultants, Healdsburg, CA, Nov.2001.

    Beberapa keunggulan kompetitif dari high brand equity:

    • A company will enjoy reduced marketing costs because of consumer brand awareness and loyalty.

    • A company will have more trade leverage in bargaining with distributors and retailers because consumers expect them to carry the brand.

    • A company can charge a higher price than its competitors because the brand is perceived as of higher quality.

    • A company can more easily launch extensions because the brand name carries high credibility.

    • The brand offers the company some defense against price competition.

    Katherine N. Lemon, Roland T. Rust, and Valarie A. Zeithaml, What Drives Customer Equity,  Marketing Management, American Marketing Association, Vol.10, No.1, 2001, pp.20-25.

    customer equity is key to long-term success. Understanding how to grow and manage customer equity is more complex. How to grow it is of utmost importance, and doing it well can create a significant competitive advantage. There are three drivers of customer equity—value equity, brand equity, and relationship equity (also known as retention equity).

    Ljiljana Stanković dan Suzana Djukić, Strategic Brand Management in Global Environment, Economics and Organization Vol.3, No.2, 2006, pp.125-133.

    Bagan: Building brand equity

    Sumber: L.K. Keller, Strategic Brand Management, Building, Measuring, and Managing Brand Equity, ed.2, Prentice Hall, 2003.

    Herbjørn Nysveen, Per E. Pedersen, dan Helge Thorbjørnsen, Using mobile services to strengthen brand relationships: The effects of SMS and MMS channel additions on brand knowledge, satisfaction, loyalty, and main channel use, Samfunns-og NæringslivsForskning As, Bergen, July 2003.

    Competitive advantage is defined as the superior customer value provided by the complementary product relative to competitors. To attain competitive advantage, companies should strive to build strong brands and strong brand relationships.

    Sengupta (1998) proposed that organizational fit, firm size, complementary product opportunity, multiplier effect, and innovativeness all had positive effects on the competitive advantage of complementary products. Empirical results showed support for the effect of innovativeness and the multiplier effect on competitive advantage of complementary products.

    Sengupta, S. (1998): Some approaches to Complementary Product Strategy, Journal of Product Innovation Management, vol. 15, pp. 352-367.

    Innovativeness points to the degree to which a complementary product serve customers need better than existing products. The multiplier effect is the incremental sales volume of the core product that the complementary product generates. The strength of the multiplier comes from the incremental value that the new and complementary product gives customers of the core product. This multiplier effect is unique to complementary products in that increased use of the complementary product increases the use of the core product.

    It is revealed by Kleinschmidt and Cooper (1991) that innovative products bring greater reward to companies. The more innovative the complementary product the greater is its ability to provide customer value and differentiate the brand or company from competitive brands or companies. Consequently, increasing innovativeness of complementary products increases the complementary product’s positive effect on competitive advantage. Thus, by focusing on key technologies and innovative solutions (e.g. SMS and MMS services), complementary products have the potential to differentiate brands from its competitors in the minds of the consumers. This differentiation will result in better performance and competitive advantages.

    Kleinschmidt, E. J., and Cooper, R. G. (1991): The Impact on Product Innovativeness on Performance, Journal of Product Innovation Management, vol. 8, pp. 240-251.

    Companies may obtain competitive advantages by adding new channels for marketing and distribution. In particular, this potential can be realized if the services presented are related and integrated across the channels being used. Thus, the use of synergistic channels, meaning mutual enforcement of the channels used, should be implemented by companies. In such situations, addition of new channels will lead to increased use of existing channels (complementary channels). Furthermore, customers will get an increased flexibility in their channel choice when using a service, probably increasing their overall satisfaction with the service.

    Valerie Lee Schutte, Building Brand Equity: Execution, Brand Implementation and Brand Management, The Design Depot, July 2004.

    The more you know about your competition the stronger brand equity you can build. You can create a successful competitive advantage by your ability to differentiate yourself. Consider creating a folder on each of your key competitors. This information will also be a gold mine when it comes to creating and refining your selling process.

    Kao, Key Drivers for Profitable Growth: Brand Equity, Superior R&D and TCR (Total Cost Reduction) activities, dalam Kao Annual Report 2001.

    Our R&D has also produced a competitive advantage in developing innovative and unique products and demonstrated ability to link R&D to meeting emerging consumer needs supports the Company’s success.

    Rainer Zimmermann, ed, Brand Equity Excellence, Volume 1: Brand Equity Review, BBDO, Düsseldorf, Nov.2001.

    brand positioning leads to “the set of associations and behaviors on the part of brand customers, channel members and parent corporation that permits the brand to enjoy the sustainable and differentiated competitive advantages (i.e. brand strength results in barriers to competition and, therefore, some degree of monopolistic power controlling the brand).”

    Srivastava, R. K. and Shocker, A. D. (1991): Brand Equity: a perspective on its meaning and measurement, Cambridge, U.K.: Marketing Science Institute, 1991, p.9

    Christel Binnie, Constructing University Brands Through University Research Magazines, Thesis, Department of Communication, Faculty of Arts, University of Ottawa, 2008.

    According to Aaker (1996), a pioneer and icon of branding, ‘brands are pivotal resources for generating and sustaining competitive advantage’. Such an advantage is thought to be generated through the words and actions of consumers, resulting in the value of a brand or brand equity (Hoeffler & Keller, 2003).

    D.A. Aaker, Building strong brands, The Free Press, 1996.

    S. Hoeffler dan K.L. Keller, The marketing advantages of strong brands. Brand Management, 10(6), 2003, 421-445.

    Kitchen and Schultz (2001) argue that “creating, and maintaining positive relationships with publics or stakeholders” should be added to the traditional two pillars of marketing: customer needs and competitive advantage (p. 88).

    P.J. Kitchen dan D.E. Schultz, Raising the Corporate Umbrella: Corporate Communication in the 21st Century. Palgrave, New York, 2001.

    Aaker (2003) emphasizes the multiple benefits of a well differentiated brand: added credibility, easy recall among consumers, more efficient and effective communication, and a sustainable competitive advantage.

    D. Aaker, The Power of the Branded Differentiator, MIT Sloan Management Review, Fall 2003, 83-87.

    Francisco Guzmán, A Brand Building Literature Review, Excerpt from PhD Thesis “Brand Building Towards Social Values: Associating to Public Goods”, Esade, 22.02.2005

    Urde (1999) presents Brand Orientation as another brand building model that focuses on brands as strategic resources. “Brand Orientation is an approach in which the processes of the organization revolve around the creation, development, and protection of brand identity in an ongoing interaction with target customers with the aim of achieving lasting competitive advantages in the form of brands” (p. 117-118). Brand orientation focuses on developing brands in a more active and deliberate manner, starting with the brand identity as a strategic platform. It can be said that as a consequence of this orientation the brand becomes an “unconditional response to customer needs and wants” (p. 120).

    Mats Urde, “Brand Orientation: A Mindset for Building Brands into Strategic Resources”, Journal of Marketing Management, 15, 2003, 117-133.

    High brand equity is considered to be a competitive advantage since: it implies that firms can charge a premium; there is an increase in customer demand; extending a brand becomes easier; communication campaigns are more effective; there is better trade leverage; margins can be greater; and the company becomes less vulnerable to competition (Bendixen, Bukasa, and Abratt 2003).

    Mike Bendixen, Kalala A. Bukasa, and Russell Abratt, “Brand Equity in the Business-to-Business Market”, Industrial Marketing Management, 33, 2003, 371-380.

    ResearchAndMarkets.com, Integrated Marketing Communication, 26.05.2009.

    The ultimate goals of IMC are to institute customer-oriented sensibilities and business processes in all aspects of the organization and its operations to add value for customers, provide a framework for resource allocation, and achieve sustainable competitive advantages.

    Camilla Kulluvaara dan Johanna Tornberg, Integrated Marketing Communication and Tourism: A Case Study of Icehotel AB, Bachelor’s Thesis, International Business and Economics Programme, Department of Business Administration and Social Sciences, Luleå University of Technology, 09.06.2003.

    To gain competitive advantage, it is becoming increasingly important for tourist marketers to discern how travelers perceive a competing set of choice of alternatives (destinations) and to their offerings of travel and tourism activities, attractions and amenities. (Javalgi, Thomas & Rao, 1992)

    G.R. Javalgi, E.G. Thomas, dan S.R. Rao, US Pleasure Travellers Perceptions of Selected European Destinations: European Journal of Marketing, Vol.26, No.7, 1992, pp. 45-64.

    The objectives of any promotional strategy can be drawn from an appropriate mixture of the roles of promotion; to increase sales, maintain or improve market share, create or improve brand recognition, create a favourable climate for future sales, inform and educate the market, create a competitive advantage relative to competitor’s products or market position and to improve promotional efficiency.

    Dalmé Mulder, Driving.IMC@home.org/effectiveness (Driving integrated marketing communication home for organisational effectiveness), ANZCA2007 Conference Proceedings, 10.02.2008.

    Kitchen, Brignell and Tao (2004) suggest that IMC is the major communications development of the last decade, and that it is a potential driver of competitive advantage.

    P.J. Kitchen, J. Brignell, dan L. Tao, The emergence of IMC: A theoretical perspective. Journal of Advertising Research, 2004, 44(1): 19-30.

    IMC is defined as a dynamic, holistic approach, integrated into all strategic levels of an organisation. It manages and fuses every point of contact between the organisation and its stakeholders. Through this coordinated efforts it supports a targeted, integrated, consistent brand communication strategy for the purpose of building positive lifetime relationships through data-driven techniques, by customer-conscious employees ultimately giving an organisation a competitive advantage and brand equity.

    29.12.2004

    marketing research (that is to learn more about their customers’ requirements, expectations, perceptions, and satisfaction levels) provides a foundation for building competitive advantage through well-informed segmenting, targeting, and positioning decisions.

    A positioning built on meaningful differences, supported by appropriate strategy and implementation, can help the company build competitive advantage

    Guna Ozolina, Differences in Applied Marketing Communications for Selected Product Classes in Cosmetics and Household, Telecommunication and Information Technology, Food and Beverages, Amusement and Culture Industries, Master’s Thesis, Tallinn University, May 2008.

    companies are rather reluctant to apply new tools if they are not tried by somebody else before, they do not realize that being a pioneer gives competitive advantage.

    Tauno Jokinen et al (eds), Estiem Vision of Cycles Seminar, Oulu University, Finland, 03-04.02.2006.

    Kati Seppälä dan Jukka Päkkilä, Environmental Management.

    according to Porter (1985), there are two main strategies for reaching competitive advantage; cost leadership and differentiation.

    Antti Tauriainen dan Ville Anttila, Information and Knowledge Management.

    Core competency: Know-how, skills, knowledge that helps and sustains companys value chain towards customers and gives competitive advantages. (Hamel and Prahalad 1994)

    Intellectual capital management (ICM). Categorizes and measures IC and finding knowledge and intellectual capital to create competitive advantage. Points direction for company’s future investments in terms of company’s internal education and training. Aims at increasing company’s IC and targets the improvement investments to the field of core competencies

    Suvi Kumpulainen, Quality Management.

    In the middle 1990s started to strengthen an idea that it is not enough if good quality is created only inside the company: quality management was considered partly as an intercompany total quality culture but also as a relationship between the companies. Quality became a critical competitive advantage. (Laatuakatemia)

    Anne Lukkarila dan Katri Pitko, Strategic Management.

    Competitive Strategy

    Competition is at the core of the success or failure of firms. Competition determines the appropriateness of a firm’s activities that can contribute to its performance, such as innovations. Competitive strategy is the search for a favourable competitive position in an industry. Competitive strategy’s goal is to establish a profitable and sustainable position against the forces that determine industry competition. (Porter, 1985.)

    Competitive strategy defines the ways that a firm creates value to its customers and distinguishes from its competitors. Other purpose of competitive strategy is to ensure the accomplishing of strategic cost effectiveness- and market position goals. (Hannus, 1999)

    Different types of firms exist because they want to satisfy the different type of needs of people or organizations. Demand and supply meet each other in competition situation, and customers have alternative ways to satisfy their needs. They want to have the best profit/cost –relation available. To be competitive, a firm has to have some kinds of competitive advantages. (Kamensky, 2000)

    Competitive advantages cannot be understood by looking at the firm as a whole. It stems from the many discrete activities a firm performs in designing, producing, marketing, delivering, and supporting its product. Each of these activities can contribute to a firm’s relative cost position and create a basis for differentiation. (Porter, 1985)

    Porter (1985) argued that there are two ”basic types of competitive advantage a firm can possess: low cost or differentiation”. These combine with the “scope” of a particular business –the range of market segments targeted- to produce “three generic strategies mediocrity for achieving above-average performance in an industry: cost leadership, differentiation and focus”. (Mintzberg, 1998)

    Cost leadership strategy aims at being a low-cost producer. The cost leadership strategy is realized through gaining experience, investing in large scale production facilities using economies of scale, and carefully monitoring overall operating costs. (Mintzberg, 1998)

    This strategy is typical for branch of businesses where prices are prescribed by the markets, and in the long run the winner is the company that has the lowest costs. The success of the cost leadership strategy is always based on lower costs than higher prices. (Kamensky, 2000)

    Differentiation strategy involves the development of unique products or services, relying on the brand/customers loyalty. A firm can offer i.e. higher quality, better performance or unique features, any of which can justify higher prices. (Mintzberg, 1998) Higher prices are reasonable only when the customer feels that they gain some kind of extra value that they don’t get form the competitors, and they are ready to pay for it. Differentiation is a very demanding strategy and it requires strong will to get competitive advantages and sustaining them. (Kamensky, 2000)

    Focus strategy wants to serve narrow market segments. A firm can focus on particular customer groups, product lines, or geographic markets. The strategy can be either “differentiation focus”, where the differentiation happens in focal market, or “overall cost leadership focus”, where the firm sells at low price in the focal market. The firm is able to concentrate on developing its own knowledge and competences. (Mintzberg, 1998)

    Harri Salo, Product Returns: Causes and Implications

    Reverse logistics can be a factor in creating competitive advantage (Trebilcock 2002b; Richey 2004

    • A brand name (eg. Toyota) may represent a good reputation in product service, which furthermore can be decisive factor for buying decision. If the return is not handled properly, the vulnerability is that the consumer may not buy the same brand again (Zieger 2003).

    Timothy J. Sturgeon dan Richard K. Lester, The New Global Supply-Base: New Challenges for Local Suppliers in East Asia, Paper prepared for the World Bank’s Project on East Asia’s Economic Future, Industrial Performance Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Feb.2003.

    Deverticalization.

    Lead firms have focused on the areas and functions that they believe to be essential to the creation and maintenance of competitive advantage, especially product innovation, marketing, and other activities related to brand development, and have increasingly come to rely upon specialized suppliers to provide “non-core” functions. The belief is that by divesting non-core functions, lead firms can more quickly reap value from innovations while spreading risk in volatile markets (Venkatesan, 1992).

    Firms that develop, market, and sell electronic hardware, cars, and clothing have turned to suppliers for production and, increasingly, post-architectural (i.e., detailed) design services. By tapping the competencies of suppliers, lead firms are able to maintain substantial market presence without the fixed costs and risk of building and supporting a vertically integrated corporate organization (Sturgeon, 2000, 2002).

    Among the advantages claimed for these production networks are that they are more adaptable than an integrated firm would be, and that they are capable of providing better economic performance in highly competitive and volatile markets (Powell, 1990; Cooke and Morgan, 1993).

    Design and engineering.

    Lead firms in the advanced economies are asking their suppliers to take on more responsibility for the design and engineering of products and sub-systems. Suppliers are increasingly being chosen and brought into the development process before products are fully designed. By doing so, the lead firm is able to spread risk and reduce costs.

    When suppliers participate in prototype development, moreover, they typically improve their performance in design for manufacturability and in implementing subsequent engineering change orders. Product redesign for different markets is also easier and quicker if the suppliers are actively involved from the outset.

    Suppliers must support assemblers as a sole source for global products lines to support commonalization. We must supply the same part, with the same quality and price, in every location. If [the automaker] says to go to Argentina, we must go or lose existing, not just potential, business. Logistics are becoming a key competitive advantage; we must have the ability to move production to where customer’s facilities are.

    Dieter Ernst, Inter-Organizational Knowledge Outsourcing: What Permits Small Taiwanese Firms to Compete in the Computer Industry, East-West Center, Working Paper, No.1, Honolulu, May 2000.

    Fu-Lai Tony Yu, Ho-Don Yan, dan Shan-Yu Chen, Adaptive Entrepreneurship and Taiwan’s Economic Dynamics, Laissez-Faire, 24.07.2006

    Entrepreneurial Strategies in Taiwan

    (1) Alertness, adaptability and guerrilla entrepreneurship

    (2) Original equipment manufacture (OEM), imitation, and entrepreneurial learning

    original design manufacturing (ODM) products

    the OEM proportion has been rising and that of own-brand manufacture (OBM) falling over time

    (3) Small enterprises, flexibility and production networks

    (4) Regional arbitrage: alertness to cost reduction opportunities

    Flexibility as competitive advantage

    The electronics industry is highly volatile, with frequent and unexpected changes in demand and technology. Taiwanese firms can succeed in this industry because they are able to respond and adjust quickly to change. By combining incremental product innovation with incredibly fast speed-to-market, they have been able to establish a strong international market position relatively early in the product cycle.

    As Wang (1995/1996) notes, Taiwan’s small firms fit into the IT industry due to their “flexibility, agility and assiduity.” PC firms in Taiwan have maintained close ties with global technological markets and by hooking up with multinational corporations.

    Tung An-chi, a research fellow in economics at Academia Sinica (Taiwan’s leading thinktank), attributes this in part to the “flexibility and keen entrepreneurship of Taiwanese businessmen who learned to find all possible niches, then grow, and compete in the world market without expecting prolonged government help” (Matthews 2002).

    The primary source of this flexibility appears to be the specific organization of the domestic supply base in Taiwan, especially for parts and components. Two main features of this domestic supply base have contributed to the flexibility of Taiwanese producers, the first being an extreme form of specialization.

    By engaging in single tasks and by producing, purchasing and selling in small lots, subcontractors avoid heavy fixed capital costs. This, in turn, makes it relatively easy to shift production at relatively short notice, and with minimum costs. The second feature is a certain network structure of multiple, volatile and short-term links that involve only limited financial and technology transfers.

    Spot-market transactions play an important role, but so do “temporary spider web” arrangements that are assembled for the duration of a particular job. The result of these characteristics is a form of open and volatile production networks, arguably even more so than the highly flexible production networks that characterize California’s Silicon Valley.

    These flexible firms maximize the number of jobs in order to compensate for the razor-thin profit margins; as a result, they avoid being locked into a particular production network. Domestic supplier networks thus have been highly flexible and capable of rapid change, but short-lived and foot-loose.

    In summary, the competitive edge in the PC firms in Taiwan is sustained through the support of their competent

    suppliers. Most of the PC components are supplied by small specialized enterprises.

    On the one hand, the specialization enables small firms to deliver costcompetitive and good quality parts to the larger PC companies. On the other hand, small firms allow for greater flexibility in meeting customized requirements from buyers, such as orders of various sizes and specifications.

    These small firms are willing to provide constant technical services to large PC firms in solving their production problems. In turn, small firms also improve their technological competence (Chang 1992, p. 209).

    John Power dan Susan Whelan, A Conceptual Model of the Influence of Brand Trust on the Relationship between Consumer and Company Image, Academy of Marketing Conference (AM2005), School of Marketing, Dublin Institute of Technology, Dublin, Ireland, 05-08.07.2005

    Bruijns (2003) argues that a correlation does in fact exist between CEO image, corporate reputation and corporate performance and that intangible assets (i.e. image, symbolic leadership) are significantly responsible in gaining competitive advantage in today’s competitive markets.

    C. Bruijns, “Commentary: Should an organisation devote communication dollars to making the CEO famous?”, Prism, Vol.1, Iss.1., 2003.

    Nusrath Jahan Maldar, ed, Case Studies on Brand Management, Vol.I, Icfai Business School Case Development Centre, Hyderabad, 2007.

    However, new-age thinking provides an alternative perspective, stating that,

    • Branding is a strategic point of view, not a select set of activities

    • Branding is central to creating customer value, not just images

    • Branding is a key tool for creating and maintaining competitive advantage

    • Brand strategies must be ‘engineered’ into the marketing mix. (Holt)

    Douglas B. Holt, “Brands and Branding”, Harvard Business School (Note), Harvard Business School Publishing, 11.03.2003, p.1.

    LG Electronics, Sustainability Report 2006-2007: Action Creates Value, 21.10.2008.

    In chapters 2 and 3 of its Code of Ethics, LG Electronics stipulates that

    “Our global business activities conform to relevant laws and regulations of host nations. At the same time, we employ only fair and just means in securing our competitive advantage in the global market”

    to stress the importance of fair competition and that

    “All business transactions will occur based on the principles of fair competition with equal opportunities for all entities to participate. We build trust and cooperative relationships through fair and transparent transactions. Such relationships are built with a long-term perspective for mutual growth”

    to stress the principle of fair trade.

    To promote these principles, LG Electronics became the first Korean company in 1995 to introduce fair trade compliance program. We have since set up a related organization and steadily improved related work process, in addition to holding voluntary training and supervision activities. LG Electronics has strived to ensure that the principle of fair competition and trade is followed throughout the company’s value chains.

    LG Electronics, LG Code of Ethics, 23.04.2008

    Chapter 2. Fair Competition

    Our global business activities conform to relevant laws and regulations of the host nations. At the same time, we employ only fair and just means in securing our competitive advantage in the global market.

    LG Electronics, The LG Electronics Code of Conduct: Creating Value for our Stakeholders, 30.04.2009.

    Even sales and promotional activities can risk the Company losing its valuable competitive advantage if this knowledge is advertised prematurely.

    Intellectual property consists of:

    • Designs, technologies, inventions and other materials and information that are protected by patents, design patents, trade marks and copyrights.

    • Trade secrets, such as product designs and technologies, provide the Company a competitive advantage in remaining secret. A trade secret must never be disclosed internally or externally without specific authorization.

    Richard N. Langlois dan W. Edward Steinmueller,  “The Evolution of Competitive Advantage in the Global Semiconductor Industry: 1947-1996”, paper presented to the DRUID seminar on Industrial Dynamics and Competition, Skagen, Denmark, June 1997.

    Henri Weijo, A Concept Analysis on Modern Branding: Defining Key Concepts in Mind-Share, Emotional, Viral, and Cultural Branding, Master´s Thesis, Department of Marketing and Management, Helsinki School of Economics, 16.04.2008.

    Michael E. Porter, Competitive Advantage: Creating and Sustaining Superior Performance, Free Press, 1985.

     
  • Virtual Chitchatting 1:45 PM on 2011/02/28 Permalink  

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  • Virtual Chitchatting 3:24 PM on 2011/02/21 Permalink
    Tags: public policy analysis, qualitative analysis,   

    Reliable and trustworthy quantitative and qualitative analysis provider in Indonesia 

    If you are looking for reliable and trustworthy quantitative and qualitative analysis for economics, businesses, industries, politics, social, culture, ideologies, religions,

    please contact Advanced Advocacy Plus by phones on +622132187118 and +628128056516, or by email to aapluz (a) yahoo.co.id

    Even the President of the Republic of Indonesia eventually and finally found out that his current allies in the government agencies, businesses, and industries are no more than bullshits; full of pro forma analysis, good on papers and commitment, but not worth to be exercised and implemented as well.

    His  public policy analysts are …

    Pemerintahan

    Presiden Kenyang dengan Pepesan Kosong

    Editor: Heru Margianto
    Senin, 21 Februari 2011 | 12:02 WIB

    Presiden Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono

    BOGOR, KOMPAS.com — Presiden Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono meminta seluruh jajarannya membuat rencana induk atau master plan yang konkret dan memiliki sasaran yang jelas dilengkapi dengan analisis kuantitatif dan kualitatif, rencana kerja yang jelas, jumlah investasi dan lapangan kerja yang dapat diserap, serta lainnya. Selain itu, Presiden juga menekankan pentingnya implementasi pada penyusunan rencana induk.

    “Saya kenyang sekali mendengar banyaknya komitmen. Yang berkomitmen membangun transportasi di Jakarta, infrastruktur di DKI. Luar biasa banyaknya pada 10 tahun belakangan ini. Semuanya pepesan kosong. Tidak jalan. Barangkali di daerah seperti itu juga. Tidak jalan seperti di DKI. Kita tidak mau di master plan hanya komitmen,” kata Presiden ketika membuka rapat kerja pemerintah dengan badan usaha milik negara (BUMN) terkait dengan Percepatan dan Perluasan Pembangunan Ekonomi Indonesia 2025, Senin (21/2/2011) di Istana Bogor.

    Turut hadir pada rapat tersebut semua kepala daerah di Indonesia, jajaran anggota Kabinet Indonesia Bersatu II, anggota Dewan Pertimbangan Presiden, jajaran Komite Ekonomi Nasional dan Komite Inovasi Nasional, para staf khusus Presiden, jajaran Unit Kerja Presiden untuk Pengawasan dan Pengendalian Pembangunan (UKP4), unsur pimpinan lembaga pemerintahan nonkementerian, serta pejabat eselon satu terkait.

    Pada kesempatan tersebut, Presiden berharap nilai investasi pada proyek infrastruktur dan noninfrastruktur selama 10 tahun mendatang dapat mencapai 200 miliar dollar AS atau mencapai Rp 2.000 triliun. Investasi ini diharapkan datang dari BUMN, pihak swasta dalam negeri dan luar negeri, mitra negara sahabat, dan lainnya.

    Nilai sebesar tersebut diperlukan agar investasi benar-benar bermakna dan memiliki implikasi pada peningkatan pertumbuhan ekonomi serta peningkatan tenaga kerja. “Saya ingin BUMN menjadi pilar dan kontributor utama,” katanya.

    Dikatakan, BUMN harus pandai menjalankan bisnis yang memanfaatkan peluang serta tak mengandalkan BUMN. BUMN juga diminta tak serakah dalam menjalankan proyeknya. Jika tak mampu menjalankan keseluruhan proyek, BUMN dapat berbagi dengan pihak swasta.

    Kemudian rencana induk percepatan dan perluasan ekonomi Indonesia dipaparkan. Menteri BUMN Mustafa Abubakar akan memberikan paparannya di bidang ekonomi. Setelah itu jajaran Komite Ekonomi Nasional dan Komite Inovasi Indonesia memberikan paparan mereka.

    Selanjutnya, peserta rapat akan dibagi ke dalam tiga kelompok dan berdiskusi mengenai rencana induk percepatan dan perluasan ekonomi Indonesia. Keesokan harinya, setiap kelompok akan melakukan presentasi yang disusul sesi tanya-jawab.

    Seusai sesi tanya-jawab, Presiden akan diberi laporan mengenai hasil diskusi. Setelah mendengarkan hasil diskusi, Mustafa akan melaporkan komitmen BUMN dalam melakukan percepatan dan perluasan ekonomi Indonesia.

    Source: http://nasional.kompas.com/read/2011/02/21/12020120/Presiden.Kenyang.dengan.Pepesan.Kosong

     
  • Virtual Chitchatting 3:41 AM on 2011/02/21 Permalink
    Tags: , , banking profile, , , indonesian stock exchange, indonesian stocks, industrial report, industry analysis, industry profile, industry report, , jakarta stock exchange, , publicly held companies, quantitative analyst   

    Market Research Reports on Banking Industry in Indonesia 

    Banking Industry in Indonesia

    If you would like to have:

    1. the industrial report of banking industry in Indonesia, analysed by their respective performances in liquidity, profitability, rentability, solvability, and
    2. their respective sound and health management of the bank,
    3. their management profile and their respective status/credit report,

    please contact Advanced Advocacy Plus, through their phones +622132187118, +628128056516, or by email aapluz (a) yahoo.co.id

    The publicly held bank companies that we have updated the analyses so far are (and so were the liquidated ones as well):

    1. Bank Agroniaga Tbk, PT                                                                   AGRO
    2. Bank Artha Graha Internasional Tbk, PT                                          INPC
    3. Bank Bukopin Tbk, PT                                                                      BBKP
    4. Bank Bumi Artha Tbk, PT                                                                BNBA
    5. Bank Capital Indonesia Tbk, PT                                                       BACA
    6. Bank Central Asia Tbk, PT                                                               BBCA
    7. Bank CIMB Niaga Tbk, PT                                                              BNGA
    8. Bank Danamon Indonesia Tbk, PT                                                   BDMN
    9. Bank Ekonomi Raharja Tbk, PT                                                        BAEK
    10. Bank Eksekutif Internasional Tbk, PT                                              BEKS
    11. Bank Himpunan Saudara 1906 Tbk, PT                                            SDRA
    12. Bank ICB Bumiputera Tbk, PT                                                         BABP
    13. Bank Internasional Indonesia Tbk, PT                                              BNII
    14. Bank Kesawan Tbk, PT                                                                     BKSW
    15. Bank Mandiri (Persero) Tbk, PT                                                       BMRI
    16. Bank Mayapada Tbk, PT                                                                   MAYA
    17. Bank Mega Tbk, PT                                                                          MEGA
    18. Bank Mutiara Tbk, PT                                                                       BCIC
    19. Bank Negara Indonesia Tbk, PT                                                       BBNI
    20. Bank Nusantara Parahyangan Tbk, PT                                              BBNP
    21. Bank OCBC NISP Tbk, PT                                                              NISP
    22. Bank Pan Indonesia Tbk, PT                                                             PNBN
    23. Bank Pembangunan Daerah Jawa Barat dan Banten Tbk, PT          BJBR
    24. Bank Permata Tbk, PT                                                                      BNLI
    25. Bank Pundi Indonesia Tbk, PT                                                         BEKS
    26. Bank Rakyat Indonesia Tbk, PT                                                       BBRI
    27. Bank Sinarmas Tbk, PT                                                                     BSIM
    28. Bank Swadesi Tbk, PT                                                                      BSWD
    29. Bank Tabungan Negara (Persero) Tbk, PT                                        BBTN
    30. Bank Tabungan Pensiunan Nasional Tbk, PT                                   BTPN
    31. Bank Victoria International Tbk, PT                                                 BVIC
    32. Bank Windu Kentjana International Tbk, PT                                   MCOR

    BANKING INDUSTRY IN INDONESIA
    AFTER TOPNOTCH INDONESIAN BANKS RECAPITALISED

    Jakarta, September 2000

    FOREWORD
    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

    CHAPTER
    1. INDONESIAN MACROECONOMIC        1
    1.1. Plenty of tasks waiting to be fulfilled following the recapitalisation of banking industry in Indonesia        1
    1.2. The bolstering up optimistic viewpoints        4
    1.3. Reform and full economic recovery remain in the backseat and are at risk        5
    1.4. Some real sector indicators revealing positive consumer sentiment        7
    1.5. Indonesian international trade: exports on non-primary products are proof of Indonesian economic recovery        11
    1.6. A declining role of Japan in trading partnership and foreign direct investments        13
    1.7. Structural reforms implementation requires mostly reasonable transparency        16
    1.8. The danger of repeated recapitalisations of banks lurks        20
    1.9. The recapitalisation program dwarfing other fund raising activities        22
    1.10. Macroeconomic indicators recapitulated        23

    2. BANKING INDUSTRY AFTER TOPNOTCH INDONESIAN BANKS RECAPITALISED        29
    2.1. Banking industry post-recapitalisation        29
    2.2. Recapitulating the bank restructuring actions in Indonesia        31
    2.3. The recapitalised banks controlling the market structure by 80.41%        34
    2.4. Government bonds to finance the restructuring of Indonesian banks        41
    2.5. The backdrop of bank recapitalisation        50
    2.6. Bank recapitalisation as part of blanket guarantee program policy        51
    2.7. Blanket guarantee program is not free after all        54

    3. PROFILE OF NATIONAL PRIVATE BANKS JOINING THE RECAPITALISATION PROGRAM        56
    3.1. The banking recapitalisation program fails to improve the asset quality        56
    3.2. Non-publicly held banks were more liquid than publicly held banks        60
    3.2.1. Bank Artamedia        61
    3.2.1.1. Bank Artamedia in brief        61
    3.2.1.2. Bank Artamedia received government bonds worth Rp 130 bn        61
    3.2.1.3. Assets transferred to BPPN        64
    3.2.2. Bank Bukopin        64
    3.2.2.1. Bukopin in brief        64
    3.2.2.2. Bukopin received government bonds worth Rp 380.80 bn        68
    3.2.2.3. Participation in loan syndications        69
    3.2.2.4. The legal case with Bank International Indonesia        70
    3.2.2.5. A proposal of Rp 60 bn in fresh money        70
    3.2.3. Bank Patriot        71
    3.2.3.1. Bank Patriot in brief        71
    3.2.3.2. Bank Patriot received government bonds worth Rp 52 bn        72
    3.2.4. Bank Prima Ekspress        74
    3.2.4.1. Bank Prima Ekspres in brief        74
    3.2.4.2. Bank Prima Ekspress received government bonds worth Rp 533.4 bn        75
    3.3. Publicly held banks have put their doubtful (category 4) loans greater than the non-publicly held banks        77
    3.3.1. Bank International Indonesia        80
    3.3.1.1. BII in brief        80
    3.3.1.2. BII received government bonds worth Rp 6.6 tn        83
    3.3.1.3. Assets restructured        85
    3.3.1.4. Asset swap following non-eligible interbank claims        87
    3.3.1.5. Participation in its subsidiaries        88
    3.3.1.6. The legal cases        90
    3.3.2. Bank Lippo        91
    3.3.2.1. Bank Lippo in brief        91
    3.3.2.2. Bank Lippo received government bonds worth Rp 7.3 tn        93
    3.3.2.3. Participation in loan syndications        95
    3.3.2.4. Assets transferred        96
    3.3.2.5. Participation in its subsidiaries        97
    3.3.3. Bank Universal        98
    3.3.3.1. Bank Universal in brief        98
    3.3.3.2. Bank Universal received government bonds worth Rp 4.6 tn        99
    3.3.3.3. Bank’s placements        102
    3.3.3.4. Assets transferred        103
    3.3.3.5. Participation in loan syndications        103
    3.3.3.6. The legal case        104

    4. PROFILE OF NATIONAL PRIVATE BANKS TAKENOVER JOINING THE RECAPITALISATION PROGRAM        107
    4.1. More liquid and efficient the financial condition of takenover banks prior to their mergers with Bank Danamon Indonesia        107
    4.2. True, late recapitalisation increasing the amount of capital bleeding and government bonds to issue        111
    4.3. Asset disposal of BCA was the largest within the category of takenover banks        115
    4.4. Bank Central Asia        119
    4.4.1. BCA in brief        119
    4.4.2. BCA received government bonds worth Rp 60.88 tn        121
    4.4.3. The placements of BCA        122
    4.4.4. Participation in loan syndications        123
    4.4.5. Assets transferred        124
    4.4.6. Participation in its subsidiaries        125
    4.4.7. Its listing story        127
    4.4.8. The challenge of BCA: credit management under a very brand new environment        129
    4.5. Bank Bali        130
    4.5.1. Bank Bali in brief        130
    4.5.2. The recapitalisation plan of Bank Bali        131
    4.5.3. The ever-changing management during the crisis        134
    4.5.4. Bank Bali: The latest bank to be recapitalised by the government        135
    4.5.5. Finally, Bank Bali will receive government bonds worth Rp 5.36 tn        136
    4.5.6. Participation in loan syndications        138
    4.5.7. Participation in its subsidiaries: Establishing a network of rural banking        138
    4.5.8. The legal cases        141
    4.6. Bank Niaga        145
    4.6.1. Bank Niaga in brief        145
    4.6.2. The recapitalisation of Bank Niaga did not go smoothly        148
    4.6.3. From custodian bank to subregistrar of government bonds        150
    4.6.4. Participation in loan syndications        150
    4.6.5. Participation in its subsidiaries        151
    4.6.6. The legal cases        152
    4.7. National private banks takenover on 4 April 1998        153
    4.7.1. Bank Danamon Indonesia        153
    4.7.1.1. Bank Danamon in brief        153
    4.7.1.2. The merger with 8 other banks takenover        156
    4.7.1.3. Bank Danamon received government bonds worth Rp 61 tn        158
    4.7.1.4. Bank Danamon Selected as Servicing Agent For Tranche 1 of The Commercial Loan Portfolio Outsourcing Program        159
    4.7.2. Bank PDFCI        161
    4.7.2.1. Bank PDFCI in brief        161
    4.7.2.2. Ambition to be one of the big five investment banks in Indonesia        162
    4.7.2.3. Controversies and the legal case with the supreme court        163
    4.7.2.4. Controversies over the plan of internal recapitalisation        164
    4.7.2.5. Controversies over the merger of Bank PDFCI into Bank Danamon        165
    4.7.3. Bank Tiara Asia        165
    4.7.3.1. Bank Tiara Asia in brief        165
    4.7.3.2. Participation in loan syndications        167
    4.7.3.3. Participation in its subsidiaries        172
    4.8. National private banks takenover on 13 March 1999        173
    4.8.1. Bank Duta        173
    4.8.1.1. Bank Duta in brief        173
    4.8.2. Bank Jaya International        177
    4.8.2.1. Bank Jaya International in brief        177
    4.8.3. Bank Nusa Nasional        180
    4.8.3.1. Bank Nusa Nasional in brief        180
    4.8.4. Bank Pos Nusantara        183
    4.8.4.1. Bank Pos Nusantara in brief        183
    4.8.5. Bank Rama        185
    4.8.5.1. Bank Rama in brief        185
    4.8.6. Bank Risjad Salim International        188
    4.8.6.1. Bank Risjad Salim International in brief        188
    4.8.7. Bank Tamara        191
    4.8.7.1. Bank Tamara in brief        191

    5. PROFILE OF STATE BANKS JOINING THE RECAPITALISATION PROGRAM        195
    5.1. A better management of BTN in its relative productive assets        195
    5.2. Highly liquid and efficient but desperate of capital differentiate BTN with the other 3 state banks        197
    5.3. Bank Mandiri disposing quality productive assets the largest        199
    5.3.1. Bank Mandiri        202
    5.3.1.1. Bank Mandiri in brief        202
    5.3.1.2. The recapitalisation of Bank Mandiri        204
    5.3.1.3. Bank Mandiri received more than two thirds of government bonds to recapitalise state banks        207
    5.3.1.4. The delaid government bonds issuance increasing its recapitalisation cost        207
    5.3.1.5. Government bonds received by Bank Mandiri        209
    5.3.1.6. Participation in loan syndications        211
    5.3.1.7. Participation in its subsidiaries        211
    5.3.1.8. Its subordinated loans        214
    5.4. Bank Negara Indonesia        215
    5.4.1. BNI in brief        215
    5.4.2. The recapitalisation of BNI realised in 2 tranches        217
    5.4.3. Participation in loan syndications        220
    5.4.4. Assets transferred        220
    5.4.5. Participation in its subsidiaries        221
    5.5. Bank Rakyat Indonesia        225
    5.5.1. BRI in brief        225
    5.5.2. The recapitalisation program of BRI        225
    5.5.3. Assets restructured        229
    5.5.4. Polemics and controversies for the last two years        229
    5.5.5. Polemics on the new management of BRI        229
    5.5.6. Previous management of BRI        231
    5.5.7. Polemics on credits to conglomerates        232
    5.5.8. Polemics on the realisation of kredit program        234
    5.6. Bank Tabungan Negara        236
    5.6.1. BTN in brief        236
    5.6.2. The recapitalisation of BTN completed in October 2000        238
    5.6.3. BTN responsible for the disbursement of 75% funds for the purpose of housing loans in 2000        238

    6. BANK CREDITS        241
    6.1. An overview: The crisis brings banks in Indonesia to refocus its business to retail sector        241
    6.1.1. New places for bank’s money to put: consumptive goods        242
    6.1.2. Program-based credits (kredit program)        245
    6.1.3. Housing loans        250
    6.2. Pakto 1988 raising the existence of private sector        253
    6.3. Competition in bank credit disbursement        254
    6.3.1. Outstanding total credit        255
    6.3.2. Outstanding working capital credit        257
    6.3.3. Working capital dominates 70 percent of the bank credits        258
    6.3.4. Outstanding investment credit        259
    6.4. Credit contraction in the service industry dragging down the total bank credits        260
    6.5. Significant increase of the role of foreign and joint venture banks in bank credits        265
    6.5.1. The portfolio of foreign and joint venture banks in working capital credits        268
    6.5.2. The portfolio of BPD banks in working capital credits        270
    6.5.3. The portfolio of national private banks in working capital credits        271
    6.5.4. The portfolio of state banks in working capital credits        273
    6.6. Manufacturing industry granted the highest priority for bank credits        275
    6.6.1. About 72 percent of the bank credits for manufacturing industry was allocated for working capital        280
    6.6.2. Contraction of the working capital credit for service industry was the highest        282
    6.6.3. Also in trade industry, foreign and joint venture banks expanded their monthly credits for working capital        284
    6.6.4. In agroindustry, monthly credits for working capital provided by BPDs expanded        286
    6.6.5. Monthly credits for working capital in the mining industry has been constant        288
    6.6.6. Monthly credits for working capital in other industries also contracted        289
    6.7. Bank credits in foreign currencies expanded by Rp 43.79 tn        290
    6.8. By province, it’s been DKI Jakarta and by island, it’s been Java receiving bank credits mostly        294
    6.8.1. Bank credits in foreign exchange ranging around 38.35 percent        299
    6.8.2. The realisation of bank credits in KUK (small scale) ranging around 14.16 percent        302
    6.8.3. Idle capacity of the banks reaching 41.81 percent in 1999        305
    6.8.4. Rupiah savings contributed 76.80 percent of the total savings        311

    7. DEPOSITS IN BANKS
    7.1. Competition in enticing the funds of bank’s clients
    7.2. Total deposits
    7.3. Time deposits
    7.4. Demand deposits
    7.5. Savings deposits

    8. BANKS’ INVESTMENT
    8.1. Top-10 banks in credit investment
    8.2. Top-10 banks in banks’ placement
    8.3. Top-10 banks in banks’ securities
    8.4. Top-10 banks in banks’ private placement

    9. CONCLUDING SUMMARY
    9.1. Remaining weaknesses could lead to downturn
    9.2. The bank restructuring agenda needs to be taken to a decisive stage
    9.3. BPPN’s 9 programs of economic restructuring
    9.4. The outlook is filled with the same liquidity problem but with different magnitude, manner, and background

    ATTACHMENT
    I. DIRECTORY OF BANKS IN INDONESIA

    II. BANKS’ FINANCIAL REPORTS
    II.A. Total assets
    II.A.1. Current assets
    II.A.2. Credit investments
    II.A.3. Banks’ placements
    II.A.4. Investments in the securities of the banks
    II.A.5. Private placements of the banks
    II.B. Total equity
    II.B.1. Paid up capital
    II.B.2. Retained earnings
    II.B.3. Other forms of capitals
    II.C. Liabilities
    II.C.1. Current liabilities
    II.C.2. Public funds
    II.C.3. Securities issued
    II.C.4. Loans granted
    II.D. Profitability
    II.D.1. Operational income
    II.D.2. Operational expense

    III. A NEW BANK INDONESIA BUILT ON THE ROTTEN BLBI SCANDAL
    III.A. The word of audit becomes buzzword
    III.B. Bank Indonesia facing  two results of audit
    III.C. Bank Indonesia and the government refuse to take responsibility
    III.D. For the sake of saving payment system and the banking industry
    III.E. BLBI leaks had been detected ?
    III.F. Moral Hazard of bankers receiving BLBI questioned?
    III.G. Excessive disbursement of BLBI result of poor administration of BI?
    III.H. Absence of reporting became the base of disclaimer opinion for the opening balance of a new Bank Indonesia

    IV. BALIGATE: THE WORLD-SHAKING CASE
    IV.A. The Bank Bali scandal: A case fully of controversies and polemics
    IV.B. The pulling back of Stanchart from the management and investment agrements, would that be the anticlimax of the case?
    IV.C. The faults of Stanchart: Ignoring corporate culture and the prevailing system
    IV.D. Counter measures of Rudy Ramli
    IV.E. BPPN’s role in Baligate case
    IV.F. Stanchart’s role in the Bank Bali scandal
    IV.G. To transfer Rp 905 bn, Bank Indonesia only took 3 hours for approval

    TABLE
    1.1. The peaks and troughs of the rupiah and the JSX-CI, 29 April 1997 – 15 Nov. 1999        24
    1.2. Inflation rates, money supply, and bank credits, 1988 – Aug. 2000        25
    1.3. Average quarter growth of Indonesian imports by type of economic goods, 1997 – 1999        26
    1.4. Average quarter growth of Indonesian exports by primary commodity, 1997 – 1999        27
    1.5. Indonesian GDP by sector at current market price, 1989 – 2000A        28

    2.1. Results of due diligence examinations in Indonesian banking industry, 20 March 1999        32
    2.2. Actions in bank restructuring in Indonesia, 1 Nov. 1997 – October 2000        33
    2.3. Banks grouped, August 2000        35
    2.4. The market structure of Indonesian banking industry, March 2000        38
    2.5. Government bonds issued under the name of blanket guarantee program, December 1999        41
    2.6. Government bonds to recapitalise banks in Indonesia, up to Oct. 2000        43
    2.7. Government bonds to recapitalise banks in Indonesia by maturity, 12 June 2000        45
    2.8. Legal bases for the implementation of banking recapitalisation program in Indonesia, 1998-2000        52

    3.1. The 7 national private banks joining the recapitalisation program: some financial indicators as of March 2000        58
    3.2. The 7 national private banks joining the recapitalisation program: the equities and the assets as of March 2000        59
    3.3. Bank Artamedia’s capital that has been paid up, paid in, and authorised, 1999        62
    3.4. Financial profile of Bank Artamedia, June 1998 – December 1999        63
    3.5. Shareholders of Bukopin, 31 December 1999        66
    3.6. Financial profile of Bukopin, June 1998 – March 2000        67
    3.7. Financial profile of Bank Patriot, June 1998 – March 2000        73
    3.8. Financial profile of Bank Prima Ekspres, June 1998 – March 2000        76
    3.9. Allowance for loan losses of 7 national private banks recapitalised, March 2000        78
    3.10. The classified loans of 7 national private banks that recapitalised, March 2000        79
    3.11. BII’s capital that has been paid up, paid in, and authorised, 1999        82
    3.12. Financial profile of BII, June 1998 – June 2000        84
    3.13. Participation of BII in its subsdiaries, 1999        89
    3.14. Bank Lippo’s capital that has been paid up, paid in, and authorised, 1999        92
    3.15. Financial profile of Bank Lippo, Dec. 1997 – March 2000        94
    3.16. Classified credit risk , 31 December 1999        96
    3.17. Bank Universal’s capital that has been paid up, paid in, and authorised, 1999        100
    3.18. Financial profile of Bank Universal, June 1998 – March 2000        101

    4.1. Efficiency ratio of national private banks takenover in terms of relative operational income to expenses, June 1998 – March 2000        108
    4.2. Liquidity ratio of national private banks takenover in terms of current ratio, June 1998 – March 2000        109
    4.3. The 13 national private banks takenover joining the recapitalisation program: some financial indicators as of March 2000        113
    4.4. The 13 national private banks takenover joining the recapitalisation program : the equities and the assets as of March 2000        114
    4.5. The classified loans of 13 national private banks takenover, March 2000        116
    4.6. Allowance for loan losses of 7 national private banks recapitalised, March 2000        117
    4.7. BCA’s capital that has been paid up and authorised, 1999        120
    4.8. Financial profile of BCA, September – December 1999        122
    4.9. Bonds held by BCA, 1997 – 1999        123
    4.10. The subsidiaries of BCA, 1999        126
    4.11. Financial profile of Bank Bali, September 1998 and December 1999        133
    4.12. Participation of Bank Bali in its subsdiaries, 1999        140
    4.13. Unsettled legal cases of Bank Bali, December 1999        142
    4.14. Bank Niaga’s capital that has been paid up, paid in, and authorised, 1999        146
    4.15. Financial profile of Bank Niaga, June 1998 – June 2000        149
    4.16. Financial profile of Bank Danamon, September 1999 – June 2000        154
    4.17. Bank Danamon’s capital that has been paid up, paid in, and authorised, 1999        155
    4.18. Estimated share ownership structure, 1 May 2000        155
    4.19. Balance of negative equity of the 7 banks takenover, 31 December 1999        157
    4.20. Financial profile of Bank PDFCI, June 1998 – September 1999        162
    4.21. Bank Tiara Asia’s capital that has been paid up, paid in, and authorised, March 2000        167
    4.22. Financial profile of Bank Tiara Asia, June 1998 – March 2000        169
    4.23. Borrowings of Bank Tiara Asia, 1997-1998        170
    4.24. Derivative transactions of Bank Tiara Asia, 1998        172
    4.25. Participation of Bank Tiara Asia in its subsdiaries, 1998        173
    4.26. The shareholders of Bank Duta, 17 April 2000        174
    4.27. Participation of Bank Duta in its subsdiaries, 1997        175
    4.28. Financial profile of Bank Duta, June 1998 – March 2000        176
    4.29. The shareholders of Bank Jaya International, 17 April 2000        178
    4.30. Financial profile of Bank Jaya International, June 1998 – March 2000        179
    4.31. The shareholders of Bank Nusa Nasional, 17 April 2000        181
    4.32. Financial profile of Bank Nusa Nasional, June 1998 – March 2000        182
    4.33. The shareholders of Bank Pos Nusantara, 17 April 2000        183
    4.34. Financial profile of Bank Pos Nusantara, June 1998 – March 2000        184
    4.35. The shareholders of Bank Rama, 31 December 1999        185
    4.36. Participation of Bank Rama in its subsdiaries, 1997        186
    4.37. Financial profile of Bank Rama, June 1998 – March 2000        187
    4.38. The shareholders of Bank Risjad Salim International, 30 September 1997        189
    4.39. Financial profile of Bank Risjad Salim International, June 1998 – December 1999        190
    4.40. The shareholders of Bank Tamara, 30 September 1997        191
    4.41. Participation of Bank Tamara in its subsidiaries, 1996-1997        193
    4.42. Financial profile of Bank Tamara, June 1998 – March 2000        194

    5.1. Relative productive assets of state banks, June 1998 – March 2000        196
    5.2. The state banks joining the recapitalisation program: some financial indicators as of March 2000        198
    5.3. The state banks joining the recapitalisation program : the equities and the assets as of March 2000        198
    5.4. The classified loans of state banks, March 2000        200
    5.5. Allowance for loans losses of state banks, March 2000        201
    5.6. Financial profile of Bank Mandiri, August 1999 – June 2000        206
    5.7. Participation of Bank Mandiri in its subsdiaries, 1999        213
    5.8. BNI’s capital that has been paid up, paid in, and authorised, 1999        216
    5.9. Financial profile of BNI, September 1999 – June 2000        219
    5.10. Participation of BNI in its subsdiaries, 1999        223
    5.11. Financial profile of BRI, December 1998 – June 2000        228
    5.12. The value of program-based credits transferred from BI to BRI, BTN, and PNM, Nov. 1999        235
    5.13. Financial profile of Bank Tabungan Negara, June 1998 – March 2000        237

    6.1. Publicly held banks that have recapitalised themselves in 1999        244
    6.2. SMEs credit, 1989 – Oct. 1999        249
    6.3. Property credit, Dec. 1998 – Feb. 2000        250
    6.4. Housing loans provided by some banks, 2000        251
    6.5. Outstanding KUK (credits for SMEs) by type of use and KPR, 1991 – May 2000        252
    6.6. Monthly average of additional credits in a year, 1990 – 1999        261
    6.7. Average additional credits by month, 1990 – 1999        261
    6.8. Average monthly credits by type of bank credits and of industry, July 1997 – Nov. 1999        263
    6.9. Credits by type of bank credits and of industry, Jan – Nov. 1999        263
    6.10. Working capital credits by type of industry and of creditor banks, Jan – Nov. 1999        264
    6.11. Average monthly credits for working capital by type of creditor banks, February 1990 – November 1999        266
    6.12. Annual credits for working capital by type of creditor banks, 1990 – 1999        267
    6.13. The portfolio of foreign and joint venture banks in working capital credits by type of industry, 1990-1999        268
    6.14. The portfolio of BPD banks in working capital credits by type of industry, 1990-1999        270
    6.15. The portfolio of national private banks in working capital credits by type of industry, 1990-1999        272
    6.16. The portfolio of state banks in working capital credits by type of industry, 1990-1999        274
    6.17. Average monthly credits by type of industry, Feb. 1990 – Nov. 1999        277
    6.18. Annual credits by type of industry, 1990 – 1999        277
    6.19. Average monthly credits for working capital by type of industry, Feb. 1990 – Nov. 1999        278
    6.20. Annual credits for working capital by type of industry, 1990 – 1999        278
    6.21. Average monthly credits for investment by type of industry, Feb. 1990 – Nov. 1999        279
    6.22. Annual credits for investment by type of industry, 1990 – 1999        279
    6.23. Average monthly credits for working capital in manufacturing industry by type of creditor banks, Feb. 1990 – Nov. 1999        281
    6.24. Annual credits for working capital in manufacturing industry by type of creditor banks, 1990 – 1999        281
    6.25. Average monthly credits for working capital in service industry, Feb. 1990 – Nov. 1999        283
    6.26. Annual credits for working capital in service industry by type of creditor banks, 1990 – 1999        283
    6.27. Average monthly credits for working capital in trading industry, Feb. 1990 – Nov. 1999        285
    6.28. Annual credits for working capital in trading industry by type of creditor banks, 1990 – 1999        285
    6.29. Average monthly credits for working capital in agroindustry, Feb. 1990 – Nov. 1999        287
    6.30. Annual credits for working capital in agroindustry by type of creditor banks, 1990 – 1999        287
    6.31. Average monthly credits for working capital in mining industry, Feb. 1990 – Nov. 1999        288
    6.32. Annual credits for working capital in mining industry by type of creditor banks, 1990 – 1999        289
    6.33. Average monthly credits for working capital in other industries, Feb. 1990 – Nov. 1999        290
    6.34. Annual credits for working capital in other industries by type of creditor banks, 1990 – 1999        290
    6.35. Average monthly bank credits by type of currencies, Feb. 1990 – Nov. 1999        292
    6.36. Bank credits by type of currencies, 1990 – 1999        293
    6.37. Bank credits by island and province, 1990 – 1999        295
    6.38. Bank credits by island and province, 1990 – 1999        297
    6.39. The portion of foreign exchange credits by island and province, 1990 – 1999        300
    6.40. The portion of KUK (small scale) credits by island and province, 1990 – 1999        303
    6.41. The portion of bank credits to the savings by island and province, 1990 – 1999        307
    6.42. The portion of bank credits in rupiah to the savings in rupiah by island and province, 1990 – 1999        309
    6.43. The portion of savings in rupiah to the total savings by island and province, 1990 – 1999        312

    7.1.

    CHART
    1.1. Food and beverages imported to be consumed, Jan. 1996 – Feb. 2000        7
    1.2. Food and beverages imported to be utilised, Jan. 1996 – Feb. 2000        8
    1.3. Lubricants and private transportation equipment imported to be consumed, Jan. 1996 – Feb. 2000        8
    1.4. Fuels and lubricants imported to be utilised, Jan. 1996 – Feb. 2000        9
    1.5. Raw materials imported to be utilised, Jan. 1996 – Feb. 2000        9
    1.6. Consumption goods imported by durability, Jan. 1996 – Feb. 2000        10
    1.7. Indonesian GDP by current price and per capita, 1979 – 2000A        10
    1.8. Monthly Indonesian exports by primary category, Jan. 1996 – Feb. 2000        11
    1.9. Indonesian exports by primary category, 1983 – Feb. 2000        12
    1.10. Indonesian trade accounts, 1972 – 1999        12
    1.11. Total exports and the imports on raw materials and capital goods, 1981– 2000A        13
    1.12. Indonesian exports by country of destination, cumulative for the year 1981 – Feb. 2000        13
    1.13. Indonesian exports to major trading partners, 1981 – Feb. 2000        14
    1.14. Indonesian imports by country of origin, cumulative for the year 1981 – Feb. 2000        14
    1.15. Indonesian imports from major trading partners, 1981 – Feb. 2000        15
    1.16. The foreign direct investments of Japan, Hong Kong, and Singapore in Indonesia, 1981 – 2000A        15
    1.17. Foreign direct investments in Indonesia, 1967 – Feb. 2000        16
    1.18. The flows of US$ in Indonesia, 1972 – 1999        17
    1.19. Bank credits, 1981 – Feb. 2000        19
    1.20. Value of rights issues, 1989 – Oct. 1999        22
    1.21. Value of IPOs, 1997 – Oct. 1999        22
    1.22. Value of bond issues, 1983 – Oct. 1999        23
    1.23. Mutual funds in Indonesia, Jan 1994 – Sept. 1999        23
    1.24. Monthly inflation rates, bank credits, money supply, Jan. 1993–May 2000        25

    6.1. Bank credits: The outstanding and monthly incrementals, July 1997–June 2000        243
    6.2. Development of number of banks in Indonesia, 1987 – 1999        253
    6.3. Development of number of banks’ offices in Indonesia, 1987 – 1999        254
    6.4. Annual development of outstanding credit disbursement, 1987–June 2000        254
    6.5. Monthly development of outstanding credit disbursement, 1987–June 2000        255
    6.6. Annual development of outstanding total credits by type of banks, 1987 – June 2000        256
    6.7. Monthly development of outstanding total credits by type of banks, 1987 – June 2000        256
    6.8. Annual development of outstanding working capital credits by type of banks, 1987 – June 2000        257
    6.9. Monthly development of outstanding working capital credits by type of banks, 1987 – June 2000        257
    6.10. Monthly bank credits by total and working capital, Feb. 1990 – June 2000        258
    6.11. Annual bank credits by type, 1990 – June 2000        259
    6.12. Annual development of outstanding investment credits by type of banks, 1987 – June 2000        259
    6.13. Monthly development of outstanding investment credits by type of banks, 1987 – June 2000        260
    6.14. Bank credits by type of creditor banks, Feb. 1990 – June 2000        265
    6.15. Credits for working capital by type of creditor banks, Feb. 1990 – June 2000        266
    6.16. The portfolio of foreign and joint venture banks in working capital credits, Feb. 1990 – Nov. 1999        269
    6.17. The portfolio of foreign and joint venture banks in working capital credits, Feb. 1990 – June 1997        269
    6.18. The portfolio of foreign and joint venture banks in working capital credits, July 1997 – Nov. 1999        269
    6.19. The portfolio of BPD banks in working capital credits, Feb. 1990 – Nov. 1999        271
    6.20. The portfolio of BPD banks in working capital credits, Feb. 1990 – June 1997        271
    6.21. The portfolio of BPD banks in working capital credits, July 1997 – Nov. 1999        271
    6.22. The portfolio of national private banks in working capital credits, Feb. 1990 – Nov. 1999        272
    6.23. The portfolio of national private banks in working capital credits, Feb. 1990 – June 1997        273
    6.24. The portfolio of national private banks in working capital credits, July 1997 – Nov. 1999        273
    6.25. The portfolio of state banks in working capital credits, Feb. 1990 – Nov. 1999        274
    6.26. The portfolio of state banks in working capital credits, Feb. 1990 – June 1997        274
    6.27. The portfolio of state banks in working capital credits, July 1997 – Nov. 1999        275

    7.1.

    CHART
    1.1. Dirty Games Or Just Creative Book-Keeping        20


    Analisa kuantitatif terhadap harga saham-saham yang terdaftar dan diperdagangkan di Bursa Efek Indonesia

    (Quantitative analysis on stocks listed and traded in Indonesia stock exchange, Jakarta.)

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    Daftar kuotasi harga saham Indonesia per 3 Maret 2011:

    idx 20110303

    AALI Astra Agro Lestari Tbk
    ABBA Mahaka Media Tbk.
    ABDA Asuransi Bina Dana Arta Tbk
    ACES Ace Hardware Indonesia Tbk
    ADES Akasha Wira International Tbk
    ADHI Adhi Karya (Persero) Tbk
    ADMF Adira Dinamika Multi Finance
    ADMG Polychem Indonesia Tbk
    ADRO Adaro Energy Tbk.
    AGRO Bank Agroniaga Tbk.
    AHAP Asuransi Harta Aman P Tbk
    AIMS Akbar Indo Makmur Stimec Tbk
    AISA Tiga Pilar Sejahtera Food Tbk
    AKKU Aneka Kemasindo Utama Tbk
    AKPI Argha Karya Prima Inds. Tbk
    AKRA AKR Corporindo Tbk
    AKSI Majapahit Securities Tbk
    ALFA Alfa Retailindo Tbk
    ALKA Alakasa Industrindo Tbk
    ALMI Alumindo Light Metal Inds.Tbk
    AMAG Asuransi Multi Artha Guna Tbk
    AMFG Asahimas Flat Glass Tbk
    AMRT Sumber Alfaria Trijaya Tbk
    ANTA Anta Express Tour & Travel Se
    ANTM Aneka Tambang (Persero) Tbk
    APIC Pan Pacific International Tbk
    APLI Asiaplast Industries Tbk
    APLN Agung Podomoro Land Tbk.
    APOL Arpeni Pratama Ocean Line Tbk
    AQUA Aqua Golden Mississippi Tbk.
    ARGO Argo Pantes Tbk
    ARNA Arwana Citramulia Tbk
    ARTA Arthavest Tbk
    ARTI Ratu Prabu Energi Tbk
    ASBI Asuransi Bintang Tbk
    ASDM Asuransi Dayin MitraTbk
    ASGR Astra Graphia Tbk
    ASIA Asia Natural Resources Tbk
    ASII Astra International Tbk
    ASJT Asuransi Jasa Tania Tbk
    ASRI Alam Sutera Realty Tbk.
    ASRM Asuransi Ramayana Tbk
    ATPK ATPK Resources Tbk
    AUTO Astra Otoparts Tbk
    BABP Bank ICB Bumiputera Tbk
    BACA Bank Capital Indonesia Tbk
    BAEK Bank Ekonomi Raharja Tbk.
    BAPA Bekasi Asri Pemula Tbk
    BATA Sepatu Bata Tbk
    BAYU Bayu Buana Tbk
    BBCA Bank Central Asia Tbk
    BBKP Bank Bukopin Tbk
    BBLD Buana Finance Tbk
    BBNI Bank Negara Indonesia Tbk
    BBNP Bank Nusantara Parahyangan Tb
    BBRI Bank Rakyat Indonesia Tbk
    BBTN Bank Tabungan Negara (Persero
    BCAP Bhakti Capital Indonesia Tbk
    BCIC Bank Mutiara Tbk
    BCIP Bumi Citra Permai Tbk.
    BDMN Bank Danamon Tbk
    BEKS Bank Pundi Indonesia Tbk.
    BFIN BFI Finance Indonesia Tbk
    BHIT Bhakti Investama Tbk
    BIMA Primarindo Asia Infrastr. Tbk
    BIPI Benakat Petroleum Energy Tbk.
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    SSTM Sunson Textile Manufacture Tb
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    TOTL Total Bangun Persada Tbk
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    TOWR Sarana Menara Nusantara Tbk.
    TPIA Chandra Asri Petrochemical Tb
    TRAM Trada Maritime Tbk
    TRIL Triwira Insanlestari Tbk.
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    TSPC Tempo Scan Pacific Tbk
    TURI Tunas Ridean Tbk
    ULTJ Ultra Jaya Milk Tbk
    UNIC Unggul Indah Cahaya Tbk
    UNIT Nusantara Inti Corpora Tbk
    UNSP Bakrie Sumatra Plantations Tb
    UNTR United Tractors Tbk
    UNTX Unitex Tbk.
    UNVR Unilever Indonesia Tbk
    VOKS Voksel Electric Tbk
    VRNA Verena Multi Finance Tbk.
    WAPO Wahana Phonix Mandiri Tbk
    WEHA Panorama Transportasi Tbk
    WICO Wicaksana Overseas Int l Tbk
    WIKA Wijaya Karya (Persero) Tbk
    WINS Wintermar Offshore Marine Tbk
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    YPAS Yanaprima Hastapersada Tbk
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